1998 Census Instructions
The Population and Housing Census enumeration will run for three weeks from 1st to 21st September 1998. During this period every household in the country will be enumerated. You have been selected as one of the enumerators to assist in the undertaking this enormous task. As an enumerator, you hold the most important position in the Census operation since it is only you, the enumerator, who is going to interview household members and complete the questionnaires.
In order to do your job properly, it is essential that you work diligently during your training and study this manual carefully. The first part of the manual briefly outlines the purpose of the Census and gives major definitions and concepts used in the Census so that you understand the background to your work. The second part explains the meaning of each question and tells you in detail how to complete each and every question on the Census questionnaire. The third part discusses how to complete the Record of Vacant and Other Structures form while the last part tells you the importance of having your work checked by your supervisors in the Census operation.
You must always carry this manual with you when you are in the field and refer to it whenever you are in doubt. You are undertaking the Census under the 1967 Statistics Act that requires you to keep the information that you collect absolutely confidential.
The job you have to do will not be easy; it will involve long and odd hours, including weekends and many miles of walking: However, your main reward will be a feeling of pride in having done a difficult job well and helped to provide the population and Housing data which will be a basis for socio-economic planning in Malawi for the next ten years.
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Section I: General Information
1.1 A Population and Housing Census is a complete count or enumeration of ALL people, ALL the housing units and ALL other structures in a country. The enumeration of the population covers the young and the old, Malawian and foreigner, resident and visitor, and collects information on characteristics which describe the distribution, composition and development of the people. The housing component of the census collects information on stock, condition and usage of the structures.
2. Why is it necessary to have a Census
2.1 You may wonder why the Malawi Government, like any other government, finds it necessary to spend so much effort and money just to take a census every ten years or so.
2.2 We all take little censuses in our everyday lives. The good mother, for instance, finds out how many persons will be at home for a meal before she cooks food, so that she will not cook too much and waste food of cook too little and leave her family hungry. To serve the customers better an efficient shopkeeper must know what goods he has in stock, how many of each item and on which shelf he keeps them.
2.3 The Malawi Government must take a census so that like a good mother, it knows how many there are and where they are, so that the government can administer programs and establish policies for the welfare of the country and the people.
2.4 Since independence in 1964, Malawi has conducted three population censuses: 1966, 1977 and the last one in 1987. These censuses provided information on the size, composition and distribution of the population. However, the further we from 1987 the more out-of-date the census figures become and the more we need to have a fresh census in order to get accurate and up-to-date figures.
3. Confidentiality of the Census information
3.1 The Statistics Act, 1967, gives you the authority to ask for information, but at the same time it does not allow you to disclose at any time any details which you may learn during your work with regard to individuals. Therefore, you will be required to take an Oath of Office and Secrecy.
3.2 To ensure confidentiality you must observe the following rules:
b.) You must not tell anybody anything about the answers you get to the questions, either at the time of the census or afterwards
c.) You must do the work yourself and not allow any other person who has not taken the oath as a census enumerator do it for you.
d.) You must look after your questionnaires and other forms carefully and not leave them where they can be mislaid or looked at by any other person.
3.4 It is likely that the village headman or his elders may be present when you are asking questions, in which case you may explain the need for confidentiality in this matter to the village headman or his elders. In other words, even the village headman and/or the local leader should be allowed to listen to any interviews.
3.5 You be supplied with a badge labeled "Census Enumerator" you must always wear while on duty. You will also have an official letter of introduction as an enumerator to show that you are authorized by the law to ask for information. You must always carry this letter with you when you are enumerating.
4.1 Enumeration Area (EA): An EA is an area to be covered by one enumerator during the three-week period. It may comprise part of the village, a whole village or several villages, estate(s), trading center(s), mission centers or part of an urban area. The EAs have already been demarcated and the boundaries are marked on the maps, which will be given to you.
4.2 Village/place: In this census a village means the area controlled by the village headman or recognized by the District Administrator. A place may be part of a village or any area other than a village whose name is locally known.
4.3 Household: It consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, who live together and make common provision for food. They regularly take all their food from the same pot, and/or share the same grain store (nkhokwe) or pool their incomes for the purpose of purchasing food. Persons in a household may live in one or more dwelling units.
4.4 Head of household: This is a person among the household members who is acknowledged by other members of the same household and is often the one who makes most decisions concerning the welfare of the members of the household.
4.5 Dwelling Unit (DU): It may be defined as any structure, permanent or temporary, where people sleep. It may be hut, a house, a store with a sleeping room or rooms at the back or sides, a shelter of reeds/straw such as those used by fishermen, or any other structure where people sleep.
4.7 Kitchen: It is a free, standing structure, or a room in a structure, that is solely for cooking. Note: If a structure is used for both cooking and sleeping, it should be considered as a DU. Furthermore, a free standing structure is considered as one of the rooms of the main structure if it is not used for dwelling. A room in the main structure that is used for cooking is considered as one of the rooms of the main structure.
4.8 Structure: It is defined here as any unit of construction which has four walls or an all-round wall, a roof and at least one door, irrespective of the type of construction materials used.
4.9 Permanent structure: A permanent structure is one having a roof made of iron sheets, tiles, concrete or asbestos, and walls made of burnt bricks, concrete or stones.
4.10 Semi-permanent structure: A semi-permanent structure is one lacking one of the construction materials of a permanent structure for wall or roof.
4.11 Traditional structure: A traditional structure is one having thatched roof with mud walls, or walls made of mud and wattle.
4.12 Vacant structure: It is a structure that is intended for sleeping but is not occupied.
4.13 Other structure: This is a structure that is neither a dwelling unit nor a vacant structure.
4.14 National calendar of events: This is a summary of historical events and the dates of their occurrence. These events are recognized and acknowledged throughout the country.
4.15 Call-back visit: This refers to a visit to a household made by an enumerator to try to complete the questionnaire that could be completed on an earlier visit. This could be so because the respondent then was not able to give correct or incomplete responses or there was no respondent at all.
5. Pre-enumeration Arrangements
5.1 Arrange a place and time for a meeting with your Field Supervisor, who will advise you on your itinerary for the first few days, and then proceed immediately to your enumeration area.
a.) Before you start enumeration on 1st September, 1998:
ii.) You should plan the best way of going around your EA when enumerating so as not to waste time going to and fro unnecessarily. Plan your visit in such a way that you will not miss any structures at all.
b.) Before the next day's enumeration: Inform the village headman which group of dwelling units you would like to enumerate the following day. Kindly request him to make arrangements for as many people as possible, and at least one responsible adult from each household, to remain at home that day until you have made a visit. Inform him that if any visitor spent the previous night at those households you intend to visit the next day, they should wait your coming or come to see you before they leave the village
6. The people who must be counted
6.1 This census is the enumeration of all persons who spent the night in the dwelling units prior to the date of the visit. It also includes the enumeration of all persons who are usual members of a household but at present live in such institutions as schools, colleges, etc. If somebody claims to be enumerated in another EA he/she should still be enumerated as long as he/she spent the night prior to the day of the interview in the DU.
Note: Persons who are away from their usual households attending school, training, etc., but rent their own dwelling units will be enumerated at the places where they usually live.
6.2 When you get to the household some people may have gone to the garden, others to fetch water or to herd cattle, while others would have gone to work elsewhere. In the case you should ensure that these persons are enumerated as long as they spent the night prior to your visit at the household. Make sure that in every dwelling unit of the household everyone who spent the night there is counted and anyone who did not is not counted. People often forget visitors and young children, especially those born recently. After the names of all the people have been given, it is necessary to ask whether there are any visitors or babies who have been missed.
6.3 Night workers: Persons such as watchmen, policemen, fishermen or shift workers should be included in the enumeration of their households as having spent the night there. People away overnight for wedding, initiation ceremony, funeral or any other ceremony should also be included in the enumeration of their respective households.
6.4 The newly born and the dead: Children born at any time of the day before you arrive at a house should be enumerated. However, those who had spent the night at the household but have died before you arrive should be listed in Part B of the questionnaire but rather should be recorded in Part C, "Household information".
6.5 Hospitals, markets, hotels and rest houses: Some people sleep in markets and others in other public places such as hospitals, hotels and rest houses. (This excludes persons who on more or less permanent basis reside at such institutions as boarding schools or colleges, etc.) You must arrange to visit these places, if there any in your EA, either in the evenings or very early in the morning and you should enumerate those who spent the night there. Enumeration of a public place should be completed on the same day to avoid enumerating a different group of people.
Note: Public places mentioned in paragraph 6.5 will be enumerated either early the morning or sometime in the evening. This arrangement is necessary so that as few people as possible are omitted during the enumeration. If the interviews are conducted at night you will enumerate all those who intend to spend the night at that public place. If you enumerate the place early in the morning (to ensure that nobody leaves before being enumerated), you will enumerate all those who had spent the night prior to the interviews in that public place.
Enumerating yourself: If you actually live in your enumeration area you will record yourself when you enumerate your own household. If you are living at your own household in one enumeration area but commuting to work in a different enumeration area you will be counted by another enumerator when he calls at your household. If you are sleeping in the EA in which in which you are working, you enumerate yourself; alternatively, if you are sleeping in another EA make sure that you are enumerated by your colleague. You should also not that although you might have worked as an enumerator the previous week, your normal occupation should be recorded. For example, if you were a teacher record, "teacher", if a student record "student" and if you were unemployed, record "unemployed". No one should record "enumerator" as occupation.
7. Procedures of interviewing
7.1 In order to have a systematic daily procedure and uniformity among enumerators the following instructions are laid down for you to follow:
b.) When you first meet the head of household or responsible member of the household, tell him or her who you are and why you are there. If these are not available make arrangements for a call-back (see paragraph 7.8). Be polite and good-humored and ask courteously whether the household members will be kind enough to answer your questions. They are in fact, obliged by law to answer the questions, but you should not mention this unless they refuse to co-operate. Try to convince them, and if they fail to co-operate inform the village headman and the local leaders before you report to your Field Supervisor.
c.) When asking questions from the questionnaires, you should concise and tactful. Do not give the respondent the impression that you are not sure of what is meant by any of the questions. Do not ask leading questions; that is, never suggest answers to the respondent. It is therefore, absolutely essential that you master your manual, questionnaire and other related documents before going into the field.
d.) Before you start asking question, make sure that you have first identified the members comprising the household correctly and also the exact number of dwelling units belonging to the household.
e.) Assign an appropriate serial number to household. This number should be the same as the one you write on the questionnaire. Mark the letters with CE, which stand for "Census Enumeration" followed by the household serial number clearly with chalk on the front door or at the top of the main entrance door. Where chalk cannot be used (for example dwelling unit built with reeds), you should use the tie-on labels that have been provided. In case a household has more than one dwelling unit (for example, 3 DUs to a household of a serial number 012), number these DUs as CE 012/1, CE 012/2 and CE 012/3. The DU number CE 012/1 in this case should be one occupied by the head of the household. However if there is only one DU to a household, then the DU should simply be numbered CE 012. In cases where structures are enclosed in fences, you should write down the household number on both the structure and at the main gate of the fence.
A structure fence that is used as a kitchen but is also used for sleeping must be taken as a DU. However, if it is used solely for cooking it should be considered as "Other structure" and should be chalked like any other "Vacant and other structures". A kitchen detached from the main structure should be counted as one of the rooms of the main structure if it is not also used for sleeping. Remember that if the kitchen is also used for sleeping then it is considered as a DU on its own.
Note: Any other free standing structures such as toilets, bathrooms, kraals/kholas, garages, grain stores, etc., should not be considered as DUs, "Vacant or other structures".
f.) You should then record all the names of persons who spent the previous night at the household in the space provided in the questionnaire. You should also write down the names of the usual members of the household who usually at such institutions with boarding facilities as schools, colleges, etc. However children who are at school, college, etc., but rent their own dwelling units should not be listed in the household. Always list the names first, together with the "relationship" and "sex". After recording all the people who spent the night at the household the previous night (including those in paragraphs 6.3 and 6.4), and the usual household currently resident in boarding schools/colleges, etc., read back the names and relationship and ask if anybody is left out. Only when you are satisfied that you have listed everybody who must be enumerated in the household you should go back to the first person and fill in the other details about that person. Then fill in the details for the second person, and then the third and so until you finish all the people in the DUs belonging to the household.
Note: If a boarding school or college falls within your EA, you will not enumerate the hostels/dormitories. However you will enumerate all other persons living in households in the EA.
g.) Sometimes the wife may be unable to give you satisfactory information regarding her husband's age, education or even his full name. In such instances arrange to call again when the husband is back home from work.
h.) Check if you have filled in all the details for every part of questionnaire correctly and fully before leaving for the next household.
i.) Before you leave a household, you must check if there are any out-building -- e.g. Kitchen, room with separate outside door, etc. -- where people slept the previous night, and ensure that everybody has been enumerated.
j.) If a village or place is not indicated on the EA map but falls within the EA boundary, you should enumerate the people of this village or place, but you must report the case to your Field Supervisor.
7.3 While numbering households you should proceed from one household to the next in a systematic and if necessary in a serpentine manner, numbering contiguous households consecutively. Household numbers must be continuous within the enumeration area, whether there are one or more villages. For example, in an enumeration area where there is more than one village, if the first village has CE 090 as the last number, the first household in the next village will be numbered CE 091. If the last household in the second village is CE 126, and you have a third village in the EA, the first household in the third village will be numbered CE 127, etc.
7.4 When enumerating in the markets and institutions such as hospitals, hotels or other institutions that are not occupied on a household basis, you should treat the whole institution as one unit. Write its full name on the questionnaire against "Village or place" and assign it a code number "999" against the household number in A6. Enumerate the persons continuously without missing any lines on the questionnaire. Each one of them will be regarded as an institutional member under the relationship column and will be given a code 6. Note: "Part C: Household Information" and "Part D: Dwelling Unit Characteristics and Access to Facilities" will not be completed for institutions.
7.5 If the Institution is divided into "houses", "blocks" or "hospital wards", it will be convenient to record each of these as separate unit using a separate questionnaire for each such section of the institution.
7.6 Staff housing, servant quarters or other separate dwellings which are part of the institution but are occupied on a permanent household basis will be treated as separate household in the normal way.
7.7 Before enumerating those people who sleep at market places or other open places make sure that you have identified all the places where they sleep at their households will be enumerated at their households and not at the market places, etc.
7.8 Call-back visit: A call back is needed when you have to go back to go back to a household to enumerate. This is necessary if on your earlier visit there was no responsible adult at home to give all the relevant information or there was no one at all the time of your visit. In such cases you must find out from children or neighbors when someone will be at home and you should plan to go back at that particular time. If a call-back is a failure for the first time you should call back again. You are advised to visit a house until information is collected before the end of enumeration period. Even in the cases you have to call back, you must on the first visit, assign a household number on the questionnaire form and also mark the number on the dwelling unit(s).
7.9 If you have more than 5 cases of call backs in a short time in one village, discuss the problem with the village headman, appealing to him/her to make arrangements for people to stay at home at specified times (or meet you before they live their homes). If this fails to give the desired results, then report the matter to your Field Supervisor, as the people may be avoiding you deliberately. If you do not find the people during the day, the best thing may be to visit them early in the morning, during the lunch hour, or in the evening when people will have returned home from work.
8. Identification of Enumeration Areas (EAs)
All census TA maps have "map legends", or "keys". A legend or key is a list of conventional signs and symbols that have been used on that particular map to depict various features, such as EA boundaries, roads, footpaths, etc. A key used in Census maps is provided in Appendix A. Of particular importance is the EA boundary as this tells you precisely which villages or places you must enumerate. However, all villages/places or parts of villages or places falling within your EA must be enumerated by you. If some villages/places or any other prominent features exist in your EA but are not shown on the map, enumerate all the DUs and all the persons living therein, but bring the problem to the attention of you Field Supervisor.
The EA that will be assigned to you to enumerate will bear an identification panel that tells you the region, district, TA/STA/town in which your EA falls. It also tells you the number of your EA as well as the scale of the map you are using. A scale of the map is the proportional relationship between a distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground. Each EA has a unique EA number within a TA/STA/town. EA maps in rural areas are drawn to scales of either 1:25,000 or 1:50,000. A scale of 1:25,000, for example, means that 1cm on the map represents 25,000 cm or 250 m on the ground. Thus if on the map the distance between two identified features is 2.5 cm, then the actual distance on the ground will be 2.5 x 250 m or 625m.
You will be provided with an EA map together with the EA boundary description. This will assist you to accurate identify your EA boundary. The EA boundary usually follows physical features such as streams, hill or mountain ranges, valleys, roads, etc. However if such features do not exist, imaginary boundaries are alternatively used. EA boundaries are distinctly marked in red on the maps for easy identification by the enumerator. The given EA boundary description starts from the north and goes in a clockwise direction. The given EA boundary description starts from the North and goes in a clockwise direction. It is therefore necessary that you first of all identify the north direction on the ground and consequently on your EA map by using the compass directions reference on the map. If you have any problem in identifying your EA boundary, please seek assistance from your supervisor.
Section II: Completion of the Census Questionnaire
You should record information only when you are convinced that the reported information is accurate and true to the best knowledge of the respondent. Do not leave blank any space provided for recording responses. Do not suggest or assume answers under any circumstances. Always do sufficient probing where necessary before recording any answers.
When asking questions make sure that you phrase them in such a way that they collect information that was intended. Rephrase questions if the respondent does not seem to understand and ask additional questions if the respondent gives irrelevant or incomplete answers.
The following pages give detailed instructions regarding the manner in which entries are to be made in each column of the census questionnaire. When completing the questionnaire you must be neat, clear and accurate. After completing each questionnaire you must always check your entries and ensure that all the applicable questions have been answered.
Erasures: Do not erase (rub) or overwrite any erroneous entry you have made on the questionnaire. Instead you should cancel the entry by drawing a line across it and write the correct entry within the space provided. If the space for such an entry is too small, cancel the whole line and write again on the next line. Do not remove any questionnaires from the pad. If you have spoilt the whole questionnaire, draw double lines across it, write "Void" between the two lines and use a new questionnaire.
There are two types of questionnaires which you will be required to complete, namely:
ii.) Record of vacant and other structures: This collects information on the main use of the structures and materials used for construction.
A3. TA, STA or town: If you are enumerating in a rural area, write the name of the TA (chief) or STA (sub-chief) in which your EA falls in the space provided and delete TA, STA or town whichever is inapplicable. Similarly if you are enumerating in a city or town, write the name of the city or town in which your EA falls and delete TA or STA, whichever is inapplicable. For example, if you are enumerating in TA Mwambo, you will strike out STA and town and you will write Mwambo in the space provided A3. Then enter the TA/STA/town codes as provided on the EA map in the boxes in A3.
A5. Village or place: Write down the name by which the village or place is commonly known to the people of that area in the space provided. Leave the boxes in A5 blank.
Remember: If you enumerate in market places, hospitals or other institutions (except boarding schools, etc.) that are not occupied on a household basis, you should treat the whole institution as one unit and write the name of the institution in the space provided in A5.
A7. Number of Dwelling Units (DUs) to a household: Fill in the total number of DUs for the households in the boxes in A7. Note: If you are enumerating in open places the boxes in A7 will be left blank. However, if the institution you are enumerating has blocks such as hospital wards, school dormitories, college hostels, etc., you may, for convenience, consider each block as a DU.
B1. DU No. You should enter the dwelling unit number in which the particular member of the household belongs in column B1. Always start with the DU occupied by the head of household and proceed to the second, third, etc.
B2. Person number: Each census questionnaire has been designed to take information for up to ten members of the household. Within each household you are enumerating, you should assign a two-digit serial number in column B2 to each member of the household starting from 01. In case you are enumerating a household with more than 10 members, you should use a second census questionnaire for enumerating the 11th, 12th, 13th, etc., members. If necessary you can go to the third questionnaire in the same manner.
The first box in the continuation indicator gives the sheet number of the questionnaire in use while the box gives the total number of sheets used for a given household.
Full name: Write down the full names of all household members, including those of babies and visitors who had spent the night in DUs belonging to the household as well as those usual household members but live in boarding schools, etc. If a baby has no name, write "baby" followed by one of the parents. Accept two names for each person by which he/she is commonly known. Write the first name in the space above the dotted line and surname or family name below it.
In the cases where a household has more than one DU, you should always start by listing names of all household members who spent the night in the dwelling unit occupied by head of the household (that is, DU No. CE... /1). For the first DU, the name of the head of the household should always be the first one to be listed, followed by that of the spouse (wife/husband), then children according to age from the eldest to the youngest, other relatives and then non relatives. The names of the household members living in boarding institutions, if there are any, should be written last.
B3. Relationship to head of household: The relationship of each member to the head of the household must be a blood relationship as opposed to the usual cultural or traditional relationship where one's brother's children are taken as one's children. In this respect, step-children or foster parents must be considered as "Other relatives". You must be particularly careful if the respondent is not the head of the household. For instance, if the respondent is the wife of the head of the household and she says that Yusuf is her son by her previous husband, then Yusuf should be taken as "Other relative" and not the head's son.
Note: If you are enumerating in an institution, each of the listed persons will be considered as an institutional member and will be given a code of "6".
If there are two or more unrelated persons in the household treat one of them as head (code 1) and the others as non-relatives (code 5).
Ask for the relationship of each person listed in the household to the head of the household. Record the relationship of the person to the head of the household in column B3 using the codes.
Caution: Please note that the respondent may not always be the head of the household and so the relationship of each member must be with reference to the head.
B4. Sex: Fill in the appropriate code for the sex of each member of the household in column B4.
Note: You must not try to infer or assume the sex of a person based on the person's name and clothes he/she is wearing. For example, the name Chikondi could refer to a male or a female person. In some cases, young girls could be wearing shorts and so it is wrong to assume that because one is wearing shorts then it is a boy.
Age: Information on age is to be collected in completed years in respect of each member of the household, including babies and visitors who slept in the DU(s) belonging to the household the previous night. This can be done by asking questions such as "How old is John?" followed by, "When was John born?" Record the age in completed years and not the date of birth. If a person gives you his age with a fraction of a year, such as 8 years, 6 months or 27 years and 3 months, ignore the fraction: that is, use the 8 years or 27 years only. If a child's age is given as, for example, 9 months, record "00", that is, under one year old.
In some cases, a respondent may give you his/her date of birth. In such a case you should compute the person's age with reference to the date of the interview. For example, if the individual reports that he was born on 20 March 1956 and the interview is conducted on 8 September 1998, then his age will be 42 years, 5 months. However, you will record his age in completed years as only 42 years. Similarly, if a baby was born on 12 September 1997 and the interview is on 10 September 1998, the age of the baby would be exactly 11 months, 28 days. You will record the baby's age in completed years as "00": that is, the baby has not yet completed one year. In the case where only the year of birth is given and it is difficult to establish an individual's month of birth, it will be difficult to record the age in completed years. In this case, compute the individual's age by simply subtracting the year of birth from the year of interview; that is, 1998. For example, suppose a person was born in 1971 then his/her age would be 27 years (that is, 1998 - 1971).
In yet other cases, there are some people who do not know exactly how old they are. You are, however, required to write the age of every person and must therefore try your best to get as accurate ages as possible. You have been given a Calendar of Events to help you assess individual's age. The calendar presents a fairly good record of events which people may associate with either their own births or the births of their children. For example, if a person is unable to tell you his/her age, you should look at the person and form an impression about his/her age, having done this you refer to the calendar of events and spot the earliest event which the person remembers. Find out how old the person was at that time. If a person mentions an event and your calendar tells you that this will make him of an age which is very unlikely according to his appearance, then you must ask further questions.
If the person does not know or remember any of the events given in the Calendar of Events then make the best possible assessment of the age by looking at him/her, or relating his/her age to that of other members of the household or other relatives whose ages are known.
Once you have a correct age or a good estimate for one person within the same household try to relate ages of other persons to that age. The older the people are, the more uncertain the assessment of age is likely to be, but you should put down the age which appears more probable from the evidence you are able to collect through questions and the appearance of the person, if he is present. Particular care must be taken in assessing and recording the ages of young children. In every instance you must have the best assessment possible and you must put down the age of every person recorded. Never leave space blank.
B5. Age: Write down the age in completed years of each member of the household in two digits in column B5. For example, if a girl was born on 6 June, 1992 and you interview a respondent on 12 September, 1998 then her age is 6 years, 3 months. However, you should record only "06" (in completed years) in column B5.
B6. Nationality: Ask the respondent the country of origin for each person in the household and write down the name of the country in the space provided in column B6 and leave the three boxes blank. However, if the person's country of origin is Malawi, record "000" in the three boxes.
B7. Religion: Ask the respondent about the type of religion of each member of the household. There are cases when a child's religion is not known. If the husband and his wife belong to different religions, you should assign the religion of the mother to the child. If both parents belong to the same religion then consider the child as belonging to that religion too.
B8 and B9. Orphan hood: Ask each person age 20 years or younger if his/her natural (biological) father or mother is still alive.
Record the survivorship status of the person's father in column B8 and that of his/her mother in column B9.
Literacy: Literacy refers to a person's ability to read and write a simple statement in Chichewa, English or any other language. Note: This is not necessarily the same as a person's ability to speak and/or understand a particular language.
B10. Able to read and write English: Ask whether each person age 5 years or older is able to read and write any simple statement in English. Record the appropriate code for the response in column B10.
B11. Able to read and write Chichewa: Ask whether each person age 5 years or older is able to read and write any simple statement in Chichewa. Record the appropriate code for the response in column B11.
B12. Able to read and write other language: Ask whether each person age 5 years or older is able to read and write any simple statement in any language. Record the appropriate code for the response in column B12.
Education: Education/school refers to formal education or schools that are primary and secondary, distant Education Centers or University. Education in this context does not include further training such as teacher's training or technical colleges, short courses, or Adult Literacy Schools.
B13. In school August, 1998: For each person aged 5 years and over, ask whether he/she was attending any formal education institution (school/university) in August, 1998. Record the appropriate code in column B13.
Highest level of education attended: This refers to the highest level of education a person attended, irrespective of whether or not he or she has actually written or passed any examination at that level. This is also irrespective of whether or not one was in school or not in August, 1998.
B14. Highest level attended: Ask the respondent about the highest level of education attended for each member of the household aged 5 years or over. Record the appropriate code in the two boxes in column B14. For example, for a man who reached but did not complete standard 7, he should be considered as having attended 7 years of primary school. You should record '07' in column B14. If a girl repeated standard 8, her highest level attended will be standard 8 and you should record "08" in column B14.
b. Some people may not remember the highest class or standard they reached, and others may have been educated in another country where different names are given to classes. In such cases you should ask how many years that they spent at school and enter the appropriate code for the class from the chart. Bear in mind that pupils sometimes repeat classes and where appropriate you should ask a question about this. In particular you must not assume that because a person spent more than eight years at school then it means he attended a secondary school. You will only record him as attending secondary school if he confirms that he actually did so.
[Education conversion chart, showing current equivalence to historical education classifications is omitted]
Highest qualification attained: This means one had sat for an examination of a certain class in the formal education system (i.e. primary/secondary school or university) which he/she passed and was awarded a certificate of recognition (e.g. PSLC, JC, MSCE, GCE "A level", University diploma or degree).
If, for example, someone reached Form 4 but did not pass MSCE, then his highest qualification attainment is JC and not MSCE. If someone went up to standard 8 but did not obtain the Primary School Leaving Certificate, he must be regarded as having no education qualification; that is his highest educational qualification will be "None".
B15. Highest qualification attained: Ask the respondent about the highest education qualification attained by each member of the household age 5 years and older. Write down the appropriate code in column B15.
It is important that you should first of all find out exactly what certificate the household member is currently holding before filling column B15.
Marital status: It is important that you first ask if each member of the household age 10 years or older has ever been married. If "Yes", find out if he or she is currently married, divorced or widowed; if "No", you will record the marital status of the person as never married. Alternatively, you may ask the question "Are you married?" In this case it is necessary to ensure that the answer given by the respondent to your question on this topic is precise. For instance, when a person says "I am not married" ("sindili pa banja" or "sindinakwatire") you may not be able to know whether she is a divorcee, or a widow or has never married at all unless you probe further.
Economic activity status: It refers to the main economic activity that a person has been engaged in during the last seven days. Economic Activity Status is categorized into two major groups as follows:
1. Economically active
a. Mlimi (subsistence farmer): Is a person whose sole or principal work is in the family garden. Women will be classified as "mlimi" if over the year they have spent more time working in the garden than working in the home, without pay, on domestic duties. If the person who would otherwise qualify as a "mlimi" had a job for pay during the "last seven days" then he or she should be treated as an employee. If he or she usually works in the family garden but did not do any work in the garden and was not employed during the "last seven days", he/she should be recorded as "mlimi" (that is, as though on holiday with a job to go back to).
b. Employee: Is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives a wage, salary or payment at piece-rates.
c. Family business worker: Is a person who works without pay in a business owned by a relative on a more or less full-time basis and is not engaged in any other economic activity.
d. Self-employed: Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprises, or engages independently in a profession or trade and does not hire any employees but may be assisted by family members.
e. Employer: Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprise, or engages independently in a profession or trade and employs one or more persons. (Note: this does not include managers or others who hire staff on behalf of their company unless they own the company).
Note: A person who had a job or enterprise but who has temporarily absent during the reference period due to injury, illness, vacation or other leave should be classified according to his job or enterprise as an employee, a family business worker, self- employed or an employer.
Unemployed: Is one who did no work the "last seven days" and did not have a job or business, but was available for or seeking work. Such persons may have worked before or have never worked before. These fall into one of the following categories:
ii. Worked before and not seeking work
iii. Never worked before and seeking work
a. Non-worker (never worked before and not seeking work): Is a person who has never worked before and is at the moment not making any effort to seek work.
b. Homeworker: Is one who spends most of his or her time throughout the year, working without pay on domestic duties, such as cooking, washing or cleaning household surroundings.
c. Student: Is one who is under full-time instruction at a formal educational institution as long as he/she did not work during the last seven days.
d. Other: This category includes:
ii. Any person who did not work the last seven days because there was no need and relies on his or her own income, for example, pensioners.
Note: It may be necessary to ask several probing questions in order to determine a person's activity status.
B17. Type of activity last 7 days: What was [the person] doing the last seven days? For each person aged 10 years or more, ask about his/her main economic activity in which he/she had been engaged during the last seven days. Write the code of the activity in which the person has been engaged in during the last seven days in column B17. If such people are females skip to B20, otherwise, go to the next person or Part C.
Note: For persons whose economic activity is Mlimi in B17 should be recorded as "Mlimi" under occupation in column B18 and "Mixed farming" under industry in column B19.
Occupation: The basis of the classification of occupation is the trade, profession or type of work performed by an individual during the last seven days. The person's occupation is generally related to his training or experience, although this may not always be the case. As an example, the occupation of the driver of a bus is "bus driver", even if he owns the bus and operates it as one-man business (that is, he is self-employed). If the bus driver lost his job and has taken up a temporary post on a farm as a labor then his occupation is now a "farm laborer". Other examples of occupation are teacher, nurse, mechanic, carpenter, etc. A list of occupations and their codes is provided in Appendix B.
B18. Occupation: Write the exact occupation for persons who are "Active" or "Unemployed but worked before" in the space provided in column B18 and leave the two boxes blank. Do not ask the questions on occupation for those who are "Non-workers" and the other "Inactive". If you are sure about a person's occupation, then just state clearly what the person does and the appropriate occupation will be recorded in the office. However, this should only be done as a last resort after you have failed to identify the appropriate occupation.
Industry: The classification of a person's industry is based on the nature of the product or service provided by the organization for which he/she works. For example, those persons who work in the bakery are in the "food manufacturing" industry whether their occupation is that of manager, cook or night watchman. In the case of people who provide a service, for example a dentist or barber, you should give details of their industry or describe the type of their work (that is "dental clinic" or "barber shop"). In the particular case of the dentist or a barber, these details are obvious; but in the case (for example) of persons working in these places as "cleaners," it is clearly not sufficient to write merely "health" or "shop". Note: You should not give the name of a person's employers to describe their industry.
Industry responses are based on the Standard International Classification (ISIC) given in Appendix C. This system classifies industry into 9 broad divisions, each of which is further sub-divided into 4 digit specific subcategories. These subcategories enable as to identify a particular industry within a broad industrial division. For instance, under "Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing," specific subcategories such as "Tea growing" or "Tobacco growing" are shown separately.
Other examples of occupation and industry would be:
a.) A man may be a driver on a tea farm in which case his occupation is driver and his industry is tea growing. Another man may be a driver in a factory, in which case his occupation is driver and his industry is the one in which the factory is engaged; e.g. if making clothes, clothing industry. Similarly, a driver may work for a stage coach in which case his industry is transportation. A person who sells second-hand clothes (kaunjika) will be classified as second-hand clothes vendor or kaunjika vendor as his/her occupation, but his/her specific industry group will be 'Other Retail Trade'.
b.) Similarly, it is possible to have people who do the same kind of work in one organization and yet may be in different industries, an example of which would be a clerk working for ADMARC which has different industries, e.g. "Agriculture, trade and transportation". In such cases you will have to ask in which section or department of the organization the person works. Where you have doubts as to the proper industry of a person treat the main activity of the organization as his industry.
c.) Most government departments fall under the broad industrial group of community, social and personnel services but further subdivided into different subgroups. For instance, a civil servant working as an accounts clerk in the department of Human Resource Management and Development: his occupation will be accounts clerk while his industrial group will be public administration and defense. A primary school teacher working in a government school will have teacher as his occupation and the industrial group as government school. On the other hand, a primary school teacher working in a private school will have private school as his industry.
B19. Industry: Write the actual industry in which each person is or was working in the space provided in B19 and leave the four boxes blank. If you are not sure about a person's industry, then just state clearly what the person does and the appropriate industry will be put in the office. However, this should only be done as a last resort after you have failed to identify the appropriate industry.
Children ever born alive:
a.) You are required to report information on the number of children ever born alive to women aged 12 years or more. A live born child may be defined as the one who, after separation from its mother, breathes, cries or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of involuntary muscles.
b.) Do not use questions such as "mwachembela kangati" which would generally induce the woman to tell you the number of times she had delivered, because you are required to find information on the number of children who were actually born and who at birth were alive. Even if a child died later, as long as it was alive at birth, such a child must be counted. On the other hand, a child who was born dead should not be counted.
c.) On the question of number of children ever born alive to a woman, ensure that all the children a woman gave birth to are counted. You should not include those children who are staying with the woman but not borne by her. For example, a woman may have been married to three husbands and is now living with the third husband. She had one male child with the first husband and this child is living with his father. She had three male children with the second husband and of these three children only one is staying with her and the other two are either staying with their father or grandparents. She had the last born male child from the present husband plus two other female children born by the previous wife the present husband. This woman has only two of all her own children staying with her and two from the other wife from the present husband. The total number of male children ever born alive to this woman should be recorded as "05" and the other number of female children she has borne should be recorded as "00". Thus the total number of children born alive to the woman should be recorded as "05": that is, "05" male children plus "00" female children.
B21-B22. Number of children ever born alive:
Ask the woman for the number of male and female children she has ever borne alive. Record in 2 digits the number of male children in column B21 and the number of female children in column B22.
Note: Because of lack of adequate space in all relevant columns, the word "Female" has been abbreviated to 'Fem' on the questionnaire.
Make sure that the entries in column B21 and B22 add to the corresponding totals in column B20. If they are inconsistent, verify the entries and correct them accordingly
B23-B24. How many are alive?
Ask the woman how many male and female children of the total number of children ever born alive are still alive. Record in 2 digits the number of male children still alive in column B23 and the number of female children still alive in column B24.
B25-B26. How many have died?
Ask the woman how many male and female children of the total number of children born alive have since died. Record in 2 digits the number of dead male children in column B25 and the number of dead female children in column B26.
B27-B28. How many children has this woman borne since September, 1997?
Ask each woman age 12 years or older the number of males or females she has borne alive during the past 12 months: that is, since September 1997 to date. Record the number of male births in column B27 and of female births in column B28.
Note: If you are conducting your interviews on, say, 10 September, 1998, you should ask the respondent how many children the woman had borne during the period 11 September, 1997 and 10 September, 1998 (the day of your visit). If your interview is on 15 September, 1998, then you will be collecting number of births to a woman during the period 16 September, 1997 and the day of your visit, that is, 15 September, 1998. Suppose the respondent tells you that a member of the household gave birth to a male child on 24 December, 1997: you should record "1" in column B27 and "0" in column B28.
B29-B30. How many are still alive?
Ask the woman for the number of male and female children born since September, 1997 who are still alive. Record in one digit the number of male births still alive in column B29 and female births still alive in column B30.
In the example above, if the child died on 21st June, 1998 you should record "0" in column B29 and "0" in column B30.
Note: You should make sure that you do not leave any columns from B20 to B30 blank for any woman aged 12 years or more. For instance, where a woman has reported having no children ever born alive in column B20, you should record "0" in the appropriate columns but do not leave any of the columns blank.
Before proceeding to the next section, ensure that the total numbers of male or female children still alive and those dead add up the corresponding total numbers of male or female children ever born alive to the woman. If the responses yield inconsistent entries, probe to ascertain the wrong entry.
While probing for this information make sure that the woman does not exclude any of her children who might have died shortly after birth, as long as they were born alive. Furthermore, any of her children who might have died at any other age are to be recorded. However, ensure that still births -- that is, the births which did not show any sign of life -- are not included.
Summary of Persons in This Household
In this part of the questionnaire you are required to prepare a summary of the total number of persons in the household (as listed in part B of the questionnaire) by sex and age. You should prepare the summary very carefully to ensure that the figures you record under "sex" and "age" are consistent with the information you recorded in part B. If you have used more than one questionnaire for the household ensure that the "Summary of Persons in this Household" on the first questionnaire is completed. You should obtain the totals of the number of persons by sex and age on all the questionnaires used for the household, and record the totals on the first questionnaire. The summary you prepare will also assist you in completing Form CE/98/3.The details of the summary are as follows:
 Total: Total persons listed in part B
 Male: Number of males
 Female: Number of females
(ii) Age (years):
 0-4: Number of persons aged 0-4 years
 5-14: Number of persons aged 5-14 years
 15-17: Number of persons aged 15-17 years
 18+: Number of persons aged 18 years or over
All deaths occurred in the household from September, 1997 to date:
a.) You should obtain information of all deaths that occurred in the household from September, 1997 to date. Make sure you include deaths of persons of all ages that occurred in the household during the period from September, 1997 to the date of your visit.
For example, if your interview is on 15 September, 1998 you should ask for the total number of deaths that occurred in the household during the period 16 September, 1997 and the date of your interview; that is, 15 September, 1998.
In the case of a need for probing, you should proceed month by month in the backward direction, and enquire whether there was any death of a person related or unrelated who lived in any dwelling unit belonging to the household during the period specified above.
For recording, you should include the following categories of deaths:
ii.) Deaths of household members occurring in the hospital/clinic, or on the way to hospital/clinic, or as a result of an accident. Make sure that the deceased lived in a dwelling unit belonging to the household immediately prior to his death.
i.) Death of prisoners, student residents in institutions, etc., should be taken as if such deaths occurred in the household where the deceased would have otherwise been members.
ii.) Death of members of other households that were brought to this household for burial should be excluded from the present household. These deaths should be included in the households where the deceased lived.
iii.) This part of the questionnaire should not be completed for institutions.
C1. Sex of the deceased: Ask the respondent if any deaths occurred in the household from September, 1997 to date. If you interview a household on, say, 8 September, 1998 then should collect the deaths that occurred in the household during the period 9 September, 1998.
Remember that this should include deaths of all persons irrespective of age. Write down the appropriate code for sex of the deceased in column C1 for each death reported. The codes are:
 1 Male
 2 Females
C2. Age at death: Ask for the age at death of the deceased person and record the age in completed years in two digits in column C2. If the respondent cannot remember the exact age at death of the deceased, try to probe for a reasonable estimate of the age which you should record.
C3. Total deaths: Enter the total number of deaths in the household from September, 1977 to date. If no deaths occurred in the household, enter "00" in the two boxes in column C3. Do not leave these boxes blank.
C4. What is the language mostly used in this household?: You should ask the respondent the language commonly used for communication among the members of the household. If the language is among the ones coded in C4, then write down the code in the two boxes provided at the bottom. In the cases where the respondent reports a language which is not one of the languages listed write down "15" in the two boxes.
Caution: Language commonly used should not be confused with tribe, i.e. a household might be Lomwe by tribe but the language commonly used in that household could be Chichewa. In this case you should record Chichewa as language commonly used.
This part has been designed to take information on dwelling unit characteristics and access to facilities for up to nine dwelling units of a household. You are required to record the necessary particulars of each dwelling unit in a separate row starting with the dwelling unit serial number 1.
Note: If you are enumerating in an institution this part will not be completed.
D1. Dwelling unit serial number: For each dwelling unit, enter the dwelling unit serial number in column D1 as 1, 2 or 3, etc. This serial number should be the same as the one you recorded in column B1 of part B for that particular dwelling unit.
Structure: A structure is a defined as "any unit of construction that has four walls or an all-round wall, a roof and at least one door irrespective of the type of construction materials used". Buildings, caravans, tents, and tinned houses are some examples of structures. Based on the materials used for construction of walls and roof, the structures in this Census are classified into three major groups: permanent, semi- permanent and traditional.
i.) Permanent structure:
A permanent structure is one having a roof made of iron sheets, tiles, concrete or asbestos, and walls made of burnt bricks, concrete or stones. Examples include a house made of stone walls and corrugated iron sheets, a shop with burnt bricks and concrete roof, a house with concrete walls and asbestos roofing, caravans and tinned houses.
Note: A structure with stone walls, burnt bricks or concrete with a corrugated iron roof which is covered with tiles should be taken as permanent (the titles should be considered as finishing or decoration).
ii.) Semi-permanent structure:
A semi-permanent structure is one lacking the construction materials of a permanent structure for wall and roof. This category includes, for example, structures which have iron sheet roofing and sun-dried bricks or burnt bricks walls with a thatched roof. It also includes tents.
iii.) Traditional structure:
A traditional structure is one having a thatched roof with mud walls, or walls made of mud and wattle.
D2. Type of structure: Ask the respondent for the materials used for construction of the structure and enter the appropriate code in column D2.
D3. Number of rooms: Ask the respondent how many rooms there are in the dwelling unit and record the total number of rooms in column D3. The number of rooms should include sitting rooms, bedrooms, dining rooms, and a kitchen even if it is a separate room detached from the main structure. You should, however, not count bathrooms, toilets, storerooms and garages as rooms of the dwelling unit, even if they are inside the structure.
D5 and D6: Main source of drinking water:
Here you must find out from the respondent what the main source of drinking water is for the members of the dwelling unit. This should first be asked and recorded for the wet season and then similarly for the dry season.
Fill in the appropriate code for the main source of drinking water during the wet season in column D5 and that for the dry season in column D6. Never leave any of these spaces blank, even if the codes for wet and dry season are the same.
D8 and D9. Main source of energy: Ask the respondent what the main source of energy is for lighting and cooking for member of the household. If there is more than one source of energy you should record only the main one (the most frequently used one).
You should fill the appropriate code for the main source of energy for cooking in column D8 and that for lighting in column D9. Remember that you should not leave any of these items blank, even if the codes for cooking and lighting are the same.
D11 and D12. How many bicycles and ox-carts belonging to persons in this DU are in working condition?:
For each dwelling unit of the household, you should ask (one at a time) the number of bicycles and oxcarts that belong to person(s) in the dwelling unit. Enter the total number of bicycles in column D11 and that of oxcarts in D12.
Section III: Completion of record of vacant and other structures form (Form CE/98/2)
In this Population and Housing Census it is necessary to cover all the structures; that is, all occupied dwelling units including those which are vacant and other structures used for other purposes other than dwelling. The occupied dwelling units have been covered in the main questionnaire. The record of vacant and other structures questionnaire is therefore designed to collect information for all vacant and other structures regarding the type and main use of the structure.
A vacant structure is any building which is intended for sleeping but is not occupied during the period of enumeration. On the other hand the "other structure" is that building which is neither occupied nor vacant and is used for purposes other than dwelling. These include office blocks, shops, churches, mosques, etc. Note: shops with rooms at the top, back or sides where people sleep should be taken as dwelling units.
Identification: You should complete this part as in the other questionnaires. The names of region/district, TA, STA or town and Enumeration Area number which you write should be the same as those you have written on the household questionnaire and the front cover of the pad.
Name of village or place: For each particular vacant or other structure you list, you should write the name of the village or place in which the structure is located in the space provided. Leave column E5 blank.
Structure serial number: Record the number you have assigned to the structure in column E6. Note: whereas you will mark the vacant or other structure serially as V001, V002, V003, etc., on the actual structures, you will record the serial number as "001", "002", etc., on the questionnaire.
Main use of structure: Find out the main use of each vacant or other structure you have listed. Enter the code that corresponds to this purpose in column E7. If the structure is mainly used for economic activities such as carpentry, beer selling, selling food and beverages, office work, etc., you should record the code that corresponds to this activity in column E7. On the other hand if the structure is used for other non-economic activities such as religion meetings, school etc., write down the appropriate code for the activity in column E7.
Type of structure: Find out the type of construction materials for the wall and roof of the structure to establish if the structure is permanent, semi-permanent or, traditional.
Completion of Daily Record of Enumeration Form (Form CE/98/3)
At the end of each day's work go through the questionnaire forms you have completed that day and complete the daily record of enumeration, Form CE/98/3, as follows:
b.) In completing the form, write the date of enumeration, name of the village or place and household number you have enumerated. Use "Summary of persons in this household" of the main questionnaire to complete the information on population by sex and age.
c.) For a call-back household, fill in the date of your first visit, name of the village or place and household number. Leave the other columns blank until the call-back is completed.
d.) When the form is completed (including all the call-backs) you should add up the totals for each household to get the total for the pad. Enter the totals in the space provided at the bottom of each column. The total should not be carried forward to another form.
Section IV: Checks and Completion
In order to ensure the smooth running of the census during enumeration, your field supervisors and other senior officers of the census operation will visit you several times to check your work and assist in case you have problems. At the times your Field Supervisors visits you, you should hand over to him the completed pads together with the appropriate summary sheets he wants to check.
When you have completed the enumeration of your EA you will need to spend further time going around to check that you have not missed any dwelling unit. You should do this check this in consultation with the village headman before you send a message to your Field Supervisor who will come to your area to examine your remaining questionnaire pads and discuss with you any point of doubt. When he has checked all the pads, and is satisfied that your areas has been completed he will then sign the certificate on the front cover of the last questionnaire pad.
If you have knowledge of any village or part of the village or other area which, although not listed as being in your EA, is within or close to your boundary and this area does not appear to have been enumerated by any other person. You must draw the attention of your Field Supervisor to this area.
The Field Supervisor may have some other work for enumerators to do, such as helping in the areas where the enumeration has run into unexpected difficulties or helping to check pads from other EAs, and enumerators will be required to help this work before they are discharged. The Field Supervisor will release the enumerator when he is satisfied with the enumerator's work, has signed the certificate on the final pad, has no further work for the enumerator.
When your training is over and before you leave for your EA:
i.) Make sure you have sworn an Oath of Office and Secrecy.
ii.) Check that your EA satchel has the correct label.
iii.) Check the contents of your enumeration satchel against the list below and make sure that you have everything you are supposed to have.
2. Enumerator's manual (already distributed).
3. Census questionnaire pad -- (10 for rural EAs and 15 for urban EAs.)
4. Letter of introduction.
5. Oath of Office and Secrecy form.
6. National Calendar of Events.
7. Summary sheets, Form CE/98/3 (15 Sheets for rural EAs and 20 sheets for urban EAs).
8. 2 Census posters.
9. Census Enumerator's badge.
10. 3 blue ball-point pens (1 already given during training).
11. 10 Sticks of chalk (assorted colors).
12. Tie-on labels (10 for urban EAs and 100 for rural EAs).
13. String for tie-on labels.
[Appendices omitted, which include: Census Map Legend, Occupation Codes, Industry Codes]