[This document combines the census guide and instructions for population census and the instructions to chief enumerators for the housing census]
Republic of Mauritius
Census Guide and Instructions
A few months ago, Census officers went from door to door to collect information on the housing conditions of the population. They also made a list of all households and their addresses. A Population Census form is now ready for each household.
The aim of this guide is to help you fill in your Census form. Detailed instructions are given in Section 7. The guide also answers some questions you may have about the Census itself. If you still have any difficulties, do not hesitate to ask the enumerator when he calls to collect your form.
2. Why take a census?
The Census gives a complete and reliable picture of the nation as a whole as well as the groups of people living in specific areas. How many of us live in this town or locality? How many are children? How many are old enough to vote? How many are too old to work? How many are women? What kind of jobs are we doing? How many of us are working in agriculture? How many in industries? How many of us have moved into this area? How many have moved out to live in another part of the country?
The Census helps to answer these questions and many others. The information is of enormous help to government, local authorities and citizens' groups to make plans to improve the living conditions of the people, to build houses, roads, schools, health centres, community welfare centres, baby care centres, industrial estates, technical training institutes. The Census helps to decide where these facilities should be located so that they can benefit the largest number of people. The Census figures provide an objective basis to establish priorities and to allocate funds to services such as education, technical training, health and social security.
Every country needs a Census to plan ahead. In Mauritius, a complete count of the population was first made ln 1735. However, the history of the Census as we know it today dates back to 1846. The 2000 Census will be the seventeenth complete census to be taken for the Island of Mauritius and the seventh for the Island of Rodrigues.
3. What happens to your Census form?
The enumerator who delivered the form will come to collect it one or two days after Census night of 1 July 1990. If the answers are incomplete or inaccurate, he will ask you any questions necessary to him to complete or correct the form. The form will then be sent to the Central Statistical Office where the answers will be coded and then transferred to computer. The computer will combine your coded answers with those of other persons to produce statistical tables. It is these tables, and not your personal details, which will be made available to all Census data users. Your name and address will not be transferred to computer. Your form itself will be kept under lock and key until it can be destroyed under official supervision.
4. Why are names required?
You need to list names on the Census form to ensure that you have not missed someone. The names also help the enumerator to check that all questions have been correctly answered for each person. Later on, the names will help us understand the composition of your household for coding purposes.
5. What guarantee is there for the protection of your privacy?
The Census is taken under the Statistics Act. The law requires you to provide the information requested on the Census form, but you are also protected by that same law. It provides penalties, including imprisonment, for anyone who breaches the confidentiality of your answers. All Census employees, and all staff of the Central Statistical Office whether permanent or temporary, have signed an undertaking before a magistrate to keep your answers secret. The law also forbids the Director of Statistics to give your form or your personal details to any other Government Department or to any other authority or person. The Central Statistica1 Office has always upheld its pledge of secrecy with respect to an individual information.
6. The Census topics and their usefulness
The Census form contains a lot of questions. Some of them may look irrelevant to you. But each question, taken on its own or in relation to others, provides valuable information on the people in different areas. This information can be used by both public and private institutions to determine and plan for the type of services needed by the community. When compared with results of previous censuses, it shows how we have been growing and developing as well as the direction in which we are going.
7. Instructions on how to fill in the census form
The Census form has to be filled in completely by the head of the household.
A household is either one person living alone, or a group of persons, who may or may not be related, but who live together and make common provision for food and other essentials for living.
The head of household is any adult member, whether male or female, who is acknowledged as head by the other members.
The census form can contain information for up to 10 persons. If there are more than ten persons, continue on a new form which can be obtained from the Census enumerator. Please note that nothing should be written in the shaded boxes : they are reserved for inserting codes.
After completing the form, have it ready so that the enumerator can collect it on Monday 3 July 2000 or soon after. If you are not sure how to complete any of the entries, please ask the enumerator to help you when he or she calls. He or she will also check your answers and ask any questions necessary to complete the form and correct inaccurate entries.
Column 1 - Person number
Do not write anything in this column. The numbers are codes that distinguish the different persons on the form. It is these codes which will be entered in the computer and not the names of persons given in column 2. If there are more than 10 persons, use a second form and correct the person number to 11, 12, etc.
(ii) usually lives in the household, but was away on census night;Â·
a) on night work, staying overnight or temporarily with relatives, friends, staying in secondary residence, resort hotel, in hospital, even if person is being enumerated elsewhere;
b) on vacation outside Mauritius;
c) on business trip;
d) studying abroad;
d)working abroad, provided his/her usual place of residence is still at this address.
Enter the name (surname first) of every person in the following order:
-spouse of head;
-unmarried children of heed (from eldest to youngest);
-married children of head and their families;
-other relatives of head (father, mother, mother-in-law, father-ln-law, nephew, niece, etc.);
-other persons (visitor, lodger, servant, etc.).
Babies born before midnight on Sunday 2 July 2000 should also be included, even if still in clinic/hospital. If the baby has no name, write surname and 'Baby'
To make sure that no person is omitted, list all of them in column 2 before completing the remainder of the form for each one in turn.
Note that surnames should be written first. Ditto marks (- d0 -) can be used when the surname is the same as the one on the preceding line.
Use one and only one line for every person; do not enter two persons on the same line and do not skip any line between persons. All unused lines should be left blank.
Column 3 -Relationship to head
State clearly the exact relationship of each person to the head who is entered on the first line, e.g. spouse, son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, grandÂchild, mother, father, uncle, cousin, grandfather, lodger, visitor, servant, lodger's wife, servant's daughter, etc.
Note that the entry must be in relation to the head and not to anyone else. Thus the wife of a married son living with his father who is the head, should be reported as "daughter-in-lawÂ· and not as spouse. Write "spouse" only for the spouse of the head. Similarly, write "son" or "daughter" for the children of the head only regardless of their age.
Stepchildren and adopted children should be classified as sons or daughters.
Column 5 - Age
Write the age of the person in completed years. Thus if the person is 15 years and 11 months old on Census night, write "15 years". For a baby who has not yet attained 1 year write "0 year".
If you are not sure about the age of a person, consult the birth certificate if available; otherwise enter the best estimate and indicate that the figure is an estimate e.g. 85 years (est).
Column 6 - Date of birth
Write the month and year of birth of the person, e.g., 15 Jan 1900, 23 June 1978, 25 January 2000.
If the date is not known, write the month and the year. If the month is not known, write the year only. If the year of birth is not known, give your best estimate, indicating that it is an estimate. E.g. 1910 (estimate).
Column 7 - Whereabouts on Census night
Write 'Here' for persons who spent Census night at this address, whether they live here or not. You should also enter 'Here' for a person who usually lives in your household but who was out on night work on Census night.
For a person who was elsewhere in the Island of Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega or St. Brandon write 'Elsewhere in Mauritius'.
For a person who was not in the Island of Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega or St. Brandon, write 'Outside Mauritius'.
Column 8 - Usual address
For a person who usually lives at this address write 'Here' even if he or she was temporarily away on Census night, e.g., on night work, staying temporarily with relatives, on vacation elsewhere in Mauritius, in secondary residence, in hospital, a business trip, studying abroad, or on vacation outside of Mauritius.
If the person does not usually live at this address, write his or her usual address, specifying the Municipal Council Ward or Village Council Area where possible.
If a person has more than one usual address, write the address of his or her principal residence.
For persons on visit to Mauritius, write the country of usual residence of the person.
However, for a non-Mauritian working in Mauritius and his/her accompanying family, follow instructions given below:
(ii) If he/she usually lives elsewhere in Mauritius, write his/her usual address, specifying the Municipal Ward or Village Council Area where possible.
MD- Mauritian by descent: for persons who are born outside Mauritius by Mauritian parents;
MR- Mauritian by registration: for any Commonwealth citizen who has been registered as a citizen of Mauritius;
MN- Mauritian by naturalisation: for any person, other than a Commonwealth citizen, who has become a citizen of Mauritius by naturalisation.
If a person is not a Mauritian citizen, specify the country of which he or she is a citizen.
Column 10 - Usual address 5 years ago
If the person's usual address 5 years ago (i.e. on 2.7.1995) was the same as that entered in column 8, write 'Yes'.
If not, write the person's usual address on 2.7.1995, specifying the Municipal Council Ward or Village Council Area where possible.
For children now under 5 years of age, write 'Not born'.
Column 11 - Disability
Write 'Yes' if the person, because of a long-term physical/mental condition or health problem, experiences any disability, i.e. any limitation to perform any daily-life activity in a manner considered normal for a person of his/her age. Long-term physical/mental condition or health problem is one that has lasted or is expected to last for six months or more.
A long-term disability or handicap is one that has lasted or is expected to last for six months or more.
Then describe the disabilities using the following abbreviations:
EAR- hearing and listening disabilities even with hearing aid;
EYE- seeing disabilities even with glasses;
MTION- walking, running and other ambulation disabilities;
MANU- manual activity disabilities such as fingering, gripping and holding;
LEARN- disturbance of ability to learn and acquire education;
BEH- disturbances of behaviour, including antisocial behaviour, maladjustment and liability to self injury;
Are included under this category:
- disturbances of appearance such as personal uncleanliness, careless dressing and bizarre appearance;
- disturbances resulting from loss of consciousness, fits and blackouts;
- inability to correctly locate external objects events, and himself in relation to time and space and understand relations between objects and persons and to cope with specific situations.
OTHER- other disabilities (specify).
If the person has no long-term disability or handicap, write 'No'.
D- for a person who has legally obtained a divorce and has not remarried;
SEP- for a person who is living separately from his wife (or her husband) provided that no divorce has been obtained;
MRC- for a person who is currently married both religiously and civilly;
MR- for a person who is currently married religiously only;
MC - for a person who is currently married civilly only;
C- for a person who is living in a free union with another, without being married religiously or civilly;
S- for a person who has never been married religiously or civilly and has never lived in a free union;
UP- for an unmarried parent;
Other- for persons who do not fall in any of the above categories (specify).
Please note that widowed (W) and separated (SEP) can apply to a person who had been previously married, either civilly or religiously, and also to a person who had been in a free union. However, divorced (D) can apply only to a person who had been married civilly, or civilly as well as religiously.
Column 13 - Age at first marriage
For every person, male or female, who is not single in column 12, write the age, in completed years, at which he or she got married for the first time. Marriage includes civil and religious marriage as well as free union.
For example, if a person started living in a free union at the age of 25 years, got civilly married at the age of 28 years, and then married religiously at the age of 29 years, write 25 years.
Similarly, if a person first married at the age of 20 years, obtained a divorce at 30 years, and then married again two years later, write 20 years.
Column 14 - Whether married more than once
For every person, male or female, who is not single in column 12, and who has been married more than once, write 'Yes'. For those married only once, write 'No'.
A person married religiously on one date and civilly on another is considered to have been married once only provided it is to the same partner.
Column 15 - Number of children ever born
For every woman who is not sing1e in column 12, write the number of children that were ever born to her.
Count all 1ive born children, whether born of the present or previous marriages or free unions, including those who may have died since birth and those who may not be living with her any more. Do not count stillbirths and do not include step-children, and adopted children.
If she has never had a live born child, write 'Nil'.
Column 16 - Religion
State the religion to which the person claims to belong.
If he or she does not have a religion, write 'None'.
For infants and children, write the religion in which their parents intend to raise them.
Column 17 - Linguistic group
Write the language spoken by the person's forefathers. It does not matter whether the person himself (herself) speaks the language or not. If the language of the paternal forefathers is different from that of the maternal forefathers, write both.
For census purposes, consider creole, bhojpuri, etc. as languages
Column 18 - Language usually spoken
Insert the language usually or most often spoken by the person in his/her home.
For children not yet able to speak, write the language spoken by the mother.
For a person who cannot speak, write the language usually spoken in the person's home.
For census purposes, consider creole, bhojpuri, etc. as languages
Column 19 - Languages read and written
State the language(s) in which the person can, with understanding, both read and write a simple statement in his or her everyday life. Do not include a language in which the person can read and write only his (her) name, figures, and memorized phrases.
For census purposes, consider creole, bhojpuri, etc. as languages
For persons (including children), who cannot read and write any language, write none.
PAST- for a person who has attended school, college, university, vocational or technical school in the past.
NEVER- for a person who has never attended school, even if he or she has obtained educational qualifications.
If person is now attending primary or secondary school: write the standard or form being attended.
If the person has attended primary or primary and secondary school in the past, write the highest standard or form completed or the highest certificate obtained, if any.
-For a person who has completed only Standard III, write "STD III".
-For a person who has completed only the primary cycle, write "CPE" or "PSLC" If he/she has passed the Certificate of Primary Education or the Primary School Leaving Certificate; if not write "STD VI".
-For a person who has completed only Form IV, write "Form IV".
-For a person who has completed Form V or an equivalent level, write "SC" or "GCE(OL)" or "BEPC" only if he/she has obtained the relevant certificate; if not, write "Form VI".
-For a person who has studied up to the Higher School Certificate or an equivalent level, write "HSC" or "GCE(AL)", etc. only if he/she has obtained the relevant certificate; if not, write "Form VI".
However, if the person has studied privately or by correspondence or followed any special education classes (such as schools for the disabled, adult education programmes), then report the equivalent level of primary or secondary education completed or the highest primary or secondary school certificate obtained.
Column 22 - Qualifications obtained other than those of the primary and secondary levels
This question asks whether the person has obtained any qualifications other than those of primary/secondary levels already reported in column 21. E.g. degrees, diplomas, nursing or teaching qualifications, graduate or corporate membership of professional institutions, other professional, educational, technical or vocational training. Include also any qualifications obtained on trade, craft, industrial and home economics courses.
If person does not have any such qualifications, write "NONE" in all six columns. Write "NONE" also for persons still following primary or secondary education.
If person has such qualifications, insert details for the 3 highest qualifications obtained as explained below.
For each qualification obtained, give details as follows starting with the highest qualification:
- title of qualification obtained, the major field of study and name of institution awarding the qualification.
Space is allowed for reporting the 3 highest qualifications obtained. Columns (1a) and (1b) relate to the highest qualification, columns (2a) and (2b) to the second highest and columns (3a) and (3b) to the third highest. If the person has only one qualification, fill in the necessary details in columns (1a) and (1b); if person has two qualifications, fill in columns (1a) and (1 b) as well as (2a) and (2b).
(1a), (2a), (3a) - Duration of training
Insert the duration of schooling/training in full time equivalent months. For full-time regular courses, consider one academic year as equivalent to 12 months, even though the actual training during the year may have been somewhat less than 12 months.
For a person who received training by correspondence, or through private or part-time study, convert the accumulated training to the equivalent number of months in the full-time regular programme.
(1b), (2b), (3b) - Qualification received, major field of study and name of institution awarding the qualification
For each qualification obtained, give the title of the qualification, the corresponding major field of study and the name of the awarding institution.
-Graduate Diploma In Statistics - Royal Statistical Society.
-BSc Clvll Engineering - University of Sussex.
-BSc Agriculture - University of Mauritius.
-Diploma course in teacher training - MIE.
-NCC lnternational Diploma in Computer Studies - SITRAC.
-NCC Certificate In Multimedia - SITRAC.
-NTC 1 Hotel management - Hotel School of Mauritius.
-NTC 3 Furniture making - S.K. Jagatslngh Training Centre.
For a person who is now following a course and has not yet obtained any qualification, write "NONE" in all columns. However, if he/she is currently following a course, but has qualifications other than those reported in column 21, give details for the qualifications already obtained and not the course he/she is now following.
(ii) work done for payment in kind, e.g. services rendered by a member of a religious order who is provided with lodging or food or other supplies;
(iii) work done by a self-employed person (alone or in partnership) in his/her own enterprise, trade, business, farm or professional practice, whether alone or with employees;
(iv) work done without pay in a family enterprise, plantation or farm owned by a member of the same household or another relative;
(v) work done by apprentices and trainees, whether paid or unpaid.
For every person aged 12 years and over, indicate the number of hours worked for pay, profit, or family gain during the past week from Monday 26 June to Sunday 2 July 2000.
You should include any time spent on activities such as shopÂkeeping; growing vegetables or other crops; livestock or poultry keeping; fishing; making and repairing fishing boats, nets and basket traps; curing and preserving fish and octopus; making baskets, hats, mats and begs; making handicraft products; preparing food products like 'dholl puree' for sale; construction and repair of own dwelling and buildings used for agricultural, commercial and industrial purposes; keeping tea shops; street vending, etc.
Insert the actual number of hours worked by the person, irrespective of whether it is less or more than his/her normal hours of work per week. Please include overtime hours and short rest periods such as tea breaks; but exclude lunch hours as well as period of sick leave, casual leave, time off, etc.
If the person did several kinds of work during the past week, insert the total number of hours worked at all jobs. E.g: if during the past week, he/she has worked for 36 hours as a teacher, 6 hours giving private tuition, and another 7 hours assisting in the family shop, write "49 hours".
Report also the number of hours, if any, worked during the past week, by a student, an old age pensioner, a worker retired from a previous employment or a home-maker who has worked outside his/her home.
For a person who did not work during the past week for any reason whatsoever, or if he/she worked for less than one hour, write "00".
Column 24 - With job but not worked
This question asks whether there was a job, business, family enterprise, plantation or farm at which the person did not work last week because of illness, injury, holiday, study/training leave, industrial dispute, off-season inactivity or temporary disorganization.
If there was such a job, business, enterprise, plantation or farm from which the person was temporari1y absent write 'Yes' and skip to column 28.
If the person did not hold a job last week, write 'No' and continue with column 25.
Column 25 - Job search
Write 'Yes" if the person took any active steps to look for work any time during the past 4 weeks; e.g., if he/she checked with employers or at private homes, factories and worksites, placed or answered job advertisements, sought assistance and advice to set up his/her own enterprise, maintained registration with an Employment Exchange, etc.
If the person did not take any active steps to look for work or set up a business during the past 4 weeks, write 'No'.
ST: for a person who was studying;
DIS: for a person who was sick, injured or disabled;
WR: for a wholly retired person;
OTHER: for a person who was not available for work because of other reasons; details should be given, e.g. person was a rentier, or a child not going to school and too young to work.
Column 27 - When last worked
For a person who has worked before, write the number of completed months that has elapsed since he/she last worked even for a few days and continue with column 28.
If the person has never worked, write 'Never' and go to column 34.
[Columns 28 to 33 are for persons who have ever worked. Information is required on the person's work during the past week. If person had more than one job last week, answer for the job at which he/she worked the most hours. If person had no job last week, answer for his/her last job.]
Column 28 -
Name and type of establishment
Write the name of the establishment, factory, firm, government ministry, municipal or district council, parastatal body, cooperative enterprise, etc., for which the person worked, including details of branch, division, department, etc. Please do not use abbreviations.
If the establishment has no name (e.g. a sugar cane plantation, an attorney's office, a medical practice), write the name of the employer.
If the person was self-employed, write the name of his/her business, shop, agency, etc. If the business does not have a name, write the person's own name.
If the person worked as an employee in a private household (e.g. as cook, driver, watchman, gardener, laundress, maidservant, etc.), write 'private household'.
Column 29 - Kind of business, industry or service
Give a complete description of the kind of business, industry or service which was being carried on at the place where the person worked.
Do not use vague terms such as agriculture, repairs, factory, school, shop, etc. Give a complete description: for example, sugarcane cultivation, tea cultivation, anthurium plantation, car repairing, bicycle repairing; sugar factory, pullover knitting factory, manufacture of knitted gloves, cutting and sewing underwear, primary school, secondary school, household furniture shop, household appliances shop, groceries retailer, victualler, etc. Do not hesitate to use creole terms if necessary.
If more than one activity were carried out at the place where the person worked, describe the business, industry or service in which the person's main occupation was performed.
For persons in Government Service, do not write 'Government Service', but describe the activity carried out by the office or department where the person worked. E.g., Administration, collection of statistics, police, livestock breeding, plant nursery, agricultural research station, manufacture of wooden furniture, printing, road construction, primary education, health services, sewage services, etc.
For a person who worked as employee in a private household (e.g. as cook, driver, watchman, gardener, laundress, maidservant, etc.), write 'Household service'.
Do not forget to describe the kind of business or service in the case of persons who were self-employed or who worked in their own homes; for example, dressmaking, tailoring, curing of fish, basket making, cattle keeping, preparation of foodstuffs for sale, sale of vegetables, taxi service, etc.
Column 30 - Place of work
Give the full address of the person's place of work, specifying the Municipal Ward or Village Council Area where possible. Please note that the place of work may not be the head office of the establishment for which the person worked. For example, if a person employed by the Ministry of Social Security was posted in Bambous, write the full address in Bambous.
For a person who worked in their own home, write 'At home'.
For a person who worked in the home of his/her employer, give the address of the employer.
If the person had no usual place of work, give the address of the depot, garage, taxi stand, firm, etc. where the person reported for work.
For street vendors, door to door salesperson, etc., give the Village Council Area, Municipal Council Ward or locality where they worked the most.
Column 31 - Occupation
Describe as clearly and as precisely as possible the work which the person was doing. Do not describe the job for which the person has been trained, but the job which he was actually doing. For example, if a lorry driver worked as a bricklayer, write 'Bricklayer'.
Do not use vague terms such as clerk, driver, factory worker, supervisor, repair technician, teacher, etc. Use precise terms such as filing clerk, accounts clerk, bus driver, bus conductor, taxicar driver, lorry driver, cabinet maker, supervisor of sewing machine operators, supervisor of road repair workers, car repair mechanic, television repair technician, telephone operator, primary school teacher, etc.
For members of religious orders engaged in activities such as primary school teaching, nursing, etc., you should report these activities rather than their religious activity.
Do not hesitate to use creole terms, if necessary, to describe an occupation.
SEW - for a self-employed person operating (alone or in partnership) his/her own business, trade, enterprise, farm or professional practice, without the help of paid employees;
FW- for a person who worked without pay in a business, trade, enterprise or farm operated by a member of the same household or another relative. If the person worked for pay, he should be reported as EM or EO as described below;
A- for an apprentice with or without pay;
EM- for an employee paid by the month.
EO- for an employee paid by day, week, fortnight or by the job, even if payment was made at the end of the month. Write EO also for persons who worked for commissions, payments on a piece rate basis or for payments in kind.
PC- for an active member of a producer's co-operative.
OTHER- for a person whose employment status does not fall in any of the above categories; give a full description in such cases.
Column 33 - Length of service with employer
For persons who held a job last week, state the number of completed years they have worked for their present employer.
For persons who had no job last week, state the number of completed years they worked for their most recent employer.
For self-employed persons, give the period during which they were self-employed.
For persons who worked without pay for a member of the same household or another relative, give the period during which they have operated as unpaid family workers.
If the person worked for less than a year, write 'Less than one year'.
Note that it is the length of service with the employer that is required, and not the time during which the person worked at his/her job. Thus, for persons in public service, give the total length of service and not the time spent in their present grade or post.
Approved leaves should be included when counting the length Of service.
If the person had a work interruption implying a breach of contract with his/her employer, or a resignation from his/her job, then count the length of service from the date of re-employment.
- commissions, gratuities, bonuses, cost of living allowances, etc.
- share of profits made by the co-operatives.
- dividends received,
- rent received (less current maintenance expenses} for the use of residential and non-residential buildings and lands.
- widow's pension and child's allowance,
- invalid pension,
- unemployment hardship relief,
- other social security benefits.
- life insurance annuity benefit,
- widow's and children pension,
- scholarship grants,
- regular cash gifts and remittances,
- other regular income.
In cases where income is received quarterly, half-yearly or yearly (e.g: net receipt from crop cultivation, distribution of profits from trade, profession and business, interests and dividends received, etc.), insert the income which would refer to a month.
Do not include lottery prizes, receipts from sales of possessions, withdrawals from savings, lump sum pension, lump sum insurance payments and lump sum inheritances.
For a person who has received no income, insert "Nil".
[The rest of the document includes the instructions to chief enumerators for the housing census]
[Table of contents omitted. Pages 1-6 consist of an introduction and information about legal provisions for the census. These pages are omitted.]
3.1 Historical background
Census taking in Mauritius dates back to the 18th century. The first complete census of the Island of Mauritius was taken in 1735 under the governorship of MahÃ© de Labourdonnais. Since then, numerous complete censuses or partial counts of the population have been taken. Manuscript results of two complete censuses taken in 1776 and 1786 are still preserved in the archives in Paris.
The first census report to be printed was probably that of 1846, but no copy has been traced in Mauritius. Printed copies of all subsequent census reports are kept in the Archives of Mauritius.
The 1846 census was followed by that of 1851. Since then, up to 1931, censuses have been taken every ten years. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the one which was due in 1941 had to be postponed to 1944. The first census to be taken after the War was in 1952, and the ten-yearly programme was subsequently resumed with a census in 1962 and another in 1972. The 1983 Census which was scheduled for 1982 had to be postponed to 1983 because of the 1982 parliamentary elections.
If the decennial plan were to be followed, the next census would have been taken in 1993 instead of 1990. However it was found necessary to bring the census year forward to 1990 to satisfy a pressing need for detailed up-to-date data on the characteristics of the labour force in a situation characterized by important industrial and occupational changes. The 2000 Census will be the seventeenth complete census to be taken for the Island of Mauritius and the seventh for the Island of Rodrigues.
3.2 Dates of the 2000 Census
The official dates for the Housing Census are from 7 February 2000 to 18 June 2000, whilst the Population Census will be taken between 19 June and 16 July 2000 in respect of all persons alive at midnight on the night of 2-3 July 2000.
The fact that the dates for the Housing Census are from 7 February to 18 June does not imply that the field enumeration can span over the five months period. What it means is that, legally, the fieldstaff have up to 18 June 2000 to obtain Housing Census data from households. Hence it is important that the fieldwork be completed much earlier so that if queries are found at the editing, coding or data processing stages, then households can be re-contacted within the prescribed time limit to settle them. It is expected that the Housing Census field enumeration should be completed by the middle of April 2000 at latest, to allow sufficient time, not only for clearing doubtful information, but also for the preparation of address lists to be used as basis for the Population Census.
3.4 Objectives of the Census
The general objective of the census is to provide up-to-date, disaggregated data on housing conditions and on the spatial distribution and demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population. The data are useful in reviewing and implementing housing, population, education and manpower policies, and in preparing, monitoring and evaluating development plans and programmes both at national and regional levels.
Census data are useful also to business, industrial and commercial organisations to estimate the demand for their product and services, and to assess the supply of manpower with the relevant skills to run their activities. Foreign countries and international organisations make wide use of census information when preparing their technical and financial aid programmes for different countries.
The Housing Census is probably the only source of information on the stock of different types of buildings and housing units in the country. Apart from the age and durability of residential buildings, it provides a wealth of information on the type and tenure of housing units, the number of rooms they have and the amenities they offer to their occupants. The census thus enables us to study the housing conditions of the population, the adequacy of amenities such as water supply, toilets, bathrooms and kitchens, as well as the extent of overcrowding as measured by the average number of occupants per housing unit and per room. It helps us to identify those regions where there is a housing shortage, where housing is particularly poor, and where facilities such as water supply and sewerage disposal are inadequate. The bench-mark statistics are not only useful for formulating national and regional programmes, but, when supplemented by current building statistics, they provide a continuous up-to-date picture of the housing situation in the country.
The Population Census provides indispensable data on the demographic, cultural, geographical, educational and economic characteristics of the population. It is the only source which provides reliable information not only for the country as a whole, but also for administrative divisions as well as small regions.
Demographic data on age, sex, marital status, household composition, and fertility provide knowledge about the structure of households and families and the interrelationships between demographic and other variables. They are used for making projections of the population by age, sex and marital status, and hence to determine future demands for housing, schools and training facilities, hospitals and health services and social security benefits; they also allow projections to be made of the number of persons who will be working or looking for work, as well as those who will be retiring from the labour market.
Questions on religion and languages help to determine the size and geographical distribution of population groups with different religious and cultural backgrounds. This information is useful for religious and socio-cultural organisations to plan and provide the necessary infrastructure and facilities for the enhancement of the religious and socio-cultural development of the nation.
Questions on geographical characteristics give the distribution of the population in sub-regions such as Municipal Wards and Village Council Areas. The data, which can be obtained only at a census, are useful for regional planning and for the estimation of per capita grants to local authorities. Migration questions provide estimates of the rate of movement of population from one region to another; these estimates are useful for town and country planning and for determining the size of population by region for intercensal years.
Data on literacy, educational and technical training are required to assess improvements in the educational level of the population and to assess the stock of qualified manpower with different skills and training backgrounds.
Census data on economic characteristics indicate by gender and age, how many persons are working, how many are available for work, how many are not available for work and how many are not available for reasons such as studies, housework, old age and permanent disability. Coupled with data on education and training they provide essential information required for estimating the supply of qualified manpower in different occupations and industries. Such information is useful to Government, employers and trade unions to plan for future jobs in various sectors of the economy and to answer the need for more and more specialised skills particularly in IT.
Information on income provides an important indicator of the economic well-being of individuals and households. Income data are useful in the formulation and evaluation of government welfare programmes. Data collected will allow the study of income of specific groups, such as the jobless, the elderly, persons with disabilities, and lone-parent households and their economic dependency on government social aid. Subsequently, development programmes can be designed to address such issues.
3.5 Census methodology
The 2000 Census will be conducted in two rounds, like the previous three censuses. The first round will be the Housing Census during which will be enumerated buildings, housing units, households, commercial and industrial establishments, hotels, boarding houses and institutions.
After completion of the Housing Census enumeration, a list will be prepared of all heads of households with their addresses to serve as frame for the Population Census enumeration, which will be the second round of the census exercise.
The timely completion of the Housing Census enumeration is therefore an important and necessary first step towards the execution of the Population Census. A relatively short period of four months will be available for completing the Housing Census enumeration, keying in the data, verifying the keyed data, correcting all errors and inconsistencies, processing the data, printing the names and addresses of some 290,000 heads of households on address slips, and sticking these address slips on the Population Census questionnaires. The Housing Census enumeration should be completed by the middle of April 2000 at latest to give sufficient time to the CSO and the Central Information Systems Division to complete these tasks in time for the Population Census.
[Pages 11-15 consist of information about the field organization and the duties of the field staff. These pages are omitted.]
4.1 Immediate objectives of Housing Census
The main immediate objectives of the Housing Census enumeration are to identify all households, and their addresses to serve as basis for the Population Census, and to collect information on the housing conditions of the population. In order to ensure that all households and housing units, wherever they may be, are enumerated without omission or duplication, it is necessary to visit and obtain information on all buildings. Hence, directly or indirectly, the immediate objectives of the Housing Census enumeration are:
(ii) to make an inventory of all housing units, and all spaces, structures and enclosures used for habitation, wherever they may be;
(iii) to collect information on the amenities offered by the housing units, and the other spaces, structures and enclosures used for habitation;
(iv) to obtain the names and addresses of all heads of households, without omission or duplication, to serve as frame for the Population Census;
(iv) to make an inventory of all non-agricultural private establishments, including those relating to small crafts;
(v) to enumerate all fruit trees of bearing age on residential premises.
The above tasks will be one of the main responsibilities of the Chief Enumerator at the Housing Census.
4.2 Cartographic preparations
Proper enumeration, and in particular the prevention of omissions and duplications, depends to a large extent on the availability of up-to-date and accurate maps showing detailed subdivisions of regions and subregions into easily recognizable Census Enumeration Areas( EAs). Without maps it is very difficult to describe the boundaries and ground features of the area to be covered by a field officer. Verbal descriptions can supplement the information on a map, but they can never replace it in terms of realism and accuracy of detail.
Maps also facilitate census fieldwork by allowing both office and fieldstaff to determine work assignments, identify access routes to an area and the best route of travel within an area, estimate travel time and costs, measure distances to locate ground features and boundaries, and to monitor progress of fieldwork.
The CSO has therefore prepared a series of maps to be used by fieldstaff for the field enumeration at the Housing Census. Each Senior Supervisor and Supervisor will have a location map showing the area allocated to him. The location map will have sufficient information to enable the Senior Supervisor or Supervisor to locate his area on the ground and distinguish it from similar adjacent areas.
You, as Chief Enumerator, will be provided with a set of individual EA maps together with a location map which shows the relative position of each EA you will have to canvass and enumerate. The aggregate EAs shown on the location map of the Chief Enumerator constitute what is known as the Chief Enumeratorâs area.
The detailed individual EA map is the most important one for the census. You will not only need it for the enumeration exercise, but will also have to update it, and later on return it to your Supervisor after completion of the allocation of workloads to Enumerators for the Population Census. The EA map contains enough representation of ground features and peripheral information to enable you to exactly locate the area. Furthermore, a red line has been drawn over the entire boundary of the EA to highlight it. Make sure that you identify correctly the boundaries of each EA on the ground, since you are not allowed to enumerate buildings and people outside the borders of any particular EA you may be canvassing. At the same time, no portion of any of your EAs should be omitted.
The total number of EAs is around 3,500 for the Island of Mauritius, and 93 for the Island of Rodrigues. Agalega and St. Brandon are each considered as one EA for Census purposes. The average number of households in an EA is about 95 in urban and 75 in rural areas, although any given EA may have anything from zero to 200 households; in rare cases an EA may have up to 300 households. Each Chief Enumerator will have to canvass one or more EAs. In no case will a Chief Enumerator cover only part of an EA. The total number of households covered by one Chief Enumerator will be around 300 in rural and 400 in urban areas. However, these are indicative figures only, since the actual workload will depend on the physical spread or size of the Chief Enumeratorâs area, the difficulty of the terrain and its ease of access via public means of transport. Furthermore, in commercial areas, where the number of establishments to be enumerated is particularly large, the number of households allocated to a Chief Enumerator may be smaller than the above average figures to ensure an equitable distribution of workloads.
[Pages 18-24 consist of information about the use of maps, field reconnaissance, updating of maps, canvassing an EA, and the care of maps. These pages are omitted.]
The Housing Census will enumerate buildings, housing units, households and non-agricultural establishments as well as fruit trees of bearing age on residential premises. In order to ensure that these terms are interpreted in the same way by everyone it is necessary to define them and to specify what should or should not be included under each heading for census purposes. Information will also be collected on some of the attributes associated with the above concepts and these attributes also need to be explained for uniform and accurate interpretation. The UN handbook âPrinciples and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censusesâ (Statistical Papers Series M No. 67/Rev. 1) has been used extensively in preparing the following notes which relate to the concepts, definitions and specifications applicable to the Housing Census topics.
5.2.1 Definition of building
A building is any independent free-standing structure, comprising one or more rooms and other spaces, covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extends from the foundations to the roof. Dividing walls, rather than external walls, are quite common in densely built commercial areas of mainly urban regions.
A building may be used or intended for residential, commercial, industrial or agricultural purposes or for the provision of services. It may be a detached housing unit, apartment building, shop, warehouse, factory, workshop, school, church, and so forth.
For the purposes of the census, detached structures such as toilets, bathrooms, kitchens and garages are not counted as separate buildings; they are accounted for as facilities available to the housing unit to which they belong. However, detached rooms used for living purposes, are to be counted as separate buildings. Similarly if a garage, a store-room, or any other temporary or improvised structure is being used for living purposes at the time of the census, then it should be considered as a distinct building.
5.2.2 Census coverage of buildings
The census will cover all buildings or structures used for living purposes and all other buildings except those used for agricultural purposes; thus, for example, stables for livestock, pens for poultry, greenhouses, tea and tobacco weighing offices on estates, stores on agricultural establishments, etc, are to be excluded. However, buildings used for processing of agricultural products must be included, e.g. sugar, tea and tobacco factories, fruits and vegetables processing and canning factories, fish canning plants, etc.
(ii) all buildings intended for residential, commercial or industrial purposes or for the provision of services, which are vacant at the time of the census;
(iii) any shelter which, although not in conformity with the definition of a building, is being used for habitation at the time of the census;
(iv) any place being used by a homeless person for living or sleeping;
(v) buildings under construction.
The following must not be enumerated:
(i) all buildings used for agricultural purposes as described above;
(ii) garages when they are not being used for habitation or for commercial or industrial purposes;
(iii) temporary shelters and improvised housing units that are not occupied at the time of the census;
(iv) buildings being demolished or awaiting demolition;
(v) dilapidated buildings which are uninhabited and totally uninhabitable;
(vi) embassy buildings except those where Mauritians are residing.
5.2.3 Enumeration and numbering of buildings
The enumeration of all buildings falling within the scope of the Census has to be done block by block within each EA, that is, you have to complete one block before starting with the next one. To identify a building uniquely it is necessary to assign a number to it. This number should indicate both the block identification number and the building itself. It will be remembered that the block number was made up of two digits (section 4.6.3). As regards buildings, most blocks will contain from 30 to 50 of them, but it is possible for some blocks to have up to 200. Hence a three digits code has to be used for identifying buildings. Thus the first building of the first block in a given EA will have number 01/001, the second building will have number 01/002 and so on. Similarly 04/001 identifies the first building of block number 04 and 04/010 identifies the tenth building of the same block. The first two digits identify the block and the last three identify the building.
Assign a number to each building falling within the scope of the census starting with the first building in the block you are enumerating. Proceed in a logical order bearing in mind the instructions as regards the designated starting point (section 4.6.4) and the path of travel (section 4.6.5). Obtain the permission of the respondent before numbering the building. Write the number with the lumber crayon provided, high enough to avoid erasing by children, and in a conspicuous place in order that it may be spotted easily by the Supervisor for control purposes, and also by the Enumerator for the Population Census enumeration. Take care to write the number neatly so as not to irritate the occupants of the building. It is important that you write the whole five-digit number, with a slash separating the block number from the building number, in order to distinguish the census enumeration number from numbers that may have been written on the building or the fence by other authorities. Ask the occupants not to erase the number before August 2000.
Remember that kitchens, bathrooms, toilets and garages are not to be numbered as separate buildings; they should be accounted for as facilities available to the housing unit.
Although you will have to number all buildings falling within the scope of the census, it will not be possible to show the position of all these buildings on your EA map. However, you should indicate on the map the position and number of the first building in each block, the direction of travel, the position and number of the last building, and the position and number of any out-of-the-way or strategically placed building.
The recording of the block number and the building number in the enumeration book is explained later. (Section 6.3.1)
At times you will come across a household occupying two or more buildings. For instance, a household may occupy two housing units each of which is in a separate building; or a household may occupy a housing unit in one building plus a separate detached room. In such cases a distinct serial number must be given to each building. Thus in the example where a household occupies a housing unit plus a detached room, the building in which the housing unit is located could have the number 01/125 whilst the detached room would be numbered 01/126 (see Appendix F2). However, you will remember that if facilities usually provided by a housing unit are located in two or more detached structures, as when a kitchen is in a separate structure and a toilet in another, then such structures are not to be numbered. (See Appendix F1)
(ii) As regards hotels, give a building number to the main building only. Do not number the other buildings which are used for occupation by hotel guests.
(iii) If a building is used partly as a hotel or boarding house or institution on the one hand and partly for residential purposes by private households or for commercial and other non-residential purposes on the other, then two building numbers should be given to the building. One number will be for that part which is used as a hotel, boarding house or institution. The second number will be for the rest of the building which can be wholly residential, wholly non-residential or partly residential and partly non-residential. This is a rare complicated case which will be made clearer by studying the example in Appendix F10 after going through the notes on type of building given in the next section.
The procedure of giving two numbers to one and the same building is inconsistent with the definition of building, but it has to be adopted on the field to ensure that persons in hotels, boarding houses and institutions are not only counted, but are counted separately from persons in private households.
It is to be noted that any building on the grounds of hotels, institutions, industrial and public establishments, which is partly or wholly used as place of residence for a private household (such as that of a watchman, an employee or a director), should be numbered and enumerated separately (see the cookâs housing unit in Appendix F9).
It is clear which buildings fall in this category, but please note that buildings still under construction but which are already occupied, are classified under the appropriate wholly residential or partly residential types.
(b) Wholly residential building
(ii) Building containing more than one housing unit. A building should be included in this category only if it is wholly residential, otherwise it should be considered as partly residential and classified under (vi) below. Since wholly residential buildings containing more than one housing unit may be of different kinds, the following distinctions will have to be made:
- Blocks of flats, semi-detached houses, etc.
- Buildings intended to be used as one housing unit but crudely subdivided into smaller housing units. It is common practice to subdivide a building originally intended for habitation by one household into smaller housing units. Such divisions are sometimes effected by inadequate conversions, the most rudimentary being simply the locking of doors between adjacent rooms.
- Other wholly residential buildings containing more than one housing unit. This type will include mainly buildings containing one or more housing units plus one or more rooms occupied by members of a household living in another building (See Appendix F6).
(iii) Detached room intended for use by part of a household. This is a separate building consisting of one or more rooms, but without cooking facilities, which is used, or intended to be used by one or more members of a household living in another building. However, a detached room which is not used by part of the household, but occupied by other persons (such as a watchman), should be considered as a building used wholly as one housing unit and included under b(i) above. Please note again that bathrooms, kitchens, garages and stores are not considered as detached rooms and are not to be enumerated as separate buildings.
(v) Homeless. You should include in this category any place, e.g. a shop verandah, where a homeless person may be staying or sleeping, although such a place is not strictly a building or structure. However the place should be described, e.g. âshop verandah used for sleeping by beggarâ. Please note that if a shop verandah is being used by a homeless person then two building numbers should be given â one for the building itself and another for the place where the homeless is staying or sleeping. This is necessary to identify the homeless person.
A building designed to be used wholly as a housing unit should be considered as wholly residential even if a room is subsequently used, by members of the resident household, for professional or âinformalâ economic activities, such as private tuition, consultation, and sewing for remuneration.
(viii) Hotel or boarding house with less than 9 rooms.
(ix) Institution. This category includes all buildings, used as convents, infirmaries, orphanages, hospitals, clinics, old peopleâs homes, prisons, barracks and the like.
Please remember the special instructions given above (Section 5.2.4) for numbering institutional and hotel buildings. Note also that a housing unit (intended for hotel or institutional staff) should be numbered and enumerated separately, whether or not it is within the same building as the hotel or institution; such a housing unit should be included in category b(i), that is, building used wholly as one housing unit. (See Appendix F9).
Buildings containing publicly owned and controlled enterprises are also to be classified as public. A list of such enterprises is given below:
Agricultural Marketing Board
Bank of Mauritius
Cargo Handling Corporation
Central Housing Authority
Central Water Authority
Development Bank of Mauritius
Development Works Corporation
Farmers Service Corporation
Government Printing Office
Industrial and Vocational Training Board
Mahatma Gandhi Institute
Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation
Mauritius College of the Air
Mauritius Co-operative Central Bank
Mauritius Examinations Syndicate
Mauritius Export Development and Investment Authority (Media)
Mauritius Housing Company Ltd.
Mauritius Institute of Education
M. I. P. A. M. (Mauritius Institute of Public Administration and Management)
Mauritius Marine Authority
Mauritius Meat Authority
M. O. B. A. A. (Mauritius Offshore Business Activities Authority)
Mauritius Standards Bureau
Mauritius Sugar Authority
Mauritius Sugar Bulk Terminal Corporation
Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
National Transport Corporation
Outer Islands Development Corporation
Private Secondary Schools Authority
Rose Belle Sugar Factory
S. M. I. D. O. (Small and Medium Industries Development Organisation)
State Commercial Bank
State Informatics Ltd
State Insurance Corporation of Mauritius
State Finance Corporation Ltd
State Investment Corporation
State Trading Corporation
Stock Exchange Commission
Sugar Industry Development Fund
Sugar Industry Labour Welfare Fund
Sugar Insurance Fund Board
Sugar Planters Mechanical Pool Corporation
Town and Country Planning Board
University of Mauritius
(xi) Commercial building. A building is commercial if it is used entirely for commercial purposes, or if it is used mainly for commercial and partly for industrial or other non-residential purposes. Commerce means wholesale and retail trade such as is carried on in shops, drug-stores, tea shops, restaurants, tobacconist shops, hardware shops, etc. However markets as well as buildings occupied entirely by Government enterprises should be classified as public.
(xii) Industrial building. A building is industrial if it is used entirely for industrial purposes, or if it is used mainly for industrial and partly for commercial or other non-residential purposes. Industrial activities are those that are carried out, for example, in textiles and garments factories, tailorsâ and shoemakersâ workshops, tea and sugar factories, breweries, bakeries, tinsmithsâ and blacksmithsâ workshops, cabinet makersâ workshops, workshops for making shipsâ models, handicrafts workshops, etc. Repair workshops will go under category âOtherâ described below. Note again that buildings occupied by Government enterprises are classified as public.
(xiii) Commercial and industrial. In this category are included buildings which are used equally for commercial and industrial purposes either by the same establishment or by different establishments. Examples are a bakery where cakes are made and sold, or a shirt makerâs workshop where shirts are manufactured and sold, or a building containing several establishments, some of which are engaged in commercial (selling) and others in industrial (manufacturing) activities. The proviso is that again no part of the building should be used for residential purposes.
(xv) Other non-residential building. This category includes all buildings falling within the scope of the Census, but which do not belong to any of the categories mentioned above. In particular, all buildings used entirely by the services sectors should be included here: for example, cinemas, banks, beauty parlours, barbersâ shops, attorneysâ and solicitorsâ offices, accountantsâ offices, doctors and dentistsâ surgeries, dry cleaning establishments and repair workshops. Pre-primary private establishments are also classified in this category. Please note that you have to give a full description of any building reported as âOtherâ, and therefore if you have doubts about the classification of any building, you can enter it in this category with the appropriate description.
(ii) Year of completion. The year or period of completion refers to the age of buildings in which housing units are located. The exact year may not be known to the occupants, especially if they are renting accommodation in relatively old buildings, but extensive probing should be resorted to in order to arrive at an estimate of the period of completion.
If the period of completion cannot be estimated even after probing, then, as a last resort, report âNot knownâ.
Buildings which are still under construction but are inhabited after the occupants have made makeshift arrangements, should be reported separately as âNot completed but inhabitedâ. However if part of the building, such as the ground floor, is completed and inhabited, the year of completion of this part should be reported, even if additions or improvements are in progress.
In cases where parts of buildings have been constructed at different times, the period of completion should refer to the major part.
(iii) Principal material of construction used. The material of construction relates to the permanency and durability of the building. Information is to be recorded separately for the roof and walls. If more than one material is used, the predominant material should be reported, or the material used for the major part of the roof or walls.
5.3.1 Definition of housing unit
A housing unit is a separate and independent place of abode intended for habitation by one household, or one not intended for habitation, but occupied for living purposes by a household at the time of the census. Thus a housing unit may be:
(ii) an improvised structure which is occupied for living purposes at the time of Census;
(iii) any other place, not intended for habitation, but occupied for living purposes at the time of the Census; please note that the place where a homeless person sleeps is not to be considered as a housing unit.
Although intended for one household, a housing unit may be occupied by more than one household or by part of a household.
It is stressed again (as was done in section 5.2.4) that housing units located on the grounds of, or within the buildings containing institutions, hotels, industrial and public establishments should be identified separately. Thus, a separate and independent self-contained apartment in a hotel building should be counted as a housing unit if it is used for habitation by the manager.
5.3.2 Separateness and independence
It will be noted that the attributes of separateness and independence are essential for a housing unit to be considered as such. These concepts are defined as follows:
(ii) Independent. An enclosure such as the above may be considered as independent when it has direct access from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery or grounds, that is, when the occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through anybody elseâs premises.
5.3.3 Census coverage of housing units
For the purpose of the Census the term housing unit refers to all places of abode, whether they are the standard houses, flats and apartments, or improvised and makeshift shelters. Census coverage extends to all housing units. However, improvised structures are to be included only if they are occupied at the time of the Census, whereas the conventional places of abode are to be covered whether they are occupied or vacant. A place where a homeless person sleeps is not to be considered as a housing unit.
5.3.4 Characteristics of housing units
(i) Ownership. This refers to the type of ownership of the housing unit itself, and not to the building or the land where the housing unit may be located. Two types of ownership are distinguished:
(a) Private. This category includes all housing units which are owned by the private sector (households, private corporations, co-operatives, etc). It does not matter whether the housing units have been fully paid for, are mortgaged, or are being purchased in instalments from a municipality, or a private or public corporation. However, private housing units which are mortgaged should be distinguished from those which are not.
(b) Public. Housing units owned by central or local government and public corporations fall in this category. (Public corporations are listed in section 5.2.5). Some organizations (e.g. Mauritius Housing Company Ltd, NHDC, Municipal Councils) offer housing units for rent as well as for sales on a hire purchase basis. Probing is necessary to establish whether a given housing unit is being rented or purchased in installments. If it is being purchased in installments, then the ownership is private, whatever the organization from which it is being purchased.
(ii) Occupancy. A housing unit may be either occupied or vacant at the time it is visited by the Chief Enumerator. Furthermore, a housing unit may be occupied even though the occupants may not be living there at the time of visit. If the housing unit is occupied it is necessary to check whether it is occupied as a principal residence or a secondary residence.
(a) Principal residence. An occupied housing unit is considered as a principal residence when it is the main place of abode of its occupants. Hence, if a bungalow (âcampementâ) is occupied all year round by its owner or by a tenant it should be considered as a principal residence.
(b) Secondary residence. An occupied housing unit is considered as a secondary residence if the occupants have a principal residence elsewhere.
If there are no occupants in a housing unit, then it may be difficult to obtain detailed information on its occupancy status. However, as much information as possible should be obtained from watchmen, if any, and from neighbours. There may also be âfor saleâ or âfor rentâ signs posted on or near the dwelling to indicate the type of vacancy. Vacant housing units have to be classified according to whether they are for rent, for sale, provided by employer, or under repairs. If none of these apply then the reason of vacancy should be ascertained and specified in a separate residual category.
It must be noted that an apparently unoccupied housing unit may not necessarily be vacant. If the occupants are temporarily absent, then the housing unit is to be considered as occupied. Furthermore, if it is the main place of abode of the temporarily absent occupants, then it is to be reported under âprincipal residenceâ. If, however, the housing unit is not used as a main place of abode, as for example in the case of a seaside bungalow (âcampementâ), then some caution has to be exercised before reporting it as a secondary residence: if a vacant housing unit is kept for seasonal occupation exclusively by members of the ownerâs household and their friends and relatives(i.e. if it is not available for rent or for sale), then it should be reported as an occupied secondary residence; otherwise, the housing unit should be considered as vacant, and the reason for vacancy should be investigated and reported.
It should also be remembered that temporary shelters, improvised housing units and buildings awaiting demolition are to be enumerated only when occupied. Hence, the question of vacancy does not arise in their case.
(i) Water supply. The question on water supply allows us to know whether there is a piped water installation inside the housing unit. If there is no such installation, then it is important to know if the housing unit has access to piped water on the premises or from a public fountain. If the housing unit does not have access to piped water then the source of water has to be spelled out (tank-wagon, well, river, or other specified source).
Piped water means water conveyed under pressure in galvanized iron pipes or polypipes which are usually fixed. An installation by which water is brought inside a housing unit by means of a plastic or rubber hose should not be considered as âpiped water inside housing unitâ.
(ii) Domestic water tank/reservoir. Information is required on whether the housing unit has a tank or reservoir to store water to be used for domestic purposes. For the purpose of the Housing Census, a tank or reservoir means a container made of fibre-glass, concrete or concrete blocks. The water stored in the tank or reservoir is conducted through pipes and tap to the occupants of the housing unit. Sometimes, a pump is also required; this is usually the case for large tanks and reservoirs used in common by several housing units like for a block of apartments.
Buckets and metal casks used for storing water as well as reservoirs and tanks used for non-domestic purposes (like livestock or poultry rearing, kitchen garden, etc.) should not be considered as domestic water tanks or reservoirs.
(a) Flush toilet. This is a toilet connected to a piped water system for direct flushing away of the wastes. Three categories of flush toilet are distinguished, viz. connected to (i) sewerage system, (ii) absorption pit, and (iii) septic tank.
(b) Pit latrine. This is an installation built on a pit. It may be of the âwater sealâ type or a simple slab with a hole. The âwater sealâ type is equipped with a receptacle having a water trap similar to the one used for a conventional flush toilet, but without a flushing device.
(c) Other, including none. This implies that the housing unit has a toilet facility different from those mentioned above or no toilet facilities of any kind for its occupants. However, before reporting a housing unit as having no toilet, make sure that it is not sharing a toilet with another housing unit (see Section 5.3.6).
(v) Bathing facilities. A bathroom is a separate enclosed space where an individual can have a bath or shower in complete privacy. Such a space may be located either inside or outside the housing unit, and in each case it may or may not have running water (i.e. a fixed piped installation). If water is brought into the bathroom in a pail or by means of a hose, then the bathroom is not considered as having running water.
(vi) Cooking facilities. Information is required on whether the housing unit has a kitchen or not, and if it has, whether the kitchen is inside the housing unit, or located outside in a separate detached structure.
A kitchen is defined as an enclosed space covered by a roof and used solely for cooking purposes, or for cooking and eating (âoffice-cuisineâ). A kitchen may sometimes be of an improvised nature, but should be considered adequate when the user can stand comfortably within its walls and when it is covered by a roof.
(vii) Refuse disposal facilities. Solid waste generated by a housing unit can either be collected by an authorized collector or disposed of by the occupants by different means. If the refuse is collected by some authorized body, distinguish whether the collection is done on a regular or irregular basis. If the refuse is not collected by some authorized body it is important to know how it is finally disposed of by the occupants of the housing unit.
If different ways are used for disposal of garden rubbish and kitchen refuse, information should be sought on disposal of kitchen refuse. For instance, if garden rubbish is burnt in an ash pit whilst kitchen refuse is dumped on the premises, it is the latter method which should be reported. When several methods are used for disposal of kitchen refuse, the method employed most frequently is to be indicated.
5.3.6 Sharing of facilities by housing units
Some of the facilities (toilet, bathing and cooking) described above may not be available for the exclusive use of the occupants of a housing unit. It is therefore important, in such cases, to investigate whether each of the facilities is for the exclusive use of the occupants of the housing unit being enumerated, or whether it is being shared with the occupants of another housing unit.
It must be noted that all the facilities, except those for refuse disposal, refer to the housing unit, and not to the occupants, although it is the occupants of the housing unit who use the facilities. It follows that if two households are living in one and the same housing unit, the facilities of that housing unit are not to be reported as shared. It is only when the occupants of another housing unit are also using the same facilities that sharing occurs.
It also follows that even if a housing unit is not occupied at the time of the census visit, attempts should still be made to obtain information on the facilities available.
5.4.1 Definition of household
The concept of household is based on the arrangements made by persons, individually or in groups, for providing themselves with food or other essentials for living. A household may be either:
(b) a multiperson household, that is, a group of two or more persons living together who make common provision for food or other essentials for living. The persons in the group may pool their incomes and have a common budget to a greater or lesser extent; they may be related or unrelated persons or a combination of both.
It follows from the definition that two families living in one housing unit constitute one household if they have common housekeeping arrangements; otherwise they should be considered as separate households. The extent of common housekeeping may vary from one case to the other, but if there is any arrangement to share at least one meal a day, consider all the persons concerned as constituting one household.
Most households are of the type which occupy one housing unit or, in some cases, part of a housing unit or more than one housing unit. Such households will be called private households to distinguish them from inmates of institutions, who will be referred to as institutional households, and also from guests in hotels and boarding houses who will be referred to as hotel populations.
5.4.2 Census coverage of households
The Census will cover all households and persons except members of Diplomatic Corps. This implies that both private and institutional households will be included, as well as guests in hotels and boarding houses irrespective of their nationality.
5.4.3 Household type
The term household type as used in the Housing Census questionnaire is not strictly a concept to be defined in terms of the inter-relationships between household members. It is used merely to categorize the Housing Census data on households and housing units in such a way as to ensure a proper and complete enumeration of all persons at the Population Census. The aim is to prepare a Population Census questionnaire, not only for each and every private and institutional household identified at the Housing Census, but also for all vacant housing units and buildings under construction which could be occupied at the Population Census.
The following different categories are therefore recognized:
(ii) Combined. When a household occupies two (or more) buildings, that is when some members of the household occupy a housing unit in a main building whilst one or more members occupy another building or buildings, then the term âcombinedâ is used to describe the household type for the housing unit in the main building. The main building is not necessarily the bigger building: it is the one where the household carries most of its activities, and in particular where meals are taken in common. The other building(s) can be either detached room(s) or buildings containing housing units. (See Appendices F2 â F6).
(iv) Institutional. The term institutional household includes all the inmates of an institution such as a hospital, convent, infirmary, orphanage, prison, etc. It excludes staff members and their households who may be residing on the premises: these should be enumerated separately as private households.
(v) Hotel population. This refers to all guests in a hotel or boarding house. It excludes any hotel employees or managers and their households who may be residing on the premises.
(vi) Collective quarters. The term âcollective quartersâ is used to identify a group of foreign workers living together in one or more apartments, lodgings, temporary shelters, etc. Such quarters may have certain more or less common facilities, such as cooking and toilet installations, baths, dormitories, which are shared by the whole group.
(vii) Homeless. This refers to persons who do not have a shelter. They carry their few possessions with them, sleeping under shop verandahs, in doorways, in the streets or in any other space on a more or less random basis. If, as sometimes happens, a homeless person refuses to give information or cannot be awakened, it will still be necessary to enumerate that person. What can be done in such cases is to complete a questionnaire that indicates location details and the personâs gender. The address to be reported is where the homeless person usually spends most of his nights.
(viii) Vacant. This term is used to describe all habitable housing units which are not occupied at the Housing Census enumeration. It is also used for occupied secondary residences so that an address slip (without the name of the head of household) can be prepared for such residences, which may be occupied by a different household at the time of the Population Census.
(ix) Under construction applies to housing units which are under construction and not occupied.
5.4.4 Head of Household
The head of a household is any adult member, whether male or female, who is acknowledged as head by the other members of the household. Although there is no need to identify a head of household for inmates of institutions and hotel residents, the person in charge should be considered as head for the purpose of supplying the census information.
5.4.5 Household members
It will be clear from the definition in section 5.4.1 that the total number of persons in a private household is either one for one-person households or the total number of persons who are living together and making common provisions for food and other essentials for living.
An institutional household consists of all the persons who are inmates of an institution, whilst the population of an hotel or boarding house consists of all the guests of the hotel or boarding house.
All foreign workers living together in collective quarters are considered to be members of the same household.
(i) Tenure. Tenure refers to the arrangements under which a household occupies its housing unit. The information is needed for private households occupying their principal residence only. The categories defined are as follows:
(a) Owner: When a member of the household owns the housing unit occupied even if it is being purchased in instalments and is not completely paid for.
(b) Tenant: When the household rents the housing unit as the main tenant.
(c) Sub-tenant: When the household rents the housing unit it occupies from another occupant who is the main tenant.
(d) Free: when the household does not own the housing unit it occupies and yet does not pay any rent at all. Such free housing may be provided by the employer of a member of the household, by a relative or other person who do not form part of the household occupying the free accommodation.
However, if a member of the household receives a house allowance from his employer to cover part or the whole of the rent, the household is considered to be paying for the housing unit, and should be classified as a tenant or subtenant as the case may be.
(e) Other: When the household occupies its place of abode under some form of tenure other than the four described above; in this case the form of tenure has to be specified.
It will be noted from the above definitions that the concept of tenure is related to the household, and not to the housing unit. The question has to be asked of all households; otherwise there is a danger that it may be omitted in cases where more than one household occupies a single housing unit.
(ii) Number of rooms occupied. A room is defined as a space in a housing unit enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering or at least to a height of two metres, and of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult, that is at least four square metres. A room which has been partitioned by means of curtains or pieces of furniture should be counted as a single room. Two categories of rooms need to be distinguished.
(a) Rooms for living purposes. The rooms occupied by a household for living purposes include rooms used or intended for living purposes, that is, bedrooms, dining-rooms, living rooms, studies, habitable attics, and closed verandahs. Kitchens are also to be counted as rooms for living purposes if they satisfy the definition of a room (walls at least 2 metres high and size at least 4 square metres). The following are not to be considered as rooms: open verandahs, corridors, lobbies (vestibules), bathrooms, toilets, stores and garages not used for living purposes.
(b) Rooms used for business or profession. These are rooms which are used exclusively for business or professional purposes. If a room is used partly for living and partly for business or profession, it should be considered as a room for living purposes.
(iii) Monthly rent. Rent is the amount paid periodically for the space occupied by a household. For the purposes of the Census the monthly equivalent of the rent is to be reported, whatever be the interval at which the rent is payable. It is to be noted that the information required is the rent paid by individual households for the space they occupy. This implies that if a space is shared by two households then the rent paid by each household is to be reported separately.
(iv) Fuel used for cooking. Information is required on the type of fuel used for the preparation of meals by each household. This could be wood, charcoal, kerosene, electricity, gas, or some other material which needs to be specified. If more than one fuel is used by the same household then the one used most often is to be reported.
(v) Fuel used in bathroom. Information is required on the type of energy, if any, used for heating water to be used for bathing purposes, e.g. electricity, gas, solar, etc. It must be noted that the water need not be heated in the bathroom itself. If several forms of energy are used by the same household then the one used most often is to be reported.
5.5.1 Definition of establishment
For the purposes of the Census, an establishment is defined as a place of work situated in a permanent or semi-permanent structure where an activity is carried out to produce or distribute goods and services.
If part of a housing unit is used for formal industrial or commercial activity (shop, video rental, tobacconist, etc.) then that part should be considered as an establishment. If part of the housing unit is used for a professional or âinformalâ economic activity such as (private tuition, consultation, sewing for remuneration, etc.), then the activity is to be reported upon as if it were being carried out in an establishment, even though the building containing the housing unit has been reported as wholly residential. Similarly, if an economic activity is carried out in the yards of a permanent structure such as a housing unit (e.g. car repairing, stone cutting, handicrafts, fruits and vegetables selling) then such activity has to be reported upon even if it is not located inside a permanent or semi-permanent structure.
However, mobile street vendors and street vendors selling goods on pavements or alongside streets should not be considered as establishments. Markets, which are public buildings, should also not be considered as establishments for the purpose of the Census.
5.5.3 Activity of establishment
This is a description of the work or business being done or the services being offered by the establishment. If more than one activity is being carried out then the main one should be given. For example, if making shoes is the main activity of an establishment which also repairs shoes as a secondary activity, then manufacture of shoes should be reported.
The nature of work being done needs to be described precisely. Vague terms such as repair work, commerce, textiles, etc. should not be used. They should be replaced by precise terms such as motorcar repairs, radio and television repairs; retail shop, restaurant, tobacconist; manufacture of cotton yarn, dyeing of cloth, manufacture of garments, etc.
5.5.4 Persons engaged
This includes, not only full-time employees, but also working proprietors, unpaid family workers, paid and unpaid apprentices, as well as full-time employees who are temporarily absent from work because of sickness, accident, holiday or strike.
5.6 Fruit trees on premises
This section applies only to the premises of wholly residential and partly residential buildings. If there are more than one housing unit then Section VII should be filled in as if all fruit trees were on the premises of the first housing unit only. The information needed is the number of different types of fruit trees of bearing age which are grown on the premises.
A fruit tree of bearing age is defined as one which has produced fruits at least once, even though during the current year or the past year, it might not have produced any fruit. (A non-bearing fruit tree is one which has never produced any fruit). As for banana, a bearing tree is one which has a bunch of bananas (whatever be the stage of growth of the bunch) at the time of enumeration.
The Housing Census questionnaires are presented in books of 25 schedules each. A red ball-point pen has to be used for recording information on both the enumeration book cover and the census schedules.
Where boxes are provided for the insertion of codes the latter should be written neatly and legibly inside the appropriate boxes, and not written across the boxes. Note that only one digit must be entered in one box.
Where boxes are provided with numerical codes near them, mark a cross in the box against the code which is applicable. In marking boxes draw strong diagonal lines from corner to corner, thus X. If you wrongly mark a box by mistake, simply shade the whole box with your pen and then mark a cross in the appropriate box. When the answer to a question does not fall in any of the categories listed on the schedule, write the answer on the dotted line marked âOther: Specifyâ and put a cross in the box against it.
If you come across a rare case which is not covered by the provisions on the questionnaire or in the instructions, give all details in the margins of the questionnaire, and not in the spaces reserved for codes, names and addresses.
When names and addresses have to be written, the instructions on the questionnaire should be followed carefully, since the information will be printed by computer on address slips which will later appear on the Population Census questionnaires.
Also follow the instructions indicating which parts of the questionnaire have to be filled in certain cases and which parts have to be skipped. Do not forget to make an entry whenever it is necessary and correct any double entries you may have made. Questionnaires which are incompletely filled in, or which contain inconsistencies or double entries will be returned to you for correction.
If you spoil a questionnaire or if you come across a damaged one, write cancelled across it and move to the next. However, any unused schedules in a book should be left as they are: do not write anything across them and do not tear them off.
6.2.1 Location characteristics of EA
The location characteristics of the EA have to be entered on the book cover before you start entering data in the book. The location codes for Geographical District (2 digits), the Municipal Ward or Village Council Area (2 digits), the Enumeration Area within a MW/VCA (2 digits), the Urban/Semi-urban/Rural identification (1 Digit), and the Census District (2 digits) all appear on your individual EA map. Insert the codes in the boxes provided. Also write the name of the Geographical District and the Municipal Ward or Village Council Area using abbreviations if necessary.
6.2.2 Book number and number of books for EA
Number the books for every EA in the sequence you use them, starting with number 1 for each new EA. After completing an EA insert the total number of books used for that EA as well. Thus if 3 books are used for an EA, the entries on the three consecutive books should be âBook number 1 of 3 used for above EAâ, âBook number 2 of 3 used for above EAâ, and âBook number 3 of 3 used for above EAâ.
6.2.3 Control counts
(i) Valid schedules. Count the number of valid schedules used in each book and write it on the cover at the appropriate place. Spoilt and cancelled schedules as well as any unused ones are not to be counted.
(ii) Housing units, households and persons. Count the number of housing units (not buildings), households and persons enumerated in each book and write the figures at the appropriate place on the cover. Note that there can be more than one housing unit in a building and more than one household in a housing unit.
(iii) Name of Chief Enumerator. Write your first name and then your surname in full in the space provided.
6.3 The Housing Census questionnaire
The Housing Census questionnaire has been designed to record information on one building, one housing unit within that building, up to three households within that housing unit, and one establishment. It has seven sections:
II. Type of building
III. Characteristics of building
IV. Characteristics of housing unit
VII. Fruit trees on premises
6.3.1 Location (section I of questionnaire)
(i) C01-C05: Geographical characteristics. The first five items (C01-C05) of the section on location are the same as those on the book cover. These items uniquely identify an EA, and since all information in one book is for one and the same EA, do not enter the codes on each individual questionnaire in the book, but make sure you have entered them on the book cover. Hence the boxes for items C01 to C05 should be left empty.
(ii) C06: Locality. Write on the dotted line the name of the locality being enumerated. There is no legal boundary for localities, and whenever in doubt, you must enquire from the inhabitants of the area. Note that a locality may fall in two districts, or in two Municipal Wards/Village Council Areas, or partly in a Municipal Ward and partly in a Village Council Area. Nothing should be written in the boxes against this item: the locality code will be inserted in the office.
(iii) C07: Block No . This is the 2-digit number you have ascribed to the particular block of the EA in which you are working (see section 4.6.3). Write this number in the boxes provided.
(iv) C08: Building Enumeration No. Write in the boxes the 3-digit number you have assigned to the building (see section 5.2.3). Please note that the Block No. and the Building No. are entered separately on the questionnaire, although on the building you separate them by a slash. Remember that for institutions, establishments and public buildings, only the main building is enumerated (section 5.2.4), and that no questionnaires should be filled in for the other buildings numbered with a subscript. However, in such cases write the building numbers on the dotted line against C08, thus [125,125(1)-125(4)], and insert only the number for the main building (namely 125) in the boxes.
(v) C09: No. of housing units in building. This information should be entered in the boxes provided after all housing units in the building have been enumerated. Two-digit numbers should be used, so that if there is only one housing unit in the building the entry will be 01.
If the building has no housing unit, or if it is under construction and not inhabited, enter 00 in the boxes, and write a brief description of the building on the dotted line, eg. school, detached room, tailorâs shop, under construction. Enter 00 also in the case of a homeless person.
If there are more than 99 housing units in one building, consult your supervisor.
6.3.2 Type of building (section II of questionnaire)
C10: Type of building. Put a cross in one of the boxes as appropriate (see section 5.2.5). Whenever instructions are given on the questionnaire to skip some sections, draw a line across these sections which are skipped. Note in particular that for a public building we stop at C10 so that section III and the whole of the second page have to be crossed.
6.3.3 Characteristics of building (section III of questionnaire)
This section must be filled in only for wholly and partly residential buildings (i.e. types 02-07 and 09). It does not apply to buildings under construction which are not inhabited, to hotels, institutions and wholly non-residential buildings as well as the homeless.
Remember that in the rare cases where you have given two building numbers to a building, you must fill in this section for the âbuildingâ which is residential and partly residential. (See section 5.2.4 and Appendices F9 and F10).
(i) C11: Storeys above ground floor. Write the number in the box. If there are no storeys above the ground floor, write 0 in the box, do not leave it blank. Write 9 if the building has 9 storeys, and also if it has more than 9 storeys: the code 9 will stand for â9 or moreâ. Remember that an attic is not a storey, even if it is occupied.
(ii) C12: Year of completion. Put a cross in the box that is applicable. Refer to section 5.2.6(ii) when there is difficulty in obtaining the information, or when dealing with occupied buildings which are still under construction as well as those that have been constructed in stages.
(iii) C13-C14: Principal material of construction for roof and walls.
Put a cross in the appropriate box for roof, and another cross in that for walls. Specify the material when box 4 is crossed [see section 5.2.6(iii)].
(i) C15: Serial No. of housing unit. Using 2 digits, insert in the boxes provided the serial number of the housing unit under consideration.
(ii) HU1: Ownership. Put a cross in appropriate box after referring to section 5.3.4(i).
(iii) HU2: Occupancy. This question may be a little difficult to answer at times, and in these cases, you should carefully study section 5.3.4(ii) before putting a cross in the relevant box. In brief, if the housing unit is the main place of abode of its occupants, put a cross in box 1. If the current occupants of a housing unit have a principal residence elsewhere then mark box 2. You should also mark box 2 in the case of a housing unit which is not occupied but kept for seasonal occupation exclusively by the ownerâs family, friends and relatives. For vacant units put a cross in the appropriate box to indicate the type of vacancy.
(iv) HU3: Water supply. Refer to section 5.3.5(i), if necessary, to identify the box to be marked. If several alternatives are available to the housing unit, indicate the best source.
(v) HU4: Domestic water tank/reservoir: Refer to section 5.3.5(ii) to understand the definitions of a tank and a reservoir. Put a cross in the appropriate box.
(vi) HU5: Electricity. Since electricity is available almost everywhere check carefully before putting a cross in box 2 (Not available).
(vii) HU6: Toilet facilities. Refer to section 5.3.5(iv) for a description of the different types of toilets and to section 5.3.6 for an explanation of sharing of facilities by housing units. You should put a cross in only one of the eleven boxes. If more than one type of toilet facility is available indicate the best one. Before marking box 11 (Other, including none) ensure that the housing unit is not sharing a toilet with another housing unit.
(viii) HU7: Bathing facilities. Put a cross in the appropriate box to indicate the type of bathing facilities available to the housing unit and whether or not it is shared with other housing units.
(ix) HU8: Kitchen. If unshared cooking facilities are available both inside and outside the housing unit, mark a cross in box 1 (inside, not shared).
(x) HU9: Refuse disposal. Refer to explanations in section 5.3.5(vii) and put a cross in the appropriate box.
6.3.5 Households (section V of questionnaire)
The information recorded in this section will provide the names and addresses of all heads of households, all homeless persons, all hotels, boarding houses and institutions, as well as the addresses of all housing units that are vacant or under construction at the time of the Housing Census. This will enable the preparation of a Population Census questionnaire for every private and institutional household, every homeless person, every hotel population, and every housing unit which, although vacant or under construction at the Housing Census, could be occupied at the Population Census. The aim is to ensure that all persons in Mauritius are counted at the Population Census.
Although the âHousehold No.â will most often identify private households including homeless persons, it should also be encircled when names and addresses relating to hotels, institutions, vacant housing units and buildings under construction have to be recorded (see below).
Type 1 (single) applies when all members of a household occupy a single housing unit in the same building.
Type 2 (combined) refers to the household in a main building when some of its members are also occupying a secondary building, or a detached room.
Type 3 (part of a household) refers to the part of the household occupying a secondary building, or a detached room.
Type 4 (institutional) includes all inmates of an institution.
Type 5 (hotel population) refers to all guests in a hotel or boarding house.
Type 6 (collective quarters) refers to all foreign workers living as one group in hired quarters or quarters provided by employer.
Type 7 (homeless) refers to persons who do not have a shelter.
Type 8 (vacant) describes all habitable housing units which are not occupied; it also includes housing units reported as secondary residence under âoccupancyâ.
Type 9 (under construction) is to be coded only when the building under construction is not occupied.