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Population and Housing Census of Myanmar

Field Instructions Manual
Enumerators and Supervisors

Myanmar Census 2014
Department of Population
Ministry of Immigration and Population
The Union of Myanmar

Enumerator Field Instructions Manual

[Table of contents and foreword omitted]


Section 1: Introduction

What is a Population Census?

1. A census of population refers to the entire process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing data about the population of a country. It involves listing of persons and recording the characteristics of every one of them as at a specified time. When the information collected in the census are compiled and analyzed we get to know about the size and distribution of the population as well as its demographic, social, economic and cultural characteristics. These are very essential tools for making suitable plans and programs for national and sub-national development.

2. In March/April 2014, the census will be conducted throughout Myanmar. The 2014 Census will collect basic demographic, economic and social information of each individual as well as some information on housing conditions and facilities available to households. This information will help provide population numbers and characteristics as well as an estimate of population growth rate from national up to Ward and Village Tract level.

Objectives of the Census

General Objectives
3. The 2014 Census seeks to create an inventory of the country's demographic characteristics and manpower resources as at a given time. Only the census can provide data for small areas (e.g. ward and village tract) for local planning purposes.

Specific Objectives
4. In particular, the 2014 Census aims to:

a. Obtain an up-to-date count of the population by age and sex.
b. Give the geographic distribution of the population by demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
c. Provide sampling frames for surveys and other statistical programs.

Examples of uses of data from Census

5. The census data are required not only for administration purposes but also for economic and development planning. The ultimate aim of such planning is to provide a better way of life for the people of Myanmar. This will include reduction of poverty, increasing employment opportunities, improving the educational levels of the population and providing health services to the citizens.

6. Planning for education, obviously, requires knowledge of the number of children of school age; these groups are likely to require schooling at various levels. The Government cannot know where to build new schools or how many schoolteachers must be trained unless it knows in which areas have the greatest need.

7. The Government wishes to improve and extend the medical services of the country so as to eliminate diseases and to reduce the number of children dying in infancy and early childhood. But if medical services are to be planned properly, the Government must know the number of people to target, the number of children being born and the rate at which they are dying.

a. For providing these services, it is not enough just to know how many people there are at the time of the census because figures of this kind get out-of-date very quickly. We must also know how fast the population is increasing, so that the Government could know how many people there will be, not only this year but also next year, in five years, in ten years-time, etc. We therefore obtain information not only of people now living, but also of the number of children being born and the number of children who have died.
b. In order to plan for proper housing and to improve amenities like electricity supply, drinking water, sewerage, etc., the census data will provide guidelines to the planners and administrators. Census data will also be useful in several ways in trade, commerce, industry and research.

[p. 2]

Census Organization

8. The Department of Population within the Ministry of Immigration and Population is responsible for the planning and implementing the 2014 Census. A high level Central Census Commission and several Census Committees have been set up at all administrative levels to assist with the planning and implementation. They are as follows (table omitted):

9. At the sub-national levels, that is State/Region, District, Township and Ward/Village Tract, the Immigration officer is responsible for census operations within his/her administrative area. He/she is assisted by the head of General Administration Department and members of the Census Committee. As an interviewer, you will work under the supervisor who will organize and manage the work together with the Village leader and the Ward/Village Tract Census Office. The supervisor will report to the Ward/Village Tract Census Officer who is responsible to the Township Immigration Officer.

Field structure

10. The structure of the census field staff in every state/region is as shown below

[Figure omitted]

Legal authority

11. For reference and information, certain important provisions of the Census Law enacted in July 2013 are presented below:

[p. 3]

Chapter V: Restrictions/prohibitions

12. No person shall

a. refuse or obstruct to allow the respective census commission or personnel reasonable access to the premises/structures or the marking on the structure, in accordance with section 12 (a)
b. refuse to answer or give a false answer to any questions or refuse to fill in or fill in false answers in the prescribed questionnaire in accordance with section 12 (b)
c. insist on or threaten or lure respondents to answer wrongly

13. No enumerator or supervisor

a. Lawfully required to perform any duties in connection with the taking of the census shall not refuse or neglect, without reasonable cause, to carry out his/her duties
b. Shall not intentionally ask questions not included in the questionnaire
c. Shall not disclose any personal information acquired in the census taking

14. No one shall impersonate a census enumerator.

Chapter VI: Offences and penalties

15. Any person who is prosecuted of committing/breaking (failing to abide by) the prohibitions prescribed in section 16 shall be guilty of an offence and is punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding one month or fine up to 50,000 kyats or both.

16. Any enumerator or supervisor who is prosecuted of committing/breaking (failing to abide by) the prohibitions prescribed in section 17 shall be guilty of an offence and is punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding one month, a fine up to 50,000 kyats, or both.

17. Anyone who is prosecuted of committing/breaking (failing to abide by) the prohibitions prescribed in section 18 shall be guilty of an offence and is punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, a fine up to 100,000 kyats, or both.

Chapter VII: Miscellaneous

18. Every able person residing in Myanmar has the duty to assist in the census taking.

19. Please take note that according to the above provisions of the Census Law you have to perform your duty as a Census Officer diligently and keep the information collected confidential, to be used for statistical purposes only. The data collected must be kept safe and secure throughout all the stages of the census process, such as collection, data processing and results analysis. In order to fully respect confidentiality, the following rules apply.

a) Do not allow any persons, other than your supervisor or from Census Office, to see any of the completed census questionnaires.
b) Keep completed questionnaires in a securely locked place so that none of your family members or friends is able to see them.
c) During interviews, keep any completed questionnaires in your bag and not in your hand or on the table.
d) Submit completed questionnaires to your supervisor in accordance with agreed plan.
e) Keep the information collected confidential and do not talk about it or show to your family, friends or acquaintances.

Section 2: Roles and duties of the enumerator

20. Your main duty in the census is to ensure that work in your assigned area is carried out effectively and within the set time frames. The main tasks of this work are to identify, make contact, and enumerate households and persons in the EA assigned to you.

21. After completion of training, your duties can be divided by the three phases namely preparatory, actual enumeration, and after enumeration.

[p. 4]

Preparation Phase [17th - 28th March]

22. The activities to be carried out during this phase include:

a) Attend all sessions of the enumerator training.
b) Receive field materials from your supervisor; check the completeness of these materials. Complete the Supervisor to Enumerator delivery form.
c) Be very familiar with the content of all the census questionnaires, as well as this manual. You should spend at least a day to study these documents again before you start working in your EA
d) Be very familiar with your EA, including the identification of the boundaries of your EA with the help of your supervisor and village leader.
e) Identify all the habitable structures in your EA and update the EA map as well as the structure listing form for that EA.
f) Establish contact with the households, introducing your-self as the enumerator who is responsible for the conduct of the census in the area.
g) Plan - preferably with your supervisor and village leader - your workload and the order of visiting the buildings and households in the EA. This planning should ensure that enumeration is to be completed within the 12 days. Distribute the appointment cards to households informing them when to expect you. This will enable all people to plan and know when you will be visiting their households.

During Enumeration phase [29th March - 10th April]

23. The activities to be carried out during this phase include:

a) Visit all structures and households in your assigned EA, based on the EA map and the appointments made.
b) Enumerate all households and people present on the Census Night in the EA assigned to you - ensure that arrangements are made by the supervisor to cover people in non-conventional households; otherwise you must cover them if they are few.
c) At the start of an interview, you must determine the number of households residing in a particular dwelling unit. You must complete a separate questionnaire for each household.
d) At the start of each interview, and at any relevant occasion, stress the confidentiality of the information you are collecting.
e) Ask and write carefully, clearly and appropriately all questions and answers as contained on the questionnaire. Ensure that any responses are written legibly and that each number falls within each box.
f) Leave an additional appointment card where there is no contact with the household, and make attempts to return back to the households as you have left a word. Keep track of households or dwellings you need to return to using the note book. Do your utmost best to contact an adult member of the household who is able to answer the census questions.
g) Complete the Daily Progress Report at the end of each day according to the relevant instructions.
h) At the start of each day, check whether you have made any appointment to re-visit a household or dwelling for which enumeration could not have been completed or not started. Appointment must be honored.
i) Report at your earliest opportunity to the supervisor or village leader any case where a person refuses to be interviewed or prevents you from accomplishing your work.
j) Check that all questionnaires have been correctly completed and ensure that all instructions regarding their completion have been followed. If a questionnaire is incorrect or incomplete, re-visit the household to collect the correct information.
k) Arrange, if possible, daily meetings with your supervisor to submit completed questionnaires, and to review the progress of the enumeration in your EA and any problems or difficulties. Otherwise make arrangements to meet as frequently as possible and to establish contact through mobile phone calls if possible.
l) Report to your supervisor every day by any means possible the number of households and persons you enumerated since the start of work and/or done the previous day
m) Undertake all census related duties assigned to you by your supervisor or the Census Township office
n) Carry all necessary materials with you in your bag and make every effort to keep the questionnaires undamaged and not to lose any field materials.

[p. 5]

After the enumeration phase [11th - 12th April]

24. The activities to be carried out in this phase include:

a) You should have completed all enumeration in your EA by the end of 10th April 2014 at the latest.
b) Once you have completed the enumeration in your EA, you should check/edit all the questionnaires, arrange them in ascending order of Household numbers, make sure that there is no duplicate household numbers in an EA and compile the totals of all households, persons, males and females on the EA summary sheet. Then you should sign each questionnaire and the EA summary form for your EA.
c) Prepare briefing notes for the supervisor on the challenges/problems encountered.
d) Make arrangement with your supervisor how and when to hand over all the census documents - including completed questionnaires, EA map, EA summary sheet, Daily Progress Report and any remaining questionnaires -and deliver these accordingly.

How to handle interviews (interviewing techniques)

25. Note that most people are usually polite especially to strangers/visitors. They tend to give answers that they think will please the enumerator. It is, therefore, extremely important that you remain absolutely neutral towards the subject matter of the interview. Do not show any surprise, approval or disapproval of the respondent's answer by your tone of voice or facial expression.

26. The enumerator and the respondent are in most cases strangers to each other and therefore one of the main tasks of the enumerator is to establish rapport with the respondent. The respondent's first impression of you will influence her/his willingness to co-operate in the census. Make sure that your appearance is neat and you also appear friendly as you introduce yourself. Your appearance and dressing should conform to the culture, environment; this will make the respondents take you and census work seriously. Do not over dress when working in poor neighborhood or rural areas.

27. Act as though you expect friendly cooperation and behave so as to deserve it. Start interviewing only when you have observed the following: exchanged proper greetings; identified yourself; explained the purpose of your visit; and have answered any questions and/or clarified issues about the census that the people may ask. However, do not spend too much time asking and/or answering unnecessary questions. You may cleverly avoid such questions by suggesting that you have limited time. The enumerator is advised to avoid long discussions on issues which are not related to the census and which may consume a lot of his/her time.

28. After building rapport with the respondent, ask questions slowly to ensure the respondent understands what he/she is being asked. After you have asked a question, pause and give the respondent time to think. If the respondent feels hurried or is not allowed to form his/her opinion, he/she may respond with "I don't know" or give an inaccurate answer. If you feel the respondent is answering without thinking, just to speed up the interview, say so to him/her.

29. Always stress confidentiality of the information you obtain from the respondent. Explain to the respondent that the information you collect will remain confidential and that no individual names will be used for any purposes, and that all information will be grouped together when compiling reports. Never show a completed questionnaire to other enumerators or supervisor in front of a respondent or any other person. This will automatically erode the confidence the respondent has in you.

30. Specifically, the following guidelines will guide you on how to handle interviews:

a) Ensure that you understand what census is, its purpose as well as of each of the questions. This will help you to know if the responses you are receiving are adequate.
b) Ask the questions exactly as they are set out in the questionnaire and this manual. Small changes in wording can alter the meaning of a question.
c) Help your respondents to feel comfortable, but make sure you do not suggest answers to them. During the interview, let people take their time to answer. Do not ask leading questions. Work steadily and make sure that the answers are clear to you before you write them down. Do not accept any statement you believe to be mistaken. Tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answers (probe).
d) Do not hurry the interview.
e) Do not leave a question unanswered unless you have been instructed to skip it.
f) Record answers immediately after the respondent gives you the responses. Never rely on writing answers in a notebook for transfer to the questionnaire later.
g) Check the whole questionnaire before you leave the household to be sure it is completed correctly.
h) Speak clearly and be convincing to ensure that people take you seriously.
i) In the majority of cases people will be willing to give you the necessary information for you to complete the questionnaires.
j) Encourage the cooperation of all adult household members, since information directly obtained from persons themselves tends to be more accurate.
k) Do not ask any person to show you any documentation, but you may refer to it when it is offered, for example when some members of the household do not know their ages and they offer any document to make their memory recall easier then use it.
l) Accept answers given by respondents. If you doubt whether the respondent accurately understood the question, repeat or explain the question, or phrase it differently.
m) Never enter a dwelling unless the home owner invites you to do so. This could mean that you may in some cases conduct the interview outside the dwelling. However, you may explain that it will take some time and it will be much easier if you could sit down to record the answers.
n) If a household recently experienced a death or serious illness of a person, you may need to make an appointment for a visit at a later time.
o) Never delegate your duties to anyone else.
p) Do not interfere or take sides in any argument between household members.

[p. 6]

31. It may happen that someone refuses to answer your questions. Almost always this is because of misunderstanding. Remain courteous. Stress the importance of the census and that the information is confidential; that no one outside the census organization will be allowed access to the records; that details of individual people are never released for any purpose whatsoever and; that census results are published only as statistical tables. You should be able to clear up any misunderstanding, but if you cannot persuade the person, or if his/her refusal is deliberate, tell the person that he/she may be liable to prosecution under the Census Law 2013. Report any such incident to your supervisor at the first opportunity or to the village leader for that area. They have been informed to ensure that all people corporate with you.

Enumeration supplies and documents

32. Upon successful completion of your training, you as enumerator will be issued with:

a) An identification card
b) Enumeration Area (EA) map of your assigned EA and Structure Listing Form
c) A number of Census questionnaires
d) Field Instructions Manual (copy used during training)
e) Code Book (Township Code, Ethnicity Code, Age/Calendar of Events, ID Cards)
f) EA summary sheets
g) Control forms and Daily Progress Form
h) Note book
i) 3 pencils
j) Eraser
k) Pencil Sharpener
l) Appointment Cards
m) Enumeration Stickers
n) Census Vest and Hat
o) Enumerator's bag and plastic bags where questionnaires will be stored
p) Clipboard
q) Any other item that may facilitate the work assigned to you.

[p. 7]

33. You will be required to return all census questionnaires (both completed and unused) and remaining supplies/documents to your supervisor at the end of the enumeration. Only after completing your area of assignment and returning the items will your payment be authorized.

Lost materials

34. Take all the necessary precautions not to lose any of your materials. The confidentiality of the census will be compromised if completed questionnaires are lost or seen by unauthorized persons.

35. If you do lose any materials or you think that they have been stolen, first search to be sure. Then report immediately to your supervisor so that a decision can be taken on how to proceed.

Section 3: Enumeration area maps

The importance of maps in census

36. Maps are very important in any census operation since they provide a realistic picture of the areas to be enumerated and therefore help to eliminate errors such as duplication or omission of areas and/or households. Moreover, the objectives of a census include providing data that is accurate, timely and useful. Maps are one of the basic tools which make these objectives attainable.

What is a census enumeration area (EA)?

37. An Enumeration Area (EA) is a small geographic unit below a Ward in urban area and Village tract in rural area, into which the whole country is divided for census purposes, and for which each enumerator is required to undertake the necessary enumeration within the required census period.

38. In Myanmar, an EA constitutes about 100 to 150 households, which is approximately 450 to 675 persons assuming average household size of 4.5. However, owing to other factors, mainly population density, non-clarity of boundaries and geographic terrain, there may be some cases where EAs are either smaller or bigger than the average range. Consequently, in such cases you may be assigned EA with fewer or more households.

39. In your assigned EA, you are responsible for visiting all buildings and every household in it, conducting the interviews and filling questionnaires of all persons present on the Census Night (the 29th and the 30th March 2014). Do not miss out any household in your EA or count any household twice.

40. The boundaries of assigned EA have been provided to you on the EA map. Also provided is the list of households and names of household heads. In addition, the boundary will be explained and shown to you by your supervisor and community leader in some cases. Make sure you acquaint yourself with your EA and update the household list before you start work.

41. There are 2 categories of EAs: EAs in rural areas and those in urban.

a) EAs in the rural areas are based on villages within a Village Tract, e.g. an EA is formed by either retaining or splitting or combining villages. This depends on the number of households and terrain or area it covers. This ensures that a village tract is divided into reasonable sizes using visible boundaries. In case of difficulty or doubt about the EA boundary, it will be helpful to contact your supervisor or village leader or even the Ward or Township Census Officer.
b) In the urban areas, the EAs are based on Wards but follow the roads or blocks. The structures can easily be seen on the maps.

[p. 8]

42. Before you start using your map in the field, it is important that you align the map correctly with the features on the ground. For example, there may be a road on the ground where you are already standing. The map should be aligned in the correct direction of the road so that the road on the ground and the road on the map point to the same direction. Use the features highlighted in the legend to enable you match the symbols on the map to features on the ground. Examples of the EA maps in the urban and in rural areas are presented in Figures 2 and 3.

43. Two days before the census is allocated for you to go round your EA. Find out where the dwellings (houses) are and introduce yourself to the people so that when you begin the enumeration, they already know and are expecting you. Identify structures and households contained in the Structure Listing Form and update the list in cases where you encounter new households or dwellings or where old dwellings no longer exist.

44. Make sure that you read the EA map carefully so that the boundaries are clear to you both on the ground and on the map. In most cases, the boundaries of your EA follow easily identifiable features such as rivers, streams, roads, tracks and footpaths. In densely populated areas and where the EA boundary may be less clearly defined, the households/structures on each side of the EA boundary have been plotted; you may refer to the names of household heads on the structure listing forms to confirm the boundaries. There are also landmarks such as schools, health facilities, residential areas, etc. that would assist you in identifying the EA boundaries correctly. On each map, there is a legend showing what each symbol represents and a scale to enable you determine the distances of various features.

45. Use the EA map to plan your work so that you can visit each inhabited structure and each household in turn. Work in an orderly way. You will save yourself much walking time and a great deal of trouble if you do this. Work with your supervisor to decide where you will start and which path you will follow so that he/she can easily find you.

[p. 9-10]

[Enumeration area and supervision area maps omitted]

[p. 11]

46. Each EA has been given a unique code number composed of 12 digits and represents the following:

a) 1st and 2nd digits represent the State/Region
b) 3rd and 4th digits represent the District
c) 5th and 6th digits represent the Township
d) 7th, 8th and 9th digits represent Ward/Village Tract
e) 10th, 11th and 12th digits represent the EA number
f) The digit for urban/rural status is determined based on whether the EA is in Ward or Village Tract. If it is in Ward it will be assigned 1 implying urban while if an EA is in a Village Tract it is assigned 2 meaning rural area.

[Figure and caption omitted]

Section 4: Key concepts and definitions

47. This section contains a number of concepts and definitions that are important to understanding the process of census enumeration. You should learn these concepts and definitions, to know who and what to enumerate. Additional definitions are provided throughout the manual wherever relevant.

48. Census Enumeration: The process of visiting, interviewing and recording information of household and its members taking into account a count and collection of demographic and socio-economic information from all persons constituting the population and their housing in a given territory and at a given time (Census Night). The collection of this information is carried out through the completion of respective questionnaires for each household and individuals in the country.

49. Census Enumeration Area (EA): A small geographic unit below a Ward in urban area and Village tract in rural area, into which the whole country is divided for census purposes, and for which each enumerator is required to undertake the necessary enumeration in the required census period. It contains on average 100 households.

50. Census Night: The Census Night is the night between the 29th and the 30th March 2014. It will be Saturday night. At 00.00 hours will be the census moment where each person present in Myanmar will be counted. Note: Whilst the enumeration process will go on for 12 days, it is important to remember that an individual is enumerated only with respect to the Census Night.

51. Census period: This is the duration that Census enumeration will take, from the 29th March to 10th April 2014. During this period enumerators will visit each household to collect information from members and fill-in questionnaires. Note that some places especially institutions the enumeration will be done on 29th March but in most households it will be done from the morning of the 30th March 2014.

52. Nuclear Family: Consists of biologically related members of a family. This includes father, mother, and their biological children.

[p. 12]

53. Birth Order: This is the sequence in which births occur from a woman, the first-born child is considered birth order 1, second born - birth order 2, etc.

54. Census Enumeration Sticker: A glossy card to be pasted or tied on the door or any place in the household once the enumeration process is completed in that household/institution. It is used to signify completion of enumeration in the household/institution.

55. Conventional household: Refers to one or more persons who usually share their living quarters (single quarter or compound) and share their meals. In common usage, it might be said that a household consists of "all persons living and eating together or eating from the same cooking-pot". They may be residing in several structures within a compound like in the rural areas.

56. The term 'family' does not have the same meaning as 'household' in this census. A family consists of all persons related by blood or marriage whether or not they live miles apart. To be members of the same household, all persons must live and eat together as defined above. A household might be a family, a group of unrelated people living together, or a single person living alone. In some cases one family living in the same dwelling might be considered as two households. For example, if the father, his wife and daughter took their meals together and on the other hand their married son, his wife and two children prepare and take their meals together but separate from their father's family. In such a case, these are two households and should be interviewed separately and separate questionnaires should be completed for each of the two households.

57. The following are examples of household units:

a. A single family or person living alone: a house or apartment or hut occupied entirely by a single family or person living alone.
b. Two or more families: a house, apartment or house occupied by two or more families who live and eat together as one unit.
c. Groups of unrelated people: an apartment or a house containing two or more persons unrelated but who live together as a unit.

58. Determination of households may not be easy. However, the following examples should guide you in deciding who should form a household.

a. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole structure or part of a structure or several structures in the same compound/homestead.
b. If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate eating arrangements, treat them as separate households.
c. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included in the household. If the servant cooks and eats separately, he/she should be enumerated as living in a separate household.

59. Institution household: There are cases where certain rules used to decide what a conventional household is do not apply. Here are some guidelines to help you:

60. Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to a conventional "ordinary" household. Examples are: old people's homes, orphanages, hospitals and rehabilitation centers, including children's hospitals and psychiatric hospitals, boarding schools, hotels, hostels and inns, institutions for people with disabilities, prisons and other penal institutions, religious centers - including monasteries and convents, camps for workers, military and police barracks, etc.

61. In this census, the above groups of living arrangement is referred to as institution population. Note, within some institutions there will be both conventional households and institution households. For example, within a hospital there may be administrators living within the compound in a normal household set-up. Such will be referred to as conventional while the patients will be covered as institution households.

[p. 13]

62. Head of the household: The household member who generally undertakes key decisions and who is recognized as such by all household members is considered as the head of the household. In many cases, in a household consisting of a couple and family members, the father will be responsible as the head of the household. In the census, if this usual head was not present on the Census Night then the next most responsible member assumes the household headship. In this census, the head of household must have spent the Census Night in that household.

63. Place of usual residence: This is geographical township where a person usually lives. The easiest way to determine this is by considering where the person stayed for most of the time, i.e. longer than 6 months during the last 12 months, or if she/he moved there recently with the intention of living there for a longer time. Then that becomes the place of usual residence.

Section 5: Enumeration procedures

Who should be enumerated?

64. All persons who spent the Census Night in the household whether usual members, visitors, servants, etc. should be enumerated. You must obtain particulars of all persons who spent the Census Night in the household (both usual members and visitors). However, it is not likely that you will see all members of the households, nor is it absolutely necessary that you should. It will be best if the head of the household is present. However, it will be enough if there is one responsible adult who can give all the information required.

65. It is important to note that babies born after the Census Night should not be counted. Following the same logic, people who died after the Census Night (but who were alive at the time of the Census Night) should be counted. Persons coming in to Myanmar after the Census Night should not be counted.

66. Note that only people who spend the Census Night within the borders of Myanmar will be counted. Foreign diplomats and their families staying in Myanmar will not be counted in the census. In case within EA assigned you, you come across such household take note and inform the supervisor. He/she will confirm then such household must be excluded from the census enumeration.

67. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept in the household on the Census Night but who may be temporarily absent due to the nature of their work and are/were where they could not be enumerated. Examples are watchmen, nurses, police officers and shift workers on night duty, herdsmen out with livestock, night fishermen, hunters, honey harvesters, and persons attending to their sick relatives in the hospitals through the night. Such persons are to be enumerated with their household members.

68. As an enumerator take your time on the first days to ensure that you conduct the interviews and record the information correctly. Note that it is important that you do not hurry but do a thorough work.

69. You will start work as early as possible on the 30 March and ensure that the work is completed within the shortest period possible. A provision has been made to have the period of enumeration up 10 April (12 days) if necessary by which time you should have enumerated everyone that will have spent the Census Night in your EA. If, for some reason, you think it will take longer, you should inform your supervisor in good time so that he/she may be able to arrange to have someone to help you. If, for instance, you become ill or get injured so that you cannot continue with the enumeration, you must let your supervisor know at once. The best times for visiting households are early in the morning before people go to work, and in the evenings but this will depend on the area and culture of people where you are working. People will often stay to meet you if you send word that you will visit them at specific time. Appointment cards have been designed to achieve this.

70. As an enumerator, you will be required to enumerate households in the language in which they are most comfortable. You have been assigned in an EA in which you should not have language problems. However, if the respondent can only speak a language you do not understand, then you must raise the issue with your supervisor. The supervisor will then make arrangements to have such household enumerated.

[p. 14]

71. The transient population (people travelling through the Census Night), will be covered in the households where they travelled from on the Census Night. This will ensure that they are enumerated are part of households. This will avoid them being enumerated several times.

72. Some housing units do not come fully within the category of "conventional dwelling", either because they are mobile (trailers/caravan, tents, boats) or semi-permanent (shacks) or improvised (makeshift shelter). Such housing units are not considered as collective households. Households staying in such non-conventional dwellings during Census Night should be enumerated by you. They should be enumerated like any other conventional household.

73. The population living in institutions will be enumerated using institution questionnaire. The name and type of the institution must be written at the top right side of the questionnaire form. In the case of large institutions, the Township Census Committees (TCC) will make arrangement to have them enumerated. Depending on the size of the institution the enumeration may be done by the special enumerator or the one covering the entire EA. The Township Census Office in consultation with supervisors will assign the duties as appropriate. Some of the institutional managers like hotels, prisons, police and army barracks will be called upon to help with the enumeration of these "special" population groups.

74. Vagrants/outdoor sleepers will be enumerated using the institution questionnaire. This will be done on the night of 29th March 2014. The enumerator records the place/street of enumeration and collects details about all the persons at the place of enumeration. Arrangements will be made by the Township Census Committee to have security personnel and where possible members of the street families to accompany enumerators during the census.

75. An institution questionnaire for the people in hotels/lodges, police cells and hospital will be distributed on the evening of the Census Night. The hotel managers, heads of hospitals, and police cells with the assistance of the supervisors and/or enumerators assigned by the Township Census Office, will ensure that all persons who spent the Census Night in these institutions are enumerated. The questionnaires should be collected from the institutions on the day 30th March 2014.

76. Persons working in institutions, but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their own household members and not with the institution. For example, a nurse on night duty should be enumerated with her household and not with patients at the hospital. Similarly, a teacher staying in his/her house within school compound and was present on the Census Night should be enumerated with his/her household and not with students or boarders at the school or training institution.

77. In all cases, once the enumeration is completed in a household/institution, etc. and the questionnaires are checked, a census enumeration sticker must be pasted on the door of that household/institution to signify a successful census enumeration. If the household has many structures, paste the sticker on the door of the main dwelling unit. For the institution like hotel do it at the reception or the main building where people sleep. In the main barracks, it should be done by the houses where people live. This will ensure that no building where people live is forgotten.

What happens if there is no one at home?

78. It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because there is no one at home, or because all adults are away at the time, or for some other reason.

a. If only children are at home, ask them when their parents/responsible persons are likely to be at home and arrange for the next visit accordingly.
b. If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the Census Night. If there was, inquire whether they have any idea when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly?
c. You will complete another appointment card stating the date and time of your next visit and leave it with a neighbor or push it under the door so that the people are aware of your next visit. Where possible, remember to include your telephone number and request them to call you back to confirm your appointment.
d. Consider visiting at different times of the day on subsequent visits in order to increase the chance of finding someone at home. If after three (3) visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the address and tell your supervisor about it. You may want to discuss it with the village leader; he/she may know when to find the respondent.
e. It may be that for some reason your visit is at an inconvenient time for members of the household. Do not lightly allow yourself to be put off, but if there is some weighty reason like visitors or funerals arrange to return at a more convenient time.
f. Kindly note that call-backs will make you do extra work. On any enumeration day go by the earlier plan how you had made appointment in the village/area and observe the appointments as much as possible. If you have to make call backs, clear them early. If you make an appointment to return, put it on the control form and be punctual.

[p. 15]

In the case of conflicting boundaries of EA?

79. At times due to confusion of EA boundaries, you may find that an enumerator from a neighboring EA has been enumerating households in your EA and put census enumeration stickers on their dwelling units. If this happens make sure, first of all, that you are within your EA, as you understand the boundaries. If you have crossed your boundary by mistake, return to your EA and go on with your work. If you are satisfied that you are right and that the households are in your area, make a note of the affected households and immediately inform your supervisor. Do not enumerate the people a second time. Continue enumerating other households in your area. If the supervisor finds out that the affected households are within your EA, arrangements must be made so that the completed questionnaires are transferred to the correct the EA and modifications on the geo-code information and household numbers are done accordingly. This is very important and must be done with lots of keenness.

Section 6: General timeline of enumeration activities

80. The preliminary work in the EA where an enumerator will work will commence on the 24th March 2014 and continue till 10th April 2014. Upon successful completion of the training the schedule of operations will be as follows:

[Table omitted]

[p. 16]

Section 7: How to handle and fill in the questionnaire (main and institution)

Rules for completing the questionnaire

81. To ensure the legibility of your entries on the questionnaire, and to allow the scanning machines used for data capture to recognize the characters that you record, you must always write clearly. In addition, you must adhere to the rules given below. If you do not do so, your supervisor will not accept your questionnaires. You must record an answer to all questions, unless there is a specific instruction not to ask the question.

Completing different types of questions

82. When completing the questionnaire, you will encounter several types of questions.

a) Questions offering two or more alternative answers where only one may be selected (such as relationship to head of household, religion); select only one of the possible responses. Place the mark in the box with the number representing the answer given.
How to shade
A single firm, bold vertical line through the centre of the box provided gives the best result
b) Questions for which answers should be recorded as a number (For example, question on Age), enter numbers clearly in the appropriate boxes.
c) Questions for which answers should be written as words given by respondents (name, occupation and industry). Write the words in the space provided. The writing should be preferably in Myanmar language but also English is accepted.
d) Questions whose answer should be number in the box and the writing in the space provided like ethnicity example.
e) Questions whose answers require filling the box and marking the number filled-in the box, example is the household identification part or the summary of totals in the questionnaire. In such cases, you are supposed to complete both. But ensure that they correspond.

[p. 17]

How to handle the questionnaire

83. The census questionnaires are very delicate and utmost care must be observed while handling them in the field as well as where they are kept and being transported from field back to office. The following are the basic rules of handling the questionnaires.

a) Handling the questionnaires during packing and enumeration
(i) Enumerator bag must be kept orderly,
(ii) Separate questionnaires from all other items. Keep pencils or any other item separate from questionnaires.
(iii) A maximum of 5 questionnaires should be folded together after the filling-in of the questionnaire and put in the bag.
(iv) Use one questionnaire at a time
(v) You will only use 2B pencil provided to you to complete the questionnaire, you have been more than one pencil in case you lose the one given to you, kindly ask the supervisor to give.
b) Keep the questionnaires clean; they must not
(i) be folded, unless along the perforation lines and after it is filled-in
(ii) be crumpled
(iii) be torn
(iv) be marked by liquid or food
(v) have any writing except in the designated positions.
They must be kept clean, dry, and as flat as possible: No pins, staples, or paperclips

[p. 18]

84. The rules for complete the questionnaire are outlined below.

a) Do not write on these parts of the questionnaire as shown below. Figure 2: Parts of the questionnaire where you should not write are shown by blue arrows.
[Figure omitted]
b) Complete the questionnaire yourself.
c) How to complete the questionnaire
(i) Always work on a firm, smooth, clean and dry surface. Always use a clipboard when completing a questionnaire.
(ii) Use a good quality sharp pointed pencil 2B - only use the pencil provided to you by the census organization - this is the best pencil when marking on the questionnaire.
(iii) If erasing, erase the mistake clearly and completely.
d) Shade or write legibly in capital letters using only 2B pencil.
e) You are only allowed to write or shade strictly inside the boxes or spaces provided on the questionnaire;

How to write on the questionnaire

85. Inside the boxes, writing will be done as demonstrated below and must be written within the box. Do not put writings that stretch outside the box however small the box may look like. Also write as clearly as possible so that 4 (four) does not look like 9 (nine) and 5 (five) does not look like 6 (six). Kindly write as shown below. This will greatly improve the quality of scanning.

[p. 19]

Apart from the above, the questionnaire has three types of fields, which you are required to complete. They are Optical mark Readers (OMR) single phase, OMR two phases and Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) and examples are shown below.

[Figures omitted]

[p. 20]

86. If you make a mistake, rub it out neatly with a clean eraser and shade or write the correct response. To avoid rubbing over all the time, make sure you only record the answers once you are sure that they are correct or that the respondent has clearly understood the question and given you correct response.

87. If, for some reason, you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the first page of the questionnaire, write along it "spoilt" and complete a new questionnaire for the household. On no account should the spoilt questionnaire be torn. Please keep the copy as at the end of enumeration you will be required to account for all copies of the questionnaires given to you i.e. used, unused, and spoilt.

88. Start each household on a separate questionnaire. Even if a household has one member and the next also has one member. As long as it is a household, it must be started on a new questionnaire.

Section 8: Layout of the questionnaire

89. This section of the manual provides a general layout of the main questionnaire but the detailed explanation of each question will be given in the next section. The Census Questionnaire is divided into 8 parts as outlined below.

Part 1: Household Identification
90. This part of the questionnaire is reserved for information identifying the household and must be completed for each household and every questionnaire used. In a household where more than one questionnaire is used, this part must be filled in every questionnaire. The codes for State/Region, District, up to Enumeration Area (Block No.) are to be transferred from the enumeration area (EA) map provided. The information on the household number and number of questionnaires used will be generated in the field.

[p. 21]

[Figure omitted]

Part 2: Household Members Information
91. This part captures information of all persons who spent the Census Night (29th/30th March) in the household. It comprises of the following sections:

i. Columns 1 to 8 contain questions. which apply to all persons in the household. You are required to ask the questions of all persons and make entries accordingly.
ii. Column 9 inquires about various types of disabilities. They will be asked of all persons in the household.
iii. Column 10 is the question on type of identity card. Note that only persons aged 10 years and above should be asked this question.
iv. Columns 11 to 18 contain questions on migration and are to be asked of all persons in the household.

Part 3: Education and Labour Force

i. Columns 19 to 21 are questions on education and are to be asked of all persons aged 5 years and above only.
ii. Columns 22 to 24 deal with questions on employment issues. It should be asked of all persons aged 10 years and above.

Part 4: Ever married women aged 15 years and above
92. Columns 25 to 31 contain questions, which apply only to all ever-married females aged 15 years and above. You are required to ask the questions to all ever-married females aged 15 years and above regardless of their current marital status and make appropriate entries for each eligible woman.

Part 5: Housing and household amenities
93. This part contains the following broad questions.

i. Columns 32 to 38 contain questions on housing conditions and household amenities. These questions are to be asked to the head of the household or any responsible person. The information will be recorded only once for each household. If you are using more than one questionnaire in the household, this information will be entered only in the first questionnaire used. In the subsequent ones, this part must be left blank.
ii. Column 39 contain list of durables that the household possess. These questions are to be asked to the head of the household or any responsible person. The items must be in the household and in working condition.
iii. The housing part of the questionnaire will apply for all households where the main questionnaire is applied. This information must also be collected for households living in non-conventional living accommodation such as tents, boats, shelters and/or other temporary or mobile structures.

[p. 22]

Part 6: Former household members living abroad
94. Column 40 contains questions on Myanmar people who are living outside the country at the time of the Census. It applies to people who were former household members before they left. If there are more than 6 people who are abroad, then use additional questionnaires.

Part 7: Recent deaths information
95. Question 41 collects information on deaths of household members in the last 12 months (April 2013 to March 2014). These are deaths that have occurred to the former household members and not of any relative who lived in another household.

Part 8: Household summary count and signing by enumerator and supervisor
96. This section captures the total number of males, females, and both sexes who have been enumerated in the household. It also contains parts for the name, signature and date to be filled by both enumerator and supervisor. It must only be filled once you have checked and verified that information is complete and correct.

Section 9: Question-by-question explanation

Part 1: Household identification

97. Each household and hence each questionnaire used must have a unique identification number:

a. State/Region
Two digits
b. District
Two digits
c. Township
Two digits
d. Ward/Village Tract
Three digits
e. Rural/Urban
One digits
f. Enumeration area (Block No.)
Three digits
g. Household number
Three digits
In total 16 digits. Urban/rural is an important census division. If the EA is in a Ward mark option "1" (Urban) or if in a Village Tract then mark "2" (Rural).

98. The information to be filled in the identification section, except household number will be taken from the EA map provided. Note that you will both write the number (code) from the EA maps in the spaces provided and mark the position as appropriate. This is important as any mistake will lead to information being transferred to another area altogether. The identification section should preferably be filled in before the interview.

[Figure omitted]

[p. 23]

99. The numbering of households throughout the EA must be in three digits and in serial order, starting from 001 and continuing to 002, 003, etc. Thus, it will be possible to identify uniquely each household within the EA. Always check back to the last household number to avoid repeating numbers. At the end of the enumeration, the last household number in the box will represent the total number of households enumerated in your EA.
100. If there are more than 8 people in the household, after listing names of the first 8 people in the household continue on the next copy of the questionnaire. Continue on the next questionnaire but do not change the serial number of the persons in the subsequent questionnaire(s). Use as many questionnaires as may be necessary for the household. Mark the top of the questionnaire appropriately, i.e. if there is one questionnaire used in the household it should be marked as example (a) while when two questionnaires are used in the household, then the first should be copy "01" of "02" and the second questionnaire should be written questionnaire number "02" of "02" as given in example (b). Remember to enter the household's identification information on all questionnaires used.

a) Example when one questionnaire is used in the household
[Figure omitted]
b) Example when two questionnaires are used in the household
[Figure omitted]

Part 2: For all Members of the Household

Question 1 - Serial number of household member

101. Mark the serial number of the household member as you list household members in question 2. It is important to note that if you are using continuation questionnaires then you should not change the serial numbers. Keep them as printed. For example, in a household with 12 members, the first eight members will appear on first questionnaire used; the 9th member will be serial No. 1 in the second questionnaire used, and the 10th member in Serial No. 2. The computer program will serialize the numbers automatically. You only need to mark the serial numbers for rows where there is information.

Question 2 - Name

102. Write the names of all persons who spent the Census Night (night of 29th/30th March 2014) in the household. The people to be enumerated in the census should include both usual members and visitors, so long as they were present in the household on the Census Night. Some people have many names. It is not necessary to write them all as long as you record the names with which the person is usually known. Identifying members of the households with their correct names will help you not only in the listing down of all of them but will also come in handy when call-backs on certain members are to be made. It is therefore important that you get the correct names of each household member.

[p. 24]

[Figure omitted]

103. List members of the household by nuclear family, starting with the head and husband/wife and unmarried children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest. Then list the names of each married child with their spouse and children. This must be done for every married child/couple in the household. Next, list the names of other relatives and non-relatives, in that order including visitors. The head of household is the member who makes most of household decisions and is acknowledged by all members. Note that the household head can either be a woman or a man; so long as all members acknowledged her/him. In case the usual household head was not present on the census night, for the purpose of this census, the most responsible household member present on the census night should be made the head. Remember every household must have a head for the purpose of establishing relationship within the household.

104. Probe for small children, persons with disability and elderly persons, and ensure that they are all included in the census. These people are sometimes forgotten or deliberately left out and not counted in population censuses. This is not acceptable; we need a full count of all persons in Myanmar. All persons must be enumerated. Pay particular attention to getting all babies counted. If the infant has no name, write baby of (mother's or father's name).

105. Also inquire if there are any other household members who were absent on the Census Night due to work for example police officers on night duty, nurse on night shift, fisherman in the sea, these type of people should also be captured in the household. Make sure you list down their names as those present on the Census Night.

106. Note that mid-night of 29th/30th March2014 is defined as the Census Moment. Persons deceased after this time should be included in the census. Babies born after this time should not be counted in the census. People arriving in Myanmar after the census night should not be counted.

107. In some households, you may be given the "Household Registration List" as the names of people who spent the census night in that household. Kindly take the list, but ask the respondent which people (usual members and visitors) were present on the census night and record as instructed above. Reassure the respondent that the Census is interested only in people who spent the night of 29/30th March in that household. Do not refuse to take the "Household Registration List" but do not copy the names from this list blindly. The Household Registration list may also assist you in getting the age and other information required in later part of the questionnaire. You are strictly advised not to ask the households for the "Household Registration List".

Question 3: Relationship to head of the household

108. Once you have established the head of a household, mark her/his relationship as [1] "Head" in question 3. Then establish the relationship of each person in the household to this head. As you write the names of household members in column 2, mark relationship in column 3 and Sex in column 4 at the same time. You will realize that in most cases you will be using the relationship to the head, sex and birth order of children to fill-in column 2.

109. For example: for head of household, mark "[1]" in column 2 and if female then mark [2] in column 4. Then mark the relationship of each person to the head of household as given in the code list.

[p. 25]

110. Before you record the information you should find out whether or not the child identified as 'son' or 'daughter' is the head's biological child. If he/she is not, establish further whether he/she falls under [10] - adopted child, [4] -son/daughter in law, [9] -other-relative or [11] - non-relative. This must be done for each child and person in the household.

111. There may be instances where there are several persons who are not related by blood or marriage but who are still members of the same household. These are more likely to occur in urban areas. Take the eldest person or if they are all the same age then make the one who coordinators activities in the house like paying rent, bills, etc. or the person who moved in the dwelling first and invited the rest. Record him/her as "head" [1] and the rest as "non-relative" [11]. There may be many such cases in Yangon or major cities/towns where more than one unrelated person (such as students) may be living in a conventional household. This may also be applicable in the government staff quarters for the single persons.

112. Note that the head of household can be a male or a female. In some places, you will find a woman as the head of the household. Do not always imagine that the head of household must be a man. If the household head is a woman, code appropriately and include the relationships of other household members to her.

Question 4: Sex

113. Ask "what is the sex of [the respondent]? This must be done for each household member. Then mark "1" if male or "2" if female. It is always important to ask about the sex of a person even where this may be obvious. All persons must be classified by sex. Be sure to ask the sex of all persons who are not visible to you since there may be names that can refer to either sex.

114. Check that the sex is compatible with relationship and name; do not assign "female" to persons shown as "spouse" when the head is a female and vice-versa. Also, take particular attention to mark the sex of very young children correctly. Often you will not know whether a baby carried on its mother's back is a boy or a girl. In such cases, you must ask, do not guess. You should ensure that everybody's sex is recorded. Blanks are strictly forbidden.

Question 5: Age in completed years

116. Ask "what is the age of [the respondent] in completed years?". Write the age in completed years (two digits) in the boxes provided. Age in completed years means the person's age at his/hers last birthday. Always start by asking the person's age and follow up with the question on the date of birth as a consistency check on the former. For babies under one year of age, write 00. Use two digits in recording age, e.g. "01","02", etc. Persons aged 98 years and over should be coded "98". Make sure always that your writing is legible and write only within the boxes.

117. Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday. In Myanmar, it is common to report the coming age rather than completed age. A child who is aged four years and 11 months should for example be entered as "04" and not "05". When recording age you must confirm carefully that it is completed age.

118. It is also possible that some respondents will give you the year when they were born based on the Myanmar year. You must verify if the year given is in normal English year or Myanmar year. A conversion table has been prepared so that if any respondent gives the age in Myanmar year so that you can check the corresponding age in English and record accordingly. Age in the census must be filled in English year.

119. The column on age must not be left blank. Some people may not know their ages. If a person's age is not known, you must make the best estimate possible. There are various ways in which you can estimate a person's age. Sometimes, people have documents such as religious certificates, birth registration certificates, identity card which shows the year of the birth, "Household Registration List" with date of birth of each member (in case you were given the Household Listing") in which case it is easy to calculate age. Use such information to get correct information on age.

[p. 26]

120. Generally, it is not so easy to estimate age for members of the household if none of them know their age. When you come across a household where all members do not know their ages. In such cases concentrate first on establishing the age of one or two persons in the household. One reliable age may help in working out the ages of others whether they are older or younger and by how many years.

121. It is sometimes possible to estimate a person's age by relating his/her birth to some notable historical event. With these instructions is a Calendar of Events, which lists the dates of major events in the history of Myanmar. If the person can remember how old he/she was at the time at the event, you can work out the person's age.

122. This is how to use the calendar of events to estimate the respondent's age.

a) Ask for any historical event, which occurred around the time of the birth/childhood of the respondent.
b) Ask how old the respondent was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.
c) Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if respondent was about 3 years when the U Thant Conflict happened in Myanmar. First, check which year U Thant conflict happened and, it is in 1973 according to English year and 1334 in Myanmar year. When we check the current age of a person born in 1973 from the table, it is 40 years. So this person should be 3 + 43 = 46 years at the time of the census in 2014. You can use the same approach to establish the age of a person in the household. If this method fails, you should try the following approach.

123. Simply estimate how old he/she may be.

a) Then select from the list of historical events, some events which occurred about the time when according to your estimate he/she must have been born.
b) Ask whether he/she has heard about any of those events.
c) If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he/she was born.
d) Then, from this information work out his/her age.

124. If this still fails, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old, however, small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following methods.

a) Determine the age of her eldest child.
b) Ask her to give an estimate of her age at the birth of this child. However, without further probing, you should not base your assumption on the eldest child who is presently living. There is the likelihood that in certain cases, the first child died or that the woman had miscarriages or stillbirths. Therefore, if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born, you should make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage/stillbirth or livebirth.

125. When you have arrived at the best estimate you can make of a person's age, check that it is compatible with his or her relationship to others in the household. Obviously, children cannot be older than their parents, women seldom marry before they are 15 years old and men before they are 18 years old, and so on.

[p. 27-29 contain a figure titled "Table 2: Historical Calendar of Events in Myanmar/Current". The figure has been omitted.]

126. For a person who remembers the year of birth or through checking the "Household Registration List" if voluntarily given and upon getting the date of birth; you can, use the Age Conversion Table (Figure 3) to get his/her age at the time of the census. For example, if a person was born in 1960. According to this table, he/she will be 53 years old.

Any estimate of age, however rough, is better than a response of "don't know". Do the best you can to report ages accurately.

[p. 30]

Question 6: Marital Status

127. Ask the question "What is [the respondent]'s marital status?" and mark the option corresponding to the person's answer. Note that respondents are not required to provide proof of their marital union, but you are required to record the answer given.

128. The category "5 Renounced" applies mainly to Monks, Nuns and "Yawgi". You must mark "1" for all persons who have never been married. This includes all children who have not yet reached the age of marriage. Do not ask this question to people below the age of 10 years; just record option "1" for them.

Question 7: Religion

129. Ask the question "What is [the respondent]'s religion?" and mark the option corresponding to the person's answer. Religion according to the census is the faith that is practiced/believed in by the respondent. This includes:

[Figure omitted]

130. For children under the age of 10 years, in most cases their religion would be similar to their parents. If the child's parents' religion differs, then it is the parents who should decide on the child's religion.

Question 8: Ethnicity

131. Ask the question "what ethnic group in Myanmar does [the respondent] belong to or for non-Myanmar citizens which country do you come from?" Check the code corresponding to ethnicity given from code list provided and record in the boxes.

132. Ethnicity is based on a shared understanding of history and/or territorial origins (regional and/or national) of an ethnic group or community as well as on particular cultural characteristics such as language and/or customs, beliefs or way of life.

133. Ethnicity may be a sensitive question in some parts of Myanmar and you need to state that the response is confidential and will only be used for statistical purposes. There are about 135 national ethnic groups in Myanmar according to the list made by the Government. You will code the ethnicity for every person from the code list provided (3 digits). The code list is annexed but is also given to you separately for use in the field.

134. You must probe if you do not find the ethnic group in the code list. For example if a person belongs to the Kachin main ethnic group and Trone sub-ethnic group then according to the code list it will coded as '102". If the person belongs to Paku within the larger Kayin ethnic group, he/she will be coded "307". For "other ethnicity/nationality" where the particular ethnic/nationality name given is not given in the code list, you will code "Other" - "914" and write the name of ethnicity or nationality in the space provided. It is important that as an interviewer you write the name of ethnicity as given.

[p. 31]

135. Adults and youths should state their ethnicity (self-declaration) and this should be accepted by you and coded according to the code list of ethnic groups. No documentation should be requested. For children with mixed ethnicity, you will code the ethnicity that they identify with. In case a child or any person insists on being of mixed ethnicity, then ask the ethnicity of their father and code that as their ethnicity. For the people who are born of Myanmar and foreign race, this should be coded as "Mixed of Myanmar and Foreigner" - "900".

136. For the foreigners who will be enumerated, the appropriate code should be recorded. This should be "901" to "913" or "914" then write the nationality in the space provided.

Disability section

137. Disability serves as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations or participation restrictions (ICF, 2005). While it is desirable to collect information on all aspects of disability, this aim cannot be achieved in censuses or even in surveys not dedicated to disability. However, tge census can be used to obtain data on selected aspects of disability.

138. Disability can be measured for a variety of purposes. Each purpose can be related to different dimensions of disability or different conceptual components of disability. Hence, there is a need for a clear link between the purpose of measurement and the operationalization of the indicators of disability.

139. In order to collect disability information, the questions to identify persons who are at greater risk than the general population of experiencing restrictions in performing complex activities (such as activities of daily living) or participating in roles (such as working) if no support were accorded to them. Measurements intended to identify this 'at risk' population represent the most basic end of the spectrum of activities (i.e. activities such as walking, remembering, seeing, hearing). This 'at risk' group would include persons with limitations in basic activities who may or may not also experience limitations in more complex activities and/or restrictions in participation. This in turn may depend on whether or not they use assistive devices or have a supportive environment.

140. The questions on disability ask about difficulties the person may have when doing certain activities, because of a health or other problem.

Objective: The purpose of the introduction is to get the respondent to focus on difficulties they may have that are the result of some physical or mental health problem. Since persons living in developing countries may not have access to modern medicine, which would provide a diagnosed 'condition', the term problem was substituted. However, the term "condition" can be interchangeably used with the term "problem" if that facilitates the respondent understanding the context. We are interested in establishing difficulties that occur within a health or social life context rather than those caused by a lack of resources.
Definitions: Health refers to the general condition of the body or mind with reference to soundness, vitality, and freedom from disease. Problem refers to the respondent's perception of a departure from physical, mental or emotional well-being. This includes specific health problems such as a disease or chronic condition, a missing limb, organ, or any type of impairment. It also includes more vague disorders not always thought of as health-related such as senility, depression, retardation, drug dependency, accidental injuries, etc.

Question 9: Disability

141. Ask "does [the respondent] have difficulty seeing, even if wearing glasses?"

1. No - no difficulty
2. Yes - some difficulty
3. Yes - a lot of difficulty
4. Cannot do at
Objective: The purpose of this question is to identify persons who have vision difficulties or problems of any kind even when wearing glasses (if they wear glasses). They can have a problem seeing things close up or far away. They may not be able to see out of one eye or they may be only able to see directly in front of them, but not to the sides. Any difficulty with vision that they consider a problem should be captured.
Definition/s: Seeing refers to an individual using his/her eyes and visual capacity in order to perceive or observe what is happening around them.
Instructions: Note if the person is wearing glasses and make sure that they understand that the question refers to difficulties they may have while they are wearing their glasses.
The answer categories are set up so that the respondent can indicate 'yes', 'no' or that they cannot do it easily. However people aren't always sure how much difficulty is considered to be enough for a 'yes' answer. So they usually qualify their 'yes' with comments about their experience such as 'yes', I have a little problem or 'yes sometimes', or, when the problem is very serious, they indicate 'Oh, yes, a lot' answer categories try to capture that process. They may have to be repeated for the first one or two questions in order for the respondent to get familiar with the choices. The choices are same for the four questions on disability.

[p. 32]

142. Ask "Does [the respondent] have difficulty hearing, even if using a hearing aid?"

1. No- no difficulty
2. Yes - some difficulty
3. Yes - a lot of difficulty
4. Cannot do at all
Objective: The purpose of this question to identify persons who have some hearing limitation or problems of any kind with their hearing even when using a hearing aid (if they wear a hearing aid). They can have a problem hearing only when they are in a noisy environment, or they may have problems distinguishing sounds from different sources. They may not be able to hear in one ear or both. Any difficulty with hearing that they consider a problem should be captured.
Definition/s: Hearing refers to an individual using his/her ears and auditory (or hearing) capacity in order to know what is being said to them or the sounds of activity, including danger that is happening around them.
Instructions: Note if the person is wearing hearing aids, make sure that they understand that the question refers to difficulties they may have even while they are wearing their hearing aids.

143. Ask "does [the respondent] have difficulty walking or climbing steps or lifting objects or gripping?"

a. No- no difficulty
b. Yes - some difficulty
c. Yes - a lot of difficulty
d. Cannot do at all
Objective: The purpose of this question is to identify persons who have some limitation or problems of any kind getting around on foot or lifting items by hand. It may or may not contribute to difficulty in doing their daily activities. They can have a problem walking more than a block, or short or long distances, or the problem can be that they can't walk up or down steps without difficulty. They may not be able to walk any distance without stopping to rest or they may not be able to walk without using some type of device such as a cane, a walker or crutches. In some instances, they may be unable to stand for more than a minute or two and need a wheelchair to get from place to place. Difficulties walking can include those resulting from impairments in balance, endurance, or other non-musculoskeletal systems. Any difficulty with walking (whether it is on flat land or up or down steps) that they consider a problem should be captured.
Definition/s: Walking refers to an individual using his/her legs in such a way as to propel themselves over the ground to get from point A to point B. The capacity to walk should be without assistance of any device or human. If such assistance is needed, the person has difficulty walking.

[p. 33]

144. Ask "does [the respondent] have difficulty remembering or concentrating or learning?"

1. No - no difficulty
2. Yes - some difficulty
3. Yes - a lot of difficulty
4. Cannot do at all
Objective: The purpose of this question is to identify persons who have some problems with remembering or thinking that contributes to difficulty in doing their daily activities. They can have a problem finding their way around, they can't concentrate on what they are doing, or they may forget where they are or what month it is. They may not remember what someone just said to them or they may seem confused or frightened about most things. Any difficulty with remembering, concentrating or understanding what is going on around them that they or family members (if the family member is the respondent) consider a problem should be captured. We do not intend to capture difficulties remembering or concentrating because of common everyday situations such as high workload or stress, or as a result of substance abuse.
Definition/s: Remembering refers to an individual using his/her memory capacity in order to recall what has happened around them. It means the individual can bring to mind or think again about something that has taken place in the past (either the recent past or further back). In connection with younger people, remembering is often associated with storing facts learned in school and being able to retrieve them when needed. Concentrating refers to an individual using his mental ability to accomplish some task such as reading, calculating numbers, learning something. It is associated with focusing on the task at hand in order to complete the task. It is the act of directing ones full attention to one subject or to focus without distraction on one thing.

Question 10: Type of Identity Card

145. Ask the question "what type of Identity Card do you hold?" The question is applicable to only those aged 10 years and above. For the people 9 years and below, mark code "10".

146. Do not ask to see the identity card or any other documentation but if the person gives you her/his identity card then use it to code correctly. The options are seven for the different types of identity cards, and in addition there are three other options, namely:

8. Foreign passport normal for foreigners
9. None of the documents yet 10 years and over
10. Child 9 years and below (not applicable)

147. Note that a person who is 10 years and over but does not have any of the cards from "1" to "8"should be marked as "9" i.e. none of the documents.

148. A one-page sheet with different types of identity cards is provided to assist respondents who don't know the type or color of their cards. In case you come across a respondent who do not know the type of ID card they hold then show them the various types of all ID cards. Then he should be in a position to point the one each person holds, and you can code appropriately thereafter. Even those who may report that they have lost their ID card, ask them what type it was, then code accordingly.

[p. 34]

149. For children below 10 years, mark option "10 - not applicable". Reassure the respondents that you are not there to ensure that people hold any particular type of identity card. It will only be used to know the proportion of the population according to which type. And if the government should redouble its effort to provide people with more necessary cards; that is how many people don't hold cards at all.

[p. 35 contains a figure displaying the different types of identity cards. The figure has been omitted.]

[p. 36]

Questions 11 and 12: Place of birth
150. Ask "which Township was [the respondent] born?" Place of birth for the purpose of census is the usual place of residence (township) of the mother at the time of the person's birth.

151. This question establishes persons who are not enumerated in their places of birth and hence have migrated. It will be used in estimating migration patterns. Sometimes expectant mothers move from the rural areas to urban areas for only purposes of delivery since maternity services are better at the latter. This kind of movement is short lived and must not be confused with a migratory one. Please note that birthplace does not mean place of delivery, but the usual place of residence of mother at the time of the respondent's birth. For example if a woman who usually resides in Nyaung Done township goes to a hospital in a township in Yangon to deliver her baby, the birthplace is Nyaung Done township and not the township in Yangon.

152. For persons born in Myanmar, record Township code using the code list provided. For a person born in same township as where being enumerated write "000". Mark either "1" for urban or "2" for rural in question (12) accordingly. If the place of birth was in Ward it will correspond to urban and if village tract then mark as rural. For a person born outside Myanmar, code the country of birth using country code provided. Even for non-Myanmar citizens you must ask whether they were born in urban or rural areas and code accordingly.

153. Urban/rural may have changed since birth. If so, record the status at the time of birth. Note if the respondent does not know the township, only the ward or village tract name of birth, you would then assign accordingly (ward = urban) ad (village tract = rural).

Questions 13 and 14: Place of usual residence

154. Ask "which township does [the respondent] usual live?" A place of usual residence is where a person has lived for more than 6 months in the last 12 months, or where he/she intends to live for a longer time. For persons with usual residence in Myanmar, record Township code using the code list provided. If the place of usual residence is the same as township of enumeration write "000". If not, write the township 3 digit code. You are likely to find majority people will be enumerated at their usual place of residence. Also, ask if the place of usual residence is a ward or village tract then mark "1" or "2" as applicable.

155. For persons with usual residence outside Myanmar, code the country of usual residence using code provided.

Question 15: Duration in place of usual residence (completed years)

156. Ask "how many years has [the respondent] lived in current place of usual residence?" This is the number of years in completed years a person has lived in the township where he/she usual resides. This must be written in completed years. This is the number of years a person has been continuously living in this place without migration to other place for long periods.

157. If the exact number of years is not known, try to estimate the number of years as you did for age of the respondent. If less than one year write "00". Kindly note that the visitors in a household will have their usual place of residence elsewhere and hence it should be asked with respect to that place

158. For a person being enumerated in a township where he/she was born and have never moved, the number of years should be the same as their age since they have stayed in that township throughout their life.

Questions 16: Reason for movement to the current place of usual residence

159. Ask "what is the main reason that made [the respondent] move to the current place of usual residence?" If the person has moved from some other township or country to the township where he/she is currently living, ask the reason for movement to this current usual place of residence.

160. The main reasons for movement are listed below.

"1" Employment/in-search of employment,
"2" Education to pursue educational activities at any level, primary, secondary, college or university
"3" Marriage, the person moved to the current township due to marriage
"4" Followed family, where one member of the family is working in a place then other members i.e. spouse, children, relatives move to live with him/her.
"5" Conflict, the person could have moved to his current place due to conflict where he was initially.

[p. 37]

161. If the person cites another reason which is not covered under "1" to "5" record it under "6 - other". For those who did not move (being enumerated in their place of birth) you should record "7 - did not move".

Questions 17 and 18: Place of previous usual residence

162. Ask "where was [the respondent] previously living before moving to current usual place of residence? This question aims to establish how people have moved within the country. The question intends to capture the last previous place of usual residence. If the place of (last) previous residence is here (here = township of enumeration) write "000". Many persons stay in the same township. If not, write the township 3-digit code or if abroad the country of previous residence using the code list provided. Mark urban or rural in question 19 as appropriate and inquire the same to the respondent whose previous residence is abroad.

For persons aged between 00 and 04 years (below 5 years old) the remaining parts of the questionnaire are not applicable hence their information ends here. The remaining questions should be left blank for children below 5 years of age.

Education Section
Education questions are asked to all persons aged 5 years and above.

Question 19: Literacy

163. Ask "can [the respondent] read and write in any language? This is to read and write with understanding. Mark the response as provided by the responses.

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

164. It is important to note that some people may have never been to school yet they have learned how to read and write. Others have learned how to read and write through adult education classes (non-formal education system) or similar programs. Yet others might have attended school, but do not know or might have lost how to read or write over time. No literacy test will be administered during the census enumeration. You are required to accept the respondent's self-assessment of reading and writing. If a person can read but not write, mark "2 - no". That is they have to be able to do both (read and write). Same to those who can write, but not read. Writing or reading only a person's name is not sufficient to be regarded as literate.

Question 20: School attendance

165. Ask "is [the respondent] currently attending, previously attended, or has never attended school?" The possible response options are:

[] 1 Currently attending
[] 2 Previously attended
[] 3 Never attended

166. School attendance is defined as regular attendance at any regular accredited educational institution or program, public or private, for organized learning at any level of education at the time of the census or, if the census is taken during the vacation period, at the end of the school year or during the last school year. Instruction in particular skills which is not part of the recognized educational structure of the country (for examples, in service training courses employees, training computer skills in colleges) is not considered "educational attendance" for census purposes. Information on school attendance in this census must be collected for all persons aged 5 years and older.

[p. 38]

167. "Regular" school refers to formal education obtained from accredited public, private, religious school, college, university or professional school, whether attendance was full-time or part-time. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person towards a certificate, diploma or professional degree. Schooling other than in regular school should be counted only if the credits obtained are regarded as transferable to a school in regular school system. The language used in the schools is not important, even if it is not Myanmar language but for example English or Chinese. Regular school begins with the first (1st) class at primary level. However, pre-primary school or kindergarten does count as regular school attendance if the age of respondent is 5 years or above.

Question 21: Highest grade/level completed?

168. Ask "what is the highest education grade/level has [the respondent] completed? The available options are listed below so record appropriately.

[] 00 None
[] 01-11 Grade
[] 12 College
[] 13 Vocational training
[] 14 Under grade diploma
[] 15 Graduate
[] 16 Post graduate diploma
[] 17 Master degree
[] 18 PhD
[] 19 Other

169. In this question, you will record either the highest education level an individual has completed if a person has previously attended or is attending school. For those attending school, in most cases the education level completed is always not the grade/level they are presently enrolled in, but the previous grade/level. For example, if a child is presently enrolled in grade 6, the highest grade completed will be grade 5, and should be recorded as" 05" on the questionnaire. For children attending first grade write "00".

170. Vocational training (record "13") means that completed education/training after high school for certain professions, for example, plumbing, electrical, roofing, refrigeration, carpentry, cabinet making, hair dressing, cosmetology, tailoring etc.

171. College "12" means a person is a student at under-graduate university level; Bachelor degrees (Graduate) are coded "15"; all Masters of Arts, Masters of Science and Masters of Philosophy degrees are marked as option "17". Doctorate degree (Ph. D., option "18") is an advanced research university degree, which for successful completion, requires the submission of a thesis or dissertation of publishable quality. For someone who has had no schooling, code "00".

172. There are respondents who went to school during different system of education in Myanmar. That is during the colonial period, in the former education system and the current education system. A table has been prepared and presented below to assist in coding of education attainment question. It will also be given to interviewers during field enumeration. If for example, a respondent tells you that he completed Standard 9 during former education system, check the correct code using the conversion table, according to the first column and last column the correct code is "10". The conversion table will prove very useful for those respondents who went through the pre-colonial and former system of education. It should also be used for foreigners who schooled in different education systems. Those who have completed education level i.e. high school - "11", diploma - "14", university - "15", should be coded appropriately.

[Table 3: Conversion Table for Education System, Myanmar is omitted.]
[p. 39]

Labor force section
The Labor Force section is applicable to all persons 10 years and above. For respondents age below 10 years you will skip the section, leave it blank.

Question 22: Main activity status during the last 12 months

173. Ask "what was [the respondent]'s main activity status during the last 12 months before the Census (April 2013 to March 2014)? What the respondent was doing denotes the work, economic activity or employment that occupied most of the respondent's time during the last 12 months. Here 'employment' is interpreted as work for at least one hour daily in the reference period. Economic activity is work that leads to production of goods and service. The possible response options are as follows.

[p. 40]

174. Employed (worked for at least 1 hour for pay, profit or family gain or was temporarily absent from work but had a job, farm or business. Note that very little paid work is needed to be classified as 'employed'.

1. Employee working for the government. All people working in the government of Myanmar or any other should fall under this option.

2. Employee (working for private employer or private organization for pay in cash or in kind). This category comprises persons who during the reference period worked for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, contracts or payment in kind (especially in the rural areas where people who have rendered services may be paid using food or clothing). All people in NGOs, international organizations, companies, etc. must be coded here.

3. Employer (employing one or more employees). This category comprises persons who during the reference period worked in their own business, which also employs other persons. The person must have also been spending much of his/her time at the place of work than in other work. This is to say that if the person has two places of work then this is where he/she spends more of the working time. The people employed can be paid either in cash or in-kind.

4. Own-account worker (not employing any employee). This category comprises self-employed persons who worked on own business or worked on own/ family business for family gain. This category can include, for example, artisans, self-employed mechanics, traders in farm produce and family workers offering services in own or family business. Any member of the household working on the family holding for pay will fall under code "2".

5. Contributing family worker (working without pay in the business or farm of another household/family member)

175. Not employed, available for work

6. Sought work: A person who in the reference period was actively looking for work belongs to this category "6". This category should not include the under-employed (i.e. those who have paid work but wish to leave for better opportunities). Persons who have no work at all and are looking for work will fall under this category. If a person is working on the family holding but is seeking work, he/she should be coded as "contributing family worker" and not as "seeking work". This category should include only persons who are available full-time for work and hence are actively looking.

7. Not seeking work: This person is not working nor looking for work because he/she is discouraged, but would usually take up a job when offered one.

176. Not employed, not available for work

8. Unemployed student: This is a person who spent most of his/her time in a regular educational institution (primary, secondary, college, university etc.) and hence not available for work. If, for instance, a student was part-time during the better part of the reference period and was engaged in gainful employment, he/she should be coded as employed. This may be the case amongst the university students.

9. Household work (homemaker): Is a person of either sex involved in household chores in his/her own home e.g. fetching water, cooking, babysitting, etc., who did not work for pay or profit or sought work. These categories should not include houseboys/girls who fall under category "2". If such a person worked on family holding without pay they should be coded as "5" and not as "9". Please probe. Many women, especially in rural areas, consider themselves as housewives, but work in the fields on the family farms. They should be classified as "5" Contributing family workers.

10. Pensioner, retired, elderly person: This is a person who reports that during the 12 months, he/she was not engaged in any economic activity because he/she had retired either due to age, sickness, or voluntarily. If a person has retired, but is doing some work/business, he/she should be coded as "2", "3", "4" or "5" as appropriate. If he/she has retired, but is seeking work he/she should be coded as "6".

11. Disabled or ill: This is somebody who cannot work due to some form of disability or illness. Do not assume that all disabled persons cannot work. For example, a blind person who is in wage employment will fall under category "2" and not "11". Similarly physically disabled person working on the family holding should fall under category "2" or "5". You should probe if you are unsure at first.

12. Other: This category includes any other persons not mentioned above. You are to probe to find out whether unpaid family workers consider themselves as "seeking work", etc. and code them accordingly. For example, if a young man helps his uncle to sell goods in a shop without receiving pay, probe whether he is seeking work, and if so code him as such. In such case code 5 would be appropriate. In such case the person is either working without pay (code 5) or employed with pay (code 2).

This question is aimed at identifying the size of the labor force and the reasons why people are not working. It is therefore important this question is asked with all the care. In most cases, women may assume that they are not working but they are deeply involved in the workforce. Below are some photos which should probe you to inquire if the people both women and men say that they are not working; ask them what they are doing then code as appropriate.

[p. 41]

[Images omitted]

Question 23: Occupation
177. Ask "what work was [the respondent] mainly doing during the last 12 months before the census?" This question must be asked of all people who coded "1" to "5" in Question 22.

[p. 42]

178. Occupation is the kind of work done during the last 12 months by the person employed, regardless of the industry or status in employment of the person. Write detailed description of the work being done such as accounts clerk, legal secretary, domestic worker, fisherman, human resource manager, etc. The writing should be done in space provided in Myanmar language.

179. State the person's occupation in his/her main job during the reference year and the type of work done. Main job is that economic activity where the person spends most of the time working than any other work. Be sure to obtain a description of their main tasks/duties since often times a job title does not sufficiently describe the occupation for the purpose of coding. For example occupations such as "clerk," "engineer," "manager", "seaman," "supervisor," "teacher" etc. are too vague. You will need to probe for a more detailed answer. Examples of various occupations are provided below.

180. Your job is to write a legible and concise description of the respondent's occupation. Errors in the coding of occupations could occur if you do not give adequate or complete descriptions of tasks and duties performed by the respondent. Each employed person who is recorded 1-5 in Q22 must have occupation in Q23.

[Figure omitted]

Question 24: Industry

181. Ask "what is the major product or service produced in the organization/enterprise where [the respondent] mainly worked during the last 12 months?"

182. Industry is the branch of economic activity carried out at the person's place of work. This is defined in terms of the kind of goods produced or services supplied by the enterprise in which the person works and NOT necessarily the specific duties or functions of the person's job. For example, in the case of a contract cook working in a canteen in a factory that makes television sets? The industry should be manufacture of electrical goods. But her occupation is a cook at worker place. Using such examples you would record construction/electrical installation, baking of bread, repair of boats/yacht, activities of trust company or retail banking, etc. There are cases where some people may also inform you that they are engaged in illegal activities like stealing, prostitution, you will have to record this as well. Your role is to get the correct information, write it down then coding will be done in the office in Naypyitaw.

183. For the corresponding main occupation in question 23 indicate the name of the business carried out by the employer. If it is not obvious from the name, or the business has no name, you should clearly indicate what the employer makes or does. Some employers are engaged in more than one industry (e.g. Government) therefore it is important to specify the type of industry that relates to the person for whom you are recording information. Write the name of the business or the department in government. Examples of various industries are provided below. Probe to find out the name of the business and the main type of activities carried out there.

[p. 43]

184. Your job is to write a legible and concise description of the type of business carried out where the person works. Errors in the classification of industries could occur when you do not give adequate or complete descriptions of the type of business. For example, inaccuracies may arise if you describe the business of an establishment by the occupation of the person employed there rather than the activity that is carried out within the business.

185. All employed persons must have an industry description written in question (23). Some examples of occupation question (23) and of industry question (24) are given below.

Rice farmer
Tending cattle/buffalo
Rearing chicken
Cutting trees
Director, Ministry of Health
Accountant at hotel
Brick laying labor at construction company
Shop assistant
Air pilot with KBZ aircraft
Taxi driver
Maid/house help
Cook at hotel
Soldier security at parliament
Traffic patrol police
Crop farming/agriculture
Livestock farming
Poultry raising
Forestry/logging of wood
Hair cutting
Health sector/public administration
Hotel services
Building construction
Retail shop in stationery
Production of garment
Air transport
Road transport service
Domestic service
Hotel Service
Security/public administration

Births to Ever Married Women Section (Fertility)

186. The questions on births and children related issues will be asked to ever-married women aged 15 and above. Many women may be reluctant to answer questions about their children. There are various reasons for this, but it is your duty to obtain the answers. It will require firmness, politeness, tact, understanding and, for some questions such as death, sympathy.

187. Only females above 15 years who have ever married should respond to the questions on births. Use Q4 - sex, Q5 - age, and Q6 - marital status, to determine eligible persons for this section. These questions will be used to estimate fertility and childhood mortality levels in Myanmar. The information would also be used to undertake population projections required for future planning purposes.

Question 25: Number of children ever born alive
188. Ask each ever-married woman age 15 years and above "how many children has [the respondent] ever given birth alive?" How many males and females?

189. Live births include even those births where the child lives for only a short time. Twins count as one live birth. But this question records the number of children, so twins will be recorded as two children. Live births do not include stillbirths, that is, children who were born dead and therefore did not show any sign(s) of life at the time of birth. The census is concerned only with children born alive.