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Mongolia Population and Housing Census 2000

[pp. 1-2 not presented here.]

[p. 3]

Chapter II. The definition, moment and coverage of the population and housing census

Definition

The population and housing census is a canvass of a given area, resulting in an enumeration of the entire population and often the compilation of other demographic, social, economic and housing information pertaining to that population at a specific time.

Census moment

The census enumeration shall commence at 8 a.m. on 5 January 2000, and be completed on 11 January. The post enumeration census shall be conducted from 12 January 2000 over three days. The midnight of 4 January 2000 is the census moment, and babies born after the census moment as well persons died before the census moment would not enumerated in the census.

Coverage

Population census

The census should cover the following persons:

a) Citizens of Mongolia who are in the country at the time of census;
b) Foreigners and persons without citizenship who are living in Mongolia for more than 183 days and foreigners persons without citizenship who have permission to stay for over 6 months from the authorized organizations;
c) Citizens of Mongolia and their families who worked at the diplomatic representative offices, consulates and international organizations in foreign countries at the time of census;
d) Citizens of Mongolia who are temporarily absent from Mongolia due to work, study and overseas stay for personal reasons during the census period;
Housing census

The following types of living quarters shall be covered in the housing census:

House
Apartment
Student dormitory
Public dormitory
Other public apartment
Non-living quarters
All types of gers

[p. 4 not presented here.]

[p. 5]

Chapter III. Basic principles and rules of the population and housing census

Basic principles to be conducted population and housing census

The enumeration should include living quarters (usual place of residence) and count people and their housing with its condition in order to interview accordance with census questionnaire.

Rules to be conducted population and housing census

Population census

Under the supervision of the State Census Commission and NSO, in accordance with the guidelines developed by the NSO, census commissions of each aimag, the capital city, soum, districts, bags (The bag of aimag center soum shall be established census commission and temporary bureau and bag of rural soum would not established.) and khoroos of the aimag center soums in particular areas should be organized for the population and housing census.

The organizational structure scheme of 2000 population and housing census is enclosed.

Enumerators of soums, bags and khoroos of aimag center soum should be counted:

All citizens of Mongolia who are stay usual, temporarily stay and absent in the country at the time of census (armed forces and prisoners are excluded);

Foreigners and persons without citizenship who are living in Mongolia for more than 183 days and foreigners persons without citizenship who have permission to stay for over 6 months from the authorized organizations;

Citizens of Mongolia who are stay (irrespective duration of stay) in overseas (citizens of Mongolia and their families who worked at the diplomatic representative offices, consulates and in the international organizations in foreign countries at the time of census are excluded) should be counted as temporarily absent in their households.

Of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, citizens of Mongolia and their families who worked at the diplomatic representative offices, consulates and in the international organizations in foreign countries at the time of census should be counted.

Of the Ministry of Defense privates including boarder troops should be counted.

Of the Ministry of Justice, marines, prisoners, detained people, arrested and detained suspects in remand centers should be counted.

Housing census

The enumerators should count the usual place of residence as houses, apartments, gers and public dormitory of all households and persons, who are covering the census in order to record their housing with its condition.

[pp. 6-10 not presented here]

[p. 11]

Chapter V. The households and population registration for the population and housing census

The census commission and temporary bureau shall organize households and population registration for the population and housing census in collaboration with local authorities within the 15-22 December 1999. This record is completely different from the annual resident population records of bag and khoroo and should be made as December 1999.

Rules to make households and population registration for the population and housing census

The registration should be conducted in all areas of bags and khoroos. All households and population with their housing should be listed in this registration irrespective of whether they are registering in resident population of particular local administrative units or not (except households of another soums and khoroos, which are wintering all together in particular soum and khoroo and moving livestock to other pastures due to weather condition). (Should be registered and counted as a single household of another soums and khoroos, which is wintering and moving livestock to other pastures in particular soum or khoroo.) The registration should be done on the form HAOST-3. Do not add, delete or change indicators of this form. This registration probably is different from the registration of the resident population of particular local administrative units because it is only for the population and housing census. In the preparatory stage of the census, the administrative jurisdiction of the citizens will be decided. As well as, in some cases, some households might be counted as break offs. For instance, if schoolchildren live with their father, mother, or relatives in soum center, this will be counted as an existing new household (aside school dormitory).

The enumerator should be careful not to miss households and populations that live in border areas of aimags, the capital, soums, districts, bags and khoroos when registering households and population and linked administrative agencies and census commission of adjacent aimags, the capital, soums, districts, bags and khoroos.

The households of other soums and khoroos that are wintering all together in a particular soum and khoroo and moving livestock to other pastures due to weather condition should be counted at their original domiciles.

It is crucial to identify people who are homeless and living in a house top/roof, porch, duct of a heating system, forests and cliffs and decide where they will be counted. There should be well developed approaches and types to count them from the beginning.

Residents in student's, school and employees' dormitories located in a particular soum, district, bag and khoroo, should be counted. As well, how many people will stay how long in holiday homes, sanatoriums, hospitals and hotels should be identified in advance.

[p. 12]

The instruction to fill out the form HAOST-3 of households and population records

In filling out the form, houses, gers and dormitories to be covered in the census should be listed in the 1st column and numbered starting from "one".

In the 2nd column, housing types either "house", "ger" and "dormitory" should be noted.

House: This includes apartments, houses and non-living quarters. On the census days, houses by the purposes should be counted, thus these need to be registered in advance.
Ger: All types of gers irrespective of number of their walls should be registered. Huts as those used by Reindeer-People should be included as a ger.
Dormitory: This includes dormitories for employees, students, school pupils and other dormitories. As well, military divisions, prisons, remand centers and places of detention should be listed as dormitory.
Other: This should include something different from the above mentioned living quarters.

In the 3rd column, households that live in houses, gers and dormitories from "one" (if households live in dormitory, these should be numbered by rooms) and have written clearly their address including house, yard, door or room number in column named "address" should be numbered.

In the 4th column, people who are living in particular households, families and rooms of dormitories starting from "one" should be numbered.

In the 5th column, household members starting with the name of the household head, then husband or wife, next child(ren) and other relatives, and lastly other people who are non-relatives of the household head should be listed. After completion of one household, their names should be underlined and then another household should be started.

In the columns 6-8, a "+" should be added to identify if in the residence was "resident", "visitor" and "temporary absent" at the particular time of the visit.

In the 9th column, the usual place of visitors and temporary staying places of temporary absent people should be noted. If they went overseas, the name of the staying country and its city instead of the aimag, the capital and soum or district should be noted. Making this registration opens the possibility of individually counting how many households and population with what types of housing there are in particular places and allocating areas and population to enumerators and supervisors.

As well as, it will be became basis of identifying census maps.

[p. 13]

Chapter VI. Filling out the census Questionnaire and checking its accuracy

Starting the census

To count the households and population, enumerators knock on the door of the particular household, politely greet them, show the census employer's ID card and introduce the purpose of the job.

To fill out the questionnaires of the population and housing census, the household head or any member aged 16 and above should be asked. A household head or particular respondent aged 16 and above should be asked for information regarding child(ren) aged below 16. The enumerator should ask the household head or particular respondent aged 16 and above about temporary absent member(s) of the particular household. The enumerator should ask non-household population (non-relative people and non-family relationship people) one by one.

The enumerator should follow up on the following things to start the census questionnaire. Namely,

Number of persons enumerated in the particular household. A single person or two or more persons who share food and other essentials, such as pooling of income. Household members may be related or unrelated. The enumerator should count all persons who are residents, temporary absents and visitors in the particular household.

During the census days, if there are relatives or non-relative people aside from the household members in the household, they should be enumerated in the particular household.

Enumerators should not enumerate certain persons in a family including fixed-term military personnel, students and pupils staying in another aimags and the capital, detained people (for 72 hours), arrested (less than a month) and detained suspects in a remand center. Persons studying in other administrative units who have spent six months or more at the current place of residence or intend to reside there for a period of six months or more should be counted as residents in the particular places. During the census days, if fixed-term military personnel, students and pupils or prisoners are visited in their homes, they should be counted as residents in their own home. Thus, enumerators need to talk with household members and identify who are residents in this household based on the definition mentioned in this part. After identifying the number enumerated, the enumerator should start the census questionnaire and write down their names starting with the household head and other members.

The enumerator should start the census questionnaire irrespective of the housing type of people to be counted. Several households can live in one house and some households can live in dormitories for the students, school pupils and employees.

Although unrelated people live together in one house during the census days, they should not be considered a household. The enumerator should use one census questionnaire and continuation sheet for households. In this case of unrelated people, the enumerator should use a questionnaire for each room that people live and circle the answer "dormitory and other house -- 3" in the front page of questionnaire. The following cases are included, namely,

[p. 14]

Unrelated persons included in the census who are not members of a household but are living in one room of dormitories for students, school pupils and employees, military divisions, hospitals, holiday homes, sanatoriums and caring homes,

Unrelated persons who live in a house top/roof, porch, duct of heating system, forests and cliffs

The enumerator should circle the proper answer of the 2nd question "type" for questionnaire part as "conditions and types of housing" for unrelated persons who live in a rented house or part of a rented house.

Only 6 people can be written on the questionnaire. If a particular household and other dormitories have not exceeded 6 people, the enumerator fills out the questions related to the population and circles answer "no - 2" of the question "Continuation", then moves to the question on conditions and types of housing. If a particular household and other dormitories have more than 6 people, the enumerator circles answer "yes - 1" of the question "Continuation" and the enumerator shall use appropriate "Continuation - 1" or "Continuation - 2" irrespective of number of people. If a particular household and other dormitories do not exceed 10 people, the enumerator should use "Continuation - 1" and start their numbers with 07. If a particular household and other dormitories have more than 11 people, the enumerator should use "Continuation - 2" and start their numbers with 07.

[Diagrams on pp. 14-15 not presented here]
[p. 15]

How to fill out the front page of the census Questionnaire

Census commission number The enumerator should write the commission number, which was sent from the NSO with the names of aimags, the capital, soums, districts, bags of aimag center soums, bags and khoroos.

Name of the aimag, the capital, soum, district, bag and khoroo For the Question "Aimag, the capital, soum, district, bag and khoroo," the enumerator should write the name of aimag, the capital, soum, district, bag and khoroo and note its code mentioned in Annex 1 in the respective cell. The official name for the aimag or capital city or soum and district should be written. For instance Arkhangai, Dornod, Ulaanbaatar or Battsengel, Sergelen or Sukhbaatar and so on. The code should not be written in this cell.

Village name According to the "Law on City and Village" of Mongolia, a village is a small settlement where 500-15,000 people live and the economic sector such as agriculture, industry, tourism and resort is developed, and which has an independent governance. If the respondent's settled place meets this description according to the above article of law, the enumerator should write the full and official name of the village. The enumerator should see the village code from the Annex 2.

[p. 16]

ResidenceThe population should be classified according to which of the five types of residence they are staying in on the census days by including the capital, aimag center, village, soum center and countryside. The enumerator should write its code in the respective cell.

Enumerator's number This is the number that comes from the particular census commission for the enumerators.

Number of census questionnaire The enumerator should number the questionnaire starting with the first household (first room of the dormitory) as 001, 002, 003 and so on. If the household has more than 6 persons, the enumerator should use 2 or more continuation sheets and these should be numbered the same as the main questionnaire. The number of the census questionnaires should be different for separate rooms in a dormitory.

Street name The enumerator should write the official name of the street, where the counted household (dormitory, apartment) is located without an abbreviation and mark its code in the respective cell. For example, "Enkhtaivan (Peace)", "Uurkhaichin."

House, apartment and yard number The enumerator should write the number of the dormitory, house, apartment and yard separately by the digits in the respective cells. The door number of the households who live in apartments and yard number of households who live in a ger district should be included in the house number.

Household owns house/ger The enumerator should ask how many households live in a particular house or ger. If there are more than two households, the enumerator should start by counting the household that owns the house/ger. For the household that owns the house/ger, the enumerator should circle code "1". Households should decide who the owner is themselves. If households cannot decide who the owner is, then the owner can be identified as the household that has lived in this house/ger the longest or that has more members or a household head who is older than the others. The enumerator should warn that this does not imply legal ownership. For the population census, the purpose for noting on the questionnaire who is the owner is to avoid duplication of estimation for living area. Further legal ownership does not matter for other indicators. The enumerator should explain this clearly to the respondents.

Shared house The enumerator should mark code "2" for other households aside from that which owns the house/ger.

Dormitory or other house The enumerator should use code "3" for households that live in student, school pupil and employee dormitories; military divisions; hospitals; holiday homes; sanatoriums and caring homes; housetops/roofs; porches; ducts of a heating system; forests and cliffs.

Number of persons enumerated The number of persons enumerated should include all enumerated persons (including continuation sheets). For example, suppose if a household has 8 persons, 6 of them will be listed on the main Questionnaire and 2 of them will be written on the continuation sheet. In this case the enumerator should mark the number of persons enumerated as 8.

[p. 17]

Number of questionnaires completed There can be a number of continuation sheets aside from the main questionnaire of enumerated persons. In this case, the enumerator should write the same census commission number, enumerator's number and number of completed questionnaires. But for the particular household (one room of dormitory), the number of completed questionnaire should equal the number of main and continuation sheets. The number of completed questionnaire should be written on the front page of main questionnaire only.

Instructions to fill out the questions related to the persons

Family (father/mother's) name: Based on the 3rd paragraph of article 24 of the Law on Family approved by State Great Hural in 1999, a "child shall get the father's name" and the 4th paragraph of this law a "child shall get mother's name if he was born from a mother, who didn't register her marriage or without any decision defining his father from authority". The enumerator should write the respondent's family name and given name fully. Do not add suffix "èéí" or "ûí" to the end of respondent's family name. For example, suppose the name of the respondent's father is Dorj and his given name Bat. In this case, the enumerator shall write "Dorj" in the "family name" part and Bat in the given name part. The number in front of "Family name" should be written in order of the enumerated persons in the particular household (room of dormitory). The enumerator should be careful to avoid mistakes, especially from numbering the continuation sheets wrong.

Household head Household members will decide who the head of household is on a volunteer basis. It is not necessary for the household head to be residing in the particular household to answer the census questions. In the case where the family members cannot decide who is the household head, the enumerator can consider any member above 16 years old, who has a job and makes a major contribution for household income as the head, and then fill out the Questions related to this person as the household head. The enumerator should respect the comments of other members over 18 years old.

Question 1

Relationship to the household head

Here we will ask the relationship between the household members and household head and circle the suitable code 01-10 for each person.

Non-relationship:

a) those people who do not have any relationship with the head of household but are permanently living together with that household, do not have any financial and material relationship with another household and family, and do not form a separate household.

b) those people who are enumerated in the cover sheet of the census questionnaire, do not have family and blood relationships with each other and are defined as living in the dormitory or other house(3) will be considered as unrelated persons.

Question 2

[p. 18]

Sex. The sex (male or female) of every individual should be recorded on the household sheet. Enumerators should circle the suitable code, that is male-1, female-2.

Question 3

Birth date: year and month. Enumerators should record the interviewee's birth date: (year and month) that the person states. But enumerators should remind the person that the birth date, which he or she states, should match the birth date as noted on his/her passport or identification card and other official documents. In the case he or she is permitted, the enumerator can look at the interviewee's passport or identification card and other official documents.

Question 4

Age (in completed year) Information on age should be recorded by completed years. Even when there are only a few days left to reach to complete year, the enumerator should not raise the current year of the respondent. The age of a child under 1 year should be recorded as "OO". Information on age will be estimated directly by asking the respondent his or her birth date: year, month and day. After asking the birth date (year, month, day) of a respondent, the enumerator should compare it with 5th January 1999 and if does not match the estimation, then re-ask the respondent. In the case the birth year is known, the enumerator should fill out the respondent's age from appendix N5. See annex 5A, if the respondent does not know his/her age in accordance with a calendar estimation, but knows the age according to the lunar new year.

Question 5

Citizenship. Information on citizenship should be collected on the basis of the respondent's response. The name of the country should be understandably noted, by abbreviation. For instance: instead of writing "The Republic of China" the enumerator should write "China". Like this, the enumerator should write: Japan, France, England etc. For all those with a Mongolian citizenship, code 01 will be circled. If a foreign person belongs to the Inner Mongolia, citizenship will be defined as China. Annex 5 of this manual will be used for filling out this question.

If the parents' citizenship is different, the person over the age of 16 will independently decide his or her citizenship. But citizenship of children under 16 will be based on the parent's decision. If parents disagree with their children's citizenship, then the children's citizenship will be decided by following the mother's citizenship.

The code 88 for "non-citizenship" will be circled for people who are defined as non-citizenship.

Question 6

Ethnicity Only citizens of Mongolia should answer this question. Those with foreign citizenship and non-relationship should not respond to this question. On the basis of respondent's answer, the enumerator should record the ethnicity of that person. The ethnicity of children will be defined by their parents. If they cannot define the ethnicity, then the ethnicity of children will be recorded as the mother's. Code 01 is for category "Khalkh" so this will be circled for "Khalkh" ethnicity. See annex 3 for other category of ethnicity. Enumerators should correctly explain that "Khalkh" is the only distinguished ethnicity in the census questionnaire to facilitate the enumerators' job, not to disregard other ethnicities. This is because around 80 percent of total population of Mongolia are Khalkh people.

[p. 19]

Question 7

Residence The enumerator should mark the respondent's residence as of midnight of 4 January 2000--the census moment. The administrative unit is the soum in the aimag and district in the capital. Persons who are counted as temporary absent in a particular soum or district and counted as a visitor in a recent place during the census days. There are three categories to define person's residence. These are:

1) permanent resident
2) temporary absent
3) visitor

(There are special instructions for those who have Mongolian citizenship and are enumerated abroad, soldiers and prisoners).

Permanent resident.

At the time of census, people who were living in the place of their usual residence will be considered permanent residents.

Those people who are living in a place more than six months whether they registered or not at that administrative unit will be considered permanent residents.

Also, people who are living less than six months but intend to live more than six months will be considered as permanent residents.

For example: People who came from the countryside to UB one month ago, but intended to live in UB six months and more than six months will be considered as permanent residents.
However, the enumerator should clearly explain to these people that they are enumerated as permanent residents only for the population and housing census.

This will not effect on their administrative registration status.

During the census, people who were not in their household and country belong to the following categories will be considered as permanent resident.

persons on holidays
watchman on duty
those people who work their jobs for several days like: railway workers, workers of air and auto sectors, post-man
people who went on vacation and traveled for less than a week and children who are in 24-hour kindergarten
persons temporarily out from their place of residence (went for fire wood, for cattle, for hunting etc)
went to military gathering
women and infants in a delivery hospital
Temporary absent

People who are not at their home during the census time and who are temporarily absent from the country for six and less than six months will be considered as temporary absent.
This category will cover the following group of people.

[p. 20]

people on official/business missions
temporarily or seasonal workers
people went on vacations or travelling more than one week
people who went to do industrial practice
people visited to other aimag and soum to meet with relatives and friends
people taking care for patient at hospital not more than seven days
people arrested for investigation
police custody

Also excluding Mongolian diplomatic and international organization's personnel and their families located outside the country; people working, studying and on official and personal missions abroad will belong to "temporary absent" category.

Temporary address of temporary absent person within the country will be recorded at their temporary address: aimag, capital city and district name. See the code from annex--1 of the instructions. Country name, which is living temporary absent person outside the country will be recorded in line of aimag and capital city and city name will be recorded in line of soum and district. See code from annex-5 of the instruction.

Visitor

People who have been living in the census enumeration area less than six months will be enumerated as "visitors" In other words, those people enumerated in their usual administrative units as "temporary absent" will enumerate in their temporary living place as "visitors". Also if people were in an airport, railway station, transportation station and other checking places and not have a "census enumeration certificate," they will be enumerated as "visitor".

Temporary address: aimag, capital city/country/, soum and duureg name of temporary absent person and permanent address: aimag, capital city/country/, soum and duureg name of visitor.

If the person is enumerated as "visitor," record his or her permanent address. If the enumerated as "temporary absent," record the temporary address. See codes from annex-1 and annex-5.

Question: Eight.

How long have you been living at usual residence? Circle code-1, during the census time if the person has lived in that place since her or his birth time. However, if the person was born in the place where he or she lives at present but moved to another place in a previous time for more than a six months period and then they came back, the enumerator should not circle code "since birth". The code "since birth" should be circled only for those people who have been living in that place uninterrupted since birth time. If the person moved in, code--2 will be circled. If the person was born in the place that he or she lived but moved to another place in a previous time more than a six months period and came back, this will be defined as "moved in".

Also people who are responding on behalf of others living abroad should give the permanent address of those people where they lived in Mongolia prior.

[p. 21]

People like those with citizenship in Mongolia but born abroad and with foreign citizenship living in Mongolia for a long time should be enumerated as "moved in". Skip Questions 9-10 and ask Q--11 of those people who answered that they were living in the present place since birth time.

We will not consider how many times a person has moved and how many different places the person lived prior to the census of those people who responded "moved in". Only the place the person lived just before the census will be noted in the space behind category aimag, capital city/country/. See the appropriate code from annex-1 for those people who answered moved in and see codes from annex-5 for those with Mongolian citizenship who came from abroad and those with foreign citizenship living in Mongolia during the census time.

The year the person moved in the present place will be recorded as the year the person moved in.

Question: Nine.

Place of birth. Name of aimag, capital city (country). Record as the present without an abbreviation, the name of aimagand capital city of the person that is the place of birth. See code from annex-1. If that person was born abroad write down the country name in the space of name of aimag and capital city and see the code from annex-4.

The enumerator should remind the respondent that he or she should answer the enumerator with his or her permanent residence address. When the person who is being enumerated, this person's mother's temporary living address will not be noted as the place of birth of the enumerating person. For example: the mother of the enumerating person lives permanently in Arkhangai province but delivered her child in UB and went back to Arkhangai province after delivery within the six months period. This person's place of birth will be defined as Arkhangai. Also if mother of enumerating person was living in abroad more than six months at the time of delivery then the person will be considered as born abroad. Another case is if the mother of the enumerating person was living abroad more than six months and arrived to the country for a period of less than six months at the time of delivery and went back to that foreign country, the newly born child's place of delivery will be determined as born abroad.

Question: Ten

Name of aimag, capital city (country) lived in as 01 January, 1995. This question should be answered by persons born before 01 January, 1995 or who have reached 5 years old by complete age. Record the enumerated person's usual residence address in 01 January, 1995. See code from annex-1. If the person does not remember were he or she was living 5 years ago, remind the person to remember if there was any important event or celebration in the previous 5 years. Also ask them to remember how long the person lived in one place and other places and clarify where he or she was in 01 January, 1999. The person, who answered "since birth" to the 8th question "How long have you been living at usual residence?" should not answer this question.

[p. 22]

Question: Eleven.

Education. This question aims to clarify the respondent's educational background and level. The enumerator should ask the respondent whether he or she has any education and if the answer is "No", circle code No-1 and skip to question 12.

If the response is "Yes", ask the level of education and circle the suitable code and skip to question 13. If the person graduated from more than one school, note the last obtained as high education. For example: if the respondent is a teacher then graduated from university or institute as economist and has diploma with BA, MA degree in this case this person will be considered as person with high education.

High education. Not depending on a high education diploma or equivalent certificate level (BA, MA), all persons who graduated from an internal and external university and institute will be considered as person with high education. Also persons who graduated from a college or equivalent school with a BA and above degree will be considered as a person with high education.

Diploma education. This category will cover people who graduated with a diploma degree from internal and external especially professional secondary schools or equivalent schools, colleges and other occupational schools.

Primary technical education. People who graduated from technical schools and have a diploma from primary technical education will belong to this category.

Complete secondary education (grade 9-10). Persons who graduated from the 10th grade of secondary school in the day or evening time will be considered as persons with complete secondary education.

Secondary education. Persons who graduated from 7th grade of secondary school (until 1975 as old system) and graduated from 8th grade of secondary school will be considered persons with a secondary education.

Primary education. Persons who graduated from 4th grade of secondary school (until 1975 as old system) and in 1975-1996 graduated from 3rd grade of secondary school and since 1997 graduated from 4th grade of secondary school will be considered persons with primary education.

Question 12.

Literacy. A person who responded to the previous question as non-educated should answer this question. A person who can understand, read and write a short, simple statement will be considered a literate person. It involves people who are able to read in modern and old Mongolian languages and any foreign language. A person who cannot read in any languages will be considered as an illiterate person.

Question 13

Are you studying now? Persons aged 7-29 should answer this question. Circle code-1 if the respondent is studying at the present time at any level of school in the day, evening times and by correspondence. If the person is not studying, circle code-2. Those people who are studying in a foreign language course, occupational course with certificate or any equivalent course and short-term non-official training will not be considered as a person studying at the current time.

[p. 23]

Question 14

Marital status

This question should be answered by men and women over the age of 18. According to the "Mongolian Law on Marriage", the age of marriage is defined as 18, but in reality, there are many instances of people who were married when they were under the age of 18. In the international methodology for the population census, the age of marriage is 15. The enumerator should ask the question about marriage very gently, especially for the children ages 15-16.

If a teenager at age of 15-16 is married, the enumerator should complete the questionnaire their marriage as "not confirmed marriage."

Never married. Never married person age of 15 and over.

Legally registered or unregistered marriage. Legally registered marriage is whereby couples have registered with a civic marital office and received the marriage certificate.

Unregistered marriage is a marriage that has not been registered in the civic marital office/in any duration of period/but already started living together.

Separated. Persons who are not divorced legally but are living separately.

Divorced. Persons who had not remarried for any duration of period after they got officially divorced.

Widowed. A person who has not remarried for any duration of period after their spouse died.

Question 15

Did you work last week?

This question should be answered by the employed resident population aged 15 and over, and should be asked about their paid employment for the last 7 days prior to the census.

The code 1, which means "Yes" should be indicated under following circumstances: Namely,

1. All people who worked for payment for a week or at least for one day.

The employed population compromised of all working person irrespective of industrial sectors, type and ownership of all employees and occupational category and all persons involved in informal sector such as sales workers in open market and streets, shoe polishers, news-vendors, car washers, craftsman and collectors of raw materials.

2. The people who did not work at any time 7 days prior to the census, but has a labor contract with his or her employee and are not able to continue work after certain period.

a. People who are not at the workplace for various reasons such as on maternity leave, nursing children,
b. Vacation, sickness and seasonal cessation of work all of whom have a labor contract.
c. The people who have administrative permission with and without salary.
d. People who work at seasonal jobs and do not work in the winter time, such as those in agriculture, gold mining, construction, geology.
e. People who are not working temporarily due to industrial damage or strike.
[p. 24]

3. Employment of household members in household businesses such as herding and cropping are defined as following:

Households, engaged in a household business is defined as one which makes production for commercial purposes and own consumption. In the meantime, reflecting the country specific feature herding household was also included in this category.

Persons aged 15 and above who are engaged in household herding and do not earn from other jobs are defined as employed.

Persons other than the above mentioned such as students, pensioners and the disabled will be defined as employed if they engage in a household business and earn their financial resources from this business.

Persons such as a pensioner and disabled engaged with paid employment will be defined as employed.

Persons who study at all levels of school and courses and work at least one day during the past seven days, part-time.

Please ask question number 16, 17, 18 to the people who answered "Yes".

Go directly to the question number 19 (Why have you not been working?), if the person answers "No". The enumerator should get a more detailed answer if the person answers the question as "No".

Question 16

Employment

This question should be answered by the people who answered "Yes" to question fifteen. The question should be asked as "What kind of job do you do?" What kind of occupation do you do? These should be asked to define the true nature of the employment, namely:

The enumerator should be clear that he or she is asking about the duties and description of their job, not their occupation. Occupation and the engaged job do not need to be the same as well. For instance, an accountant could work as a head of the human resource section.

If the person answers this question in a very general manner as teacher, operator or driver, the enumerator should clarify this as Where do you work as a teacher and what do you teach? What kind of operator are you? What kind of car do you drive? and complete the question as Mathematics teacher at the university, dry cleaning operator, sales manager or truck driver.(Please see the manual for filling out the questionnaire, page numbers 15-19)

If the person is engaged with various kinds of jobs, the job that takes most of the time should be written in the questionnaire.

If there is a person who does not work during 7 days prior to the census but has a labor contract with his or her employee and is able to continue work after certain period, he or she should be noted as employed.

[p. 25]

Question 17
Enterprises and establishments by industrial sectors

This question should be answered by the person who answered "Yes" to question number 15. This question should be asked for the person, about the type of economic activities of enterprises based on their main output and services. This question should be asked as following:

What kind of economic activity does your enterprise engage with?
What kind of main output and services does your enterprise produce?

All employed persons should be asked three questions about their employment. These should cover occupation, industry or sector of employment and employment status.

The following should be taken into account to check the truth of information about main activity of the establishment or enterprise which they work for: Namely,

1. The main activity of the enterprise or establishment needs to be clarified by very detailed information. For instance, if the enterprise is engaged with the trade, what kind of goods and products they trade, is it wholesale or retail trade, should be asked. If it is a service establishment, what kind of services they do?

2. Whether or not the establishment is independent at the management and financial level should be noted. If the establishment or enterprise has many branches inside of it but has an integrated management and finances, the branches and units should be included in the main activity.

For instance, the carpet company "Ulaanbaatar" has an employee cafeteria, hospital and shop which sell their own products. Those units do not report to each other and have independent accounting.

One part of its ownership could be rented for a shop. In this case, the main activity of a doctor who works at the hospital, cook who works at the employee cafeteria, would be a "carpet production". If a salesperson works at a rental supermarket, the main activity of the establishment or enterprise would be a retail trade of main food stuffs because the retail shops/supermarket has management and financial independence.

For example, the "Erel" company has four branches /daughter companies/ namely, "Erel industry", "Erel bank", Construction and Mining company.

[p. 25 diagram not presented here.]

[p. 26]

In this case, the main activity of the officer who works at the bank of "Erel" company, would be "banking". The main activity of the people who works at the mining would be "quarrying."

If the establishment or enterprise is engaged with more than one economic activity such as a bar, shop, Berber, coiffeur, or billiard, the main activity would be defined by the branch that hires the most employees.

[p. 26 diagram not presented here.]

3. The main activity of private enterprise needs to be defined with details. Namely,

a) retail trade of food stuffs
b) public transportation
c) transportation
d) textile
e) livestock sector
f) agricultural sector
[p. 27]

4. The main activity of paid employment needs to be clarified with details.

a) housekeeping
b) baby nursing
c) livestock
d) agriculture
e) public transportation

5. The main activity of people who work at an educational institution should be detailed according to the following:

a) institution of primary education
b) institution of secondary education
c) institution of higher education
d) institution of other educational activities

6. The main activity of hospital service.

7. The main activity of the legislative, executive institution and its local branches.

8. The main activity of person who works at foreign services, defense, social order, national security organization should be defined as state service.

Question 18

Employment status

This question should be asked for the person who has answered "Yes" to question number 15. The enumerator should discuss with the person who they are enumerating about his or her employee and establishment which he or she works for and the corresponding code will be selected based on the labor contract and responsibility.

If any person had more than one economic activity--wage employment or self-employment--during the reference period then the secondary occupation is the one which the respondent accepts as the most important based on time spent and income earned from different activities and other considerations like social and legal status among all occupations of the person excluding the primary occupation.

a. Employee-1
An employee is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates or payment in kind. The following officers will be defined as an employer:

1. All people who work at public administration and budgetary establishments
The high ranking officials such as a minister, governors will not be defined as an employee even if they are selected or appointed and have right to hire and fire employee, because they work at governmental agency that has been supported by the state budget.

[p. 28]

2. Paid employee. This refers to a person who works at a private company, cooperative, limited company/member of cooperatives and owner of those enterprises will not be included in it/and person who works at industries with state ownership.

3. Officer of Non-Governmental Organizations.
a) People who work at public organizations such as a trade unions, political parties
b) People who work at religious organizations
c) People who work at charity and humanity organizations.
d) Others

b. Employer-2
A person who operates an enterprise or a person who operates an enterprise in partnership with others, or engages independently in a profession or trade, with the aid of one or more employees is considered as an employer.

c. Self employed-3
A person who operates an enterprise or a person who operates an enterprise in partnership with others, without the aid of an employee is considered as an own account worker. However, the person may get the assistance of unpaid family workers.

d. Cooperative members-4
Cooperative members are persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise. A cooperative may also be defined as a business owned by the people who use its services. They are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, equality, equity.

e. Unpaid family worker-5
A person who works in an enterprise operated by a member of his household or by a group of persons including at least one member of his household, without a payment in cash or in kind.

The following people will be included in this group:

a) Members other than the head of household who engaged in household business.
b) A person who participates in household business but not household members.

f. Others-6
If a person works at some other place that cannot be classified by "a" to e", then it will be included in this group. A self-employed person who is engaged in trade or other service work such as shoe repairing will not be included in this group.

Question 19

Why have you not been working?

This Question should be asked to a person who answered "No" to Question number 15.
The enumerator should talk with the enumerating person about his unemployment and reason, and circle only one code.

[p. 29]

a. Studying-1
People who are not working due to her or his participation to the any educational institutions such as secondary school, occupational school and institutions. This Question is different than Question number 13 in its purpose. The purpose of Question number 13 is to determine the attendance of primary and secondary school. But the purpose of Question number 19 is to clarify the reason why he or she is not working.

b. "On pension, benefit-2"
People who are not working and retired due to physical conditions and old ages get support from government such as superannuation and pensions, will be included in this group.

c. "Disabled-3"
People who are not working due to disability will be included in this group. Also people who are not at the work place in the last seven days before the census due to sickness and who have a labor contract with employees and return to work.

d. "Household duties-4"
People who are not working due to nursing children, sick and old people, will be included in this group. Also people who are not at the work place in the last seven days before the census due to sickness and who have work.

e. "No suitable job is available-5"
Persons who did not work and were looking for work in the last seven days before the census. This involved discouraged persons who are interested or available for work but didn't look for work in the last seven days because of being discouraged by failure to find a suitable job or of being unaware of how to search or perceiving that no suitable job is available.

f. "Looking for a job-6"
Persons who did not work in the last seven days before the census and looking for a job at the time of the census.

g."Others-7"
Reasons other than the above "A to E" will be included in this group.

Guideline to fill Questions number 15-19 of the Questionnaire

The enumerator should fill out the questions related to the employment and main activity of enterprise, with many details (not general) and make it easy to understand for coding people. In the employment section, if the person is a teacher, it should be clarified by asking what does he or she teaches? There is an example to make it more understandable.

A. The main activity of person should be detailed. For instance, the person would say his or her employment as a manager and should indicate his or her main activity as an "industry and trade". In this case, the enumerator should ask if he is a sales manager or general manager and at which division does he or she work for? What kind of economic activity does your enterprise do?

[p. 30]

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Advertisement manager
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Sale and production of salami and meat product
18. Employment status: Contract worker-1

It should be clarified by asking "Do you have salary? Do you own this enterprise? If he or she does not own this enterprise or contributed his or her own property to this enterprise, he or she will be defined as a contract worker.

2. If a person owns that enterprise, the main activity of the enterprise will remain the same as a "trade" and his or her employment would be a "sales person". It should be clarified with many details that trade is wholesale, retail trade or intellectual work trade. For instance, wholesale of vegetables, retail trade of shoes in the black market.

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Vegetables salesperson
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Wholesale trade of vegetables
18. Employment status: Contract worker-1

In this case, the person who works in the wholesale trade of vegetables as a salesperson is a contract worker because he or she gets paid working as a salesperson. It must be clarified that whose property is in this trade, if he or she did not contribute any property to this trade, he or she will be defined as a contract employer.

3. Occupational jobs should be clarified in a very detailed manner, too. If the person is an operator, it should be clarified what kind of machine or equipment operator does he or she do? For instance, the person who works at "Hotol cement" company as an operator, he or she should answer own employment as following:

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Equipment operator of cement production
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Cement company
18. Employment status: Cooperative member-4

In this case, it is understandable or certain, a person who works at a cement company as a paid employer and his or her employment status will be defined as a contract employer.

[p. 31]

B. Example to fill in the questions about employment of person who work at more than one job

1. If a person worked at more than one job one week prior to the reference period, the main job should be registered in the questionnaire. The main job is the one that was worked at the longest during the reference period (1 week) of the census. If the worked hours at both jobs is the same, then the job with the higher income will be registered in the questionnaire. For instance, accountant Ms. Dulmaa works at a commercial bank as a general accountant but also works at small private shop as a accountant, the main job will be a general accountant and the main economic activity will be registered as an "activity of monetary circulation".

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: General accountant
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Activity of monetary circulation
18. Employment status: Contract worker-1

In this case, Ms. Dulmaa works at the commercial bank as a general accountant and she is a contract worker. Because she gets paid working as a general accountant, it should be clarified whose property is in the commercial bank, and if she did not contribute any property to this bank, her employment will be defined as a contract employer.

C. An example to fill the questions about self-employed person.

1. Questions 15-18, related to the employment of person aged 15 and over who works at household businesses (livestock, farming etc) except the head of households, should be filled out as follows:

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Herder
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Livestock sector
18. Employment status: Unpaid family worker-5

People who do not get paid from their work in a household business should have their employment status defined as "unpaid family worker". The employment status of those people cannot be defined as "self-employed" because they are participating in their own household business but are not engaged with any industrial activity that is independent.

[p. 32]

2. If a person engages in the household business and hires any other household members permanently, the employment status of the head of household will be defined as a" employer" not self-employed.

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Owner
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Livestock sector
18. Employment status: Unpaid family worker-5

The employment status of the person who is engaged in retail trade, craftsman or service without any permission, will be filled out as "self-employed" because they are engaged with their own business that is independent. If a person says that he or she works at a car cleaning service, it should be clarified by asking, what kind of car does he/she clean, where does he or she work?

15. Did you work last week? Yes-1
16. Job: Car cleaner
17. Main activity of the enterprise and establishment: Livestock sector
18. Employment status: Self-employed-3

4. To fill out the questions about type of households, living quarters and housing facilities

1. Type of housing

The enumerator should clarify how many people live in that household and the type of housing. If the person answers this question as "Ger-2 ", skip to question number 11.

If the family owns more than two dwellings and gers or both of them, the enumerator should enumerate the house that is used in the winter time.

If a family owns more than two dwellings that they built themselves without a construction plan, it will be enumerated as one dwelling. The type of heating, water supply, waste disposal and outside toilets will be included in the infrastructure.

2. Housing

Housing is classified by the following types: house, apartment, student dormitory, public dormitory and non-living quarter.

[p. 33]

a. House is a separate structure built for living and equipped for one or more households and having infrastructure provisions.
b. Apartment a dwelling unit of one or more rooms intended for a single household within a building containing separate units for another households. The apartment building has a wall separating the units and shared stairs, corridor and entrance. The convenient apartment building has infrastructure provisions (heating system, tap water, inside toilet facilities).
c. Student dormitory a dwelling unit built for shared accommodation for pupils and students at all levels of education.
d. Public dormitory a dwelling unit built for shared accommodation for workers, soldiers and other common groups of residents.
e. Non-living quarter a housing unit that is not intended for human habitation.
f. Other this refers to a place such as a roof, passage, tunnel, forest and mountain which is not mentioned in a-e.

3. Number of rooms The number of rooms will be filled in the box. /01,02,03,04/ Living room, bedroom and working room will be enumerated in the census but the kitchen and bathroom will not be enumerated.

4. Living area /square meter/ is the total area of living room, bedroom and working room. In the other words, the living area is the subject to the calculation. In the case of housing that was built privately and out of the kitchen, the kitchen area will be deducted from the estimation. The enumerator should advise any possible ways to measure the living area of housing that was privately built.

5. Heating The heating system of the housing will be classified as centralized, non-centralized and other.

a. Centralized heating. The housing linked to the centralized heating system coming from power stations and centralized steam boiler.
b. Non-centralized heating. The households linked to a separately built steam boiler or own independent system.
c. Others. Households using other sources of simple heating such as the stove.

6. Water supply Water supply availability is categorized as having hot and cold water facilities, having only cold water facilities and having water from the outside. The latter was further classed by the type of source: from wells (ground, mine wells) and from other sources and person should choose one of those three answers.

7. Waste disposal The corresponding answer should be chosen from the choices as special hollows and tubes, no special place for waste disposal. In the category of special hollow and tubes, houses and apartments in urban areas will be reflected which has a special hollow for disposal waste.

8. Toilets The corresponding code should be selected from the categorization of toilets as inside toilet, outside toilet and public toilet.

9. Kitchen The corresponding code should be selected from the categorization of the kitchens as separate kitchen, not separated kitchen and public kitchen.

10. Bathroom Corresponding codes will be selected from the categorization of the bathrooms as separated bathroom, non-separated bathroom and public bathroom.

[pg. 34]

Ger

11. Number of gers One household can live in more than one ger. The number of gers of enumerating household will be written in this section. "Urts" tsaatan's dwelling will be reflected in this section.

12. Number of walls The number of walls of a ger that were in residence at the census time will be written in the corresponding box. If a household has more than one ger, the main ger will be written in the box. The main ger is the ger which has been used in winter time. For the tsaatan`s dwelling, the number of walls, will be written as "05".

Ger condition

13. Water supply The corresponding code will be selected, defining by the source of the clean water.

14. Whether having or not a place for waste disposal If there is a place for waste disposal, the answer should be as "Yes" if there is not, answer should be "no."

15. Whether having or not a toilet facility If there is a toilet facility, the answer should be "Yes" if there is not, the answer should be "no"


16. Whether having or not burrowhole for dirty water disposal
If there is a burrowhole for dirty water, the disposal answer should be as "Yes". If there is not, the answer should be "no".

Questions need to be filled by all households

Question numbers 17-19 are related to the type of housing and ger, should be filled out for all households.

17. Type of ownershipHouse, ger and dwelling are categorized as households living in a conventional living quarters and gers according to the ownership of property, government owned, privately owned or mixed ownership.

a. Government /State/ owned. Housing and gers owned by establishments and enterprises but more than 51 percent of property is state owned.
b. Private. Housing and gers owned by establishment and enterprises with privately owned property. /more than 51 percent of property is privately owned/
c. Mixed ownership. Housing and gers with government and private property size is equal /50:50/.

18 - 19. The corresponding code should be selected if there is electricity supply and telephone in gers and housing.

The enumerator should double check to make sure that all persons in the list of household have been enumerated and if there is any person who has been enumerated twice or not at all.

The enumerator also should check all indicators related to the housing condition, especially the number of households and the number of household members. If there is an uncertain and wrong answer, the enumerator should make the necessary correction by clarifying with the related person. After signing and dating on questionnaire, the enumerator should move on to the next household.

[pp. 35-60 omitted]