Mexico 1960 Enumerator Instructions
Enumerator's Manual, General Census of Population and Housing, 1960
[Pages 1-5 and the first part of 6 were not translated into English]
Column 4. The goal of the instructions for filling out this column is to clearly tell the enumerator which people he should enumerate, and which people should not included in the enumeration of the house or dwelling. In effect, we will divide this part into two [P. 7] sections: The first part is for people who should be enumerated in each of the households or dwelling that the enumerator visits; the second part is for the people who should not be enumerated in those houses or dwellings or who should not be enumerated in any part of the national territory.
Take note that it is the enumerator's responsibility to enumerate each and every one of the people who have their habitual domicile or residence in the houses or dwellings of the area, zone, or place which he should enumerate.
1. All persons should be enumerated, including those recently born, boys, girls, the sick, elderly, invalids, and adults of every class who live, that is to say, who have their residence, domicile, or habitual habitation in a house or dwelling that is found on the block, in the neighborhood, hamlet, place or zone of the hills, fields ["campo"], plains, shore or seaboard, or of whatever other class of terrain, area, or topographic portion that [P. 8] corresponds to the enumerator. Therefore, the general rule is: enumerate all and each of the people in the house or dwelling in which they permanently live, that is to say, in their habitual residence.
2. People who are temporarily absent. People who are temporarily or transitorily out of or absent from their habitual domicile or residence should be enumerated in that domicile or residence as though they were present on the date of the census, because their absence is temporary.
3. People of legal age [i.e. not minors] who do not live with their family on the date of the census. If a person of legal age, for reasons of work or study or any other reason, lives separately from their family for 6 months or more as of the date of the census, they should not be enumerated with the family, but rather in the place that they inhabit because of work, study, or for whatever the reason is that they do not live with their family.
4. Enumerate all people in their domicile, house, or dwelling who are temporarily absent, for whatever reason, from their habitual residence or domicile. The reason for the temporary absence could be business, travels for diverse reasons, vacations, reclusion in a hospital, sanitarium,[P. 9]maternity hospital, preventive prison, etc. The data for the census corresponding to these people who are temporarily absent should be provided by their families or the persons closest to them. Those who are minors [i.e. underage] who are temporary out of the domicile or habitual residence of the family to whom they belong and on whom they depend economically, no matter what the length of that absence, should be enumerated with their family. This is generally the case of minor students that for reasons of study are separated for more than 6 months from the families on whom they depend, and of whom they form a part.
5. Temporary migrant workers (braceros). These Mexican workers who emigrate temporarily out of the country for reasons of work, be it those who are known as braceros or of another class, but whose stay outside of the country is temporary, should be enumerated in their domicile or habitual residence even if they are absent on the date of the census.
6. The guests, or renters who inhabit, in a permanent manner, the house or dwelling where the enumeration is done, should be enumerated. These are generally people alone, or with a family member, who live in the house of a [P. 10] amily and who sublease one or more rooms of the house or dwelling, be they furnished or not, and who effectively have their domicile or habitual residence at that place.
7. In group quarters, such as boarding schools, schools, hotels, guest houses, motels, buildings with furnished apartments, family pensions, lodging, inns, barracks, etc., only people who live there in a permanently manner, or who do not have or do not recognize any other place as their residence or domicile, should be enumerated. Take note that minor children or youth temporary interned in school or other institutions of education should not be enumerated in the group quarters, but rather in the house of their family, as members of that family.
8. Persons who are under detainment but who are in processing, as well as those people detained by the police the day of the census should be enumerated in the household of their own families. Those who have been sentenced should be enumerated in the prisons.
9. Foreign immigrants. Foreigners who have one of these two situations should be enumerated in their domiciles of habitual residence, in the Republic; the enumerators should ask them to display their respective documents.
10. Tourists and visitors. Tourists of foreign or Mexican nationality, that is to say, people who live in a foreign country but who are in the Mexican Republic as tourists or in the capacity of visitors on the date of the census, will only be enumerated when they have been permanently in the country for 6 months or longer.
11. Military personnel, public officials, or members of employees of the Mexican foreign services, who for reasons of work or commission are temporarily absent from their domiciles or habitual residences, alone or with their families, should be enumerated in the Republic. Their families will give their data to the enumerator. In any of these cases the data will be collected outside the country through the actions of the Secretary of Foreign Relations, making note on the respective questionnaires the people who have family members in Mexico, for the purposes of revision in order to avoid the omission or duplication of the data.
12. Servants or maids. People in domestic servitude (cooks, cleaners, waiters, etc.) who live with a family and provide them services, should be enumerated with that family, as long as they sleep in the house of their bosses. In a case in which they do not live in the house where they work, they should be enumerated in the house or dwelling [P. 12] they inhabit, alone or with their families.
13. The Secretary of National Defense will do the enumeration of members of the national army, and of their families, who are in active service and who are included in the different corporations, detachments, and services. He will utilize, for these purposes, the questionnaires that the General Director of Statistics gives him. The rest of the military personnel will be enumerated in their domiciles. The Secretary of the Navy will be in charge of the enumeration of the members of the Mexican Navy, with their families, who are in active service and who form part of the crew of vessels and naval services. The rest of the members of the Mexican Navy will be enumerated in their domiciles along with their families.
14. The following people should also be included in the census: foreigners who have their residences or habitual domicile in Mexico, and who are diplomatic personnel or are employees or officers of embassies, legations, or consulates. Obviously, Mexicans who are diplomatic personnel, or are employees of officers of embassies, legations, or consulates should also be included in the census.
15. People who live in institutions. The people who live permanently in institutions, that is, who do not have, or do not recognize any place as a residence or domicile, will be enumerated in those institutions, such as asylums, orphanages, hospices, mental institutions, certain hospitals, etc. (Do not forget that the people who are temporarily in sanatoriums, hospitals, maternities, etc., on the census day, should be enumerated with their families in their domiciles.)
16. Beggars, homeless people, and otherswho are lacking a domicile or habitual residence and who sleep in public parks, train stations and other public places, the night of the 7th to the 8th of Jun of 1960 will be enumerated in the places in which the enumerators find them. If these persons sleep in assistance institutions, such as public dormitories, asylums, etc., or in group quarters, such as lodgings or inns, they will be enumerated in those places in which they spent the night from the 7th to the 8th of June.
17. Caretakers, watchmen, or administrators who live in lighthouses, factories, workshops, residencies, group quarters, any type of building, should be enumerated in those places, because they really have their habitual residence in this place.
a) People who are temporarily visiting a family member or friend should not be included in the enumeration, unless they are lacking a habitual residence.
b) The guests or renters who, as such, are temporary residents of hotels, motels, pensions, guest houses, etc., should not be included in the census because these places in which they might be on the day of the census are not their habitual residences or domiciles. (People who live permanently in a hotel or guest house and who actually have their domicile or residence in that place, should be included in the census, in the same way as the owners, administrators, or other employees or workers of hotels, guest houses, etc., when they have their habitual domiciles in those places, as has been previously mentioned.)
c) People who eat at the house or dwelling, be it for free or for pay, but who habitually sleep in another house of dwelling should not be enumerated.
d) A person should not be enumerated with their family household, who, on the census date, is serving jail time as a consequence of a firm sentence.
e) Foreigners, or Mexicans who are in the role of tourists or visitors, should not be enumerated if they have less than 6 months of permanence in the country.
f) Do not enumerate the servants, door men, watchman, drivers, etc., in the houses, factories, etc. where they serve, when they only work for a limited time and sleep in their domiciles.
g) Foreigners who form part of the personnel of the foreign embassies, legations, and consulates accredited by the Government of Mexico, and who do not have (which would be exceptional) their habitual residence or domicile in the Republic, should not be enumerated.
Column 5. Make an X on the line of the Head of Family, whoever they may be (father, mother, older brother, etc.), according to the instructions of the preceding paragraph.
Relationship with the Head of the Family
Column 6. Write down the relationship or family tie of each person who is enumerated with the head of the family (wife, child, nephew/niece, maid, etc.). Those who live permanently in group quarters, such as hospitals, boarding school, asylums, etc., and who do not have family, will be annotated as pensioners, boarders, in asylum, etc. Remember that the people who do not live permanently in the group quarters should be enumerated in their own homes.
Columns 7 and 8. Make an (X) in column 7 when the enumerated is a man or young man of any age (children, boys, adults, elderly). Make an (X) in column 8 when the enumerated is a woman (children, girls, young women, women, elderly women).
Columns 9 and 10. In column 9, [P. 17] write the number of years attained for those who are older than 1 year. In column 10 write the number of months for someone less than one year old. For those younger than one month, write a (0) in column 10. If one column is filled out, the other should not be filled out. The enumerator should try to obtain the correct age for each person enumerated. When a person does not know their age, the enumerator will ask them relevant questions in order to estimate the age correctly, for example, they will ask them if they remember, and what age they had approximately, when a notable act occurred, especially related with the place in which they are enumerated.
Place of Birth
Column 11. In this column, clearly write the name of the State or Territory in which the enumerated was born, when they are Mexican. The name of the town, village, city or municipality in which the enumerated was born should never be written here, for example: if they were born in Torreon, Coahuila should be written; if they were born in Cholula, Puebla should be written; if they were born in Ixtlan de Juarez, Oaxaca[P. 18] should be written; if they were born in Tacuba, Federal District should be written. When the enumerated was born outside the country, the name of the country where they were born should be written in this column.
Change of Place of Residence
Columns 12 and 13 should only be written in when the enumerated is not a native of the place where the enumeration is being done.
Column 12. If the enumerated is not a native of the federal entity in which they are being enumerated, the enumerator will ask them how many years they have lived in this place, and that number should be written in Column 12.
Column 13. When the enumerated is not a native of the entity in which they are enumerated, the name of the entity in which they lived immediately before living in the place of enumeration should be written in column 13. If the enumerated lived in a foreign country, the name of the foreign country should be written in column 13. In a case where the enumerated lived outside the country for a period of less than 6 months, the name of the foreign country where they lived will not be written, rather the name of the entity of the Republic [P. 19] in which they lived before their temporary stay outside of the country will be written, as long as it is not the entity in which thy are currently living. Example: In filling in columns 12 and 13: The enumeration is being done in the state of Oaxaca, the enumerated in a native of the state of Nuevo Leon and has been living in Oaxaca for 10 years. Then number 10 should be written in column 12, and "Nuevo Leon" should be written in column 13.
Columns 14 and 15. If the enumerator is Mexican by birth or naturalization, an (X) should be written in column 14, and the word Mexican should not be written in column 15. If the enumerated declares that they are a foreigner, write their nationality in column 15. For example: Spanish, French, Lebanese, North American, Chinese, English, etc.
Column 16. Make an (X) in this column when the enumerated currently speaks Spanish or Castellano; do not write these words in column 17.
Column 17. If the enumerator speaks an indigenous tongue or language as their native tongue, that is to say, that they have spoken it since their infancy in the home, the name of this tongue or language should be written. For example: Náhualt, Zapoteca, Otomí, etc. If the enumerated currently speaks Spanish and an indigenous language or tongue, 2 annotations should be made; an (X) in column 16 and the name of the indigenous language in column 17.
If the enumerated is a foreigner or a Mexican by naturalization, they should be asked what their maternal language is, that is to say, that which they spoke during their infancy in their home. The name of that language is written in column 17, for example: English, French, etc.
Column 18. When the enumerated declare themselves to be of the Catholic religion, the number 1 should be written in this column. If they declare themselves to be of the Protestant religion (whatever branch this may be, such as Evangelist, Methodist, Baptist, etc.), the number 2 should be written. If their religion is Israelite, the number 3 should be written. If they declare themselves to be of a different religion than those already mentioned, [P. 21] the number 4 should be written, and the number 5 if they declare that they have no religion.
Column 19. If the enumerated declares that they can currently read and write, the word YES should be written in this column. If they declare that they only know how to read, but not how to write, or they only write but do not read, or they declare that they do not know to read nor right, the word No will be written.
Column 20. Your attention is called to the fact that the number of years of primary instruction study (elementary and superior) that the enumerated has finished and approved in official or private schools should be written in this column. Only one of the following numbers will be written in this column: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, since primary instruction only includes up to 6 years.
Column 21. The number of years of study finished should be written, that is, attained in a school of a higher grade than that of primary. All the years beyond primary should be added up; therefore, the primary years should not be included, since they were [P. 22] asked about this in column 20. The words "Studies finished" in column 21 means years of study attained.
Column 22. This column is earmarked for collecting data about the type and grade of instruction that the enumerated is receiving on the census date, generally, by way of assistance at a school and, in exceptional cases, by way of classes received in their home or by correspondence. Write the type or studies and the year. For example: Primary 3rd, Secondary 1st, Preparatory 2nd, Medicine 2nd, Architecture 3rd, Electronics by correspondence, etc. Be careful not to write down the type of studies or the grade of instruction received previously by the enumerated, but rather only those that they are receiving on the census date.
Column 23. Single. When the person being enumerated has never been married, and on the census date does not live in a free union, an (X) should be made in column 23.
Column 24. Civilly married. Make an (X) when the [P. 23] enumerated person declares that they are civilly married.
Column 25. Married by the church. Make an (X) when the enumerated person declares that are in a religious marriage. If they are in a civil marriage as well as a religious marriage make an (X) in column 24 and column 25.
Column 26. When two enumerated persons, male and female, declare that they live in a marital arrangement with another person, without having entered into a civil or religious marriage, make an (X) in this column.
Column 27. Widow. A person who has lost their spouse by death (with whom they were married civilly or religiously), has not remarried, nor lives in a free union, is considered a widow. In this case, make an (X) in this column.
Column 28. Legally divorced. Make an (X) in this column when the enumerated person declares that they are divorced, that is, that their marriage has been dissolved by a firm sentence of divorce dictated by the competent authorities, and who has not remarried, nor lives in a free union.
(Only for women who declare that they have had children.)
Column 29. This column is used only for women, and has as its goal the collection of data about fertility, which is an important social phenomenon. All women will be asked, no matter what their marital status, how many children (boys and girls) they have given live birth to, being alive or not on the census date; this quantity will be written in column 29. Those children who have breathed upon birth are considered to have been born alive.
Column 30. This column is meant only for women, and an (X) will be made when the enumerated is dedicated solely to domestic chores in her own home, that is, she does not have any other occupation besides the care of her family. In cases of women who, besides dedicating part of their time to domestic chores, also fulfill some paid office, profession, or occupation, the corresponding information should be written[P. 25] in columns 33 to 39, but nothing should be written in column 30. In the case of women, of whatever age, who work as servants, in private homes, hotels, etc., by way of a salary, nothing will be written in this column, rather the word "servant" should be written in column 33. An (X) will be marked in column 24, private home, hotel, etc. will be written in column 39, and the amount in pesos that the enumerated earned during the month of May will be written in column 41. Male servants, such as cooks, cleaners, etc., should be enumerated utilizing columns 33, 34 (worker), and 39 (type of activity).
Important note for the enumerator about columns 31 through 39. - These columns are earmarked for writing information that will allow the occupation, office, or profession of each enumerated individual to be determined, having worked or not the week before the census. The data about occupation are the most important of the Census and require all the attention and good will from both the enumerator and the enumerated. 3 basic concepts are obtained in columns 31 through 39: 1st - the principle occupation type; 2nd - the work category; [P. 26] 3rd - where the enumerated individual works and his/her type of activity.
Column 31. When the enumerated works on cooperative land/farm ["ejido"] and they receive the majority of their income from that land an (X) should be made in Column 31; in addition, another (X) should be made in column 37 "self-employed," since a cooperative farmer is a person who is self-employed. The enumerator should take note that in a case in which a person declares themselves to be a cooperative farmer, and also has another occupation, for example: carpenter, and they receive the majority of their income from this other source, there should not be an (X) marked in column 31. Instead, the corresponding annotations should be made in columns 33 through 39 respectively, relative to the occupation from which the majority of their income is derived.
Column 32. When the enumerated is a rural journeyman or laborer, who works, by way of a salary, at a site which engages in agriculture, livestock, bird raising, beekeeping, or forestry, make an (X) in column 32 and make another (X) in column 34 "worker," since a rural journeyman or worker is a laborer.
Column 33. Special care should be taken when writing in column 33. For this column, the enumerated should ask him/herself which is their principal occupation, which is the one from which they receive the greatest part, or all, of their earnings. Specify this with all clarity, working to avoid the annotating of general or vague names, but rather specific names, such as: carpenter, civil engineer, typist, mechanic, weaver, iron worker, mason, driver, archivist.
In the case of people who, during the time of the census, have worked in more than one occupation, use the following rule: 1 - the last job that they finished, if they did the different jobs one after the other; 2 - the one from which they derive the greater income, if they did two or more jobs simultaneously; 3 - when the enumerated, on the census date, is without work, write down the last occupation that they had; 4 - when the enumerated has never worked, but is looking for work, write down the occupation that they declare, that is, the one that they are going to exercise. In this case, nothing should be written in columns 34 to 38.
Position at Work
Columns 34 through 38. This column is dedicated to determining the job category or position of each person enumerated. Ask the questions that are necessary for being able to determine the category of each enumerated person in their job, office, occupation, or profession.
Column 34. When the enumerated is a male or female laborer, that is, they do a primarily manual job (in agriculture, industry, transportation, etc.), at the orders of a boss, and by which they receive a salary, make an (X) in column 34.
Column 35. If the enumerated is an employee, for example: typist, store owner, store clerk, archivist, etc., make an (X) in column 35.
Column 36. If the enumerated is the owner of a store, factory, workshop, or other large or small business, that is, they employee one or more laborers or employees, or workers of both classes, than they are a boss, manager or employer, and in this case an (X) is made in column 36.
Column 37. When the enumerator does not work under any boss or company, nor employees laborers or employees, but rather is self-employed, make an (X) in column 37. For example: herdsman, traveling merchant, owner of a small farm, shoe repairer, etc.
Column 38. Only make an (X) in this column when the enumerated works without remuneration, that is, they do not receive a salary, pay, etc., in helping the head of the family in his business or job. For example: the son of a herdsman who helps his father in the field work; the son or relative of the owner of a small store, who helps them in that job. Do not make an (X) when the enumerated helps their family irregularly, sporadically, or discontinuously, or when they work for less than a third of their available time.
Type of Activity
Column 39. Annotations of great importance are made here; for this reason one must proceed very carefully. The object is to specify where the enumerated works - that is to say, what type of company, business, or activity - such that the annotations in this column serve to complete the information given [P. 30] in column 33. For example: if it was written in column 33 that the enumerated is an agriculturalist, agricultural farm should be written in column 39. The proper names of stores or businesses should not be written.
For cases in which the enumerated is looking for work for the first time, "New Worker" should be written in column 39. Due to the great importance of the concepts "principal occupation," "job position or category," and "type of activity," the following is a list that will serve as a guide, so that the enumerator will be able to correctly classify the enumerated regarding their principle occupation.
Examples of the enumeration of laborers:
Shoe leather cutter
Examples of the enumerations of employees of any category:
Examples of the enumeration of people who are bosses or managers (empresario):
Boss or manager X
Boss or manager X
Boss or manager X
Examples of the enumeration of people who are self-employed:
Clothes sales stand
Examples of the enumeration of people who help their family without retribution:
Helps family X
Helps family X
Helps family X
Example of the enumeration of a person who is seeking work for the first time:
COLUMNS 34 to 38
For Those Who Work
Column 40. This question (if they worked the week before the census, give the number of days), is for all the enumerated (men and women) who have something written in any of the columns 31 through 39. If the enumerated worked only in their principal occupation, write down the number of days; if they worked only in an occupation besides their principal occupation, write down the number of days; and if the enumerated worked in their principal occupation and also in a different occupation without retribution, add up the number days. Naturally, the total could not be more than 7.
Column 41. The purpose of column 41 is to obtain the data for personal job income, that is, for the fulfillment of an office, profession, or occupation exercised by any of the three categories of people (men and women),[P. 33] laborers, employees, or self-employed people. The first 2 cases (employees and laborers), includes people who receive remuneration as payment for their work (pay, salary), the third case refers to a person who is self-employed, and does not employ laborers or employees; these people exercise their activities for themselves without the help of paid persons; for this they are asked for their income data. To summarize, the data about income in column 41 will only be written for people who have something written in column 34, 35, or 37. It is expressly clarified that data should not be collected for income that is derived from capital, such as rent, income, dividends, etc. In column 41 write the quantity in pesos that the enumerated people (those indicated on the previous lines) received for their work in the month of May, 1960, adding up all their incomes, such as pay, compensation, salary, overtime pay, etc., that the enumerated received, without deducting for payments to insurance premiums, savings accounts, advanced payments, etc.
For Those Who Did Not Work
Column 42. All people who, during the week before the Census have not done any paid work, nor remunerated activity, will be asked how many weeks it has been that they have been unoccupied, unemployed, or without work. Write down the number of weeks in this column.
Column 43. If notations were made column 42, due to the fact that the enumerated does not have any kind of remunerated or paid job, the following two questions should be asked: 1st - If they have ever had a job, and 2nd - If they are currently seeking a job. When the two answers are affirmative, the number 1 should be written in column 43. If the enumerated never had a job, and is looking for a job for the first time, a 2 should be written in column 43. Take note that in those cases in which the enumerated is seeking a job for the first time, "New worker" should have been written in column 39.
Column 44. The enumerator will write [P. 35] a Yes or No in this column, depending on whether or not the enumerated eats wheat bread on a daily basis.
Column 45. The enumerated should be asked if, in their daily nourishment and on a regular basis, they eat one or several of the following foods: meat of any kind, eggs, milk or fish. In a case in which they answer that they do usually eat one or more of these foods, write Yes; if not, write No.
Column 46. If the enumerated usually walks barefoot every day, write a (0) in this column. If they usually use sandals of any kind ["huaraches, sandalias, cacles, o caites"], write (1); if they use shoes, write (2).
Column 47 through 57. These columns are for the dwelling, house, or habitation that the enumerated family occupies. Therefore, the annotation will be done only on the line that corresponds to the head of each family, who has been marked with an (X) in column 5. Leave blank the lines for the rest of the family members.
Column 47. If the dwelling or house which the family inhabits is their own property, mark with an (X). If they do not own it, leave it blank.
Column 48. Write in the name of the material of which the walls of the dwelling or house are predominantly made. Examples: adobe, brick, clay, wood, etc.
Column 49. In column 49, write the number of usable rooms that are in the house or dwelling in which the family lives, without including the kitchen, bathroom, or hallways. Also, do not include the rooms that are not dedicated to inhabitation or other domestic services, such as commerce rooms, storerooms, consultation rooms, etc. Only count the rooms earmarked as bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, libraries, sewing rooms, and rooms for washing and ironing clothes. Any place which is used as a dormitory should be counted as a room, even when it has another use during the day. In a case in which two or more families live in a single habitation, the number of usable rooms that should be written in this column corresponds to each head of family, depending on which rooms that family effectively occupies. In this way, the sum of the rooms occupied by the two or more families is the same as the total number of rooms in the dwelling.
Column 51. If, within the house or dwelling, there is piped water for the use of the inhabitants, the word YES should be written in column 51. If there is not this service, write the word No.
Column 52. When the piped water is for the common use of all the inhabitants of the dwellings in a building, and is accessible in a yard, or from other out buildings, the word YES is written in column 52; when there are not these sources, write the work No.
Column 53. Make an (X) in column 53 when the house or dwelling does not have any of the water services considered in columns 51 and 52, that is, when the house or dwelling does not have piped water.
Column 54. When the dwelling has drainage or sewage, the word YES is written in column 54, and the word No when they do not have these services.
Column 55. The word Yes is written in column 55 when the dwelling has a bathroom with running water, and the word No when they do not. In a case in which there is no bathroom, write the word No.
Column 56. The enumerator should ask what type of fuel is habitually used in the kitchen to prepare the food. If firewood or carbon is used, write the number (1) in this column; if they use refined petroleum, diesel, gasoline, etc., write the number (2); if they use electricity (stoves), gas, or any other type of modern combustible, write the number (3).
Column 58. In this column an (X) will be written under the heading corresponding to those members of the census family who depend economically on the head of family. For example: wife, little children, older children who do not work, widowed daughter, etc.