Republic of Mali
One people, One aim, One faith
Ministry of Economics, Planning and Integration
National Office of Statistics and Informatics
Central Census Bureau
PO Box 12, Bamako Mali
General Census of Population and Housing
in Mali, April 1998
Manual for the Census Enumerator
The Central Bureau of the Census [B.C.R.: Bureau Central de Recensement] developed this methodological manual as a guide for the census enumerator, and for all the field personnel, so that the census be conducted in a smooth way during all the census field work. This manual also contains the definitions relative to the various concepts used in the census, and the recommendations and main principles to which each census enumerator shall follow in order to properly fill the census forms. It is also a guide for the agents in charge of the various tasks which will immediately follow the enumeration in the field.
A special attention is devoted to each item in this guide, to the care to be taken for filling the various forms of the census, because of the role this plays for the success of the exhaustive enumeration of the population and of the housing units. These recommendations are developed in particular in Chapter 4 of this manual, entitled: The tasks of the census enumerator.
In addition to the specific tasks of the census enumerator, the manual also deals with the definition and the objectives of the census, and this for better information of the field personnel (Chapter 1). Indeed, for the personnel in charge of conducting the interviews, it is compulsory to deal with these issues, so that they could in turn, and when needed, better inform the population during the census operations. This manual is also an important methodological guide, which needs to be consulted with the greatest accuracy and professional consciousness by all the field agents, so that the results of the census can be of acceptable quality. Therefore, it is also recommended to all the field personnel to follow the guidelines displayed below with respect to this manual:
1) Make sure to consult very regularly the manual all along the field operations, and each time there are difficulties or doubts about a specific point.
2) Follow with greatest care the definitions provided for the various concepts of the census.
3) Follow with greatest care the various definitions and recommendations for the recording of the characteristics of the population and of the housing units
4) Make sure to always have the manual at hand, as well as the other forms. Do not forget them at home. The Central Bureau of the Census relies on your sense of duty for a careful observation and a conscientious application of all above cited recommendations, in order to ensure the success of the census.
Over the past few years, the Government of Mali made notable efforts to improve the demographic and social statistics, and for their integration into the planning process.
In this respect, a first General Census of Population and Housing was conducted in 1976, and a second in 1987. Before these national censuses, other statistical surveys had been already conducted in the country, based on samples or on local areas. A demographic survey was conducted in 1985, as part of a major program of household sample surveys (PADEM), undertaken by the National Directorate of Statistics [Direction Nationale de la Statistique]. Furthermore, two other national sample surveys, called the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) [Enquête Démographique et de Santé: EDS] were conducted in 1987 and in 1995/1996. Results of these various operations were so far utilized for the needs of the various national administrations and research institutions, and for the needs of planning.
The current General Census of Population and Housing must be conducted as a logical follow-up of these various operations. The project is in itself quite simple, and aims at gathering the main characteristics of population and housing. The population census is twined with the housing census, and will be conducted following an appropriate methodology, and carefully prepared. Within the framework of this methodology, all population of the country are concerned, whether sedentary or nomads, although the two enumerations are done separately. This project required an organizational structure, implying all the major national institutions, and all the country regions, and which received an important financial support from the government and from the development partners.
Central Bureau of the Census
Chapter 1: Definition and Objectives of the Census of Population and Housing
To undertake on the whole national territory a census of population and housing is a complex operation, which will generate interest, and as a consequence will raise many questions from the persons concerned with the operation. Therefore, it is necessary for the census enumerator, who is the first to be concerned with it, and who shall conduct the interviews, to well understand the aims and objectives of this operation, in order to be able to well inform the population during the enumeration process.
This current chapter gives a summary of all aims and objectives assigned to the census. It also mentions some of the uses made of the data which are going to be collected.
A. Definition of a General Census of Population and Housing
This General Census of Population and Housing, for which you are the census enumerators, consists into a series of operations, which are displayed thereafter:
a. Complete a full count of the population, that is a count of all persons resident or present in the national territory, without omitting anybody, nor double counting anybody, and gather information on their demographic, economic, social and cultural characteristics.
b. At the same time, complete a full inventory of all housing unit occupied by the enumerated persons, and gather information on their construction characteristics.
c. Gather data on the number of children born and the number of persons who died in the year prior to the census.
d. Lastly, to gather some supplementary information related with the compounds and the households.
The census was conceived to be conducted on the whole territory, within its current national boundaries. Each town or village of the country is included in a Census Track [zone de dénombrement: S.E.], and all components of the population are concerned. Both the sedentary population and the nomadic population are concerned by the census. Each and any individual of the population and each and any housing unit will be enumerated. The operations anticipated and programmed by the census will be conducted at a given date, so that the data gathered have a precise reference date. The reference period for this census goes from April 1 to April 14, 1998. Once these data are collected, they will be gathered together, scrutinized, analyzed and published for the needs of planning. From this definition, one can now list the objectives assigned to this census.
B. Objectives of the Census of Population and Housing
The following objectives were assigned to this current census:
a. Determine the total size of the population of Mali, its distribution between the regions, provinces, districts, townships, villages for sedentary and nomads, urban and rural areas.
b. Determine its structure by age and sex, which is the total number of men and women of each age included in the total population.
c. Determine the total annual number of births and the total annual number of deaths.
d. Determine the availability in housing unit for the households, and their living condition as far as housing is concerned.
e. The census will also produce information on the demographic characteristics (marital status, place of birth, etc.), on the economic characteristics (occupation, main economic activity, etc.), and socio-cultural characteristics (nationality, literacy, language spoken, etc...).
The main objective assigned to economic and social development planning in Mali can be summarized as such:
- Improving the living conditions of the populations, their production capacity, and their social conditions. The actions to be taken for fulfilling this objective touch upon all the sectors of national live. Some of them deserve a special attention:
- Mass school enrolment, in order to allow to a majority of school-aged children to have access to basic education;
- Intensifying the actions of adult literacy training;
- Pursuing the primary health care policy;
- Promoting the establishment of industrial units;
- Promoting the construction of low cost housing units for the households, etc...
The general census of population and housing is an important tool, and the most appropriate for the objective determination of these needs. Indeed, these various needs: (such as building schools, hospitals, industrial units throughout the country, housing development schemes, etc.) cannot be properly appreciated by the government if it does not have beforehand the detailed data on:
1) The total size of the population, and its geographical distribution, to determine on a rational basis the needs for food, a health policy and the choice for sites of industrial units;
2) The total number of school aged children, eligible for schooling, and the total number of adults in the country, so that one could compute the number of schools to be built, and the actions to be taken for adult literacy program.
3) Lastly, on the data related with the situation of housing units, which are necessary to elaborate housing development schemes for the households in need.
The general census of population and housing is therefore the main source of data for development planning, and for the administration, for all their actions of economic and social development. This is why no effort will be spared for obtaining a good organization of the census, and an excellent conducting of this census.
Legal texts will defer to the operation all its national and compulsory character, and will as well create all the consulting organs and all the executive organs necessary for its organization. They will be adopted by the government in order to guarantee a smooth running of the operations.
Chapter 2: Flowchart of the Census Personnel
The diagram displayed thereafter displays the flowchart of the census personnel. This diagram shows the various categories of the personnel utilized for the census. It also specifies directly the sector of work, or the task of each agent, and visualizes the direct levels of consultation between the various categories of personnel, in order to facilitate the field work.
The various levels of consultation between the categories of personnel are shown by the arrows relating one category to the other. The sectors of work or of operations of each category of personnel are shown between brackets: Census track, Census district, Township, District, Province, Region, National level.
The census enumerator will operate in a census track, a census area including about 600 to 650 inhabitants in rural areas, and about 1000 to 1250 inhabitants in urban areas. His or her tasks in the census track are defined in Chapter 4.
The team leader is responsible for a census district, comprising about 5 census tracks. The task of the team leader is to help technically and administratively the census enumerators in his census district, and to guarantee the quality of their work by conducting various control operations.
The controller is above the supervisors, and is based at the district or township level [arrondissement or commune]. He or she is administratively and technically responsible in his or her sector of activity.
The supervisor is responsible for the work at the provincial level, and supervises administratively and technically the operations in his or her sector of activity
The regional inspector, member of the Regional Bureau of the Census, is responsible for the operations in his or her region.
The general inspector, member of the Central Bureau of the Census, is the representative of the BCR at the regional level. His or her role is to inspect the whole operation in the region.
The head of the central office is responsible at the national level of all the census operations. He or she is assisted in his task by regional advisers in demographic statistics from the development partner, the African Census Program of the African Economic Community.
This structure of the personnel was set-up and seen as the most appropriate for the best execution of the field operations.
The various levels of consultation which are displayed will be utilized by the personnel in case of any difficulty found during the census operations.
Chapter 3: Concepts and Abbreviations
The following concepts will be utilized during the census operations. Some of these concepts are utilized as common terms throughout this manual, and others during the filling of the household form, or of the other forms to be filled during the census.
The census enumerator must assimilate the definitions that are given to him or her, and must follow them with great accuracy during the active phase of the census.
These concepts are:
- Housing unit
- Private household
- Institutional household
We display here for the census enumerator the following definitions of these various concepts.
Demography is the study of populations living in a geographically defined area. For instance, a study dealing with the population of a village, a neighborhood, a city, a region of Mali, or of the whole country. The general census of population in Mali is conducted in the context of the latter.
A compound is a defined space, enclosed or not, within which one or several buildings are erected, for various usage: housing units, storage units, private or public buildings, etc. A compound is generally enclosed by a wall or a fence. In some cases however, it may also be composed by several independent constructions, not necessarily enclosed by a wall or a fence. It may also be reduced to one single building, utilized or not for a specific purpose. Therefore, will be considered as compounds the building used for administrative purpose, for public purpose, for religious purpose, for industrial purpose, for commercial purpose, etc. A compound may be composed of one or several housing units, and may be occupied by one or several households, generally under the responsibility of a single person, the compound head.
A building is an independent structure (edifice), with one or several rooms separated by walls, and with the purpose of being used for housing or for storage. However, a building may also be constituted by an open structure, without a roof, and without permanent walls. Examples of constructions are: houses or huts, kitchen, toilets, granaries etc...
d. Housing Unit
This is the basic unit for the census of housing. A housing unit is a set of constructions designated for housing a household. There are several types of housing units to be distinguished:
1) Fixed housing unit. This is a room, or several rooms, located within a permanent building, that is a building able to stay at the same spot for a long period of time (for instance one to 10 years of more). This category includes:
- Semi modern (semi-hard) houses (with semi solid walls of adobe covered with cement)
- Traditional (soft) houses (with mud brick walls or thatched walls), round huts, etc.
2) Mobile homes. This type includes a housing unit, constructed such as being able to be transported, or which is already a mobile unit utilized for housing at time of the census. This category include: the tents for nomads; train carriage; boats and ships, river craft, pirogues, barges; carts, trailers, etc. These dwelling units will be considered only if they are occupied at time of the census.
A household is a group of individuals, related or unrelated by blood, living under the same roof and under the responsibility of a head of household, whose authority is recognized by all its members.
A private household is constituted by a head of household, his or her spouse or spouses, their unmarried children, and possibly with other members of the family or with other persons unrelated by blood.
A household may be reduced to a single adult, living alone or with his or her children.
1) In a polygamous household, when the wives do not all live in the husband's compound, one will remember that the wives living in a different compound than the husband will be enumerated there (as head of household) and with the persons living with them. The wife (wives) living with their husband will be enumerated with the latter and with the persons living with them.
2) A tenant who is not taking his or her meals where he or she is hosted will be counted as a separate household.
3) In the case of a compound where the husband lives with his spouses and his unmarried children, the other married sons will be considered as separate households with their own spouses, children and possibly other unmarried dependent persons.
4) Each member of a group of single persons not related by blood who live together, and who each contributes individually to their needs and their food, will be considered as a single household.
f. Institutional Household
An institutional household is a set of persons living together, in social institutions throughout the country, for a variety of reasons, such as: education, health, work, travel, discipline or common interest.
These are for instance: hospitals or health centers with hospitalization capacity; boarding schools (secondary schools, colleges, schools for teachers, institutes, etc...; re-education centers; hotels, convents and other religious communities, military barracks, etc...
One will not consider as part of the given institution the director, the administration personnel, and the maintenance personnel.
Remark: The private households who live in houses located within the quarters of an institution will be identified and enumerated separately on a private household form. For instance, the director of a hospital who lives in a house located within the hospital yard.
A resident is a person who spent six (6) months or more in his or her place of current residence, or who intends to stay there even though the duration of stay already accomplished is smaller than six months.
If this person spent the night preceding the visit of the census enumerator in the census place, he or she is noted: Resident-Present (R.P.)
If the person has not spent the night preceding the visit of the census enumerator in the census place, he or she is noted: Resident-Absent (R.A.)
Remark: Resident-Absent who left their household since more than six months are not enumerated.
A visitor is a person whose place at time of census is not his or her usual place of residence, and who is visiting in the household for less than six (6) months, and who does not intend to stay for more than six (6) months.
During the census operations, the following abbreviations could be used:
N.D.: Not declared (applies to the persons who have not answered a question).
--- : or hyphen (for the persons who are not concerned by a question).
Other abbreviations can be used for answers to specific questions, such as:
1) Relationship to the Head of the Household
m: in months
j: in days
Chapter 4: The tasks of the Census Enumerator
This chapter is prepared for the census enumerator, and presents the different tasks that he or she will have to accomplish during the field operations. These tasks are defined by the census objectives, as defined in Chapter 1 of this manual: "To conduct a full scale count of the Malian population and of the housing units occupied by its inhabitants, and to collect information on their various characteristics".
All the operations for meeting this objective are programmed as specific actions, which occur before, during and after the census field operations.
Advices and Recommendations to the Census Enumerator
In order to accomplish all the tasks falling under his or her responsibility, the following advices and recommendations are addressed to each agent.
1) The census enumerator shall have the manual and the Identity Card with him or her during the whole duration of the field work.
2) Each census enumerator shall work with regularity and consciousness, from the first day scheduled for the beginning of the field work (April 1st, 1998), and end the census of his census track within the fourteen (14) days scheduled for this work, so that the enumeration of each census track will be finished by April 14th, at night.
3) The census enumerator shall ensure the quality of his or her work. For this, he or she must work on his own in his or her census track, without the help of a relative, a friend or any other person. Only the census enumerators are authorized to participate in the census. He or she shall not be always from his or her census track, except for reasons of the greatest importance, and even in this case, he or she must immediately notify his or her team leader, so that the appropriate measures are taken.
4) The census enumerator must work while following rigorously:
b. The definitions, the age limits, and the reference periods selected for recording the characteristics of the population and of the housing units.
5) Go back several times to households, for enumerating the absent, whether individuals or whole households.
6) The census enumerator is bound by professional secrecy. In no case he or she must reveal any information gathered during the census.
7) The census enumerator shall know how to insist for gathering accurate and consistent answers from the interviewed persons. For this purpose, and if necessary, insist on the census purpose which is not associated with taxes, and on the statistical secrecy (confidentiality) bound to it.
8) The conduct of the census enumerator and his or her behavior must be such that he or she receives a good welcoming from the visited household.
9) The census enumerator must conduct the interview in a language easily understood by the interviewed person, so that the person could understand the confidential character of the data.
10) Once the census track is finished, the census enumerator must ensure that all the elements on the list have been enumerated without any omission nor double counting (households, compounds, hamlets, villages, etc...).
11) The census enumerator must write legibly, and avoid crossing outs on the household form.
12) The census enumerator must refer to the team leader, every time he or she encounters a problem that he or she cannot resolve.
13) The census enumerator is not allowed, in no case, to use the official cover provided by the census operation for making any type of propaganda, religious, political or others, which could compromise the availability of the persons and the quality of the data.
A. Tasks of the census enumerator before the census
1. Reconnaissance of the Census Track
Let us recall one more time what is meant by the term "census track". A census track is an area created for the census, so that the persons living in it could be enumerated within the 14 days scheduled for the census operations. Its size is about 600 inhabitants in rural areas, and about 1000 inhabitants in urban areas. Once the theoretical training is finished, each census enumerator will be located in his or her census track, which is his or her working area.
When this working area is located in urban areas, the team leader will explain to you the limits of the census track, especially when these limits are not clearly defined on the map of the census district. When the census track is located in rural areas, the team leader will give you on a piece of paper the listing of all peopling units that are included in it (village, hamlet, park, etc...).
Then, you must go there and travel through the census track and make sure that:
the limits given to you are accurate; the list of peopling units is complete.
In particular, you must identify the hamlets and peripheral housing units that are part of the census track. The limits of census tracks are often natural landmarks (main river, small river, hill, road, street, school, etc.). This identification is a pre-requisite to any operation, and aims at avoiding omission or double counting in the list of peopling units, and confusion between limits of contiguous census tracks.
2. Psychological Preparation of the Population
This is during the identification phase of the census track that the census enumerator must, at the same time, prepare psychologically the population. This preparation aims at well understanding the census objectives.
Most people will still remember the former administrative censuses that were conducted during the colonial times, and which had only fiscal aims (that is raising taxes, recruiting for annual forced labor, etc.). This is why the people are hostile up to now to any census operation. It is therefore the duty of the census enumerator to convince the population in order to let them understand well the census objectives. If necessary, one can mention the difference between these ancient types of administrative census, and the demographic census that is going to be conducted.
This will allow the government to determine:
- the annual number of births and deaths;
- the level of education of the population;
- the number of workers in the country;
- the availability of housing units, etc...
This information is necessary for the government to elaborate its programs for building schools, hospitals, etc., and therefore for social and economic development planning. The census enumerator must explain to the population that this information can be obtained only if everybody contributes to the census, by being enumerated and by furnishing accurate answers.
Each person must not only be enumerated, but also let enumerate all his or her relatives.
In general, this will mean to urge the population to be enumerated and to answer correctly to the questions asked, in order to ensure the reliability of the information to be collected, and to increase the efficacy and the scope of the government actions.
3. Numbering the compounds
Once the census track has been fully identified, the census enumerator shall proceed to the numbering of the compounds. This operation shall be terminated on the whole national territory before the beginning of the census, scheduled for April 1st, 1998.
The numbering of the compounds aims at determining with accuracy the number of households to be enumerated by compound, and at the same time to have an idea of the number of buildings in each compound, well before the census.
a. Compounds that do not need to be numbered
During the numbering operation, only the inhabited compounds are concerned. The compounds which are not inhabited will be only marked with a cross. This is in particular the case for the public buildings and the administrative buildings, the trading warehouses, the shops (if they are not inhabited), the schools (without boarding), the mosques and temples, the industrial buildings etc. as long as they are not inhabited.
b. Principle for numbering the compounds
You may use one of the following two methods for the numbering.
Start from one of the compounds the most distal, the most remote from the headquarters of the team leader, and while turning around the set of houses to be numbered and keeping it always on the right-hand side. In this case, you will not reach all the compounds in one round, and when getting close to the departing point shift by one rank towards the center, and continue the operation until the last compound is reached.
The following diagram illustrates this principle:
[Representation not reproduced here]
Starting from a given point located in a corner at the periphery of the group of compounds, the census enumerator will move firstly while keeping the set of houses to his right hand side up to the next corner. Once reaching the limits, he or she will shift one row to the right and will go back in reverse, this time while keeping the set of houses to his left hand side up to the next corner, and so forth up to the last compound.
[Representation not reproduced here]
When a compound does not have a fence, write the number of the compound and the number of the building on each housing unit or each building potentially inhabited.
Example: 10/3 will be written on building No 3 of compound number 10.
Warning: During the numbering operation, the compound numbers must follow a sequence from 1 to n, for the whole census track. The census enumerator shall never cut the sequence during the numbering operation. The compound numbers shall follow each other, 1, 2, 3 and so forth for the whole census track.
Example: When the census track includes two villages A and B, number first all the compounds of village A, before continuing with the second village B. If the last compound in village A has number 26, then the compound numbers in village B will start with 27, 28, 29, etc...
c. Numbering the buildings within the compound
Numbering the buildings refer only to the housing units, or to units that could be inhabited. The other buildings, not for housing, such as the outbuildings (granaries, toilets, halls, henhouses, stables, etc.), storage houses and shops not for housing etc. shall not be numbered, but only marked with a cross. However, if such a building is also used for dwelling, it shall bear a number.
Principle for numbering buildings:
The numbering of dwelling units shall be done at the same time as that of the compounds. When a compound receives a number, the census enumerator shall go inside, and draw a number [or a cross] on all the buildings that are inside.
Buildings are also numbers from 1 to n in each compound.
d. Method for filling the first section of the visit registry
The visit registry of the census enumerator in the compounds of his or her census track constitutes an important document, and is presented as a notebook. The census enumerator shall always have this document with him or her, during the whole numbering operation of compounds, and during the proper census operation of all members of each household in his or her census track.
This document provides a full listing of the compounds, while mentioning the number of buildings by type of use and the households.
2. Method for filling the visit registry
This document is filled during the numbering operation of the compounds, and before the complete census of household members. First mark the geographical information on the top of the form, while mentioning the name of the region, of the province, of the district or the township. Write next the number of the census district, and the number of the census track to be considered. Within a census track all compounds are numbered sequentially, and within a compound, all households are numbered sequentially as well.
The filling of the form is therefore conducted the following way:
2) In Column 2, write the compound number.
3) In Column 3, write the household number in the compound
4) In Column 4, write the last name and first name of the head of the household
5) In Column 5, write the code corresponding to the type of household with respect to farming activity, as explained in the footnote and in the instructions given in the attached page in this document.
6) In Column 6, write the number of buildings, by type of use (housing unit, storage or granary, other uses).
Remarks: When several households make use of the same kitchen, write the number in front of any of the households. In case of multiple usages for the same building, write only the main usage.
B. Tasks of the census enumerator during the census
During the census operations, the tasks of the census enumerator are at multiple levels: the filling of the household form, the recapitulating of all the enumerated persons, and the statistical control.
The first two operations, that is, the filling of the household form and the recapitulating of all the enumerated persons, are done with the help of the household form.
Overall Presentation of the Enumerator Form
The household form presents itself as a largely pre-coded questionnaire, which requires two different modes of filling, depending on the type of information requested. Indeed, this form includes:
a. Questions for which the numeric codes are already prepared for the possible answers. For these items, the census enumerator must either circle the number, or write the code corresponding to the answer, depending on the question.
Example 1: For sex, the possible items for the answer are pre-coded:
 2 = F
Here, circle the number 1 or 2, depending on the answer.
Example 2: For the activity status, eight (8) items are possible, coded from 0 to 7. One must write the number corresponding to the declared answer. For instance, if member No 4 in a household is a permanent salaried worker, one must write code (3) in Column P23.
b. Questions for which the answers must be written in words. This is for instance the case for the questions related with occupation, the main economic activity, the sector of economic activity, respectively in Column S P20, P22, and P24.
It should be noted that the whole set of questions to be asked in the census is divided into four sections on the household census form. However, this form also has, in its front page, a summary table for the household.
In addition, two other types of recapitulating operations will be done on independent forms.
The statistical control is a totally independent operation, with aims at guaranteeing the completeness and the quality of the data which are to be gathered.
It is the duty of the census enumerator to fill the household form during the census operation. He or she must not only ensure the completeness of the census, but also the quality of the data to be collected. He or she must visit all the households in his or her census track, without omission or double counting, and must count all the persons and all the housing units separately. For meeting this objective, the following guidelines were given beforehand, as far as the census questionnaire is concerned.
a. The households of the census track of the census enumerator are located from the geographical information written on the first page.
b. The questions concerning the members of the household are grouped on pages 2 and 3 of the household questionnaire, within a given priority order, and in agreement with the census requirements. Some of them concern all the persons living in the household. Some others, however, concern only persons age six (6) years and above. A third group deals with only persons aged 12 years of more.
c. The last part of the questionnaire is devoted to the count of the births and deaths that occurred in the households, and to the housing questions. The census enumerator must fill each of these parts with the greatest care, and to take into account the constraints imposed for pages 2 and 3 in the form.
1.1. First Section -- Geographical Characteristics
This section contains the geographical information identifying the household. The census enumerator must follow the following guidelines for filling the form.
Do not write anything in the boxes located right to the geographical information. They are reserved for the coding. Use capital letters to fill in the left hand side.
Province: Djenne 1 1
Neighborhood (for townships only):
Census district: 2
Census track: 010
At the bottom of the table dealing with the geographical information, in the right hand side, the census enumerator shall write the total number of forms utilized in the household, and the questionnaire number in the boxes prepared for this.
Total number of forms utilized in the household:
Types of households
Sedentary or Nomadic Households: When the household is sedentary, write code 1 in the right hand side bow, and when the household is nomadic write code 2 in the box.
 2 Nomadic
To finish this part, the census enumerator will write, at the bottom of the page, the date of interview, his or her last name and first name, and his or her signature. The team leader, the controller and the supervisor shall also do so, with the appropriate dates of the controls, as well as their last names, first names and signatures.
1.2. Second Section -- Individual Characteristics
This section contains the various questions to be asked for the household members. To fill this section, first write on the household form the first names and last names of all the household members.
To obtain this information, as well as all the others, the questions shall be asked to the household head only, with the exception of cases of absence or real unavailability of the latter. In case where the household head is not available, the interview could be conducted with another resident person of the household, at least 15 years of age, and able to provide the information to be asked for.
The principle for the enumeration of the household members is the following:
2nd group: Children of the household head, the mothers of which are not in the household (following a death or a divorce).
3rd group: The wife or wives of the head of household [C.M.], each followed by her unmarried children, starting with the youngest child.
4th group: Other relatives of the household members living in of the household.
5th group: Servants of the household, sleeping in the same household quarters.
6th group: Visitors
Once this general principle is well understood, start fill in the second section of the household form.
For this, pay great attention to the different groups of questions.
1.2.1. Questions for ALL Household Members
Questions 1 to 13 concern all the household members. Each of these questions must have an answer for each household member. Once this general principle is well understood, the order for filling the questionnaire is the following.
NB: Column P0 is reserved for computer data entry; do not write anything into it.
1. Column Pl: Rank in household (line number)
Give sequentially a rank (line number) to each household member: 01, 02, 03 ... 10, 11, etc
The household head will necessarily receive the number 01.
When a household form is not large enough to register all the household members, use a second form, while continuing to write the line numbers sequentially from the previous page. Also, do not forget to write again the geographical information on the supplementary forms filled for the household, and to write the count of the total number of forms utilized on the first form.
Example: If the last line number on the first form utilized was 15, the second form must start with line number 16, and so forth.
2. Column P2: First name and last name
Write in Column P2 the first names and last names of all the household members, starting with the head of household, as mentioned on the principle for listing the household members. Before starting to ask other questions, write first all the first names and last names. This is done to avoid the possible memory failures of the head of household. Write the usual first name of each household member, followed with his family name. When several members in the household bear the same last name and first name, use surnames when needed.
N.B: When, in a household, one finds a new born not yet baptized, write as a first name the term "boy" or "girl", depending on his or her sex, followed by the family name.
Boy TRAORE = is a newborn male child, not yet baptized, whose father is Mr. TRAORE.
Girl TRAORE = is a newborn female child, not yet baptized, whose father is Mr. TRAORE.
4. Column P4: Sex
Note the sex of each household member. Circle the number in front of the letter corresponding to the sex:
 2 Female
Never try to infer the sex from the person's first name, but always ask the question, in a way so that the interviewed person is not hurt. Indeed, persons from different sexes might have the same first name.
Example: Adama, Sadio, Konimba, Massiré, Fily, etc...
5. Column P5: Residence status
The reference date for collecting the data on the situation of residence is the night preceding the visit of the census enumerator in the household.
The various categories of resident, and the visitor status, will be determined according to this reference night. Then, refer to the definitions of Resident and of Visitor given in the concept section, and circle the number located before the letter corresponding to the situation:
 2 RA (Resident Absent)
 3 V (visitor).
- The civil servants newly transferred to a new place will be enumerated as R.P. (code 1) in that place.
- Wives who left to deliver at their parent's homes shall be counted as Visitor in their parent's household, and R.A. to their husband household, then circle number 2.
- Pupils and students who live in boarding schools, hospitalized persons, convicts and people in re-education centers (jails, Bollé Center etc.), monks living in convents, will be enumerated in these institutions, as part of the institutional households.
Situation of Residence for Nomadic Households
Any nomadic household, grouped in a given location outside of his normal nomadic route will be considered as RP (code 1), even when the duration of stay is shorter than 6 months.
However, a member of a household in the case noted above will be considered R.A. if he or she lives outside of the household. Likewise, an isolated member of a household living outside of his or her household will be considered as a visitor in his or her place of enumeration (where he or she will be seen).
It should be specified that households living in their normal zone of nomadism will be treated as sedentary households, only the geographical area changes [sic].
6. and 7. Column P6 and P7: Date of birth and age
The census enumerator should devote to this part a special care, since these questions are by themselves of utmost importance, since the age variable will play a major role in the analysis of the data collected.
6. Column P6: Date of birth
The date of birth in written in Column P6 for the household members who have an official document certifying their date of birth. This date of birth will be converted into integer number of years in Column P7, as explained in the example below. For the under-five children, one shall insist to obtain the proper date of birth.
The date of birth of a person born on August 22, 1968 will be written as: 22/08/68.
The documents to be considered for recording the date of birth are:
- The certificate of baptism
Remark: If a person is born before 1900, write 00
The other documents: supplementary judgment identity cards, family booklet, passports, etc. shall be considered only if they contain at least the person's month and year of birth. If these documents contain only the year of birth, write only the age Column P7. For this, convert first the year of birth of the person into age in integer number of years, before writing it in Column P7.
Example: On the Identity card of a person, one finds written: ... born around 1940... without further precision on day or month of birth. In this case, first determine the age of the person, by doing the following calculation: 1998 - 1940 = 58 years and write this age in Column P7, with a hyphen (--) in Column P6.
Principles for determining age from the correspondence tables:
Determining the age shall be done, whenever possible, from a birth certificate. If this is true that in urban areas most children will have a birth certificate, this is however not the case in rural areas. Indeed, the high rate of illiteracy is a major handicap for the functioning of vital registration in rural areas. Therefore, in these areas, the age is expressed as the number of rainy seasons seen by the person.
Furthermore, one should note that in rural areas, references are made to the lunar calendar, translated into vernacular languages.
This is why a correspondence table was established, in order to allow the precise determination of the date of birth for children less than 10 years of age, according to the Gregorian calendar. This technique is based on the knowledge by the respondent of three elements:
2. The name of the lunar month of the birth of the child;
3. The day of birth of the child in the lunar calendar.
Example: A respondent tells you that his or her child has lived 6 rainy seasons, that he or she was born on Ramadan 27. What is the exact date of birth of the child?
Response: Refer to the correspondence table provided in Annex 2. Read the intersection of line "sounkalo" and Column "6 rainy seasons". You will find that the date of birth lies between February 23, 1993 and March 23, 1993. To obtain the precise date, add 26 (that is 27 - 1) to February 23, which gives 49. Then Subtract 28, corresponding to the number of days in February, and one obtains 21. The child is therefore born on March 21, 1993. Then, one can calculate the age of the child, as if he or she had a birth certificate. If the date of enumeration is March 16, 1998, the child's age is therefore: 4 years and 11 months, or 59 months.
If the child is born on Ramadan 3, the precise date of birth will be obtained as 23+3-1 = 25, and the child's birth date would be February 25, 1993.
In general, if the result of the computation for days is higher than the number of days in the months, one shall subtract this number from the result to obtain the corresponding date.
If the first element of the calendar is known, and the two others are unknown, one could use, when needed, the approximate agricultural calendar (see Annex 3), for an estimation of the child's date of birth.
7. Column P7: Age
Age will be determined for the individuals who know their date of birth, as well as for those who do not have any official document, with their month and year of birth.
Ask for the age of the person, and write it in the two boxes located in Column P7. Do not forget to circle the number of the unit in which the age is expressed: 1 = Days, 2= Months, 3= Years.
Age will be determined in integer number of years for the persons aged 1 year of more, and in integer number of months for the infants (less than 1 year or less than 12 months). For example:
- A person born in 1950 will be written: 1998 - 1950 = 48 years
- A baby aged 4 months and 28 days will be written.
- A new born baby aged 15 days will be written = 15 days
Please pay special attention to the writing of the age of infants (less than 1 year of age). The age of these children shall be determined in integer number of months. Use, when possible, the seasonal calendar in Annex, for which the principle of use has been described in the "Date of birth" section.
N.B. The age in integer number of years is obtained the following way:
b) By subtracting the year of birth from 1997, if the birthday date (day and month) is not yet passed at time of the interview.
Mr. Mamadou Diarra was born on June 10, 1932; he is 65 years old.
His wife, Ms Mariam Traore is 37 years old
Her baby, Oumar Diarra is 6 months old, and his date of birth is not known accurately.
The ages of these persons will be written the following way on the census form:
[Table not reproduced here]
Remark: Providing the date of birth does not exclude mentioning the age.
Persons who do not know their age:
It might happen that during the census operations, that you encounter persons who do not know their age. You shall then help these persons to estimate their age, using one of the following methods:
The historical calendar is a list of noticeable events (national or local), with their dates, which have a special influence on national life in general, or on the life of local communities in particular.
The determination of the age of a person using the historical calendar is done by estimating his or her age at time of one of these events, and as a consequence to estimate his or her date of birth. Then one subtracts it from the census date in order to obtain an approximate age.
For using this historical calendar, one shall proceed as such:
- One starts with a rough estimation of his or her age, by looking at the person.
- Let us assume "30 years". To obtain the departing point on the calendar, one adds 5 years to the age, that is, 30 + 5 = 35 years. Then one subtracts this number from the census year, that is: 1998 - 35 = 1963.
- One then looks in the historical calendar for events located around 1963, and one quotes the event to the person, asking: "Do you remember this event?"
a) If the answer is "yes", then one asks: how old were you at that time?
Assume that the person answers with certainty "10 years". Then this person is born around 1963 -- 10 = 1953, and his or her age is then = 1998 - 1953 = 45 years.
b) If the answer is "no", then go to another event.
Method 2: Classifying persons among themselves
Some household members do not know accurately their age, but may remember being somewhat older or younger than other household members, or in the neighborhood.
If one can determine with precision the age of one or several of these persons, then one could deduce an estimation or the age of the person who does not know his or her age.
8. Column P8: Place of birth, district or country
This question aims at recording the place of birth of household members. For this, the census enumerator will ask a question to the household head, such: "Where was name born?"
a) The census enumerator will write down the name of the province of birth, if the person was born in Mali. But, be careful: when a respondent give you as place of birth the name of a village or town, make sure to first find out the administrative province in Mali to which this place belongs, before writing the answer.
N.B.: If the person ignores the province, and if you cannot find it by yourself, write down the name of the region.
b) When the person is born abroad, that is outside of Mali, write down the name of the country of birth (Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, France, etc.).
Mamadou Diarra was born in the village of Toyoge - district of Taga - Province of Djenne - Region of Mopti. The place of birth will be "Djenne", and will be written in Column P8.
9. Column P9: Country of citizenship
Here, the aim is to determine the nationality, for Malians and for the citizens of other countries. For this, the question to be asked to record the nationality will be: "What is the country of citizenship of name?"
Then, write the declared answer in Column P9:
b) The name of the country for the foreigners (Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, Cameroon, Togo, France etc...).
Persons who enjoy a double nationality, those who have applied for a new nationality, or those whose nationality is ill defined, will be identified, case by case, by the most recent country of citizenship, or by the country of birth.
10. Column P10: Handicaps
This question deals with the main disease source of disability or handicap that the Malian population is suffering from. These diseases are labeled "Handicap" because they contribute to ill health of the individual, to a slower economic activity, and to a lower level of productivity. In some cases they may even prevent any production effort. For this, the question to be asked to the household head for each household member will be: "Does name have any disability or handicap?"
The number corresponding to the given answer must be written in Column P10, while following the instructions given below [none was specified in this document].
11. Column P11: duration of residence
This questions applies only to the household members who are Resident-Present (RP) or Resident-Absent (RA). The duration of residence is the length of the period during which the interviewed person has stayed in the place of the census.
This duration is expressed in integer number of years. The question to be asked for asking about the duration of residence is: "For how many years has name been usually living here?"
Then write the answer as such:
a. For the persons born in the same province as that of the census, and who have never lived in another province nor abroad, write "not applicable" as a hyphen (--) in Column P11.
b. For the persons born in the same province as that of the census, but who have lived at least six (6) months outside of the province, the duration of residence will be the time spent in integer number of years since the last move into the province of the census.
c. For the persons born outside of the province of the census or abroad, the duration of residence will be the time spent in integer number of years since the last move into the province of the census.
Note that all durations of residence shall be counted in integer number of years.
08 -- persons whose duration of residence in the province is equal to 8 years.
16 -- persons whose duration of residence in the province is equal to 16 years and 5 months, etc...
12. Column Pl2: place of usual residence
Ask only the visitors (V). The question to be asked to the household head will be: "Where does name usually live?"
Write the name of the province if it is known, or the name of the region otherwise. Write the name of the country if the person lives abroad.
13. Column P13: place of previous residence
For this, the question to be asked to the household head to determine this place is the following: "Did name ever live elsewhere for at least six months?"
If the answer is no, write "no" in Column P13.
If the answer is yes, ask then: "Where did name live immediately before moving where he or she currently lives?"
Write the name of the province if it is known, or the name of the region otherwise. Write the name of the country if the persons lived abroad.
14. Column P14: Father alive
Ask the question the following way: "Is the father of name still alive?"
Circle the number located left of the answer given:
 2 No
 3 Unknown
NB: Whether or not the father is present in the household, if the father is alive, the answer is "yes", then circle code (1)
15. Column P15: Mother alive
The procedure is the same for the mother:
Circle the number located left of the answer given:
 2 No
 3 Unknown
1.2.2. Questions for persons aged 6 years and above
This is the second group of questions, concerning the characteristics of household members. They concern only the persons aged 6 years and above.
For persons aged less than 6 years (children), write (0) or (00) depending on column width in Columns P16 to P30.
Column P16-P18: Level of education
This group of questions provides together an idea on the level of education of the population.
16. Column P16 -- the level of education attained
17. Column P17 -- highest grade completed
18. Column P18 -- highest diploma obtained
The question to be asked to the household members aged 6 years and above will be: "Has name ever been to school?"
If no, then write (00) in Columns P16, P17 and P18.
If yes, then write:
In Column P17 the last grade attended in this level of education
In Column P18 the highest diploma obtained, while using the instructions at the bottom of the questionnaire.
The items corresponding to each of these Columns are the following:
[No further explanation in this document]
Columns P23-P25: Economic Activities
Question P22 to P26 deal with the economic activity of the enumerated persons, that is: the occupation of the interviewed persons. For filling this question, please follow carefully the following guidelines.
a. The questions shall be asked only to household members aged 6 years of more. For others, write a hyphen (-) in Columns P23 and P25; and write (0) in Columns P22, P24, and P26.
b. To record the data on economic activity, the census enumerator shall refer to the reference period of one month (30 days) preceding the date of visit in the household.
However, for the persons who work in the agricultural sector (beekeeping, husbandry, fishing, forestry, etc.), this reference period is extended to one year (12 months), because of the seasonal character of this type of employment. Indeed, works in agriculture are done during a well defined period during the year, which may not correspond with the census date.
22. Column P22: type of economic activity
This part deals with the relationship between a person and his or her current economic activity. Determining such information will lead to the distribution of the population between the active population and the non-active population.
a. Active population
The active population includes the employed active persons and the jobless (unemployed) persons.
- Unemployed. The unemployed population includes the persons who were not employed during the month preceding the census, but who were looking for paid work or for a lucrative activity, including the persons who had never worked before.
b. Inactive population
The inactive population includes the persons who do not have any type of economic activity. It includes:
- Pupils and students. Persons of either sex who devote their time to studies, in a public or a private institution, and do not have any economic activity. For Koranic schools, and adult literacy schools, persons will be classified as either inactive or active, depending whether or not they devote more time to studies or to other lucrative activities.
- Retired persons, or persons with independent private means: persons of either sex, who do not have any economic activity, and who perceive an income from a capital or from royalties, or a pension from previous activity.
- Physically handicapped persons, whose physical status do not allow them to have an economic activity.
The question to be asked to household members aged 6 years of more is:
"During the past month, that is from ___ to ___, what type of work was NAME doing?"
Write the number corresponding to the answer given, while following the guidelines given at the bottom of the page of the questionnaire:
 1 Has worked
 2 Unemployed, has already worked
 3 Searching for first job
 4 Housewife
 5 Pupil, student
 6 Private means
 7 Retired, old age
 8 Does not work (idle life)
23. Column P23: Main occupation
This is the main occupation of the interviewed person during the past month.
For those who have worked during the reference month, the question will be: "What was the occupation of NAME?"
For those without occupation during the reference period, the question will be: "What was the last occupation of NAME?"
In Column P23, write down in words the declared occupation. Write a hyphen (--) for the inactive, the unemployed and the persons under age 6 years.
24. Column P24: Work status
The work status in the main occupation of an active employed person is his or her situation with respect to other persons in her type of employment or her business.
The question to be asked will be: "What was the status of name in his or her economic activity?" Depending on the answer given write in Column P24 the code corresponding to the answer, and according to the list provided below:
 1 Self employed (persons working on his or her own, and not employing any salaried worker)
 2 Employer (any person who works on his or her own, and employing one or several salaried workers). Includes any active person employed in at least one salaried work.
 3 Permanent salaried (any person who works regularly and perceives a salary)
 4 Temporary salaried (any person receiving a salary, but not regularly)
 5 Apprentice, paid (person in training for an occupation, and paid)
 6 Apprentice, unpaid
 7 Family aid (person who works for free for a relative in the same household. Includes young adults and children who help their parents work in the fields or in other works).
25. Column P25: Branch of economic activity
The question to be asked to the household members aged 6 years of more will be: "In what type of activity was the occupation of name?" or "What was the type of economic activity, modern or traditional, in which name was occupied?"
Write down in words what was doing the firm, the society, the institution or the employer of the concerned person.
Example: restaurant, Pottery, farming, factory, shop, Office du Niger, Sonatam, Usine Sada Diallo [Factory], Total, Shell, public service, etc...
26. Column P26: Agricultural activity
You will ask the question the following way: "What was the main type of agricultural activity done by name?"
Write down the number corresponding to the answer given, while following the guideline written at the bottom of the page of the questionnaire.
 1 Food crops, cereals
 2 Cash crops, industrial agriculture
 3 Market gardening
 4 Tree growing, cultivation
 5 Animal husbandry
 6 Fishing
 7 Forestry
 8 Others
1.2.3. Population aged 12 years and more
27. Column P27: Marital status
The marital status of a person is his or her current status with respect to marriage, given the laws and customs of his or her country. Its determination leads to the distribution of the population between: single (never married), married, widowed, divorced.
The question to be asked to the household members, aged 12 year or more, on their marital status is: "Have you ever been married?"
In Column P27, write down the number corresponding to the answer.
 2 Married man, one wife, or married woman, first marriage
 3 Married man, two wives (currently), or married woman, second marriage
 5 Married man, four wives (currently), or married woman, fourth marriage
 6 Widowed person (person for whom the unique marriage or the last marriage was dissolved by the death of the spouse)
 7 Divorced or separated (person for whom the one marriage or the last marriage was dissolved by divorce)
N.B. Marital status always refers to the current status of the person [at time of census], equivalent to his or her last situation.
b. A man who was married to two wives, who lost one of the two by death, must be written as "married to one wife", which corresponds to code (2).
c. A man who was married to three wives, who lost one first by divorce and another one by death, will be noted as married to one wife, and therefore will have code (2), since one marriage still exists.
d. A man who was married to only one wife, who died shortly before, will be noted as "widowed", which corresponds to code (6).
28. Column P28: Adult literacy
The data to be gathered from this question will allow one to distinguish between the literate and the illiterate persons within the population.
Definition: A literate person is a person able to read and write in any written language, and understand it, a short text related to daily life. An illiterate person will be a person who does not know how to read and write.
As a consequence, a person who only knows to speak a language (for instance French), without being able to read it and to write it, shall not be considered as literate. Likewise, a person who only knows how to read and write his or her name, or numbers, and who does not know how to read and write a very elementary sentence, shall not be counted as literate.
The question to be asked for gathering the ability to read and write, to household members aged 12 years of more is: "Does name know how to read and write in French, in Arabic, in any National language, or in any other written language?"
 1 Knows how to read and write in French only
 2 Knows how to read and write in one of the National languages
 3 Knows how to read and write in another language
b. When the answer to the question asked (--) in Column P28, this corresponds to a person who does not know how to read and write.
N.B.: In Column P28, write (0) for all the persons aged less than 12 years, that is the persons who are not concerned by this question.
1.2.4. Women aged 12 years and above
The questions for this item concern only the women age 12 years or more.
Write a hyphen (--) for the males, whatever their age, and for all females aged less than 12 years.
29. Column P29: Total number of children ever born
This is the total number of live births born to women age 12 years or more. Ask the following question to the household head: "Overall, how many live births did name ever had?"
A live birth is a delivery of a baby who cried or showed any sign of life after birth.
In this total, shall be included all children born alive, whether legitimate or illegitimate, whether they are from the current marriage of the woman, or from a previous marriage, whether they are still alive or not at time of the census.
Above all, make sure that all the following categories were captured:
- Children who left their parental home
- Children born to the woman from a previous marriage
On the contrary, the following categories shall not be included in the household questionnaire:
- Adopted or fostered children and grand-sons or grand-daughters
30. Column P30: Children surviving
Once the total number of children ever born is captured for each woman, ask the question on "number of children still alive".
This question is also only for women aged 12 years or more. Ask the question as follows: "Among the children born alive declared in P29, how many are still alive?"
Write down the corresponding number in Column P30.
This total shall include all the children whether born from the current marriage or from a previous marriage. It must include the number of children living in the household as well as children living elsewhere.
1.3. Event of the past 12 months -- Births and Deaths
This section is devoted to the [demographic] events that occurred in the past 12 months. That is, the births and the deaths that occurred in this household during the 12 months prior to the visit of the census enumerator.
These events must be registered faithfully, and with great accuracy, in order to avoid omissions that could affect the quality of the data. In addition, the accuracy of the results that will be obtained will be a function of the rigorous consideration of the recall period of 12 months, taken as the reference period. The census enumerator date of visit in the household is the milestone for determining this period.
For instance, if the date of visit of the census enumerator in the household is April 6, 1998, only the events between April 6, 1997 and this date shall be registered. A birth or a death that occurred prior to April 6, 1997 will not be registered.
One could use as a landmark the month of the previous Muslim festival [Tabaski], which occurred on April 18, 1997, or the date of the first round of parliament elections of April 13, 1997, which has been cancelled, to specify the previous 12 months period.
A seasonal calendar was elaborated (see Annex), to help the illiterate persons to better define this 12 months period prior to the census date. This seasonal calendar provides correspondences between the dates on the Gregorian calendar and the Muslim calendar with the lunar months translated into Bambara.
General principles to record Births and Deaths
When the census enumerator is ready to record these events, he or she will proceed as follows:
Suppose that this date is April 6, 1998, then the agent must record only the events that occurred between April 6, 1997 and this date.
For the illiterate household heads, look for the date corresponding to April 6, 1997 on the seasonal calendar in the Annex to determine the reference period.
1.3.1. Births during the past 12 months
To record these births, refer to the following principle:
Write down on a spare sheet your date of visit in the household.
Example: April 6, 1998.
Then ask to the household head: "Has there been any birth in this household over the past 12 months, that is since April 6, 1997?"
For an illiterate household head, this will be the lunar month in the Muslim calendar corresponding to April 1997.
Circle the number corresponding to the answer given, in the following way:
N.B.: Before crossing-out the summary table, make sure that no child less than one (1) year has been registered in the household (see pages 2 and 3 or the household form).
If some have been registered, recall them to the memory of the household head, and fill out the table while making the necessary corrections.
b. If the answer to the question is "yes", circle number 1, and fill in the summary table on births that occurred during the past 12 months.
However, before filling in this table, check one more time that the baby is well born during the reference period. As much as possible, verify this information with the help of the child's birth certificate.
Filling in the summary table is done Column by Column.
1. Column H3: line number
Give a line number sequentially, 1, 2, etc. for each child declared as a live birth during the past 12 months.
2. Column H4: first name and last name
Write in this Column the first name and the last name of the child declared.
Children who were not yet baptized will be labeled with names as "Boy" or "Girl" depending on whether they are males or females, followed by their family name.
3. Column H5: sex
Circle the number corresponding to the sex of the child in Column H5:
 2 Female
N.B: Do not deduce the sex of the child from his or her first name, but always ask about the sex tactfully.
4. Column H6: mother's line number
Write in Column H6 the line number of the mother (from page 2 of the household form) if she is in the household. If not, write (00). Make sure to write the proper mother's number, and not the number immediately below or above.
5. Column H7: mother's age at the time of birth of the child
In Column H7, write the age that the mother had at the time of the child's birth. Age shall be written in integer number of years. Let us recall that this age is not necessarily the same as the one registered on page 2 of the questionnaire.
REMARKS: All births must be registered, without omission. You shall insist with the household head to identify the following cases, it they apply:
- Babies born to mothers who later out-migrated
Do not forget to ask the question on births in all the households visited, even if no birth was registered in several households already visited.
1.3.2. Deaths during the past 12 months
This summary table deals with all deaths that occurred in the household during the past 12 months (children, adults, elderly persons).
The deaths will be also registered according to the general principle mentioned above.
The census enumerator will proceed as follows:
- Write down on a spare sheet your date of visit in the household. Example: April 6, 1998.
Then ask to the household head: "Has there been any death in this household over the past 12 months, that is, since April 6, 1997?"
For an illiterate household head, this will be the lunar month in the Muslim calendar corresponding to April 1997 (see Annex).
Circle the number corresponding to the answer given, in the following way:
 2 No
a. If the answer to the question asked is "no", circle number 2, and cross-out the summary table of the deaths in the last 12 months.
b. If the answer to the question is "yes", circle number 1, and fill in the summary table on deaths that occurred during the past 12 months.
However, before filling in this table, check one more time that the death well occurred during the reference period, that is during the 12 months prior to your visit in the household.
Filling in the summary table is done Column by Column.
Give a line number sequentially, 1, 2, etc.
2. Column H11: first name and last name
Write down the first name and the last name of the deceased person
3. Column H12: sex
Circle the number corresponding to the sex:
 2 Female
4. Column H13: age at death
Ask the household head about the age at death of the person. For the persons who died older than one year, write the age in integer number of years. Register with care the children who died before reaching age 1 year. Write down their age at death in integer number of months.
Remark: In general, the children who died before age 1 year are also mentioned in the summary table of births in the last 12 months.
Also, ask the question about deaths in the past 12 months in all the households visited, even if no death was noted in several households previously visited.
This second part is devoted to housing, and aims at listing all housing units for the households at time of the census, at gathering information on building characteristics, and to obtain indicators on the conditions in which the population is housed.
1.4.1. Unit for the census: the dwelling unit
The unit selected for the census of housing is the dwelling unit.
a. Definition for the dwelling unit
The dwelling is a housing unit dedicated to a household. This is therefore a building, or a set of buildings, or even part of a building designed to serve as a shelter for a household. However, such a housing unit may be occupied by more than one household at time of the census, because other households came in addition, despite not being anticipated at first.
b. Determining the number of buildings in a compound
Determining the number of buildings in a compound was already done during the numbering operation. The number of buildings was written in COLUMN 6 of the census enumerator visit register. Refer one more time to the above mentioned definition, in order to determine accurately the number of buildings per compound.
However, every time there is a doubt, or a poor understanding of the question, consider that in a compound the number of dwelling units is equal to the number of households.
If necessary, correct the number of buildings in the compound in COLUMN 6 of the census enumerator visit register.
It is useful to insist on the separate determination of the number of dwelling units in the compound, because a household might not be the only one to occupy a dwelling unit in some cases. Two or more household might share the same dwelling unit.
Such cases generally come from the following situations:
- Renting or selling part of a dwelling unit to another household
- Leasing for free part of a dwelling unit to another household, etc.
The census enumerator shall necessarily take the following cases into account:
Example 1: A household occupies a dwelling unit made of three buildings in iron sheets. Later, a son of the household head gets married, and becomes a separate household, and continues to live in his former house within the compound. The dwelling unit becomes then occupied by two households, whereas it was made for only one originally.
Example 2: A household head builds a modern house for his household. He lives there with his family for a while, then later, following difficulties, he rents part of the dwelling unit to another household. The housing unit then becomes also occupied by two households, whereas it had been occupied by only the household head and his family formerly.
These two examples show that a dwelling unit may well be occupied by more than one household.
1.4.2. Various types of dwelling units
One distinguishes the following types for dwelling units: classic dwelling unit, mobile homes, undetermined types (see details in the concepts section).
1.4.3. Housing units that are not enumerated
We have already noted, during the numbering operation of the compounds that certain types of housing units should not bear a number, but only a cross X. These units are buildings which are not designed for housing. These are: public buildings, administrative buildings, trading houses and shops which are not inhabited, religious buildings (mosques, temples), schools without boarding, industrial buildings, etc.).
These types of housing are also excluded from the count, because they are not concerned by any question in the housing census. However, if part or the whole of one of these housing [type] is inhabited by someone, such as a watchman or part of the direction personnel, then this part has been numbered previously, and will be concerned by the questions in the housing census.
Example: Part of an industrial building is used for housing the night watchman who oversees the premises. This building shall receive a number and the inhabited part shall be enumerated.
N.B.: Please, take good care to not make confusion between not-inhabited public buildings and institutional households which are designed for housing large groups of people linked by a common objective, such as: hospitals, boarding schools, religious convents, pensions, hotels, jails, army barracks, etc.
1.4.4. Filling the questions on housing
After this introduction, we shall now come to the filling of the housing questionnaire per se.
These questions are also to be asked to the household head. However, if the latter is not available, any person usually belonging to the household may answer the questions. For this housing questionnaire, no priority is given to the questions on housing units or on households. All questions deal with the dwelling units in the same way. In all events, the answers to the questions will be given by the person who is closest in rank to the household head.
However, the census enumerator shall strictly follow the order in which the questions are displayed, so that to not miss any of them.
Circle the number corresponding to the answer, when applicable.
In the case of a compound occupied by a single household, consider the characteristics of the main hut, without taking into account the number of rooms.
N.B: One shall never circle more than one number for a given question.
For institutional households, questions in H15 (type of housing), in H16 (type of building, and in H24 (type of occupancy) will not be asked. These three questions have little value for this type of household. Indeed, the persons [the French text says: households] live in institutions for which the type is already known (fixed building), and in most of case in dormitories.
N.B.: Every time this exists, identify the private households which are housed in buildings located in the same yard as an institutional household. For this, every time, ask whether such cases do exist.
When such cases exist, the private household will be enumerated on private household questionnaires.
However, only the members of the household living in this house within the institution yard concerned will be enumerated on a household enumeration form.
Example: The hospital chief physician has his or her house located in the hospital yard. The watchman also lives somewhere else in another house in the same yard. In this case, and after inquiring to the hospital director to identify these two households, take two separate private household enumeration forms to enumerate the household of the chief physician, then the household of the watchman who live in the hospital yard.
With respect to nomadic areas, the census enumerators will do their best to gather the necessary information on housing to the nomadic households present in the gathering places.
1. Column H15: Type of housing unit
This information deals with the type of dwelling unit occupied by the household. At this level, one shall determine whether the dwelling unit concerned is a fixed housing or a mobile home.
Depending on the case, circle (1) for fixed housing and (2) for mobile home. This question shall be documented, in principle, for all households.
N.B.: The institutional households are not concerned by this question. However, the private households lodged in houses located in the same yard as an institutional household shall be identified and enumerated on the private household enumeration forms.
2. Column H16: Type of building
This is the structure that shelters the dwelling unit of a household. This can be deduced from direct observation while visiting the household.
In general, this structure will be a compound; however, the structure may also be an apartment building, a detached house, or another type. Circle the number corresponding to the result of your observation.
 2 Compound with several buildings
 3 Modern villa, detached house
 4 Apartment building
 5 Other type
3. Column H17: Main wall materials
The aim is to describe the materials utilized for the external wall of the dwelling unit. If the dwelling unit itself is composed of several buildings, then a question is about the choice of the building to describe.
Two cases do exist:
b. The dwelling unit for the household is made of several independent buildings. In this case, choose the building that you will consider the main building, while referring for instance to a durability criteria. However, this building shall be used as a housing unit to be chosen. Once the building has been chosen, try to determine the materials of which the external walls are made, while asking the household head.
Possible cases selected are:
 2 Semi-hard wall
 3 Mud brick (adobe)
 4 Wood or straw
 5 Other material
The definitions are the following:
Semi-hard wall: Walls are said to be "semi-hard" when they are made of mud bricks, covered with cement.
Mud brick (adobe or banco): Walls are said to be "adobe" when they are made of mud bricks, covered or not by a mud coating.
Wood or straw: Walls are made of straw, wood, bamboo, palm leaves, herb sticks plait, etc..., covered or not by a mud coating or by cement.
Other materials: The walls do not fit in any of the above categories.
Ask the following question to the household head: "What are the materials used for the construction of the walls?"
Refer to the above definitions, and circle the number corresponding to the given answer.
Example 1. The household head says that the building was made of a mix of cement and gravel. The walls are covered with cement, and whitewashed. COLUMN H17 is therefore filled in by circling number (1): Hard walls
Example 2: The building to be described is a tent. One must then circle number (5): Other material.
Example 3: The building to be described is made of mud bricks, covered with a mud coating.
Here, one shall circle number (3): Adobe
N.B: Institutional households are also concerned with the question on wall material. However, the dwelling units of the private households located within the same yard as these institutions shall be considered separately, on a private household census form.
4. Column H18: Main roof materials
Likewise, one shall describe the material used for the roof of the chosen building. Possible cases selected are: iron sheets, tiles, concrete, adobe, straw, other. The terms "concrete", "adobe" have already been defined above. For "iron sheets" and "tiles", count only in these categories the houses of acceptable quality. Informal shelters, covered or not with iron sheets, shall be classified in the "Other material" category.
Circle the number corresponding to the answer, while referring to the above definitions, such as:
Other materials: Roof that does not present any other characteristics: iron sheets, tiles, concrete, adobe, thatch.
Codes selected for the various items are the following:
 2 Tiles
 3 Concrete
 4 Adobe
 5 Thatch
 6 Other material
Example 1: The building to be described is an apartment building, with several floors, and the roof is made of concrete. Then, one must circle the number (3): Concrete.
Example 2: The building is made of concrete, and the roof is built in wood, covered with a layer of adobe. Here, one circles the number (4): Adobe.
The institutional households are also concerned with this question.
5. Column H19: Main floor materials
In this section, one has to describe the floor of the selected building. The possible cases selected are:
 2 Tiles
 3 Earth
 4 Other material
One will consider as "Cement" or "Tiles" all floors in hard material: cement, concrete, floor tiles, stone, etc.
Always observe by yourself the floor of the building, otherwise ask the question to the household head: "What are the floor materials?" Then circle the answer corresponding to the designated case.
Example 1: The building to be described is a round hut, of which the floor is nevertheless made of cement. Then one must circle number (1): Cement.
Example 2: The building to be described is a tent, a boat, a pirogue, etc. In this case, the number (4) "Other material" must be circled.
This question also applies to institutional households. The private households who are housed in the same yard as an institutional household are to be considered separately.
6. Column H20: Main mode of lighting
This question indicates what type of energy utilized for lighting the household (electricity, gas, petrol lamp, others).
Gas: This type of lighting is an installation fuelled by natural gas.
Petrol lamp: The household uses petrol lamps.
Others: oil lamps, wood fire, other, none.
The question to be asked to gather the type of lighting used by the household will be: "What type of lighting?"
Depending on the answer, refer to the above definition, then circle the number of the relevant case corresponding to the type used. Codes to be circled are:
 2 Gas
 3 Petrol lamp
 4 Others
7. Column H21: Main source of water
This question is to be asked to every household.
This type might be a public system of water supply (public tap, public well, tank, public fountain), or a private source, such as a well, or a natural source (small or large river, spring, etc...).
The source of water is determined by the coverage of the essential needs in water, for cooking, for laundry, and not only for bathing.
Circle the number corresponding to the case.
 2 Deep well
 3 Shallow well
 4 Public fountain
 5 Surface water
 6 Others
The question to be asked to the household head will be: "What is the main source of water for drinking?"
Example 1. The household gets its water from a public well, of the operation "Well with a pump". Then, one shall circle number (3): Shallow well
Example 2. The household gets its water from a public tap in the street. Then, shall circle number (1): Public tap
8. Column H22: Main fuel for cooking
This is the fuel used for cooking and for heating the household. Possible cases selected are:
 2 Gas
 3 Petrol
 4 Wood, charcoal
 5 Others
9. Column H23: Type of toilet facility
This Column helps to indicate whether the household has a toilet facility or not. For the institutional household (see concepts), indicate the number of toilets.
Definition: A "toilet facility", also called Water Closet (WC), is a specific installation made to evacuate waste or human feces. It can be a flushing toilet or a latrine:
The 1998 census has selected the following items for the type of toilet facility:
 2 Private flushing toilet, located outside
 3 Flushing toilet, common to several households
 4 Private latrine
 5 Latrine, common to several households
 6 Others
Refer to the above definitions to ask the household head [C.M.] the following question: "Does the household have a toilet facility?" Depending on the answer, circle the corresponding number.
Example 1: The household uses, as toilet facility, a pit latrine located in a corner of the compound. It is a simple cemented hole, fenced with a wall. In this example, circle the number (5): Latrine, common to several households
10. Column H24: Type of occupancy
One shall determine in what capacity the household head occupies the dwelling unit. Possible cases are:
 2 Landlord, without a deed
 3 Condominium (shared property)
 4 Tenant (Renting)
 5 Leasing
 6 Free lodging
 7 Others
The main following definitions may be useful to you:
b. Tenant: This is a person who occupies a dwelling unit while paying periodically (per week, per month, etc...) a given amount of money, called the rent.
c. Others: This category includes the persons housed for free, the households who occupy the dwelling unit of an absentee landlord without paying a rent, or without the authorization of the latter, as well as the other cases not defined in the above categories.
Refer to these definitions, and go ask to the household head the following question: "In which title does the household occupy the dwelling unit?" Circle the number corresponding to the typical case.
Example 1: A household rents in a compound a 3-rooms dwelling unit. Then Column H24 will be filled as (4): Tenant
11. Column H25: Number of rooms occupied
This means the total number of rooms occupied by the household.
A room is defined as a housing space, enclosed with walls, from floor to ceiling, large enough to contain one "adult bed", and with the purpose of being used as a dwelling unit. Are counted as separate rooms:
- Eating rooms and living rooms
- Rooms for servants
- Rooms used for traders,
- Any other area used as a dwelling, and corresponding to the definition of a room.
On the opposite, the verandahs, the corridors, the halls, the vestibules, the kitchen, the toilets (WC), the granaries and other storage rooms, etc. will be excluded.
However, when kitchens and halls are usually used for housing, they should be counted. Given these guidelines, count the total number of rooms occupied by the household, and write it in the box prepared for it in Column H25.
Example 1: The dwelling unit for the household has 8 rooms inhabited, plus two granaries and a kitchen (which will not be counted in the computation of the total number of rooms).
N.B.: In nomadic areas, consider each tent as a room, and provide the total number of occupied rooms.
12. Column H26: Existence of an improved fireplace
Ask the question to the household head, about the possible existence of an improved fire place. Circle 1 for "Yes" if it exists, 2 for "No" otherwise.
2. Summary table of enumerated persons, and statistical control
The two operations are done during the census operations. They aim are guaranteeing the completeness of the count, and the quality of the data, and at the same time they make the publication of the census data easier.
2.1. Verifying the census count
2.1.1. Verifying the count for the compound. Once the census enumerator is done with the count per household, he or she must write the results on the second part of the visit register, which is on the same form. This operation shall be accomplished for all the households in the compound, and for all categories of enumerated persons: RP, RA, V, total (RP + RA) and (RP + V) for males and females separately. This count must be done for each compound for which the enumeration is finished.
N.B.: Make sure to not add the results of two different compounds enumerated sequentially.
Practical example: Filling in the second part of the visit register by the census enumerator, and sum up the numbers by compound, for the following case: S.E. 010, D.D. 2, district "Djenne", township "Taga", province "Djenne", region "Mopti".
The example deals with the following village of Togoye:
For each household enumerated in each compound of this village, the census enumerator first filled in the first page of the household questionnaire, that is, the summary table.
Results are then re-written on the second part of the visit register of the census enumerator.
For each compound, the total count of the various categories of the enumerated persons in each of the household was written on the TOTAL line. Skip one line between two succeeding compounds. The summing up is then finished.
2.2.11. Summing up by census track
Once the census enumerator is finished with his or her census track, he or she must also complete the summing up at the level of the census track. This means [summing up] all the units enumerated in the census track, in the order they are recorded on the visit register, with: number of compounds, number of households, and number of enumerated persons. This is done on the independent recap form, which will be filled column by column.
2.2. Statistical control and quality control
2.2.1. Statistical Control
This is a self-verifying operation by the census enumerator. It is an element that guarantees that the guidelines and principles given to the enumerators were well followed during the census operations. The two parts of this control will also be conducted by the team leaders, in
order to guarantee the quality of the data.
2.2.21. Quality control
This part aims at guaranteeing the quality of the gathered data, and the consistency of the information recorded.
The census enumerator must make sure that all the questions, whatever their format, written on the various sections of the questionnaires, received a clear answer and were recorded in words or numbers. For this, he or she must make sure that the geographical information on the first page was also properly filled in.
- That questions 14 to 25 were filled in only for the population age six (6) years and more.
- That the questions 26 and 27 were filled in only for the population age twelve (12) years and more.
- That the questions 28 and 29 were filled in only for women age twelve (12) years and more.
The census enumerator must also verify that the questions on housing were filled in, without omitting any.
All the questions must have received an answer. He or she will then check the consistency and the likelihood of the information gathered. These tests shall focus on cross-verifying certain characteristics.
- Relationship with household head and sex. If a person is marked "son of the household head", he cannot be of female sex.
- Relationship with household head and age. A woman 35 years old cannot be the mother of a 25 years old daughter.
- Age and marital status: a 12 years old girl cannot be marked as married (code 2) or widowed (code 6), etc.
C. Tasks of the Census Enumerator After the Census
When the census period is over, the whole census team shall stay in the field for one more week, in order to finalize the census work: correcting missing information, enumerate the absentee households; re-interview of a sample of questionnaires already filled in, etc.
1. Returning to the field for corrections
During this one week period, returning to the field will be done to ensure the completeness of the information which could not be captured during the census period (missing information; absent persons or absent household)
Notes would have been taken concerning this missing information on the draft booklet of the census enumerator, during the census operations (compound number, household number).
2. Returning to the field for re-interviewing
Once the work has been completed, the team leaders shall proceed to a series of re-interviews, which consist in:
Ask the household head whether, in addition of all the households already registered, there could be other households living in the compound that were missed. If such households do exist, then enumerate them.
The questionnaire must then be filled it, while writing in the middle of the page the sentence: Household Form Missed.
b. Verify the completeness of the household members
When no household has been missed in the compound, verify the completeness of the household members by doing a re-interview of the household head.
Ask, for each of the households living in the compound, whether in addition of the persons already listed, there would be others who have been missed. It such person do exist, then add them on the household listing.
After the census is finished, you shall give back to your team leader the supplies and materials still usable or not used. This set shall include the following items:
- Left over unfilled questionnaires;
- Questionnaires that were misused and later cancelled due to mistakes
- Visit registers filled in by the census enumerator
- List of villages of the census track
- The village forms
Check the consistency between the number of households in the compound forms and the number written on the compound listing.
It will be the same thing for the census track form. This form must bear the geographical information which determines the location of the census track: region, province, township, village or fraction, neighborhood or hamlet, census district, census track.
Chapter 5: Other aspects of the Census
A. Persons who shall not be Counted
During this census, you are requested to not count the following categories of persons:
1) Diplomatic personnel of Malian nationality, and members of their families who are currently resident abroad, and who are visiting in Mali at the time of the census. They will be enumerated care of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
2) Diplomatic agents, and agents of Consulates of foreign nationality, and their family members of the same nationality than themselves.
However, the Malian personnel of these embassies will be enumerated normally. These diplomatic agents do not comply with the definition of residents of foreign origin (French, other Europeans, other nationals, etc), whether they are working in international aid, or businessmen, and who shall be enumerated.
3) Household members who left more than six months ago.
4) Army personnel, military police, etc.
Enumeration of the Nomadic Population
Gathering the information on the nomadic population consists in grouping them in fixed point determined by the tribe's headmen and by the administrative authorities. Theses points are delineated on maps, according to information provided by the authorities.
At the time of the census, the Central Bureau of the Census will provide the approximate count of the various fractions [tribes] to be gathered in a given point.
Enumeration of the Floating Population
The floating population is usually composed of homeless people, and at least of those who do not sleep in a proper housing unit. For instance: the mentally ill persons, or the beggars who spend day and night in the street.
Their enumeration will be done by [specialized] census enumerators with the help of police forces.
Annex 1: Extracts for the Historical Calendar of Mali
- Drought followed by a famine
- Construction of the main Post Office in Bamako.
- Invasion of gregarious locusts (grasshoppers)
- Inauguration of the Sotuba dam
- Visit of the great marabou SEYDOU NOUR in French Sudan (Kayes, Kita, Bamako)
- Inauguration of the Sansanding dam
- Departure of soldiers in Indochina (Vietnam)
- General strike of the workers of the Dakar-Niger railways company.
- Opening of the Normal Girls School in Markala
- Beginning of the "flout tt" fashion
- Inauguration of the botanical park, at the bottom of the Point G Hill.
- (April) Visit in Bamako of MORO NABA
- Construction of the Djenné dike.
- Beginning of fashions "SAMBA" and "GOUMBE"
- Return of the soldiers from Indochina (Vietnam)
- Beginning of the General strike in Algeria
- Inauguration of the new stadium "N'tomikorobougou", first called, "BOUVIER stadium", then "MAMADOU KONATE stadium".
- Smallpox epidemics in French Sudan
- (23 October). Death of MARIDIE NIARE.
- Suppression of forced labor in French Western Africa
- Famous boxing encounter: BAJLADJI CISSE wins against DIAWARA in Bamako
- (12 July) First broadcasting or "Radio Soudan" (Radio Mali).
- Unrest between Wahabist and Religious Fundamentalists in Bamako.
- (5 October) Autonomy of French Sudan.
- The Bamako zoological garden hosts its first elephant.
- BAZOUMANA CISSOKO produces his first musical recordings in Radio -- Soudan.
- (4 April) Visit of President SENGHOR in SOUDAN
- Official constitution of the Mali Federation.
- (June 20) Declaration of Independence of Senegal and Mali, as part of the Mali Federation.
- (August 20) Disintegration of the Mali Federation.
- Break up of the railways relationships between Senegal and Mali.
- (September 22) Declaration of the Republic of Sudan, that became Republic of Mali.
- (January 20) Festival of the Malian Army.
- (December 15) The secondary school TERASSON DE FOUGERES in Bamako becomes the secondary school ASKIA MOHAMED.
- (September 22) Inauguration of the new Radio house of Bozola, in Bamako,
- (November) Implementation of the reform of schooling in Mali.
- Establishment of Bishop Luc Sangare
- Fashion " YEYE" in Mali.
- (June) Resumption of the railways relationships between Mali and Senegal.
- (December) First Chinese Exhibition. First Catholic Pilgrimage in Kita.
- (October 2) Death of General ABDOULAYE SOUMARE, Head of State, and Head of Army Forces.
- Inauguration of the Cigarettes factory "Djoliba"
- Flooding in Niono
- Inauguration of a school complex in Badalabougou.
- Opening of the National Arts Institute in Bamako.
- Devaluation of the Malian Franc
- Inauguration of the Kati Hospital
- Inauguration of the sport complex in Bamako
- Fall of Ghanaian President KWAME NKRUMAH
- Inauguration of the factory "COMATEX" in Ségou.
- Fashion "APPOLO" in Mali.
- First biennial artistic and cultural exhibition in Mali.
- Cholera epidemics in Mali.
- Installation of a new Radio broadcasting center in Kati
- Constitutive assembly for the CEAO in Bamako [Economic Community of West Africa]
- Opening of the National Police School in Bamako
- Creation of the national lottery.
- Beginning of the great drought.
- Publication of "KIBARU", a monthly magazine written in Bambara, the national language.
- Installation of the rural development operations.
- Beginning of the improvement works for the Independence Boulevard in Bamako.
- (June 2) Referendum for the new Constitution.
- (August) Plane crash of the plane Ilyouchine 18 of Air Mali in Upper-Volta.
- (September) Train accident near the city hall in Bamako
- (December) First border incidents between Mali and Upper-Volta
- Creation of the peanuts factory "SEPAMA" in Kita.
- (July) Inauguration of the Great Mosque in Bamako
- (July-August) Operation Green-Sahel.
- (November 19) Official creation of the political party: Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien ( U.D.P.M.)
- (December) First General Census of the Population
- New administrative divisions in the country. Creation of Bamako district, of the regions of Koulikouro and Timbuktu, and the provinces of Kati, Bla, Youiwarou.
- (Mali) Death of former president MODIBO KEITA
- (September 28) Inauguration of the telecommunication station in Souleymanebougou.
- (October 15) Inauguration of the "hôtel de l'Amitié" in Bamako.
- Beginning of the construction of Sélingué dam.
- Beginning of the construction of the culture in Bamako.
- Beginning of the construction of the road Sévaré-Gao
- (December 25) Jubilee "SALIF KEITA".
- Fashions "DISCO" and "RASTA" appear in Mali.
- First constitutive congress of U.D.P.M.
- End of the construction of Sélingué dam.
- (June 1) Mali returns to U.M.O.A. and exchange Malian francs for CFA francs.
- (October) Cholera epidemics.
- (March) Death of President SEKOU TOURE in Guinea
- (March) second ordinary congress of U.D.P.M.
- (December 25) conflict at the border between MALI and BURKINA
- (December 25) Verdict of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, concerning the border conflict between MALI and BURKINA (December 25, 1986).