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Republic of Malawi
2008 Population and Housing Census
Enumerator's Manual


The Population and Housing Census enumeration will run for three weeks from 1st to 21st June 2008. During this period every person and dwelling unit will be enumerated. You have been selected as one of the enumerators to assist in the undertaking of this enormous task. As an enumerator, you hold the most important position in the census operation since it is only you, the enumerator, who is going to interview household members and complete the questionnaires. In order to do your job properly, it is essential that you work diligently during your training and study this manual carefully.

The first part of the manual briefly outlines the purpose of the Census and gives major definitions and concepts used in the Census so that you understand the background to your work. The second part explains the meaning of each question and tells you in detail how to complete each and every question on the Census questionnaire. Note: You must read the manual every day and always carry this manual with you when you are in the field and refer to it whenever you are in doubt.

You are undertaking the Census under the 1967 Statistics Act that requires you to keep the information that you collect strictly confidential.

The job you have to do will not be easy; it will involve long and odd hours, including weekends and many miles of walking: However, your main reward will be a feeling of pride in having done a difficult job well and helped to provide the Population and Housing data which will be a basis for socio-economic planning in Malawi for the next ten years.

[Table of contents omitted]

Part 1: General Information

1.0 Introduction

The National Statistical Office (NSO) is a government's department mandated by the 1967 Statistical Act to collect, compile, analyze, and disseminate statistical data in Malawi. NSO conducts a Population and Housing Census every 10 years; the last census was conducted in 1998. The 2008 Population and Housing Census will be conducted from 1st to 21st June 2008.

A Population and Housing Census is a complete count or enumeration of all people and all dwelling units in the country. The enumeration of the population covers the young and the old, Malawian and foreigner, resident and visitor, and collects information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the people. The housing component of the census collects information on stock, condition and usage of the structures.

1.1 Why is it necessary to have a Census?

You may wonder why the Malawi Government, like any other government, finds it necessary to spend so much effort and money just to take a census every ten years or so. The census is the primary source of data for policy formulation and development planning of any country. The data provides the country with an important part of the foundation for good governance, decentralization and development. The data collected is crucial for national, sub-national and sectorial policies and plans, for development frameworks, such as Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) and other sectorial strategies. Amongst the many reasons the 2008 Census data will:

- Provide information on the size, composition and distribution of the population.
- Provide the latest in a series of decennial snapshots which allow analysts to measure change and establish trends for the wealth of information collected by the Census.
- Enrich the stock of available socio-demographic data in the country in order to allow the planners and the decision-makers to have more basic indicators that are necessary for formulation, monitoring and evaluation of development plans and programs.

Note: You are an essential member of the census team. You are expected to work consciously and complete your work neatly, accurately and efficiently. If your work or conduct is judged unsuitable and does not meet the standards set forth in this manual, you may be subject to dismissal.

1.2 Confidentiality of the Census information

The Statistics Act of 1967 gives you (enumerator) the authority to ask for information, but at the same time it does not allow you to disclose at any time any details which you may obtain during your work with regard to individuals. Therefore, you will be required to take an Oath of Office and Secrecy. To ensure confidentiality you must observe the following rules:

a.) You must not let anybody other than your Field Supervisor, Control Centre Supervisors and NSO senior staff engaged on the census access your completed questionnaires.
b.) You must not tell anybody anything about the answers you get to the questions, either at the time of the census or afterwards.
c.) You must do the work yourself and not allow any other person who has not taken the oath or trained as a census enumerator to do it for you.
d.) You must look after your questionnaires and other forms carefully and not leave them where they can be misplaced or looked at by any other person.
e.) Explain it clearly to the people that whatever information you obtain will be kept strictly confidential and will be used for statistical purposes only. Under no circumstances will such information be used to anybody's disadvantage.
f.) It is likely that the village headman or the elders may be present when you are asking questions, in which case you may explain the need for confidentiality in this matter to the village headman or the elders. In other words, even the village headman and/or elders should not be allowed to listen to any interviews.
g.) You will be provided with the following items:

Letter of introduction
2.0 HB pencil
Enumerators manual
A letter of appointment
A Census badge
A Map of your enumeration area.
A supply of enough questionnaires for an EA.
Enumerators technical sheet
Markers, chalk, tie-on labels, loop.
Notepad for taking notes
Booklet of village codes
Bibs, T-shirt, cap, and a bag [with the writing] "2008 Malawi Population and Housing Census".

- All these materials will be packed in a bag and will be called a satchel
- Put on a census badge and bib every day, and you must ensure that you carry all other items wherever enumerating.

1.3 Language

The questionnaire is in English but enumeration will mostly be conducted in local languages i.e. Chichewa, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe. If the person being enumerated does not speak the languages which you speak, then inform the supervisor to find alternatives.

Note: Never use an untrained person to do the enumeration for you.

1.4 Roles

A well-planned, properly executed census is the most accurate way of determining the population of any locality. The enumerator's role is of critical importance. Enumerators must be able to quickly and thoroughly enumerate the people and housing units within a designated area. Mistakes can be costly.

It is extremely important that you read this manual and follow the instructions carefully; you must also be available for, and be attentive during the training session. If you do, you should have little trouble in doing a good job. Whenever questions arise that you can't answer consult the manual. If the solution is still not clear, contact your supervisor.

A census enumerator is responsible for recording all the dwelling units and all households in a specific Enumeration Area. As an enumerator you are expected to:

1.4.1 Know who and what should be enumerated
You should be very familiar with definitions of households, persons and dwelling units. Do not omit any household, person or dwelling unit; and, do not include any household, person or dwelling unit that do not qualify to be counted.

1.4.2 Make a good first impression
You should make the first contact with a smile and greeting like "good afternoon" and to continue to behave in good manner. At the same time, you should look decent and tidy. Be considerate of the people you contact. Do not smoke or chew gum while interviewing

1.4.3 Introduce and identify yourself
First meet the household head or any other responsible person. You should introduce yourself by showing your introductory letter and a badge.

1.4.4 Explain the purpose of the visit
You should be conversant with the objective(s) of the census, in other words, as an enumerator, you should know why the government is doing the census.

1.4.5 Inform persons who will be enumerated about the confidentiality of the Census data
You should inform persons being enumerated that personal data that will be collected in the Census represent an official secret -- strictly confidential data protected by law, and will be exclusively used for statistical purposes only.

1.4.6 Not to make any influence on answers given by the person being enumerated
It is strictly important to be neutral when asking questions. You are not even allowed to show expressions on your face and/or voice and should not give the idea to the person being enumerated that he/she gives right or wrong answer.

1.4.7 Not to change the words or order of the questions
The words and order of the questions must be maintained. If the person does not understand the question, it should be repeated slowly and clearly. If, again the respondent does not understand the question, then the question should be rephrased, ensuring that the sense of the original question is not lost.

1.4.8 Know how to canvass your Enumeration Area
Be familiar with the census maps prepared for your use and the instructions on how to cover your Enumeration Area in a systematic fashion. Enumerate only within the boundaries of your EA.

1.4.9 Correct mapping errors
If there are any differences between the features on the map and actual features on the ground like roads, churches or some features in your area, make corrections on the map and inform your supervisor.

1.4.10 Updating
If you find a village missed from the village list, you are expected to add the name of that village and give it an appropriate code. You are also expected to locate its position on the EA map.

1.4.11 Work conscientiously
Follow census procedures exactly and efficiently. State your business in a few words, ask the required questions, and then proceed to the next house. If the person is reluctant to cooperate try to convince him/her and as a last resort report the matter to your supervisor.

1.4.12 Consultations with immediate supervisors
You should consult with your immediate supervisor whenever you have problems.

1.5 Definitions

1.5.1 Enumeration Area (EA)
An EA is an area to be covered by one enumerator during census. It may comprise part of the village, a whole village or several villages, estate(s), trading center(s), mission centers or part of an urban area. The EAs have already been demarcated and the boundaries are marked on the maps, which will be given to you.

1.5.2 Village
In this census a village means the area controlled by the village headman or an area recognized by its habitants as a village. It can either be recognized or not by the District Administrator.

1.5.3 Place
A place may be part of a village or any area other than a village whose name is locally known.

1.5.4 Household
It consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, who live together and make common provision for food. They regularly take all their food from the same pot, and/or share the same grain store (nkhokwe) or pool their incomes for the purpose of purchasing food. Persons in a household may live in one or more dwelling units.

"Usual residents" will be defined as those people who stayed continuously in the household being enumerated for a period of 6 months or more. The questions to be asked in case of doubt, if a person visits home regularly will be "Where does he spend most of his time?" or "nthawi zambiri amakhalitsa kuti?" in Chichewa. If he/she spends more than 6 months in a certain area then that will be his/her area of residence.
1.6 Types of households
There are three major types of households, namely, regular, collective and homeless.

1.6.1 Regular household
A household whose members share dwelling units and meals during the census period. Special type of regular households: Polygamous household(s): a situation where there is one husband and more than one wife and their children.

a.) Consider as one household if they live and eat together from the same pot and use common budget.
b.) If not, count as several households.

Note: a husband should be enumerated in the household he slept last night. If all the wives are in the same EA ensure that a husband is enumerated only once.

1.6.2 Collective household
Refers to a large group of people who live together and sharing common facilities such as kitchen, toilet, lounge, and dormitories. In such situation the residents may not have complete independent quarters that qualify as housing units as their living quarters during the census period. Examples of collective households are hospitals, hotels, lodges, guest houses, camps, institutions (charitable homes, military barracks, boarding schools, convents, prisons, etc.)

In some instances there will be both regular household units and collective quarters on the premises e.g. the hospital staff may have their own dwelling units within the hospital premises; employees in hotels may have separate apartments which qualify as dwelling units; etc.

1.6.3 Homeless
Persons without regular shelter but are found together should be enumerated as one household.

1.7 Head of household
This is a person among the household members who is acknowledged by other members of household as such and is often the one who makes most decisions concerning the welfare of the members of the household.

1.8 Structure
A structure is defined as "any unit of construction that has four walls or an all-round wall, a roof and at least one door irrespective of the type of construction materials used". Buildings, caravans, tents, and tinned houses are some examples of structures. Based on the materials used for construction of wall and roof, the structures, in this Census are classified into three major groups: permanent, semi-permanent and traditional.

1.8.1 Permanent structure
A permanent structure is one having a roof made of iron sheets, tiles, concrete or asbestos, and walls made of burnt bricks, concrete or stones. These include caravans and tinned structures.

1.8.2 Semi-permanent structures
A semi-permanent structure is one lacking construction materials of a permanent structure for a wall or roof. These are structures which are built of non-permanent walls such as sun-dried bricks or non-permanent roofing materials such as thatch.

1.8.3 Traditional structures
Traditional structures are those with both thatched roof and mud walls.

1.8.4 Structures
These are non-residential structures, such as churches, mosques, schools, shops, etc.
1.9 Dwelling unit (DU)
It may be defined as any structure; permanent, semi-permanent or traditional where people live and sleep. It may be a hut, house, stores with a sleeping room or rooms at the back or sides, a shelter of reeds/straw such as those used by fishermen, or any other structure where people sleep.

1.9.1 Occupied dwelling units
These are units that are being used as living quarters during the census period.

1.9.2 Vacant Dwelling Units
It is a structure that is intended for sleeping but is not occupied at the time of census.

1.10 Room
A room is a space in a DU or other living quarters enclosed by walls.

1.11 Kitchen
It is a free, standing structure, or a room in a structure, that is solely for cooking.

Note: If a structure is used for both cooking and sleeping, it should be considered as a DU. Furthermore, a free standing structure is considered as one of the rooms of the main structure if it is not used for dwelling. A room in the main structure that is used for cooking is considered as one of the rooms of the main structure.

1.12 National and district Calendar of Events:
This is a summary of historical events and the dates of their occurrence. They should be used to determine/estimate age when the respond does not know her/his year of birth. These events are recognized and acknowledged throughout the country and districts respectively.

1.13 Economically active members:

1.13.1 Mlimi (subsistence farmer)
Is a person whose sole or principal work is in the family garden. Women will be classified as "Mlimi" if over the year they have spent more time working in the garden than working in the home, without pay, on domestic duties. If the person who would otherwise qualify as a "Mlimi" had a job for pay during the "last seven days" then he or she should be treated as an employee. If he or she usually works in the family garden but did not do any work in the garden and was not employed during the "last seven days", he/she should be recorded as "Mlimi" (that is, as though on holiday with a job to go back to).

1.13.2 Employee
Is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives a wage, salary or payment at piece-rates.

1.13.3 Family business worker
Is a person who works without pay in a business owned by a relative on more or less full time basis and is not engaged in any other economic activity.

1.13.4 Self-employed
Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprises, or engages independently in a profession or trade and does not hire any employees but may be assisted by family members.

1.13.5 Employer
Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprise, or engages independently in a profession or trade and employs one or more persons. (Note: this does not include managers or others who hire staff on behalf of their company unless they own the company).

Note: A person who had a job or enterprise but who is temporarily absent during the reference period due to injury, illness, vacation or other leave should be classified according to his job or enterprise as an employee, a family business worker, self- employed or an employer.

1.14 Economically inactive

1.14.1 Non-worker
(Never worked before and not seeking work): Is a person who has never worked before and is at the moment not making any effort to seek work.

1.14.2 Home worker
Is one who spends most of his or her time, throughout the year, working without pay on domestic duties, such as cooking, washing or cleaning household surroundings.

1.14.3 Student
Is one who is under full-time instruction at a formal educational institution as long as he/she did not work during the last seven days.

1.14.4 Other
This category includes:

a.) Any person who did not work the last seven days because either he was not able to work and relies on others, or there was no need for him to work and relies on others.
b.) Any person who did not work the last seven days because there was no need and relies on his or her own income, for example, pensioners.

Note: It may be necessary to ask several probing questions in order to determine a person's activity status.

1.15. Call-back visit
This refers to a visit to a household made by an enumerator to try to complete the questionnaire that could not be completed on an earlier visit. This may be because on the initial enumerator's visit the respondent:
- Could not give correct response, or
- Gave incomplete responses, or
- There was no respondent at all, or
- Refused.

1.16 Pre-enumeration arrangements
Arrange a place and time for regular meetings with your Field Supervisor. Your field supervisor will advise you on your itinerary for the first few days, and then proceed immediately to your enumeration area.

Before you start enumeration:

1.16.1 Meet village headman: You and your supervisor should meet the village headman and any local leaders who may be able to assist. Talk to them about the census and the purpose of your visit. Gain their confidence, dispel any fears they may have and try to win their full co-operation.

Identify Enumeration Area (EA): You will be provided with an EA map that will assist you to accurately identify your EA boundary. The EA boundary usually follows physical features such as streams, hills or mountain ranges, valleys, roads, etc. However, if such features do not exist, imaginary boundaries (no physical features) are alternatively used. EA boundaries are distinctly marked in red on the maps for easy identification.

Prior to the beginning of the enumeration, you should make a tour of the census EA boundaries with the field supervisor using the EA map provided. It is therefore necessary that you first of all identify the north direction on the ground and consequently on your EA map by using the compass directions reference on the map. If during the tour and based on the map and the description, you notice that you cannot determine with certainty the terrain where the enumeration will be carried out -- that is if some or a group of features that could help in identifying boundaries are missing, you should inform the control center supervisor.

When you get familiar with the census EA boundaries, you should make a plan for the activities within the EA. You should ensure not to omit a single unit that should be enumerated. You should also take note of all isolated houses within the EA and ask particularly whether there are other houses that are detached from the majority of the houses belonging to your EA.

You should plan the best way of going around your EA when enumerating so as not to waste time going to and fro unnecessarily. Plan your visit in such a way that you will not miss any structures at all.

Before the next day's enumeration: Inform the village headman which group of dwelling units you would like to enumerate the following day. Kindly request him to make arrangements for as many people as possible, and at least one responsible adult from each household, to remain at home that day until you have made a visit. Inform him that if any visitor spent the census night at those households you intend to visit the next day, they should wait for your coming or come to see you before they leave the village. Most importantly, ask him to inform you immediately if any household was not enumerated in the areas you have already covered.

1.17 Units covered in the Census:
The following units will be covered during the Census:
- Persons (individuals)
- Households
- Dwelling units

1.17.1 Persons (individuals)
All persons present in Malawi at the time of census should be enumerated. These include:

a.) Foreigners with acknowledged status of refugee who at the time of the Census are present in the Republic of Malawi.

b.) Citizens of the Republic of Malawi who at the time of the Census are temporarily absent from the Republic of Malawi. For the purpose of the census, all persons who have been temporarily absent from the country for less than 6 months should be enumerated.

However, the following categories of persons will not be enumerated:

a.) Diplomatic personnel of the foreign diplomatic and consular representative offices in the Republic of Malawi.

b.) Foreign military personnel and the members of their families, located in the Republic of Malawi, as well as the members and representatives of the international organizations and communities.

c.) Citizens of the Republic of Malawi who at the time of the Census are absent from the Republic of Malawi more than 6 months.

1.17.2 Households
All households whose members are qualified to be enumerated should be counted (as cited above). You are therefore advised to canvass all households in your EA.

1.17.3 Dwellings
The Census will cover all dwellings in the country, intended for habitation, regardless of whether they are used for a permanent or temporary living (for vacation and recreation, seasonal activities) or vacant dwellings.

The Census will also cover other inhabited premises or buildings that are not intended for habitation but at the time of the Census are used for living. It will also cover inhabited business premises, improvised living quarters or collective living quarters.

Dwellings not covered with the Census:

- Dwellings of the diplomatic and consular foreign country representatives and dwellings owned by other countries;
- Vacant dwellings that are under-construction;
- Buildings in the villages that are used fully for storage of agricultural work tools and appliances, agricultural products, heating material and similar, or they are used for processing of agricultural products;

Once you have finished your enumeration, go through your area, check if all the dwelling units have been covered. In urban areas, check for rooms behind the main entrance, servants quarters.

1.18 Time (period) of Enumeration
The enumeration of the population, households and dwellings in all areas of the Republic of Malawi is going to start on the 1st of June and should end on, or before, 21st June 2008. In the event that an enumerator does not complete the by the end of census period, he should consult with his supervisor.

1.19 Place of enumeration
Persons should be enumerated at their usual place of residence. A person's usual residence should be that at which he/she spends most of his time during the year.

1.19.1 How to treat cases whereby a person has more than one place of residence.

a) If the person works or attends school outside his/her place of usual residence, in another place in the Republic of Malawi, he/she should be enumerated at the place of usual residence, together with his/her household.

b) If a person at the time of the Census happens to be outside his/her place of usual residence, (on a visit, on a business trip, medical treatment, etc.), he/she should be enumerated together with his household at his place of usual residence.

c) In case when a person has two or more places of residence, the person will be enumerated in the place where he/she spends greater part of the year, and this place would be considered to be his place of usual residence.

d) This will cover both: all usual members of the household either present or absent and persons who spent the night in the dwelling units during the census night. It also includes all persons who are usual members of a household but during enumeration period, they were institutions, such as schools, colleges, etc. If somebody claims to be enumerated in another EA, he/she should still be enumerated as a visitor if he/she spent the census night in the DU.

e) Night workers: Persons such as watchmen, policemen, fishermen or shift workers should be included at their usual place of residence. People away overnight for wedding, initiation ceremony, funeral or any other ceremony should also be included in the enumeration of their respective households.

f) The newly born: Only children born before midnight of the census day should be enumerated.

g) Recently deceased: Persons who died after midnight of the census day should be enumerated. Thus, persons who died before midnight of the census days should not be enumerated.

h) Hospitals, markets, hotels and rest houses: Some people sleep in markets and others in other public places such as hospitals, hotels and rest houses as their usual place of residence. (This excludes persons reside at such institutions as boarding schools or colleges, etc.) You must arrange to visit these places, if there are any in your EA, either in the evenings or very early in the morning and should enumerate those who usually or continuously live there. Enumeration of a public place should be completed on the same day to avoid enumerating different groups of people.

1.20 Persons who should give answers on questions
The data on all household members should be provided by the head of the household. However, in his/her absence, a responsible member of the household should provide the information.

The head of the household also provides information about the dwelling. However, in his/her absence, a responsible member of the household should provide the information.

1.21 Interviewing procedures
In order to have a systematic daily procedure and uniformity among enumerators the following instructions are laid down for you to follow:

a) Identify the head of household or the responsible member of the household who can provide accurate information about the household characteristics and/or absent members of the household especially children.

b) When you first meet the head of household or responsible member of the household, tell him or her who you are and why you are there. If these are not available make arrangements for a call-back. Be polite and good-humored and ask courteously whether the household members will be kind enough to answer your questions. They are in fact, obliged by law to answer the questions, but you should not mention this unless they refuse to co-operate. Try to convince them, and if they fail to co-operate inform the village headman and the local leaders or community leaders before you report to your Field Supervisor.

c) When asking questions from the questionnaires, you should be concise and tactful. Do not give the respondent the impression that you are not sure of what is meant by any of the questions. Do not ask leading questions; that is, never suggest answers to the respondent. It is therefore, absolutely essential that you master your manual, questionnaire and other related documents before going into the field.
d) Before conducting individual interviews, ensure that you have first identified the members comprising the household correctly and also the exact number of dwelling units belonging to the household.

e) Assign an appropriate serial number to household. This number should be the same as the one you write on the questionnaire. Mark the letters with PHC which stands for "Population and Housing Census" followed by the household serial number clearly with chalk on the front door or at the top of the main entrance door. Where chalk cannot be used (for example, a dwelling unit built with reeds), you should use the tie-on labels that have been provided. In case a household has more than one dwelling unit (for example, 3 DUs to a household of a serial number 012), assign number to these DUs as PHC 012/1, PHC 012/2 and PHC 012/3. The DU number PHC 012/1 in this case should be one occupied by the head of the household. However if there is only one DU to a household, then the DU should simply be numbered PHC 012. And if one structure has 3 DUs with a household in each DU assign different numbers to these DUs i.e. PHC 013, PHC 014 and PHC 015. In cases where structures are enclosed in fences, you should write down the household number on both the structure and at the main gate of the fence.

f) A structure that is used as a kitchen but is also used for sleeping must be taken as a DU. A kitchen detached from the main structure should be counted as one of the rooms of the main structure if it is not also used for sleeping. Remember that if the kitchen is also used for sleeping then it is considered as a DU on its own.
Note: Any other free standing structures such as toilets, bathrooms, kraals/kholas, garages, grain stores, etc. should not be considered as a room.

g) Sometimes the respondent may be unable to give you satisfactory information regarding age, education or even full name of the absent member of the household. In such instances arrange to call again when the person is back home.

h) Check if you have filled in all the details for every part of questionnaire correctly and fully before leaving for the next household.

i) In urban areas where it is very likely that most household members will be at work all day, make every effort to complete your questionnaires for these households in the morning before work, during lunch hour, in the evening after work and during weekends.

j) In some places, particularly in towns, houses and blocks of flats have servant's quarters built within the same place or in the same stand. Servants in their quarters should be enumerated as a separate household if they have their meals separate from that of their employers. However, if they share the same meals with the employer they should be counted with employer. Each flat in a block should be treated as a separate household.

k) If a village or place is not indicated on the EA map but falls within the EA boundary, you should enumerate the people of this village or place and put it on the map, but you must report the case to your field Supervisor.

l) Each time you enumerate a new household you must use a new questionnaire. Note: Each questionnaire is designed to take information for up to 8 persons in the household. In case there are more than 8 members in the household; you must use a new questionnaire for the extra persons and do the following:
- Shade 1 at the bottom of the first questionnaire where it is written "If the household continues on the next questionnaire, mark this box".
- Shade 1 where it is written "Mark here if more than one questionnaire", on top of the cover page of the second questionnaire.
- If two questionnaires are used, write "01" on the first questionnaire in the boxes behind the word questionnaire and shade 0 on the first row and 1 on the second row of the digits then write 2 behind a word of, meaning that this is questionnaire 1 of a total of 2 questionnaires.

m) While numbering households you should proceed from one household to the next in a systematic and if necessary in a serpentine manner, numbering contiguous households consecutively. Household numbers must be continuous within the enumeration area, whether there is one or more villages. For example, in an enumeration area where there is more than one village, if the first village has PHC 090 as the last number, the first household in the next village will be numbered PHC 091. If the last household in the second village is PHC 126, and you have a third village in the EA, the first household in the third village will be numbered PHC 127, etc.

n) When enumerating institutions, you should treat the whole institution as one unit. Write code number, "999" against the household number in the boxes. Continue numbering downwards (for example "998", "997", "996", etc.) until all institutions in the EA are accounted for. Enumerate the persons continuously on the questionnaire. Each one of them will be regarded as an institutional member under the relationship provides code 4 for all members. Members of institutions will only be asked questions P3-P8. Enumeration in all institutions, except hospitals, should be undertaken by relevant authorities.

o) If the institution is divided into "houses", "blocks" or hospital "wards", it will be convenient to record each of these as separate unit using a separate questionnaire for each such section of the institution.

p) Staff housing, servant's quarters or other separate dwellings which are part of the institution but are occupied on a permanent household basis will be treated as separate household in the normal way.

q) Before enumerating those people who sleep at market places or other open places make sure that you have identified all the places where they sleep.

r) If you have more than 5 cases of call backs in a short time in one village, discuss the problem with the village headman, appealing to him/her to make arrangements for people to stay at home at specified times (or meet you before they leave their homes). If this fails to give the desired results, then report the matter to your Field Supervisor, as the people may be avoiding you deliberately. If you do not find the people during the day, visit them early in the morning, during the lunch hour, in the evening or during the weekend.

s) You should periodically contact your supervisors and report the progress of your work. It is essential that you take every opportunity to discuss your problems and uncertainties, especially on the first few days of the enumeration.

Part 2: Completion of the Census Questionnaire

2.1 Census questionnaire
All responses during enumeration should be recorded on the census questionnaire provided to you. You should record information only when you are convinced that the reported information is accurate. Do not leave blank any space provided for recording responses. Do not suggest or assume answers under any circumstances. Always do sufficient probing where necessary before recording any answers.

Make sure that you ask the questions in such a way that you collect the intended information. Rephrase questions if the respondent does not seem to understand and ask additional questions if the respondent gives irrelevant or incomplete answers.

The following pages give detailed instructions regarding the manner in which entries are to be made in each column of the census questionnaire. The completed questionnaire must be neat, clear, readable, accurate, unbend and crease or oil free. After completing each questionnaire you must always check your entries and ensure that all the applicable questions have been answered.

The questionnaires you are using are very sensitive to any manhandling. Thus, they should be kept unsoiled, and without creases, bends or stains because they will be put through machines for processing and any damage to the questionnaires will affect the results.

2.2 General Instructions
All Enumerators should observe the following instructions throughout the fieldwork period:

Your job is an important and challenging one. You will need to be accurate, consistent and reliable in obtaining statistical information. To do this you may need to be firm and even persistent. But, at the same time you must be polite, tactful and courteous. You should always remember that you are representing the Government of Malawi to the respondent and your attitude and conduct must always be above reproach at all times.

a.) Recording of responses should be by shading the digits provided in the questionnaire and write the digits as the ones shaded in the boxes. Make sure that you completely shade the box containing the code/digit or cross a line at the center of the digit.

b.) Use a 2.0 HB pencil when recording responses. No pens should be used for shading the codes/digits.

c.) Never scribble any original shadings. Using correcting fluid (Tippex) in recording responses is not allowed, use a rubber.

d.) You must be careful to ensure that you are performing your job correctly; otherwise you will be immediately dismissed.

e.) All recorded information should be checked in full and corrections should be made accordingly.

f.) Read instructions before asking each question. The instructions are either in bold letters, italics or block letters.

g.) Some questions have filter and skip patterns. Follow them carefully to avoid embarrassing the respondent and collection of irrelevant information.

h.) No person except your field supervisor and other census staff should come with you when you interview. If your supervisor does accompany you, you should introduce him and explain that his function is to occasionally check your work, then continue your interview in the normal way.

2.3 Structure of the questionnaires
The census questionnaire has five sections, namely sections L, P, D, E, S and M. Components of each of the Sections are elaborated below:

Section L - Identification particulars for all households
Section P - Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population
Section D -- Dwelling Unit characteristics
Section E - Emigration
Section M - Maternal and general deaths
Section S - Summary table

All Sections must be completed for all households

Section L: Identification Particulars for All Households

L1. Region
Enter the one digit code of the region in the box provided and then shade the appropriate digit for the code in the column of digits. The Region codes are provided in Appendix A

L2. District
Enter the two digit code of the district in the boxes provided and shade the first digit of the code in the first row of digits and the second digit of the code in the second row of digits. The District codes are provided in Appendix A.

L3. TA, STA or town
Enter the two digit code of the TA, STA, or town whichever is applicable in the boxes provided and shade the first digit of the code in the first row of digits and the second digit of the code in the second row of digits. For example, if you are enumerating in TA Mwambo you will enter "02" code for TA Mwambo in the boxes provided and then shade 0 in the first row of digits and 2 in the second row of digits. The TA/STA or town codes provided in Appendix B.

L4. Enumeration Area:
Record your EA number in the boxes provided. Then, shade the first digit of the code in the first row of digits, the second digit of the code in the second row of digits and the third digit of the code in the third row of digits.

L5. Village or place:
Get the name of the village or place in which you are working and enter the three digit code in the boxes provided. Then, shade the first digit of the code in the first row of digits, the second digit of the code in the second row of digits and the third digit of the code the third row of digits. If the name you are given is not on the list given, you should assign a code, continuing on from the list. You will be given a list of village codes for the whole TA and if the last code on the list is "057", then that new village should be assigned "058".

L6. Household number:
Assign numbers to all households in your area, starting from "001" and continuing until the last one. Record the number you have assigned to this household in the three boxes provided and shade the appropriate digits of your number in the column of digits. Make sure you chalk this number on the dwelling units occupied by members of the household. If the household is your first household in the EA assign it "001" and write "001" in the boxes on the questionnaire and shade 0 in the first column of digits, then 0 again the second and 1 in the last.

However, for institutions such as hospitals, prisons, etc., record "999" in the box for household number and shade 9 in all the columns for digits. You should consider a block/ward as a DU.

L7. Type of household:
Find out the type of household as soon as you start the interview. Types of households are well described on page 8 and 9 of the manual. If the household is regular, shade 1 and ask all the questions. If it is either hospital/hotel/lodge, other collective or homeless, shade the appropriate code and ask questions P3 to P8 only; other information will be collected from their usual residences.

Total present and visitors
This section is a summary of the total population of the household. You should record all the members of the household that are present during your visit to a particular household in the box labeled "Present resident". After, record all the visitors in the box labeled "Visitors". Add the total number of present residents and visitors and record the total in the box labeled "Total".

Section P: Demographic and Socio-economic Characteristics of the Population

P01. All members of the household
On reaching the household you should establish all members of the household who slept at the household the night before you arrived. These members are referred to as "Present members". List their names serially starting with the head of the household. After these members have been listed ask the respondent if there are other household members that usually stay in the household but did not sleep in the household prior to your arrival, herein referred to as Absent Members. If there are, then list their names, (See definition of "Present" and "Absent" members on page 8). Then list the names of visitors who slept in the household last night. Please note that in this case, age sequence does not matter. However, for the listing of present members, it will be convenient if the listing is ordered starting with the spouse, eldest son/daughter, other relative and non-relative. If more than 8 members are present in the household, use a Continuation Sheet. All usual members of the household absent should be listed if they have been absent for less than 6 months.

Write two names for each household member in the spaces provided, starting with the first name followed by the surname. If a small child has no name, write "Baby" as the first name, e.g. "Baby Phiri". Remember to include all visitors (who spent a night in the household) or a servant (if he/she lives in the household). Record information of visitors on questions P2 to P8 only.

List all the household members first before starting individual questions (P2 onwards). All information about members of the household should be provided by the head of the household or the most responsible person in the household.

When asking questions, start with the person on P1 who is a head of the household and ask questions P2 to P27. Ask questions P28 to P29 for men and women aged 12 years or older and ask questions P30 to P33 for women age 12 years or older. For men and women younger than 12 years, go to the next person. When you finish with persons, ask about dwelling units (DUs).

P02. Relationship to head of household
This refers to the relationship of any member of the household to the head of that household. The categories of relatives of the head are provided.

Code 1 should be shaded once in the questionnaire, because a household will only have one head and only one code should be shaded for a person.

If code 3 for son/daughter is shaded, ensure that a head is the biological or real parent of the child, "Makolo ake omubereka". For other children -- e.g. stepsons and stepdaughters or adopted children to the head -- make sure that you shade 4 for "Other relative" instead of son or daughter.

If you are enumerating in an institution, each of the listed persons will be considered as an institutional member and will be given code 4.

If a household comprises two or more unrelated persons, treat one of them as head (code 1) and the others as non-relatives (code 4).

Caution: Please note that the respondent may not always be the head of the household, but the relationship of each member must be with reference to the head.

P03. Sex
Shade Code 1 for "Male" and Code 2 for "Female". Be careful to get the sex of young children right; ask, do not guess. Always confirm or verify the sex of a person against information recorded in P01 before shading. There are many names that may be given to either males or females (e.g. Takondwa), which could either be male or female, even though in some cases you can tell sex by the name of the person.

P04. Age
Ask and record the age of each household member. Record age in completed years in the boxes provided; shade the appropriate codes neatly. You should take great care to obtain an accurate answer.

For persons who cannot remember their age, try and find from the following documents
- Health passport book for children
- Baptismal certificate
- Passport
- Ulendo wa banja lathu
- Other records, e.g. a driving license

If the above documents cannot be obtained, your last resort is to use the calendar of events given to you. The age of a person is obtained in the column titled "years ago". Do not try to place much reliance on a single event - check the reported year of birth with an event which the person clearly remembers.

If the person in question does not know of an appropriate event coinciding exactly with his date of birth, ask him to remember an event which occurred nearer to his date of birth and do some arithmetic to reach his date of birth either backwards or forward depending on whether he/she was born after or before the event.

Finally, if everything else fails you can look at the person, check his/her position in relation to his/her siblings (brother/sister) whose ages are known in the family and through common sense establish his/her probable age. Alternatively, you can ask the person to think of his/her age-mates who know their ages, establish their ages and record the same age for him/her. Never leave P04 un-shaded.

Note: If the person is 100 years old, record "100" in one box and do not shade.

P05. Date of birth
Date of birth should be asked so as to validate the age given in P04. Record the date of birth in month and the year of birth in the boxes provided. For instance, for May 1969 write "05" in the first two boxes, 6 in the second box and 9 in the third box then shade 5 in the first row for a month and 6 in the second row and 9 in the third row as it is done in an example in the questionnaire.

Note: For a month there is no "0" for you to shade because double shading on a row is not allowed, hence do not forget to start with "0" when recording any month with a single digit.

If the date of birth is not known, your last resort is to use the calendar of events provided to you and the district calendar of events manual provided. The age of a person is obtained in the column headed "Date".

Do not try to place much reliance on a single event; check the reported year of birth with an event, which the person clearly remembers.

If the person in question does not know of an appropriate event coinciding exactly with his date of birth, ask him to remember an event which occurred nearer to his date of birth. Do some arithmetic to reach his date of birth either.

Finally, if everything else fails you can look at the person, check his/her position in relation to his/her siblings (brother/sister) whose ages are known in the family and through common sense establish his/her probable age. Alternatively, you can ask the person to think of his/her age-mates who know their ages, establish their ages and record the same age for him/her. Never leave P05 blank.

P06. Place of birth
Ask for the region and district in which the respondent was born. Write the codes of region and district in the boxes provided. Then, shade the appropriate code of the region in the first row of digits and appropriate code of the district in the second and third row of digits.

Example: If a person was born in Mangochi district in the central region, write code "03" for the Southern Region and shade 3 in the first row of digits. Then, write code "01" for Lilongwe district in the boxes provided, and follow this by shading 0 in the second row of digits and 1 in the third row.

If a person was born in one of the following districts: Blantyre, Zomba, Lilongwe, or Mzimba, ask if the person was born in a city. For example: in Mzimba, ask if the person was born in Mzuzu city. If yes, record a code for the city in the box for a district.

If a person was not born in Malawi, ask for the country in which he/she was born and write the appropriate code in the boxes provided. Then, shade appropriate digits in rows. Example: If a person was born in Lesotho, write "426" in the boxes provided and then shade the 4th digit in the first row, 2nd digit in the second row and 6th digit in the third row.

P07. Nationality
Enquire about the citizenship of each member of the household. You should establish whether the person is a Malawian or not. Mark the first box if the respondent is a Malawian. However if the respondent is not a Malawian, record the code in the appropriate box provided and shade the appropriate box.

Example: a person who is a British citizen (UK) should be coded "549". See Appendix B.

P08. Residence
Ask about the status of residence of the person being interviewed. Please note that the row has a filter for visitor. If the respondent is a visitor, skip to the next member of the household.

Present resident is a usual member of the household who spent the last night in the household.
Absent resident is a usual member who did not sleep in the household last night.

Questions for usual members of households
Questions P09 to P013 should only be asked to the usual members of that household.

P09. Religion
Ask respondents about the type of religion. There are cases when a child's religion is not known. If the husband and his wife belong to different religions, you should assign the child the religion of the mother. If both parents belong to the same religion then consider the child as belonging to their religion too. Shade the appropriate code of religion of each person in the household.

Example: If the Religion is Christian, it should be assigned code 3.

P10. Tribe
Ask for the tribe of the respondent and write the appropriate code in the boxes provided. In a situation where the respondent does not know the tribe of the child because the parents are from different tribes, ask whether they are in the paternal or maternal system. If paternal, take the father's tribe but if maternal, you take the mother's tribe.

Example: If the respondent's tribe is Lomwe, write "05" in the space provided and then shade the appropriate digits in the two rows provided. The codes for tribe are provided in Appendix D.

P11. Previous residence
Ask for the region and district in which the respondent was previously residing. Write the codes of region and district in the boxes provided. Then, shade the appropriate code of the region in the first row of digits and appropriate code of the district in the second and third rows of digits.

Example: If a person was previously residing in Karonga in the Northern region, code "01" for North region and code "02" for Karonga district. Then, shade appropriate digits in all the three rows.

If a person was previously residing out of Malawi, ask for the country in which she/he resided and write the appropriate code. Then, shade the appropriate digits in the three rows.

P12. Duration on current place of residence
Ask for the duration of residence in the current place of where the respondent is currently staying. If it is less than 1 year, record and shade 0 in three rows of digits. If he/she has been staying in the place for 5 years, code "005" and then shade 0 in the first row of digits, 0 in the second row and 5 in the third row. If the place of residence has not changed since birth, record his/her age.

Note: P12 refers to inter-district movement, not within the district, except for Lilongwe, Zomba, Blantyre and Mzuzu.

For example: If a person has shifted from Lilongwe rural to Lilongwe City, record how long she/he has stayed in Lilongwe City. On the other hand, if a person has shifted places within Lilongwe City, then there has been no movement. This applies to all urban areas of Blantyre, Zomba, Lilongwe, and Mzuzu.

However, if there has been movement within district -- say from TA Kaphuka to Dedza BOMA -- then record the period stayed in Dedza district.

P13. Type and causes of disability
Ask the respondents whether there any members of the household who should be classified as disabled. In this case, disability refers to physical or mental handicap, which inhibits an individual's ability to work or participate in normal activities. Furthermore, the enumerator should ask for the causes of disability.

If the person has multiple disabilities and the first to be mentioned is "1" in the first row, ask for the cause and shade the appropriate code in the first row under cause. If the disability to be mentioned second is "Walking", shade 4 in the second row, ask for the cause and shade it in the second row under cause.

Note: The enumerator should probe the type of disability in order not to confuse with current illness.

Household members age 18 years or younger
These questions should be asked for household members age 18 years or younger.

P14. Parental survivorship and residence
Ask whether the natural mother of the respondent is alive.

Make sure that the mother referred to in this case is the real or biological mother ("mayi ake omubereka"). A foster parent referred to as "mother" in Malawi Custom just because she is the real mother's sister should be coded as "2". You should therefore probe to find out if the mother is the biological mother of the person referred to. If the natural mother is still alive, ask if she stays in this household.

Ask whether the natural father of the respondent is alive.

Make sure that the father referred to in this case is the real or biological father ("bambo ake omubereka"). A foster parent referred to as "father" in Malawi custom just because he is the real father's brother should be coded as "2". You should therefore probe to find out if the father is the biological father. If the natural father is still alive, ask if he stays in this household.

P15. Birth certificate
Ask if the respondent has a birth certificate and request that it be shown to you.

Note: If the respondent has problems with the question, show him/her the sample of the birth certificate in Appendix F.

Household members age 3 years or older
[Questions P16-P19 were asked of persons age 3 years or older]

P16. Literacy
Questions on literacy should be asked for persons 3 years and over. The enumerator should find out if the respondent can read and write a short sentence in any of the following languages: Chichewa, Tumbuka, English, and other. Then shade the appropriate code.

If a person can read and write, say, Chichewa and English, you enter the sum of codes in the boxes provided (1+2 = 3). For example, enter the sum of Chichewa and French (2+4=6), enter the sum of English and French (1+4=5). Then, shade as appropriate the digit for the sum in the row of digits provided.

P17. School attendance
Ask respondent about school attendance, including Pre-school.

If response is never attended "0", skip to P20. But, if the response is "1" or "2", proceed to ask question P18.

P18. Highest level of school and years attended
The question should only be asked to household members age 3 years or older. Two types of questions should be asked: highest level of school and number of years of schooling.

The highest level should be irrespective of whether or not he/she has actually written or passed any examination at that level. It should be irrespective of whether or not one is currently in school or not.

The enumerator should also shade, in the second row, the appropriate code for the number of years attended at that particular level.

Example: If a man/woman reached but did not complete standard 7, he/she should be considered as having attended 7 years of primary school. Thus, Shade code 1 for highest level and 7 for number of years attended. If one repeated standard 8, shade 1 for highest level attended and 8 for years attended.

Most people who left school before 1966 will tend to give the names of the classes used when they were at school and which are no longer being used. In this case, before you enter the number referring to the highest class reached, you must ask for the year in which they left school. This will enable you to convert their answers to the modern class names through the use of an "Educational conversion chart" which is on page 45 of this manual. For instance, Sub A and Sub B are to be recorded as standards 1 and 2 respectively; old standard 5 as standard 7; old standard 8 as form 2, respectively, etc. You should always check whether the person is giving old class names before making an entry in the questionnaire.

Some people may not remember the highest class or standard they reached, and others may have been educated in another country where different names are given to classes. In such cases you should ask how many years they spent at school and shade the appropriate code for the class from the chart. Bear in mind that pupils sometimes repeat classes and where appropriate you should ask a question about this. In particular you must not assume that because a person spent more than eight years at school then it means he/she attended a secondary school. You will only record him as attending secondary school if he/she confirms that he actually did so.

P19. Highest qualification
For all household members aged three years and over, ask for the highest qualification attained.

The highest qualification in education is classified according to the nature of qualification obtained through the regular school system, for public and private colleges and universities. The qualification should be based on the levels of education acquired.

Example: For people educated in Malawi, only those who completed a program of study at UNIMA or any other recognized university will have as their highest formal education completed BA, BSc, MA, MSc, PhD or whatever the case may be. Also, for those educated at any other recognized tertiary institutions who have acquired certificates or diplomas, the same principle shall apply.

If someone reached Form 4 but did not pass MSCE, then his highest qualification attainment is JC and not MSCE. If someone went up to standard 8 but did not obtain the Primary School Leaving Certificate, he must be regarded as having no education qualification; that is his highest educational qualification will be "None" and shade code 0.

Note: It is important that you should first of all find out exactly what certificate the household member is currently holding before circling any code.

[Educational conversion charts omitted]

Questions for usual residents age 6 years or older (economic activity)
[Questions P20-P27 were asked of persons age 6 years or over]

P20. Working or not working
Inquire about the working status of the household member.

If the response is 1, skip to P25. If the person says 2, proceed to ask question P21.

P21. Economically inactive
Ask this question if the person did not work for at least an hour during the last 7 days and find out why he/she did not work.

If the response is 2, skip to P25 and ask about his Occupation.

If response is "Retired", "Student" or "Other" (i.e. prostitutes, gamblers, beggars, or people receiving private support), skip to P23 and ask whether that person is available for work.

P22. Economically active
This question will apply to household members who, in the last 7 days, did some economic activity.

If the response is either 1, 2, or 3, skip to P25.

Examples of production, services and selling;
Production - brewing of kachasu, kuphika mandasi, kusoka mphasa
Services - teaching, shoe repairing, ganyu
Selling - selling of kaunjika, firewood, groceries

P23. Availability to work
If in P21 the response is 3, 4, or 5, or in P22 the response is either 4 or 5, ask the person if he/she is available for work. If the response is "Yes", shade 1 and proceed to P24. If the response is "No", skip to P28.

P24. Have been seeking work
If the response in P23 is 1 ("Yes"), ask the person if he/she has been looking for work during the last 7 days. If the response is either 0 ("No") or 1 ("Yes, first job"), skip to P28.

If the response is 2 ("Yes, but looking for a new job"), proceed to ask P25.

Household members who are currently working/ever worked
[Questions P25-P27 were asked of persons currently working or ever worked]

P25. Occupation
Inquire about the occupation of the respondent and write the response in the space provided.

Occupation refers to the kind of work the person does or the kind of the work he/she did when he/she was working for the first time. This question is to enquire specifically about the nature of the job he/she was doing most of the time in the last 7 days. If the person uses vague answers such as "Civil servant", "Businessman", or "Laborer", ask him/her the exact type of job he/she did most of the time, and then write the occupation in the space provided. The occupation will be best described by such job titles as "Teacher", "Driver", "Cook", etc. If a person moved from job to job, you will only record that occupation he/she was engaged in during the reference period or the last 7 days. If a person has two or more occupations, enter the one in which he/she spends most of his/her time.

Try to get comprehensive answers, for example, it is not enough for a respondent to inform you that he/she is a teacher. Probe to find out if he/she is a primary or secondary school teacher, etc. Record secondary school teacher or whatever the case maybe. Below are some of the vague answers and some probing to assist you to arrive at a correct answer.

Vague response: (probe to see if he/she is a...)

- Doctor: medical, dentist, veterinary (doctor)
- Engineer: civil, electrical, chemical, mechanical
- Manager: administrative, finance, personnel, marketing, etc.
- Civil servant: economist, nurse, clerk, accountant, etc.
- Technician: chemical, civil engineering, electrical engineering, etc.
- Inspector: school building, safety and quality, police, etc.
- Clerk: secretary, transport, library, stock, etc.
- Laborer: mining, road construction, building construction, etc.
- Cleaner: domestic helper, office, hotel, etc.
- Driver: train, car, bus, truck/lorry, etc.

P26. Person's work/occupation status
To be asked only for usual household members who are currently working or have ever worked.

Ask the status in employment of an economically active individual (those who have been classified as working or have worked in the last 7 days). Shade the appropriate codes.

Self-employed refers to an own account worker who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and does not hire anybody for assistance.

P27. Industry/main product/services
Ask and write, in the spaces provided, the respondent's main products, service or activity produced or provided by the individual (and work mates, if applicable) at the place (industry) where he/she works. The same principle applies if the individual is self-employed or an employer.

Example: A person may be an accounts clerk and employed by a dairy farmer - his occupation is "Accounting clerk" and his industry is "Dairy farming". Below are some specific examples of how to probe for better industry information:

Response: (suggested probing questions)

Factory: What kind of goods does the factory manufacture or make? (e.g. shoes, fruit juices, clothes, etc.) Thus if a respondent says he/she is working in a factory which manufactures sweets, record, "Sweets manufacturing". Alternatively, if you cannot determine what the factory produces, ask the respondent to give you the name of the factory and record it.

Construction: What does the company build? (e.g. roads, dams, electrical plant, etc.) If the company builds houses, for example, then record "Building construction".

Mining: What type of mine is it? (e.g. coal, gold, diamond, etc.) If gold is mined, for example, record "Gold mining".

Shop: What does the shop sell? (e.g. shoes, clothes, groceries, etc.) If it sells groceries, record "Sale of groceries".

Farming: What type of produce is farmed? Is it crop or livestock farming or both? Record "Crop farming" if crops are grown, "Livestock farming" if animals are reared.

Self-employed: What kind of goods does the individual make or sell? (e.g. sells fruits and vegetables, weaves mats and baskets, sells clothes (hawker), etc.) Some examples of services an individual may provide are cutting, styling, treating illness (e.g. traditional healers, etc.)

Questions to be asked of usual residents age 12 years or older
[Questions P28-P29 were asked of usual residents age 12 years or older]

P28. Marital status
Record 2 if "Married" or not legally married but live together as husband and wife. Record 3 if "Divorced/separated": separated legally from his/her partner/living separately from his/her spouse without legal sanction. Record 4 if "Widowed": a person whose spouse passed away and not currently in marriage.

If "Never married" (code 1), skip to P30.

P29. Age at first marriage
Ask the age in completed years at first marriage for all respondents who ever married (consensually married, divorced/separated or widowed).

Write the age in completed years in the boxes provided and shade the digits as appropriate.

If there is some difficulty in recalling the age, ask for the date (that is, year) at which that person first got married or lived with a partner. Then, age at first marriage can be obtained by subtracting date of birth (DOB) from date at first marriage (DFM).

If the respondent cannot remember, try to find out roughly how many years that person has been married, and if she/he is still in the first marriage, deduct the number of years in marriage from 2008 to reach the year of marriage.

Questions for women age 12 years or older (birth details)
[Questions P30-P33 were asked of women age 12 years or older]

P30. Number of children ever born alive
Ask the respondent the number of children she has ever born alive ("Born alive" means that they must have shown a sign of life, e.g. crying at birth) during her lifetime. Enter the number of males in the first box and females in the second box and then shade the appropriate digits.

If there are more than 9 females or males, just write 9.

If the respondent has never had children in her lifetime, write 0 in the "Male" box and 0 in the "Female" box.

The number should be written irrespective of whether children born to the woman are no longer staying with her and may be dead but they were born alive.

P31. Number of children still alive
Write the number of boys and girls in the boxes, provided that they are still alive. Then, shade digits as appropriate.

Note: From children born alive, indicate the total number even if they are staying somewhere else.

P32. Live births in the last 12 months
Ask for live births that have been born in the last 12 months or since June 2007. Write the number of live births by sex in the space provided and shade the appropriate digits.

P33. Number of children still alive
Of the number of births born alive in the last 12 months, record how many are still alive. Write the number of boys and girls in the boxes provided. Then, shade the digits as appropriate.

Important: You should make sure that you do not leave any columns from P30 to P33 blank for any woman aged 12 years or more. For instance, where a woman has reported having no children ever born alive in column P30, you should record zero(s) in the boxes but do not leave any of the boxes blank.

While probing for this information, make sure that the woman does not exclude any of her children who might have died shortly after birth, as long as they were born alive. Furthermore, any of her children who might have died at any other age are to be recorded. However, ensure that still births: that is, the births which did not show any signs of life, are not included.

Section D: Characteristics of Dwelling Units

D01. Type of Dwelling Unit
Ask the respondent for the materials used for construction of the Dwelling Unit and shade the appropriate code.

D02. Tenure of the Dwelling Unit
Ask the respondent for the tenure of Dwelling Unit and shade the appropriate code.

D03. Main material of the floor
Ask the respondent for the main material of the floor of the Dwelling Unit and shade the appropriate code

D04. Number of rooms
Enter the number of rooms in the boxes provided and shade the relevant digits.

For the total number of rooms, include bedrooms, dining rooms, study rooms, habitable attics, servant's rooms, kitchens, rooms used for business purposes, etc., as long as they meet the criteria of walls and floor space. Do not count passageways, verandas, lobbies, bathrooms, toilets, garages and storerooms as rooms even if they meet the above criteria.

D05. Number of rooms for sleeping
Ask for the number of rooms used for sleeping. Record the number in the boxes provided and shade the digits as appropriate.

D06. Number of occupants
Ask for the number of persons (occupants) who sleep in the dwelling unit. Record the numbers of occupants in the boxes provided, and shade the digits as appropriate.

D07. Main source of water
Ask about the main source of drinking water for the members of the household and then shade the appropriate code.

Piped into house or dwelling (house connection) - Where the tap is available in the living quarters occupied by the household, shade 1.

Piped into yard/plot: If the household members fetch water for domestic use from a tap located outside the house, which is within its premises and is for their exclusive use, shade 2.

Community stand pipe: If the members fetch water from a community stand pipe, i.e. other members of the community also fetch water from the stand pipe, shade 3.

Unprotected well: This is an artificial means of water supply from underground obtained by boring or digging if the water is not in any way protected from contamination, shade 4.

Protected well: Where efforts have been made towards erecting structures around the well or other means have been made to protect the water from contamination, shade 5.

Borehole: If the water source is a borehole, shade 6.

Spring: This is a natural water supply source from underground. It is a simple outcropping of water to the land surface; shade 7.

River/stream: For households which use water from a river/stream, shade 8.

Pond/lake: For households which use water from a pond/lake, shade 9.

Dam: For households which use water from a dam, shade 10.

Rain water: For households which harvest rain water for consumption, shade 11.

Tanker truck/bowser: For households which are supplied water by a tanker truck, shade 12.

Bottled water: For households which buy bottled water from shops, shade 13.

Other: This applies in cases where the source of water supply is not classifiable into any of the categories listed above; shade 88.

D08. Type of toilet
Enquire about the type of toilet or means of excreta disposal used in the household and shade the appropriate code.

Flush toilet: This refers to the type of toilet which is characterized by the draining of human excreta by a rush of running water.

Traditional pit latrine: This is an ordinary pit latrine built without health or hygienic-related specifications, which has no vent pipe.

Pit - VIP (Ventilated Improved latrines): This is a ventilated pit latrine which is defined as an on-site means of human excreta disposal in a hygienic, low cost and more acceptable manner. It comprises amongst other things a vent pipe.

No facility: this refers to the use of bushes, veld and other open spaces for this purpose.

Other: For other methods of excreta disposal not mentioned above.

D09. Main source of energy for lighting
Ask about the main source of energy used by the household mainly for lighting and shade the appropriate response.

D10. Main source of energy for cooking
Ask about the main source of energy used by the household for cooking and shade the appropriate response. It is possible that a household may use more than one source of energy at any one time but it is the one that is most often used that should be recorded. Only one code should be shaded.

D11-D20. Assets of the household in functioning condition

Ask if the household has the listed assets in functioning condition. If the asset is in good, working condition, shade 1 for "Yes", but if the asset is there but no longer functioning, shade 2 for "No".

Section E: Emigration

E1. Members of the household who have emigrated
Ask if there are usual household members who have emigrated in the last 10 years (from 1998 to 2008).

Shade code 1 if the response is "Yes" and then proceed to ask question E2.
Shade code 2, if the response is "No" and skip to Section M (Mortality).

E2. Activity abroad
The enumerator should ask the sex, age, destination, year of departure and type of activity abroad.

Sex: Ask the sex of the emigrant and shade the appropriate code.

Age: Enter the age (in completed years) in the spaces provided and accordingly shade appropriate digits

Destination: Enter the country of destination in the boxes provided and shade the appropriate digits in the three rows. You are required to record the country to where a Malawi citizen is reported stationed during the census period. A person reported to have been to more than one country since he/she left Malawi should be recorded where he/she is at the time of interview.

Year of departure: Record the year of departure in the spaces provided. Enter the last two digits of the year of departure in the spaces provided. Then, shade the relevant two digits.

Type of activity of the emigrant: Enter the type of activity of the emigrant by shading the relevant code.

Where the emigrant is reported engaged in more than one activity, classify him/her according to the activity on which he/she spends most of the time. Note again that the activity abroad is asked for all persons who have emigrated regardless of their age, as long as they are Malawians and have emigrated in the last 10 years.

E3. Remittances
Ask if the household received any remittances (anything in terms of goods or cash) in the last five years (from 2003 to 2008) from the emigrant.

If the response is 0 or 3, skip to Section M.

E4. Regularity of remittances
Enquire how often the emigrant(s) send cash or goods to the household and shade the appropriate code.

Section M: Mortality

Deaths in the household in the last 12 months
Regarding the number of people who died in the household in the last 12 months. Do not forget children (younger than one year old, July 2007 to June 2008).

You should be very careful on how to phrase the question. Example: "Is there any usual member of the household who died during the last 12 months, i.e. since July 2007?"

M1. Deaths that occurred in the household
If there are deaths that occurred within the last 12 months (since July 2007), shade 1 for "Yes" and proceed to ask question M2. If there are no deaths, skip to section MM.

M2. Sex and age of the deceased
List the members of household who died in the last 12 months by giving them serial numbers.

Sex: shade code 1 for "Male"; shade code 2 for "Female"

Age: Enter age in completed years at the time of death in boxes provided. If age is less than 1 year, record 00 by entering "0" in the first row and "0" in the second row. Shade the appropriate digits, in the rows provided.

Maternal deaths: If the death was a woman age 12 to 49, ask whether:

(i) She died due to accident, injury, suicide or violence.
If yes, shade code 1, otherwise shade code 2

(ii) Whether she died while pregnant:
If yes, shade code 1, otherwise shade code 2

(iii) She died during child birth;
If yes, shade code 1, otherwise shade code 2

(iii) Whether she died during the 6 weeks period following the termination of pregnancy.
If yes, shade code 1, otherwise shade code 2

Maternal death means the death of a woman aged 12 years and over during pregnancy, delivery or within two months of the end of pregnancy or childbirth. Isolate the pregnancy related death from maternal death by asking whether she (women age 12 to 49) died due to accident, injury, suicide or violence.

Summary tables

Note: Complete the section only after completing the household interview.

Provide a summary of the number of persons by sex (as listed in P01 and P03) in the household questionnaire. If you have used more than one set of questionnaires for the household, ensure that the Summary includes information from all the continuation questionnaires. Note that the summary is made on the first questionnaire.

[Appendices omitted, which include district, country and tribal codes and a Chichewa translation]