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[Malawi]
Population and Housing Census
1987
1st - 21st September, 1987
Enumerator's Manual

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Section I

What is a population and housing census?

1. A Population and Housing Census is a complete enumeration of all the people, all the housing units and all the structures in a country. The enumeration of the population covers the young and the old, Malawian and foreigner, resident and visitor, and collects information on characteristics which describe the distribution, composition and development of the people. The housing component of the Census collects information on stock, condition and usage of the structures.

Why is it necessary to have a census?

2. You may wonder why the Malawi Government, like any other government, finds it necessary to spend so much effort and money just to take a census every ten years or so.

3. We all take little censuses in our everyday lives. The good mother, for instance, finds out how many persons will be at home for a meal before she cooks food, so that she will not have too much and waste food or too little and leave her family hungry. To serve the customers better, an efficient shopkeeper must know what goods he has in stock, how many of each item, and on which shelf he keeps them.

4. The Malawi Government must take a census so that like a good mother, it knows how many people there are and where they are, so that it can administer and develop the country well and use its resources to the best advantage for us all.

5. Since independence in 1964, Malawi has conducted two population censuses, one in 1966 and the other in 1977, in order to know the size, composition and distribution of the population. However, the further we get from 1977, the more the census figures become out of date and therefore it is necessary to have a fresh census now in order to get accurate and up-to-date figures.

[A section on confidentiality of the Census information is omitted here.]

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Definitions and concepts

11. Enumeration Area (EA): An EA is the area to be covered by one enumerator. It may comprise part of a village, a whole village or several villages, estate(s), trading centres, mission centres or part of an urban area. The EAs have already been demarcated and the boundaries are marked on the maps which will be given to you.

12. Village/place: In this census a village means the area controlled by the village headman and recognized by the District Administration. A place may be part of a village or any area other than a village whose name is locally known.

13. Household: It consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, who make common provision for food. They regularly take all their food from the same pot, and/or share the same grain store (nkhokwe) or pool their incomes for purposes of purchasing food. Persons in a household may live in one or more dwelling units.

14. Head of household: This is a person among the household members who is acknowledged by other members of the same household as their "head". He/she is often the one who makes most decisions concerning the welfare of the members of the household. If there are two or more unrelated persons in a household, treat one of them as head.

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15. Dwelling Unit (DU): It may be defined as any building, permanent or temporary, where people sleep. It may be a hut, a house, a store with a sleeping room or rooms at the back or sides, a shelter of reeds/straw such as those used by fishermen, or any other structure where people sleep.

16. Vacant structure: It is a building which is intended for sleeping but is not occupied.

17. Other structures: These are buildings which are neither dwelling units nor vacant structures, for example, school blocks, halls, churches, offices, etc.

18. Calendar of events

(a) National calendar: Is a summary of events and the dates of their occurrence. These events are recognized and acknowledged throughout the country.
(b) District calendar: Is similar to the National calendar, except that these events relate to a particular district.

[Pre-enumeration arrangements section is omitted here.]

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The people who must be counted

20. This census is the enumeration of all the persons who spent the night in the dwelling units prior to the enumerator's visit. Even if someone claims to have been enumerated in another EA he should still be enumerated.

21. When you get to a household some people may have gone to the garden, others to fetch water or to herd cattle, while others will have gone to work elsewhere. In that case you should ensure that even those people are enumerated as long as they spent the night at the household the night prior to your visit. The important point is to make sure that in every dwelling unit of the household, everyone who spent the night there is counted and anyone who did not is not counted. People often forget visitors and young children, especially those born recently, and after the names of all the people have been given it is necessary to ask whether there are any visitors or babies who have been missed.

22. Night workers: Such as watchmen, policemen, fishermen or shift workers should be included in the enumeration of their households as having spent the night there. People away overnight for a wedding, initiation ceremony, funeral or any other ceremony should be included in the enumeration of their respective households.

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23. The newly born and the dead: Children born at any time of the day before you arrive at a house should be enumerated. However, those who spent the night at the household but have died before you arrive should not be listed but rather should be recorded as dead.

24. Hospitals, markets, hotels, hostels, and rest-houses: Some people sleep out in markets and others in public places such as hospitals, hotels, hostels and rest-houses. You must arrange to visit these places if there are any in your EA, either in the evening or very early in the morning. If you go in the evening you should enumerate people who intend to sleep there whilst if you go in the morning you should enumerate those who spent the night there. Enumeration of a public place should be completed on the same day to avoid enumerating a different group of people.

25. Enumerate yourself: If you actually live in your own enumeration area you will record yourself when you enumerate your own household. If you are living at your own household in one enumeration area but commuting to work in a different enumeration area, you will be counted by another enumerator when he calls at your household. In case you are sent to work in an area away from your home, you will probably be sleeping at different places each night. If you are sleeping in the EA you are working in, you enumerate yourself. Alternatively, if you are sleeping in another EA, make sure that you are enumerated by your colleague. You should also note that although you might have worked as an enumerator the previous week, your occupation should be recorded as a teacher or your normal occupation if other than teacher.

Procedures of interviewing

26. In order to have a systematic daily procedure and uniformity among enumerators the following instructions are laid down for you to follow:

(a) When asking questions from the questionnaires you should be concise and tactful. Do not give the respondent the impression that you are not sure of what is meant by any of the questions. It is therefore, absolutely essential that you master your manual and other related documents before going into the field.

(b) When you first meet the head or a responsible member of the household tell him or her who you are and why you have come. Be polite and good humored and ask courteously whether the household members will be kind enough to answer your questions. They are in fact obliged by law to answer the questions, but you should not mention this unless they refuse to co-operate. Try to convince them, and if they fail to co-operate inform the village headman and the local party leaders before you report to your Field Supervisor.

(c) Before you can start asking questions make sure that you have first identified the members comprising the household correctly and also the exact number of dwelling units belonging to the household.
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(d) Assign an appropriate serial number to this household. This number should be the same as that you write on the questionnaire. Mark the letters PHC followed by the household serial number clearly with chalk on the front door or at the top of the main entrance door. Where chalk cannot be used to indicate the household number, for example, dwelling units built with reeds, you should use the tie-on labels which have been provided. In case a household has more than one dwelling unit, for example, 3 DUs to a household of serial number PHC 012, number these DUs as PHC 012/1, PHC 012/2 and PHC 012/3. The DU number PHC 012/1 in this case should be the one occupied by the household head. However, if there is only one DU to a household, then the DU should simply be numbered PHC 012.

(e) You must then record all the names of persons who spent the previous night at the household in the space provided in the questionnaire. Always list the names first together with the "relationship" and "sex". After recording all the people who spent the night at the household the previous night, including those in paragraphs 22 and 23, read back the names and relationships and ask if anybody is left out. Only when you are satisfied that you have listed everybody who slept there the night before must you go back to the first person and fill in the other details about that person. Then fill in the details for the second person, and then the third, fourth, and so on until you finish all the people in the DUs belonging to the household.

(f) Sometimes, the wife may be unable to give you satisfactory information regarding her husband's age, education or even his full name. In such instances arrange to call again when the husband is back home from work.

(g) Check if you have filled in all the details for every part of the questionnaire correctly and fully before leaving for the next household.

(h) Before you leave a household you must check if there are any out-buildings, e.g. kitchen, room with separate outside door, etc., where people slept the previous night and ensure that everybody has been enumerated.

(i) If a village or place is not indicated on your EA map but falls within the EA boundary, you should enumerate this village or place and report to your Field Supervisor.

27. Each time you enumerate a new household you must use a fresh questionnaire form even if there are lines left out on the previous one. For example, there may be one person enumerated at household PHC 006, but you must still use a new questionnaire form for household PHC 007 and another for household PHC 008, etc.

28. While numbering households you should proceed from one household to the next in a systematic and if necessary, in a serpentine manner, numbering contiguous households consecutively. Household numbers must be continuous within the enumeration area, whether

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there are one or more villages. For example, in an enumeration area which has more than one village, if the first village has PHC 090 as the last number, the first household in the next village will be numbered PHC 091. If the last household in the second village is PHC 126, and you have a third village in the EA, the first household in the third village will be numbered PHC 127, etc.

29. When enumerating in markets and institutions such as hospitals, hotels and schools or other institutions which are not occupied, on the household basis you should treat the whole institution as one unit. Write its full name on the questionnaire against "village or place" and assign it a code number,"999" against the household number in columns 10-12. Enumerate the inmates continuously without missing any lines on the questionnaire. Each one of them will be regarded as head under the relationship column under the relationship column.

30. If the institution is divided into "houses", "blocks", "hospital wards" or "dormitories", it will be convenient to record each of these as a separate unit using a fresh questionnaire for each such section of the institution.

31. Staff housing, servant quarters or other separate dwellings which are part of the institution but are occupied on a permanent household basis will be treated as separate households in the normal way.

32. Before enumerating those people who sleep at market places or other open places make sure that you have identified all the sleeping places where they sleep.

33. Call-back visit: A call-back visit is needed when you have to go back to a household to enumerate. This is necessary if on your earlier visit there was no responsible adult at home to give all the relevant information or there was no one at all at the time of your visit. In such cases you must find out from the children there or from neighbors when someone will be at home, and you should plan to go back at that particular time. If a call-back is a failure for the first time you should call back again. You are advised to visit the household until the information is collected before the end of the enumeration period. Even in the cases you have to call back, you must, on the first visit, assign a household number on the questionnaire form and also mark the number on the dwelling unit(s).

34. If you have more than 5 cases of call-backs in a short time in one village, discuss the problem with the village headman or the party officials, the Ward Councilor or any other local leaders, appealing to them to make arrangements for people to stay at home at specified times (or meet you before they leave their homes). If this fails to give the desired results then report the matter to your Field Supervisor as the people may be avoiding you deliberately. If you do not find people during the day, the best thing may be to visit them early in the morning, during the lunch hour, or in the evening when people will have returned home from work.

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Section II
How to get correct answers to the questions

35. When asking questions make sure that you phrase the in such a way that they collect information that was intended. Rephrase questions if the respondent does not seem to understand and ask additional questions if the respondent gives irrelevant or incomplete answers.

Age
36. Information on age is to be collected in years completed in respect of each member of the household, including babies and visitors who slept in the DU(s) belonging to the household the previous night. For example this can be done by asking questions such as "How old is John?" followed by "When was John born?" Record the age in years completed and not the date of birth.

37. If a person gives his age with a fraction of a year, such as 8 years and 6 months or 27 years and 3 months, ignore the fraction: that is, use the 8 years or 27 years only. If a child's age is given as, for example, 9 months, record "00": that is, under one year old.

38. For the purpose of recording ages, the date of 11th September, 1987 has been selected as the reference point of the census. Note especially, therefore, that children born on or after 11th September, 1986 will be recorded as under 1 year, i.e. as "00"; those born from 11th September, 1985 to 10th September, 1986 will be recorded as "01"; those from 11th September, 1984 to 10th September, 1985 will be recorded as "02", and so on.

39. There are some people who do not know exactly how old they are. You are, however, required to write the age of every person and must, therefore, try your best to get as accurate ages as possible. You have been given a Calendar of Events to help you assess individuals' ages. This calendar presents a fairly good record of events which people may associate with either their own births or the births of their children. For example, a person may be unable to tell you his/her age. You should look at the person and form an impression about his/her age. Having done this you refer to the Calendar of Events and spot the earliest event which the person remembers. Find out how old the person was at that time. It is possible that the person indicates his/her age at the time of occurrence of the event by showing a child or by gestures of how tall he or she was at that time. If a person names an event and your calendar tells you that this would make him of an age which is very unlikely according to his appearance, then you must ask further questions.

40. If the person does not know or remember any of the events given in the calendar of events, then make the best possible assessment of the age by looking at him/her, or relating his/her age to that of other members of the household or other relatives whose ages are known.

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41. Once you have a correct age or a good estimate for one person within the same household, try to relate ages of other persons to that age. The older the people are, the more uncertain the assessment of age is likely to be, but you should put down the age which appears most probable from the evidence you are able to collect through questions and the appearance of the person, if he is present. Particular care must be taken in assessing and recording the ages of young children. In every instance you must make the best assessment possible and you must put down the age of every person recorded.

Race

42. If the race of the person is not obvious then it will be necessary to ask.

43. Africans include persons that have any ancestors of African origin. However, if he objects to being so recorded, you will write down the race which he tells you.

44. Europeans include persons from Europe and also persons from Canada, the U.S.A., the South American Republics, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Israel and persons born in Africa whose ancestors came from any of the above countries.

45. Asians include persons from India, Pakistan, China, Japan, Bangladesh, Arabs not from Northern Africa, and persons born in Africa whose ancestors came from any of the Asian countries.

Migration

Place of birth

46. In this census, the birthplace of a person is the place of usual residence of the person's mother at the time of his or her birth. For instance, if a woman is living in Blantyre with her employed husband and the child is born in a Blantyre hospital, you will take Blantyre as the district of birth of her child. If the mother went to her parents' home in Mzimba for the birth you should still take Blantyre as the district of birth. Similarly, you will not take Thyolo just because the mother went to Malamulo Hospital from Blantyre for the birth. She is not normally resident there and the district of birth is Blantyre. If a child whose parents are foreigners is born in Malawi, you should take the town or district in which the mother was resident at the time of the birth as the place of birth.

47. For persons born in Malawi, you are required to find out the name of the TA (Chief), STA (Sub Chief) or town of birth within the district of birth which has been reported. For persons born outside Malawi, you should ask only for the country in which they were born.

Residence in September 1986

48. This question refers to place of usual residence of each person age 1 year or older in September, 1986. For persons who were resident in Malawi in September, 1986 you are required to find out the name of the district, TA (Chief), STA (Sub Chief), village/place or town. For those who were resident outside

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Malawi in September, 1986 you should ask only for the name of the country where they were resident.

Literacy
49. The information required here is whether a person is able to read and write a simple statement in Chichewa and/or English. This question should be asked to persons who are age 5 years or older.

Education

In School during June, 1987
50. This question collects information on whether the household member age 5 years or older was attending school in a formal education institution in June, 1987. These institutions are primary schools, secondary schools, Malawi College of Distance Education centers and universities.

51. This question does not include those taking further training as teachers, agriculturalists, taking short courses in commerce or technical subjects or attending Adult Literacy schools. Note that private night schools or private correspondence studies should not be taken as Malawi College of Distance Education night schools or Malawi College of Distance Education centres which offer full-time instruction.

Highest level attended at primary or secondary school or university

52. This question refers to every person age 5 years or older irrespective of whether or not they were attending school in June, 1987. The purpose of the question is to find the highest level attended by each person. NOTE that we are asking for the highest level attended irrespective of whether or not he or she has actually written or passed any examination at that level.

53. In the case of primary and secondary schooling, you have to write in the highest class or form attended. Most people who left school before 1966 will tend to give the names of the classes used when they were at school and which may no longer be used. In this case, before you enter the number of the highest class reached, you must ask for the year in which they left school to enable you to convert their answer to the modern class names through the use of an "Educational Conversion Chart," which is on page 23 of this manual. For instance, Sub A and Sub B are to be recorded as Standards 1 and 2; old standard 5 as standard 7; old standard 8 as Form 2, etc. You should always check whether a person is giving old class names or the new class names before making an entry in the questionnaire. You are not required to write in the word "Standard" or "Form". You should only enter the letters: "S" for "Standard", "F" for "Form", and the Arabic number such as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

54. Some people may not remember the highest class or standard they reached, and others may have been educated in another country where different names are given to classes. In such cases you should ask how many years they spent at school and enter the appropriate standard from your chart. Bear in mind

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that pupils sometimes repeat classes and where appropriate you should ask a question about this. In particular you must not assume that because a person spent more than eight years at school then it means he attended a secondary school. You will only record him as attending a secondary school if he confirms that he actually did so.

Marital status
55. Ask each person aged 10 years or more whether he or she has ever been married. If "Yes" find out if he or she is currently married, divorced or widowed. If "No", you will record the marital status of the person as never married. Alternatively you may ask a question "Are you married?" In this case it is necessary to ensure that the answer given by respondents to your questions on this topic is precise. For instance when a person says "I am not married", "sindili pa banja ", or "sindinakwatiwe", you may not be able to know whether she is a divorcee or has never married at all unless you probe further.

Economic activity

56. Activity status: It refers to the main economic activity which a person has been engaged in during the last seven days. Activity status is categorized into several groups as follows:

Economically active
57. Mlimi (Subsistence farmer): Is a person whose sole or principal work is in the family garden. Women will be classified as Mlimi if over the year they have spent more time working in the garden than working without pay on domestic duties in the home. If the person who would otherwise qualify as a "mlimi" had a job for pay the "last seven days" then he or she should be treated as an employee. If he or she did not actually do any work in the garden and was not employed during the "last seven days" they should be recorded as "mlimi"(that is, as though they were on holiday with a job to go back to).

58. An employee: Is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives a wage, salary or payment at piece-rates.

59. Family business worker: Is a person who works without pay in a business owned by a relative on a more or less full time basis and is not engaged in any other economic activity.

60. Self-employed: Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprise, or engages independently in a profession or trade and does not hire any employees but may be assisted by family members.

61. Employer: Is a person who operates his or her own business or other economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and employs one or more persons. (Note: this does not include managers or others who hire staff on behalf of their company unless they own the company).

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62. Note that a person who had a job or enterprise but who was temporarily absent during the reference period due to injury, illness, leave or other vacation should be classified according to his job or enterprise as an employee, a family business worker, self-employed or an employer.

63. Unemployed person: Is one who did not work the "last seven days", did not have a job or business, but was available for or seeking work. Such persons may fall into one of the following categories:

(i) Worked before and seeking work;
(ii) Worked before and not seeking work;
(iii) Never worked before and seeking work;
(iv) Never worked before and not seeking work.
Economically inactive

64. Home worker: Is one who spends most of his or her time, throughout the year, working without pay on domestic duties, such as cooking, washing or cleaning household surroundings.

65. Student: Is one who is under full-time instruction at a formal educational institution as long as he did not work during the last seven days.

66. Dependent: Any person who did not work during the last seven days because either he was not able to work and relies on others, or there was no need for him to work and relies on others.

67. Independent: Any person who did not work during the last seven days because there was no need and relies on his or her own income, for example, pensioners.

68. It may be necessary to ask several probing questions in order to determine a person's activity status. The sequence of questions given below is designed to enable you to determine the activity status of every person age 10 years or older.

Follow the sequence through, asking the question or jumping to another numbered question box in accordance with answers given by the respondent until you reach the appropriate category as shown at the right hand side of the table.

[Activity status question sequence has been omitted.]

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Occupation
69. The basis of the classification of occupation is the trade, profession or type of work performed by an individual during the last seven days. The question on occupation should be asked to any persons who are economically active including those unemployed but having worked before.

70. As an example, the occupation of a driver of a bus is "bus driver", even if he owns the bus and operates it as a one-man business (that is, he is self-employed). The person's occupation is generally related to his training or experience although this may not always be the case. For example, if the bus driver has lost his job and taken a temporary post on a farm as a laborer, then his occupation is now "farm laborer" and not "bus driver". Avoid using general terms but record the exact job which the person does, for example, do not simply write "driver", or "laborer" but "bus driver" or "farm laborer".

Industry
71. The classification of a person's industry is based on the nature of the product or service provided by the organization for which he/she works. For example, those persons who work in a bakery are in the "food manufacturing" industry whether their occupation is that of manager, cook or night-watchman. In the case of people who provide a service, for example, a dentist or barber, you should give details of their industry or describe their type of work place (that is "dental clinic" or "barber's shop"). In the particular case of a dentist or a barber these details are obvious but in the case, for example, of persons working in these places as "cleaners", it is clearly not sufficient to write merely "health" or "shop". Note that you should not give the name of a person's employers to describe their industry. However, in the case of Government employees you should give the full name of the Department/Unit, for example, Fisheries, National Statistical Office, Post Office Savings Bank and not merely the name of the Ministry, e.g. Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources, Office of the President and Cabinet and Transport and Communications.

72. If in doubt, always give sufficient detail. A guide for classification of activities in different industrial group is given in Annex pages 37 to 39. This annex, however, does not include the names of different government departments which you are required to write in case of government employees.

73. Other examples of occupation and industry would be:

(a) A man may be a driver on a farm in which case his occupation is a driver; and his industry is agriculture. Another men may be a driver in a factory in which case his occupation is driver and his industry will be the industry in which the factory is engaged e.g. if making clothes -- clothing industry. Similarly, a driver may work for U.T.M. in which case his industry is transportation.
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(b) Similarly it is possible to have people who do the same kind of work in one organization and yet may be in different industries, examples of which would be a clerk working for ADMARC which has different industries, e.g. Agriculture, Trade and Transportation. In such cases you will have to ask in which section or department of the organization the person works. Where you have doubt as to the proper industry of a person, treat the main activity of the organization as his industry.

(c) On the other hand, some people working in different organizations may either belong to similar or different occupations but to the same industry group. Examples of such cases are as follows: a civil servant working as an accounts clerk in the Department of Personnel Management and Training; his occupation will be accounts clerk while his industry group will be public administration and defense. One who is working as a security guard in the same department; his occupation will be protective worker and his industry group will be public administration and defense. A policeman working as a driver will have his occupation recorded as driver and the industry group as public administration and defense. However, the occupation of an ordinary policeman who does not have other specialized duties other than security would be recorded as protective worker. Similarly, in the case of Army personnel, an officer working as a mechanic will have mechanic as his occupation and public administration and defense as his industry group. A private soldier working in the infantry as a rifleman will have his occupation recorded as protective worker while his industry will still be public administration and defense.

Number of children ever born alive

74. You are required to collect information on the number of children ever born alive to women aged 10 years or more. A live born child may be defined as the one who, after separation from its mother, breathes, cries or shows any other evidence of life such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

75. Do not use a question such as "Mwachembela kangati" which would generally induce a woman to tell you the number of times she had delivered. But you are required to find information on the number of children who were actually born and who at birth were alive. Even if a child died later, as long as it was live at birth, such a child must be counted. On the other hand, a child who was born dead should not be counted.

76. On the question of the number of children ever born alive to a woman, ensure that all the children a woman gave birth to are counted. You should not include those children who are staying with the woman but not borne by her, for example, a woman may have been married to three husbands and is now living with the third husband. She had one child with the first husband and this one child is currently living with his father; and had three children with the second husband and of these three children, only one is staying with her, and the other two are either with their father or grandparents; and there is the last born from the present husband plus two other children borne by

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the previous wives of the present husband. So this woman has only two of all her children staying with her and two from other wives of the present husband. The total number of children ever born alive to this woman should be recorded as 5, number of children ever born alive and living in this household should be recorded as 2, number of children ever born alive and living elsewhere should be recorded as 3, and number of children ever born alive but have since died should be recorded as zero.

Deaths occurred in the household since September 1986

77. You should obtain information of all deaths that occurred in the household from September, 1986 to date. Make sure to include deaths of persons of all ages that occurred in the household during the period from September, 1986 to the date of your visit.

For Probing, you should proceed month by month in the backward direction, and enquire whether there was any death of a person related or unrelated who lived in any dwelling unit belonging to the household during the period specified above.

For recording, you should include the following categories of deaths:

(a) Deaths of household members occurring in dwelling units belonging to the household.
(b) Deaths of household members occurring in the hospital clinic, or on the way to a hospital/clinic, or as a result of an accident. Make sure that the deceased lived in the dwelling unit belonging to the household immediately prior to his death.

Household economic activities
78. This part deals with the economic activities of each and every household. These activities are business or cash crop farming which generate income for the household. Such businesses or cash crop farming could be owned by one or more members of the household and could be run by household members and/or by hired labor. These need not be physically located within the premises of the household. Examples of such activities include cash-crop farming, livestock, handicrafts, beer brewing and tailoring, among others which are conducted solely on a commercial basis. Cash crop farming refers to the growing of crops mainly for sale by household members. Examples of cash crops include tea, tobacco, cotton, coffee, sugarcane, maize and groundnuts (if grown solely for sale).

79. For each household activity you are required to ask for each activity the specific months beginning September, 1986 to August, 1987 in which the activity was carried out. You should then count and record the number of months in which each activity was carried out. Furthermore you are required to ask for the number of household members and regular hired laborers who were engaged in each activity as well as indicating whether or not any casual laborers were employed.

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80. Hired labor: These are persons who were hired or employed to work in the activity reported for payment in cash or kind. Hired labor is in two categories: regular and casual, and these are explained below:

Regular labor: This is hired labor which had worked on a more or less permanent basis.

Casual labor: These are persons who were temporarily hired to help in the activity and they are locally known as "Aganyu". These persons are mostly hired during periods when the activity is at a peak and extra hands are required, for example, in farming during garden preparation or weeding.

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Section III

How to complete the questionnaire forms

You should record information only when you are convinced that the reported information is accurate and true to the best knowledge of the respondent. Do not leave blank any space provided for recording responses. Do not suggest or assume answers under any circumstances. Always do sufficient probing when necessary before recording the answer.

The following pages give detailed instructions regarding the manner in which entries are to be made in each column of the questionnaire form. When completing the questionnaire you must be neat, clear and accurate. After completing each questionnaire form you must always check your entries and ensure that all the applicable questions have been answered.

Erasures: Do not erase (rub) any erroneous entry you have made on the questionnaire form. Instead you should cancel out the error by drawing a double line across it and then record the correct entry in the box beside the entry. If the space for such an entry is too small, cancel the whole line and write again on the next line. Do not remove any questionnaire forms from the pad. If you have spoilt the whole questionnaire form, draw double lines right across it, write "Void" between the two lines and start again on a fresh questionnaire form.

These are three different types of questionnaires which you will be required to complete, namely:

(i) Household questionnaire which collects information on characteristics of individual household members, deaths occurred in the household, household economic activities and dwelling unit characteristics and access to facilities.

(ii) Record of vacant and other structures which collects information on main use of the structures and materials used for construction.

(iii) Record of community facilities which collects information on the availability of community facilities such as primary schools, primary health care centers, post offices, etc.

[p. 19]

Completion of the household questionnaire form

Part A: Identification

Region/district: Write the name of the district in which your enumeration area (EA) falls in the space provided and leave columns 1-2 blank.

TA, STA or town: If you are enumerating in a rural area write the name of the TA (Chief) or STA (Sub Chief) in which your EA falls in the space provided. Similarly, if you are enumerating in a city or town write the name of the city or town in which your EA falls. Leave columns 3-4 blank.

Enumeration area: Record the number of your enumeration area in columns 5-7.

Village or place: Write down the name by which the village or place is commonly known to the people of that area in the space provided. Leave columns 8-9 blank.

Household number: Record the number you have assigned to this household in columns 10-12. Make sure you mark this number on the dwelling units occupied by members of the household.

Remember that if you enumerate in market places, hospitals, schools or other institutions which are not occupied on household basis, you should treat the whole institution as one unit and record "999" in columns 10-12.

Number of dwelling units (DUs) to household: Fill in the total number of DUs for the household in column 13.

Part B: Characteristics of individual household members

Persons of all ages

(a) Dwelling unit number (DU No.): You should enter the DU number in which the particular member of the household belongs in column 14. Always start with the DU of the head of household and proceed to the second, third, etc., DU.

(b) Serial number (Ser. No.) Each questionnaire form has been designed to take information for up to 10 members of the household. Within each household you are enumerating you should assign a two digit serial number in columns 15-16 to each member of the household starting from 01. In case you are enumerating a household with more than 10 members you should use a second questionnaire form for enumerating 11, 12, 13, etc., members. If
necessary, you can go to the third questionnaire in the same manner.

Continuation indicator: Where you use more than one questionnaire form for the same household you should number the

[p. 20]

form 1, 2, 3, etc., in the box on the top right hand side of the questionnaire form. In all cases except for the last form, mark an X at the left hand side of the continuation indicator panel where the arrow is pointing to indicate that you are continuing to another questionnaire form for the same household.

(c) Full name: Write down the full names of all household members including those of babies and visitors who spent the night in DUs belonging to the household. If a baby has no name, write 'baby' followed by name of one of the parents. Accept two names for each person by which he/she is locally known. Write the first name in the space above the dotted line and the second below it. In cases where a household has more than one DU, you should always start by listing names of all household members who spent the night in the dwelling unit occupied by the head of household (that is, DU No. PHC ... /1) For the first DU, the name of the head of household should always be the first one to be listed, followed by that of wife/husband, then children according to age from the eldest to the youngest, other relatives and lastly, non-relatives.

(d) Relationship to head of household: Ask for the relationship of each member to the head of the household and fill in the appropriate code in column 17.

The various codes for you to use, as indicated on the questionnaire, are as follows:

[] 1 Head
[] 2 Wife/husband
[] 3 Son/daughter
[] 4 Other relative
[] 5 Non-relative

(e) Sex: Ask the question "Male or female?" for every person, particularly babies and children, unless you can see for yourself whether the person is male or female. Fill in the appropriate code for sex for each member of the household in column 18. The relevant codes are:

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

(f) Age: Write down the age in years completed of each member of the household in two digits in columns 19-20.

(g) Race: Fill in the appropriate code for race for each respondent in column 21. The codes are

[] 1 African
[] 2 Asian
[] 3 European
[] 4 Other

[p. 21]

Migration

(h) Place of birth: Ask each member of the household his or her place of birth. The place of birth should be recorded following the instructions below:

(i) If the respondent was born in the village or place in which you are enumerating, simply write "Same village" or "Same place".

(ii) If the respondent was born in a village or place different from the one you are enumerating but in the same TA, STA or town, simply write "Same TA", "Same STA" or "Same town".

(iii) For those not born in the same TA, STA or town, write down the names of the district of birth above the dotted line and the name of the TA, STA or town below it.

(iv) If born outside Malawi, write only the country of birth.

Write the place of birth for each person in the appropriate space provided and leave columns 22-25 blank.

Persons aged 1 year or more

[Question (i) is applicable only to persons age 1 year or older]
(i) Residence in September, 1986: Ask each member of the household age 1 year or older where he/she was residing during the month of September, 1986. When recording the answers follow the instructions below.

(i) If in September, 1986 the respondent was residing in the Village or place in which you are enumerating, simply write "Same village" or "Same place".

(ii) If in September, 1986 the respondent was residing in a village or place different from the one you are enumerating but in the same TA, STA or Town simply write "Same TA", "Same STA" or "Same town".

(iii) For those who in September, 1986 were not resident in the same TA, STA or town in which your EA falls, write down the names of the district of residence in September, 1986 above the dotted line and the name of the TA, STA or town below it.

(iv) For those who in September, 1986 were residing outside Malawi, write only the country of residence in September, 1986.

Leave columns 26-29 blank.

[p. 22]

Persons aged 5 years or more

[Questions (j) and (k) on Literacy and Education apply only to persons aged 5 years or more. Never ask any of these questions to persons younger than 5 years]

(j) Literacy

Able to read and write Chichewa: Ask whether each person is able to read and write a simple statement in Chichewa. Record the appropriate code for the response (yes or no) in column 30.
The codes are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Able to read and write English: Ask whether each person is able to read and write a simple statement in English and similarly record the appropriate code in column 31.
The codes are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

(k) Education

In school June, 1987: For each person ask whether he/she was attending any formal educational institution (school/university) in June, 1987. Record the appropriate code in column 32. The codes are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Highest level attended: Write the highest level of education attended by each person in a formal educational institution in the appropriate space provided before columns 33-34 using the following abbreviations:

[] NO No education
[] S1 Standard 1
[] S2 Standard 2
[] S3 Standard 3
[] S4 Standard 4
[] S5 Standard 5
[] S6 Standard 6
[] S7 Standard 7
[] S8 Standard 8
[] F1 Form 1
[] F2 Form 2
[] F3 Form 3
[] F4 Form 4
[] F5 Form 5
[] F6 Form 6
[p. 23]
[] U1 University 1st year
[] U2 University 2nd year
[] U3 University 3rd year
[] U4 University 4th year
[] U5 University 5th year
[] U6 University 6th year

[] D Diplomate
[] G Graduate

Leave columns 33-34 blank for office use.

For those who report to have attended up to primary school any time before 1962 or up to secondary school before 1966. You should use the Education Conversation Chart below to convert their responses to conform to the present class levels as given in the column for 1966-87.

[Education conversion chart has been omitted.]

[p. 24]

Persons age 10 years or older

Questions from (l) through (q) should only be asked to persons who are age 10 years or older.

(1) Marital status: Ask each person aged 10 years or more her current marital status. Enter the appropriate code for the response in column 35. The codes are as follows:

[] 1 Married
[] 2 Widowed
[] 3 Divorced
[] 4 Never married

Economic activity

a) Activity status (during last seven days): For each person age 10 years or older, ask his/her main economic activity in which they have been engaged during the last seven days. Refer to the guide provided on page 13 of the manual on how to determine activity status of every person aged 10 years or more. Write the activity in which the person has been engaged in during the last seven days in the appropriate space provided and leave columns 36-37 blank. The relevant activity status options for you to use which are listed on the questionnaire under the major categories of "Active", "Unemployed" and "Inactive" are as follows:

Active:
[] Mlimi
[] Employee
[] Family business worker
[] Self-employed
[] Employer
Unemployed:
1. Worked before:
[] 1A Seeking work
[] 1B Not seeking work
2. Never worked:
[] 2A Seeking work
[] 2B Not seeking work
Inactive:
[] Home worker
[] Student
[] Dependent
[] Independent
[] Other

For those persons who fall under the category 'Unemployed' you should write the codes 1A, 1B, 2A or 2B, whichever is applicable, to present the corresponding response in view of the limited space on the questionnaire.

Note: Proceed to ask questions on occupation and industry for those you categorise to be "Active" or "Unemployed but worked before". Do not ask the questions on occupation and industry for those who are "Unemployed and never worked before" and the "Inactive".

[p. 25]

(n) Occupation: Write the exact occupation for the person who is either active or unemployed but worked before in the space provided. For persons who are either "Unemployed but never worked before" or "Inactive", you should write N/A (Not applicable). You should leave columns 38-39 blank.

(0) Industry: Write the actual industry in which each person is or was working and columns 40-41 should be left blank. Use the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) provided on pages 37 - 39 as a guide.

Remember that the question on industry applies only to those who are "Active" or "Unemployed but worked before" and should have reported an occupation. Write N/A (Not applicable) for all those to whom the question on industry does not apply, i.e. those "Unemployed but never worked before" and those "Inactive".

Women aged 10 years or more
[Question (p) and (q) should only be asked to women age 10 years or older]

(p) Total children ever born alive: Ask each woman age 10 years or older for the total number of children she has ever borne alive and record the number in 2 digits in columns 42-43.

Number of children ever born alive:

(i) Living in this household: Ask each woman age 10 years or older the number of children ever born alive to her who are currently living in the same household. Record the number of male children and female children in columns 44-45 and columns 46-47, respectively.

(ii) Living elsewhere: Ask each woman age 10 years or older the number of children ever born alive to her who are living elsewhere that is away from the household the woman is living in. Record the number of male children in column 48 and female children in column 49, accordingly.

Remember that all children, young or grown up, who are living on their own or with relatives whether within or outside the same village or place but away from the household the woman is living in are to be recorded in this category. Emphasise to the woman that you want to know the number of all her children who were born alive irrespective of their ages and where they are living.

(iii) Have since died: Ask the woman the total number of children she has ever borne alive, but have since died. Record the number of male and female children who have died in column 50 and column 51, respectively.
While probing for this information make sure that the woman does not exclude any of her children who might have died shortly after birth as long as they were born alive.

[Rest of the paragraph is unclear in the original copy.]

[p. 26]

(q) Live births occurred from September, 1986 to date
(i) Still alive: Ask the woman the number of male and female live births she has had during the period from September 1986 to date and are still alive. Record the number of males births in column 52 and female births in column 53.

(ii) Have died: Ask the woman the number of male and female live births she has had during the period from September, 1986 to date but have since died. Record the number of such male and female births in column 54 and 55, respectively.

Note: You should make sure that you do not leave any columns from 42 to 55 blank for any woman aged 10 years or more. For instance where a woman has reported to have no children ever born alive under any specific column in question (p) or no live births under any specific column in question (q), you should record zeroes) and not leave the columns blank.

Part C: Summary of persons in this household
In this part of the questionnaire you are required to prepare a summary of total number of persons in the household as listed in Part B of the questionnaire by sex, age and highest level of education attended in broad groups. You should prepare the summary very carefully to ensure that the figures you record under sex, age, and education are consistent with the information you recorded in Part B. The summary you prepare in Part C will also assist you in completing Form PHC/87/4. The details of the summary are as follows:

(i) Sex:

[] Total: Total persons listed in Part B
[] M Number of males
[] F Number of females

(ii) Age (years):

[] 0-4: Number of persons aged 0 to 4 years
[] 5-14: Number of persons aged 5 to 14 years
[] 15-64: Number of persons aged 15 to 64 years
[] 65+: Number of persons aged 65 years and over

(iii) Highest level of education attended:

[] None: Number of persons aged 5 years or more who have never attended school
[] Primary: Number of persons aged 5 years or more who have attended up to primary school level
[] Secondary and above: Number of persons aged 5 years or more who have attended up to secondary school or university level

[p. 27]

Part D: Deaths in the household

All deaths occurred in the household from September, 1986 to date

Sex of the deceased: Ask the respondent the number of deaths, if any, which might have occurred in the household from September, 1986 to date. Remember that this should include deaths of all persons irrespective of age. Fill in column 56 the appropriate code for sex of the deceased for each death reported. The codes are:

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female
Age at death: Ask for the age at death of the deceased person and record the age in years completed in two digits in columns 57-58. If the respondent cannot remember the exact age at death of the deceased, try to probe for a reasonable estimate of the age which you should record.

If no deaths, enter "0": If no deaths occurred in the household from September, 1986 to date, you should enter "0" in the box indicated by the arrow. In this case, you should avoid leaving this box blank.

Part E: Household Economic Activities

Type of business/cash crop farming: Ask the respondent what economic activities have been carried out by members of the household during the last 12 months, that is from September, 1986 to August, 1987. Each economic activity reported should be listed in a separate row. Leave columns 59-60 blank.

Whether activity carried out during the month: Ask whether the particular activity was carried out during each of the specified months, that is, from September, 1986 to August, 1987. Each of the columns is headed by the first letter of the name of the month; that is, "S" for September, "O" for October, "N" for November, etc. If the activity was carried out during any of the specified months enter 1 (for "Yes") in the appropriate box, if the activity was not carried out during any of the months enter 2 (for "No").

Total months of activity: For each reported activity count the number of months in which each activity was carried out and enter the total in the appropriate row for the activity in columns 73-74.

Persons working
Household members: For each reported activity ask for the number of household members who were engaged in that particular activity and record the number in columns 75-76.

[p. 28]

Hired Labor

Regular: For each reported activity ask for the number of workers who were hired to work on a regular basis, that is, they had worked on more or less a permanent basis, and record the number in columns 77-78.

Casual: Ask the respondent if any casual workers (Aganyu) were employed in each of the reported activities. Record the appropriate code, 1 for "Yes" and 2 for "No" in column 79.
If no business, enter "0": If the household has not reported any economic activity that is not business or cash crop farming, enter "0" in the box indicated by the arrow. In this case you should not leave this box blank.

Part F: Dwelling unit characteristics and access to facilities

This part has been designed to take information on dwelling unit characteristics and access to facilities for up to five dwelling units of a household. You are required to record the necessary particulars of each dwelling unit in a separate row starting with dwelling unit with serial number 1.

Dwelling unit serial number: For each dwelling unit, enter the dwelling unit serial number in column 80 as 1, 2 or 3, etc. This serial number should be the same as that you have recorded in column 14 of Part B for that particular dwelling unit.

Main construction materials used for:

(i) Wall: If it is not readily apparent from the outside ask what main construction material was used for the wall. The alternative types or wall materials are pre-coded and listed as follows:
[] 1 Burnt bricks
[] 2 Unburnt bricks
[] 3 Concrete
[] 4 Mud and wattle
[] 5 Reeds/straw
[] 6 Wood/planks
[] 7 Other (specify)
Fill in the appropriate code corresponding to the main construction material of the wall for the dwelling unit you are enumerating in column 81. In the case of code 7 ("Other"), you are required to specify the material of construction in a suitable space outside Part F block.

[p.29]

(ii) Roof: Fill in column 82 the appropriate code for the main construction material used for roofing of the dwelling unit you are enumerating in column 82. The codes are given as follows:
[] 1 Grass thatch
[] 2 Iron sheets
[] 3 Iron and tiles
[] 4 Asbestos
[] 5 Cement
[] 6 Other (specify)
You will, in most cases, be able to identify the main roofing material used, but in case of doubt you need to check with the respondent. You are also required to specify the type of material used for roofing in case of code 6 ("Other").

(iii) Floor: Ask the respondent what was the main construction material used for the floor and fill in the appropriate code in column 83. The codes are listed as follows:
[] 1 Mud
[] 2 Cement
[] 3 Bricks
[] 4 Wood
[] 5 Other (specify)
You should note that floor coverings, such as tiles, should not be considered as main construction materials for the floor.

Number of rooms: Ask the respondent how many rooms there are in the dwelling unit and record the total number in column 84. The number of rooms should include sitting rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms and a kitchen as long as it is part of the main structure. You should, however, not count bathrooms, toilets, store-rooms, and garages as rooms of the dwelling unit, if inside the structure.

Tenure: Ask the respondent whether the dwelling unit is being occupied by the individual/family who owns it or whether it is being rented or is of other tenancy status. The appropriate codes for tenancy status are:

[] 1 Owner/family occupied
[] 2 Rented
[] 3 Other (specify)

Enter the appropriate code for the response in column 85. Remember to specify the tenancy status in the case of code 3 ("Other").

[p.30]

Main source of drinking water: Here you must find out from the respondent what the main source of drinking water is for the members of the dwelling unit. This should first be asked and recorded for the wet season and then similarly for the dry season. The alternative sources of drinking water and their appropriate codes are as follows:

[] 1 Piped inside DU
[] 2 Piped outside DU
[] 3 Communal stand pipe
[] 4 Borehole
[] 5 Well
[] 6 Spring
[] 7 Stream/river
[] 8 Lake/dam

Fill in the appropriate code for the main source of drinking water during the wet season in column 86 and that for the dry season in column 87. Never leave any of these spaces blank even if the codes for wet and dry season are the same.

Toilet: Ask the respondent the type of toilet facility available to members of the dwelling unit and record the appropriate code in column 88. The various types of toilet facilities and their appropriate codes are as follows:

[] 1 Flush toilet, exclusive: if the dwelling unit has a flush toilet which is exclusively used by members of that dwelling unit or members of other dwelling units belonging to the same household.

[] 2 Flush toilet, shared: if the dwelling unit has a flush toilet which is shared between members of that dwelling unit and members of other dwelling unit(s) belonging to another household. Note that the dwelling units sharing the toilet should have equal rights to the use of the facility.

[] 3 Pit latrine, exclusive: if the dwelling unit has a pit latrine which is exclusively used by members of that dwelling unit or members of other dwelling units belonging to the same household.

[] 4 Pit latrine, shared: if the housing unit has a pit latrine which is shared between members of that dwelling unit and members of other dwelling unit(s) belonging to another household who have equal rights to use the facility.

[] 5 Bucket: if the dwelling unit uses a bucket as a toilet facility.
[p. 31]
[] 6 None: if the dwelling unit has no toilet facility of its own and has no explicit right to share an existing toilet facility with members of another dwelling unit.

Whether there is a radio in working condition in DU: For each dwelling unit ask the respondent whether there is a radio in working condition in that dwelling unit.
Record the reply in column 89. The response codes are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Note: A radio in working condition is the one which is in good order at the time of the interview and good enough to catch Malawi Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) programs.

Number of cycles/vehicles in working condition belonging to person(s) in DU: For each dwelling unit of the household, you should ask (one at a time) the number of bicycles, motorcycles, motor vehicles or ox-carts there are belonging to the person(s) in the dwelling unit. Enter the number of bicycles in column 90, motorcycles in column 91, motor vehicles in column 92 and ox-carts in column 93.

Part G:

Write your name and date of enumeration in the columns headed "Name" and "Date" after the word Enumerator. Leave the other spaces blank.

[p. 32]

SECTION IV
Completion of record of vacant and other structures form

In this Population and Housing Census it is necessary to cover all the structures, that is, all occupied dwelling units including those which are vacant and other structures used for other purposes other than dwelling. The occupied dwelling units have been covered in the household questionnaire. The record of vacant and other structures questionnaire form is therefore designed to collect information for all vacant and other structures regarding the main use of structure and the type of construction materials used for construction of wall, roof and floor.

The vacant structures are any buildings which are intended for sleeping but are not occupied during the period of enumeration. On the other hand the other structures are those buildings which are neither occupied nor vacant dwelling units and are used for other purposes other than dwelling. These include office blocks, shops, churches, mosques, etc. Note that shops with rooms at the top, back or sides where people sleep should be taken as dwelling units.

Identification You should complete this part as in other questionnaire forms. The name of region/district, TA, STA or town and Enumeration Area number which you write should be the same as that you have written on the household questionnaire forms and on the front cover of the pad.

Name of village or place: For each particular vacant or other structure you list you should write the name of village or place in which the structure is located. Leave columns 8-9 blank.

Structure serial number: Record the number you have assigned to the structure in columns 10-12. Note that whereas you will mark the vacant or other structures serially as V001, V002, V003, etc., on the actual structures, you will record the serial numbers as 001, 002, etc., on the questionnaire form.

Main use of structure: Find out the main use of each vacant or other structure you have listed. Write the main use of the structure in the space provided and leave columns 13-14 blank.

You will write "dwelling" if the structure is mainly used or intended for dwelling purposes. If the structure is mainly used for economic activities such as carpentry, beer selling, selling food and beverages, office work, etc., you are required to write the specific type of economic activity. On the other hand, if the structure is used for other non-economic activities such as religious meetings, school, etc., specify the non economic activity.

[p.33]

Main construction materials used for:

(i) Wall: Find out the main construction materials used for the wall and till in the appropriate code in column 15. The alternative codes of type of materials used for construction for the wall are as follows:

[] 1 Burnt bricks
[] 2 Unburnt bricks
[] 3 Concrete
[] 4 Mud/wattle
[] 5 Reeds/straw
[] 6 Wood/planks
[] 7 Other (specify)

In case of other materials other than those coded 1 to 6 you should specify.

(ii) Roof: Fill in column 16 the appropriate code for the main construction materials used for rooting the structure.
The codes are as follows:

[] 1 Grass thatch
[] 2 Iron sheets
[] 3 Iron and tiles
[] 4 Asbestos
[] 5 Cement
[] 6 Other (specify)

You should specify the material in case of code 6 ("Other").

(iii) Floor: Find out the main construction material used for the floor and till in the appropriate code in column 17.
The codes are:

[] 1 Mud
[] 2 Cement
[] 3 Bricks
[] 4 Wood
[] 5 Other (specify)

Note that floor coverings, such as tiles should not be considered as main construction materials for the floor.

[Section V: Completion of record of community facilities form, Section VI: Checks and completion and Annex: Population Census Industrial Classification have been omitted.]