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[Mali 1987]
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Notice.................................................................................................................................1
Introduction........................................................................................................................2
Chapter I. Definition and goals of a population and housing census.................................3

A. Definition of a general census of population and housing.................................3
B. Goal of the population and housing census........................................................4
C. Usefulness of the census data............................................................................4

Chapter II: Organization of census personnel.....................................................................5

Organizational chart................................................................................................5

Chapter III: Concepts and their definitions..........................................................................7

A. Concepts and their definitions.............................................................................7
B. Abbreviations....................................................................................................10

Chapter IV: The enumerator's tasks..................................................................................11

A. The tasks of the enumerator before the count...................................................12
1) Scouting the census zone (S.E.).............................................................12
2) Preparing the population........................................................................13
3) Numbering the compounds....................................................................14
a) Compounds that should not be numbered..................................14
b) The principle of numbering the compounds..............................14
c) Numbering the buildings in the compound................................15
d) Filling out the building form.....................................................16
B. The tasks of the enumerator during the count...................................................18
1) Filling out the Housing Form................................................................18
1.1 Part A of the Housing Form: Household Localization............19
1.2 Part B of the Housing Form: Household Members.................20
1.3 Part C of the Housing Form: Births and Deaths......................37
1.3.1 Births during the last 12 months...........................................38
1.3.2 Deaths during the last 12 months..........................................39
1.4 Part D of the Housing Form: Housing.....................................40
1.4.1 The counting unit..................................................................40
1.4.2 The different types of dwellings...........................................41
1.4.3 Housing that should not be enumerated................................41
1.4.4 Filling out the Housing Questionnaire..................................41
[Next Page]
2) Recapitulation of enumerated persons and statistical verification........48
2.1 Summary of enumerated persons
2.1.1 Summary by compound........................................................48
2.1.2 Summary by census zone (S.E.)...........................................50
2.2 Statistical verification..............................................................50
Quality control...............................................................................50
C. The enumerator's tasks after the count.............................................................51
1) Returning to the field for corrections....................................................51
2) Returning to the field for follow-up interview......................................51
3) Verification of equipment and supplies.................................................52

Chapter V. Other aspects of the count...............................................................................53

5.1 Persons that should not be enumerated............................................................53
5.2 Enumerating the floating population...............................................................53

Annexes..............................................................................................................................54

[Next Page]

Erratum

1. Enumerator's Manual

Page 13: Line 2: Cross out "on a map".

Page 14: Line 19: Replace "dwelling" with "building".

Page 23: At the bottom of the page add:
"RA" for absent residents at an unknown destination.
PLEASE NOTE: These cases will not be counted in columns 3 to 6 of the summary table from the first page of the household form.
Page 36:
Line 34: Cross out "or who are born prematurely".
Line 35: Put "grandson" instead of "grandchildren".
Page 37:
Line 26: Add "One month before the last Ramadan could equally be used as a reference".
Page 30:
Line 10: Add "and KORAN for Koranic".
Line 30: Add "for Koranic put a hyphen".

2. Team leader's manual

Page 9:
Line 3: Insert the following between "head of village" and "in the yard/on the grounds": "and those in a position of responsibility in the political organizations UDPM, UNFM, UBJM, etc."

[Next 6 pages not translated]
[Page 7]

Census enumerators will operate in a census zone [SE = Section d'énumération], a census area including about 500 inhabitants in rural areas and about 1000 inhabitants in urban areas.
Their tasks in the census track are defined in Chapter 4.

Team leaders are responsible for a Census Count District [DD= district de dénombrement] comprising about 5 census zones.
The task of the team leaders is to help the census enumerators in their census district technically and administratively, and to guarantee the quality of their work by conducting various control operations.

Controllers are above the supervisors, and are based at the district [arrondissement] or municipal [commune] level. Controllers are administratively and technically responsible in their sector of activity.

Supervisors are responsible for work at the provincial level. They supervise operations in their sector of activity administratively and technically

Regional inspectors are members of the Regional Bureau of the Census (B.R.R.). They are responsible for the operations in their region.

General inspectors are members of the Central Census Bureau (B.C.R.). They are the representatives of the BCR at the regional level. Their role is to inspect the whole operation in the region.

The head of the central office [Chef du B.C.R.] is responsible nationally for all census operations. He is assisted in this task by a regional adviser in demographic statistics from the PAR [Programme Africain de Recensement], part of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa CEA [Census Program of the African Economic Community]

This personnel structure was set up as the most appropriate for the best execution of field operations. It should be consulted by the personnel in case of any difficulty during the census operations.

CHAPTER III: CONCEPTS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS

Abbreviations

Concepts and their definitions

The following concepts will be used during the census. Some of the concepts are used throughout this manual and others after filling out the household and other forms during the count.

The enumerator should become very familiar with these terms and adhere to them as closely as possible during the active phase of the census.

The concepts employed are:

[page 8]

- Building
- Dwelling
- Household
- Institutional household
- Resident
- Visitor

[We present below] for the use of the enumerator the following definition of these various concepts.
A. Demography

Demography is the study of populations living in a given geographic place. For example: a study relating to the population of a village, a neighborhood, a town or a region of Mali, or the entire country. The general census of the population of Mali falls within the latter.

B. Compound

A compound is a space, enclosed or not, within which is [found one] or several constructions used in a variety of ways (lodging, outbuildings, [illegible], public or private, etc...). A compound is generally surrounded by a wall or a hedge. However, in some cases it may consist of [several] independent constructions, not necessarily surrounded by a wall or a [hedge]. It can also be as small as a single building used or not for a specific [purpose]. Thus buildings [used] for administrative, public, religious, industrial or commercial [purposes] are considered compounds. A compound can be occupied by one or several households and can constitute a single or several dwellings and [be] generally under the responsibility of the [head] of the compound.

C. Building

A building is an independent structure containing one or several rooms bounded by walls and intended to be used for habitation or outbuildings. However, any structure that is [covered] by a roof, even if there are not permanent walls, may be considered a building. Examples of buildings are: houses, kitchens, toilets, granaries, etc.

D. Dwelling

This is the basic unit used by the housing census. [A] dwelling is a housing unit (a collection of buildings) intended for a [purpose]. The following types of dwellings are distinguished:

1. A fixed dwelling: this is a room or collection of rooms located in a permanent building, i.e. one that remains in place for a long period of time (from five years to more than 10 years, for example). The category includes: permanent/"hard" houses with a roof in cement or concrete

[Bottom of the page is cut off]
[page 9]

(detached house/villa, buildings, other edifices of this type, etc...). Permanent houses with walls of cement or concrete and a roof made of sheet metal; semi-permanent houses (walls made of [adobe] covered in cement; adobe or straw houses; round huts.

2. A mobile housing: this is a facility used for housing and built in such a way as to be movable, or which constitutes a mobile unit. It is used as housing at the time of the census. This category includes: nomad tents, train cars, all types of boats (ships, small boats, pirogues, barges, tow boats, etc.). This housing is not taken into account unless it is occupied at the time of the census.

E. Household

The household is a group of individuals, related or not, who are living together under the same roof and under the responsibility of a head of household whose authority is recognized by all members of the household.

The ordinary household is made up of a head of household, his wife or wives, and their own unmarried children; other members of the family or persons who are not relatives of the family may be included. It may be as small as one person living alone or with his/her children. Special cases:
1. In a polygamous marriage in which all of the wives do not live in the same compound as the husband, those wives who live in a different compound from their husband are enumerated as heads of household with the persons who live with them (the wives). If the husband is at the wife's house at the time of the enumerator's visit, the wife is enumerated with the husband and the people who are with them.

2. A tenant who does not take his meals where he is housed is a separate household.

3. In a compound, a man lives with his wives and the unmarried children.
Each of the other married sons constitutes a separate household with their spouses, their children and any unmarried dependents.

4. Each member of a group of unrelated single people who live together and provide for their food individually constitutes a single-person household.

F. Institutional household

An institutional household is a group of persons living together in the country's social institutions for reasons of study, health, work, travel, incarceration or common interest. It includes: hospitals or

[At least one line is cut off]

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and vocational school, teaching schools, institutes, etc...); prisons (centre de Bollé, etc...); hotels, convents and other religious communities, military camps/barracks, etc...
Supervisory and maintenance personnel of the establishment in question are not included in the count.

Comments: Ordinary households living in houses on the same grounds as an institutional household should be identified and enumerated separately [on a] form for an ordinary household. (i.e., a hospital director who has a house on hospital grounds).

G. Resident

A resident is a person who has spent 6 months or more in his current place of residence, or who intends to stay there even if the amount of time he has already spent there is less than 6 months. If this person spent the night prior to the enumerator's visit in the town of the census he/she would be written down as: present resident [R.P.].

If the person did not spend the night prior to the enumerator's visit in the town, write down RAI if he/she was absent but in another place in Mali, or RAE if he/she was absent and outside of Mali in another country.

Comments: Do not enumerate absent residents who left the household more than six (6) months ago.

H. Visitors

A visitor is a person who is enumerated in a place that is not his/her habitual domicile, who has been in the household for less than six (6) months, and who does not intend to stay for more than six (6) months.

If this person spent the night prior to the visit of the enumerator in the town he/she is recorded as follows: VI: If the visitor is from someplace else within Mali, or VE: If he/she is from another country.

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations may be useful during the census count:

N.D.: undeclared (for individuals who did not answer a question).

--: A dash or hyphen (-) (for individuals for whom the questions is not applicable.
Other abbreviations:

1. Family relationship:
CM: Head of household
EP: Wife
SERV: Servant, etc
[The page is cut off. One or several lines may be missing]

2. Sex:
M: Male
F: Female

3. Age:
A: Year
M: By month
J: Day
4. Literacy:
FRANC: French
ARAB: Arabic
LN: National language
LN-FR: National Language and French

[The page is cut off. One or several lines may be missing]

AUT: Other
NON: Illiterate

5. Disability:
F: Insanity
TRYPANO: Trypanosomiasis
ONCHO: Onchocerciasis
TRACHO: Trachoma
[Page 11]

[The rest of page 11 through page 18 is not translated]

[Page 19]

[First portion of the page is not translated]

1.1. PART A OF THE HOUSING FORM: Geographical Characteristics

This part contains the geographical constants that identify the household.

Follow the instructions below in filling out the form:
- Don't write anything in the boxes located to the right of the geographical constants; they are reserved for the codes. Print the responses on the left side.

[Sample housing form is not re-created here]

[page 20]

Housing Form

This text should be filled in when the household to be enumerated is an institutional household (see Concepts). In these cases fill out the central section [of the form] and add: "Institutional" and the name of the institution.

For example: When the institution to be enumerated is a high school, the central section of the questionnaire should be filled out as follows:

HOUSEHOLD FORM Name/Number
Institutional -- high school [____][____]

The text "Name/Number" to the right of the [central portion] of the first page indicates the name and number of the [household] form used for the enumeration of a household. For the first form used, write [__1_][____], while when that first form is insufficient and the enumerator uses a second form, write [__2__][____] on it. At the end write the total number of household forms used on the bottom of each of the forms.

[__1__][__4__] [__2__][__4__] [__3__][__4__] [__4__][__4__]

Sedentary or Nomad Household
If the household is sedentary put an X in the box for sedentary.
If the household is nomad put an X in the box for nomad.
To finish part A, put the date of the interview and your signature at the bottom of the page. The team leader and the controller will also put the verification date and their signatures.

1-2. PART B OF THE HOUSEHOLD FORM: Individual Characteristics

This part contains the different questions to be filled out when you are with the household members. To fill out this part, first fill out the first and last names of all the members of the household on the form. To get this and all other information the questions should be addressed to the head of household only, except in cases where the head of household is absent or truly unavailable.

[Page 21]

Keep the following in mind when enumerating the household members:

1st group: Always begin with the head of household.

2nd group: The children of the head of household whose mothers are no longer in the household due to death or divorce.

3rd group: The wife or wives of the head of household, followed by their own unmarried children and beginning with the youngest child.

4th group: Relatives of household members who live in the household.

5th group: Servants of the household who sleep in the household.

6th group: Visitors

Once you clearly understand the above principals, begin to fill out Part B of the Household Form. As you fill it out, make sure you distinguish the different groups in question very carefully.

1.2.1 QUESTIONS FOR ALL PERSONS IN THE HOUSEHOLD
Questions 1-13 are relevant for all persons in the household. Each of these questions should be answered for each person in the household. Once you are clear on this principal, fill out the questionnaire in the following order:

1. Rank

Give a ranking 001, 002, 003, ... , 010, 011, etc. to each member of the household. The head of household must be ranked number 001.

When a single Housing Form is not enough to record all members of the household, use a second form and continue the numbering from the first form.

For example: If the last number of the first form used was 15 then the second form should begin with number 16, and so on.
2. First and Last Names

It is to be emphasized that this information should be written on the first line at the top only. Don't write anything in the lines at the bottom -- they are reserved for codes.

Then write in this column the first and last names of all members of the household, beginning with the head of household, as indicated at the beginning of the listing of household members. Before you begin to ask the other questions take the first and last names. The goal of this is to minimize errors of memory by the head of household. Write the most common first name of each household member, followed by the family name. When several family members have the same family name and first name, use nicknames if necessary.
[Text on page may be cut off]

[Page 22]

NB: When a new-born child in a household is not yet baptized, use the term "Boy" or "Girl" for a first name (depending on the sex of the child), and then their family name. For example:

Boy TRAORE for a new-born, un-baptized male child whose father is TRAORE.

Girl TRAORE for a new-born, un-baptized female child whose father is TRAORE.
Practical example:

Rank (1): 001
First name and last name (2): Amadou DIARRA

Rank (1): 002
First name and last name (2): Fatoumata KANTAO

Rank (1): 003
First name and last name (2): Modibo DIARRA


3. Family Relationship

This column is used to specify the relationship of each household member to the head of household. The official list, by the B.C.R., is as follows:

1. C.M. [Head of household]
2. Spouse of head: EP of 1
3. Son of head: FS of 1x
4. Daughter of head: FL of 1x
5. Father of head: P of 1
6. Mother of head: M of 1
7. Brother of head: F of 1
8. Sister of head: S of 1
9. Other relationship: AL
10. No family relationship: SP (servant, etc.)

[Page 23]

Practical example:

Rank (1): 01
First name and last name (2): Mamadou SANTARA
Family Relationship (3): Head of HH

Rank (1): 02
First name and last name (2): Mamadou SANTARA
Family Relationship (3): Son of 1x

Rank (1): 03
First name and last name (2): Marian SAMAKE
Family Relationship (3): Wife of 1

Rank (1): 04
First name and last name (2): Sidy SANTARA
Family Relationship (3): Son of 1x3

Rank (1): 05
First name and last name (2): Moma SISBOKO
Family Relationship (3): Servant

4. Sex

Indicate the sex of each individual in the household.

M = for the male sex
F = for the female sex

Never try to deduce the sex from the person's first name, but, always ask. Individuals of different sex may have the same first name.

Examples: Adama, Sadi[o], Morimba, Massiré, etc...

5. Housing Status

The fixed reference [time] for gathering information about the housing status is the night before the enumerator's visit to the household. The different categories of resident and visitor can be distinguished by referring to the night before the enumerator's visit. Refer to the definitions of Resident and Visitor given in the Concepts and write:

- RP for Present resident

For absent residents, indicate as follows:

- RAI for any absent resident who is someplace in Mali;
- RAE for any absent resident who is in a foreign country outside of Mali (Ivory Coast, Senegal, Guinea, France, etc...)

[The page may be cut off]

[Page 24]
Absent residents who left the country more than 6 months ago are not enumerated.

For visitors, indicate as follows:

- VI = for visitors who come from someplace in Mali
- VE = for visitors from someplace outside of Mali.

Special cases:

- Census employees working in the field (enumerators, team leaders, controllers, etc.) will be enumerated as present residents [RP] in their respective families.
- Civil servants who have just been transferred to a new place will be enumerated as present residents [RP] in the new place.
- Women who have left to give birth at their parents' will be indicated as visitors at their parents'. In the husband's house they will be indicated as RAI if the parents are in Mali or RAE if the parents are outside of Mali.
- Boarding school students; hospital residents; the incarcerated; and members of religious orders living in a convent will be enumerated in those institutions, which are called institutional households.

Housing Status for Nomad Households

All nomad households grouped together outside of their normal nomad corridor are considered present residents [RP] even if their stay is for fewer than 6 months.

Nonetheless, a member of a nomad household, as in the case described above, is considered as an absent resident [RA] if he lives outside of the household. In the same way a single individual who lives outside of his household will be recorded as a visitor in the place where he is enumerated (the place where he is seen). It should be clarified that the households living in their normal nomad area will be treated as sedentary households; only the geographical framework changes.

6 and 7: Date of Birth and Age

Give special importance to the collection of this data. These questions in and of themselves are extremely important given the role that the age variable plays in the analysis of the data that will be collected.

6. Birth Date:

Write the birth date in column 6 for persons in the household who have an official document related to their birth date. Then write it converted into completed years in column 7, as indicated in the example below.

[Page 25]

Practical example: The birth date of a person born on August 22, 1968 is indicated as shown in this table.

Date of birth (month/year): 08/68 [_]
Age: 18 y [_ _ _]
Take the following documents into consideration when recording a birth date:

- Birth certificate
- Baptism certificate

Other documents, such as remedial orders, I.D. cards, family booklets, passports, etc... should not be considered unless they show at least the month and year of the individual's birth. If the documents don't have the year of birth, fill out only the AGE column. Convert the year of birth into completed years before writing it in column 7.

Example: A certain individual's ID card has written on it: BORN AROUND 1940, without any additional detail about the day and month of birth. In this case determine the age of the individual by subtracting 1987 from 1940, which equals 47 years. Write this age in column 7 and write a dash or hyphen (-) in column 6.

7. Age

Specify the age both for individuals who know their date of birth as well as for those who have no official documents indicating the month and year of their birth. Ask the age of the individual and write it in column 7.

Calculate the age in completed years for persons aged more than one year and in completed months for children of less than one year (12 months). Thus:

- An individual who is 30 years and 8 months will be recorded as having 30 years
- An individual born in 1950 is: 1987 - 1950 years, or 37 years old
- A baby of 4 months and 28 days will be recorded as having 04 months
- A baby of 15 days will be recorded as having 15 days.

Be especially attentive when you are getting the age of children younger than one year.

[Page 26]
The age of these children must be specified in completed months. If possible use the seasonal calendar in the annex.

NB: The age of a person in completed years is obtained by:

a. Subtracting the person's year of birth from 1987 if he has already celebrated his birthday in 1987;

b. Subtracting the person's year of birth from 1986 if he has not yet celebrated his birthday at the time of the interview.

Practical example: Mamadou DIARRA, born on June 10 1932, is 54 years old. His wife Mariam TRAORE is 37 and his baby, Oumar DIARRA is 6 months old, though his exact date of birth is not known. Write their ages on the questionnaire as follows:

MAMADOU DIARRA
Date of birth (6) or age (7): 06/32 [_] and 54 y [_ _ _]

MIRIAM TRAORE
Date of birth (6) or age (7): [_] and 37 y [_ _ _]

OUMAR DIARRA
Date of birth (6) or age (7): [_] and 6 months [_ _ _]

NOTE: Giving the date of birth does not exclude mentioning the age.

People who don't know their age:

During the census count you may meet people who do not know their age. In these cases help those people determine their age using one of the following two methods:

Method 1 - Historical Calendar
A historical calendar is a list of memorable national [or local events, with their dates, which have a special influence on national life in general]

[Page 27]

or the life of local communities in particular. Using this calendar to determine a person's age consists of giving an estimated age at the time of one of these events, and the date of birth can then be determined by subtracting the date of the census to obtain the true age.

To use the historical calendar follow these steps:

First estimate the age of the individual from his/her appearance. Let's assume [the person looks] 30 years old. To find the starting point in the calendar, add 5 years to this age: 30 + 5=35 years.

Now subtract that number from the date of the census: 1986 - 30 = 1956.

Then look in the calendar for an event that takes place around 1956, and say out loud to the person, "Do you remember this event?"

- If the answer is yes then ask what age he thinks he may have been at that time. Let's assume he is able to say with certainty that he was 10. Then this individual was [born] in 1956-10, or 1946, and his age is then equal to 1986-1946 or 40 years.

- If the answer is no then go to the next event.

Method 2 - Chronological ranking
Some members of the household may remember that they are older or younger than other members of their household or people around them even if they don't know their own age. If you can determine precisely the age of one or 2 of these people, you can estimate the age of an individual who does not know his age.

8. Place of Birth (province or country)

This purpose of this question is to find out the place of birth of the members of the household. To do this, ask a question like "where was this person born," (try to figure out the province) and write the answer given in column 8.

a. Write the name of the province of birth if the individual was born in Mali. But be careful: If a person gives you the name of a town make sure you know which administrative province in Mali this town is in before you write it down.

b. If the individual was born outside of Mali, write the name of the country of birth (Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, France, etc...)
[Page 28]
Practical example: Mamadou DIARRA was born in the village of Togoye in the district of Taga, in the province of Djenné in the region of Mopti.

The province of birth is Djenné, and this is what you write in column 8.

9. Length of Residence

The length of residence is how long the person you are interviewing has lived in the place where he is enumerated. It is expressed in completed years. To get the length of residence you might ask a question like, "How long have you been living in this town". Write the answer as follows:

a. For individuals born in the province of the census and never having stayed in another province or abroad, write a dash or a hyphen in column 9. This does not pertain to them.

b. For individuals born in the state of the census but who have had a stay of at least 6 months outside of the state, the length of residence is equal to the amount of time past, in completed years, since their most recent return to the province of the census.

c. For individuals born in another province or abroad, the length of residence is the time which has passed, expressed in completed years, since their last arrival in the state where they are enumerated

The length of all stays should be written in completed years

For individuals whose length of residence in the region is less than one year write 0Y. For individuals whose length of residence in the region is 8 years, write 8Y. For individuals whose length of residence in the region is 16 years, write 16Y. Etc...

10. Nationality

At issue is determining nationality for Malians and for citizens of other countries. Ask the following question to get at this issue: "What is your nationality?" Then write the answer given in column 10.
a. Write MALI for Malian nationality

b. For foreigners, write the name of the country (Ivory Coast, Senegal, Cameroon, Togo, France, etc...)
For those people who have double nationality, who are in the midst of the naturalization process, or whose nationality is not well defined, identify them according to their most recent nationality or their country of origin.

[Page 29]

11. Disability [handicap]

This question deals with the principal illnesses or diseases which the Malian population suffers from. These illnesses are called disabilities because they contribute to the deterioration of the individual's state of health, a decline in their ability to work and a decrease in their output. In some cases they may even destroy any possibility of productive work. In this situation, ask the head of household the following question about every member of the household: "Does this person have a physical or mental disability?"
Write the answer in column 11 (Trypanosomiasis, insanity, leprosy, etc.)

[There are smudges on the paper or several lines of text are missing.]

12. Father Living

Put "yes" in column 12 if the father of the person in question is still alive and "no" if he is not. Answer "yes" if the father is alive, regardless of whether or not he is present in the household.

13. Mother Living

Put the same answer for the mother of the person in question. Write "yes" or "no" as appropriate.

1.2.2 QUESTIONS FOR PEOPLE AGED 6 AND OLDER
This is the second group of questions related to the characteristics of the household members. It relates only to persons aged 6 and older. Put a dash or a hyphen (-) for persons of less than 6 years in questions 14 to 25.

[Questions] 14 to 17: Cultural Characteristics:
The grouped questions taken together give an idea about the cultural level of the population. Go directly to question 14, below.

14. Ability to read and write:

Information given about this question allows the illiterate population to be distinguished from the literate population.

Definitions: A literate person is one who is able to read, write and understand in any written language a brief text related to his daily life. An illiterate person would be one who does not know how to read or write.
As a result, a person who speaks only one language (French, for example) without being able to write it or write it, should not be considered a literate person. Likewise a

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person who only knows how to read and write his name and some numbers, or a single, very basic phrase, should not be considered literate.

To find out the ability of the household members to read and write ask the following question: "Do you know how to read and write French, Arabic, the national language or any other written language?"

a. If the answer is "Yes", write:

- FREN or French: for a person who knows how to read and write French
- ARAB or Arabic: for Arabic
- LN: for a person who knows how to read and write the national language (Bambara, Peul, Senoufo)
- AUT: for other.

NB: At issue is the ability to read and write in a national language, and not just to be able to speak it. This then is for people who take classes in functional literacy.

b. When the answer to the above question is "no", write "No -- illiterate" in column 14.

15. Last grade attended

In this case write the last grade attended (or successfully completed) of people who are currently in school, or who have already been to school. The schools in questions are: French schools, Franco-Arab schools, Koranic schools and schools for functional literacy

Ask household members the following question about the last grade attended: "What was the last grade that you attended?" For those who are literate in one of the national languages this will be the name of a training campaign.

Write the answer in column 15 according to their response. Write:

a. NONE for people who have never been to school;
b. For students and all people who have been to school, write the last grade.

Example 1: If a student is in 6th grade of basic schooling, the last class attended will be 6th A F

Example 2: If an individual left school in the 8th year of basic schooling, the last grade he attended

[The rest of text is cut off at bottom of page]

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Example 3: A civil servant has his 4th year diploma from an institution of higher learning (FNA, ENI, ENSup, I.P.R. etc.). His last grade or level would the one in which he obtained his diploma, or 4th A. Sup.

The table below shows the way to fill in the responses:

[Table not reported here]

The last grade attended is indicated in the last column. Pay special attention to cases where the names of the years have changed (basic school).

1st and 2nd cycle uses a double name (general secondary and technical education).

16. Mother's Language

At issue is the language spoken by the mother of the person in question. Put a dash or hyphen for foreigners.

17. Spoken Language

This is the language most commonly spoken by the person at home. Put a dash or a hyphen for foreigners.

[Questions] 18 - 22. Economic Activity:

Questions 18 to 22 have to do with the economic activity of the people enumerated, i.e, their occupation. To fill in their forms pay careful attention to the following directions:

a. Only ask these question of household members who are 6 years and older. Put a dash or a hyphen (-) for those less than 6 years old.
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b. To obtain information on economic activity use the month (30 days) prior to the census interview as the point of reference.

However, for people who work in the agricultural sector (farming, breeding animals, fishing and forestry) this reference period is brought to [illegible] 12 months, taking into account the seasonal nature of employment in this sector. Rural work is carried out during a fixed period which does not correspond to the date of the census.

18. Type of work

This expresses the relation between a person and the work this person currently does. Determining this information allows the division of the population into the working and non-working populations.

a. The working population
The working population includes all employed workers and the unemployed.

- Employed workers (ACO): This category includes all persons who have been employed in any job for the month preceding the census interview. For workers in the agricultural sector (farming, animal raising, fishing and forestry), this will be for the year preceding the census.
- Unemployed (CHO): The unemployed category includes the people who were not employed during the month preceding the census, but who were [looking for] a paid or paying job, include those people who had never worked.

b. The non-working population
This population includes the people who do not have any paid work. It includes:

- Housewives and unpaid household help, who do not have any other paid work and take care of household jobs at home. (Paid servants, on the other hand, are categorized with the working population.)
- High school and university students: persons of either sex who dedicate all their time to studying in an academic institution, either public or private, and who do not engage in any paid work. Classify Koranic students and students in functional literacy centers as working or non-working depending on whether they spend more time studying than working and vice versa.
- Retired people and those with a private income: persons of either sex who do not work and who have an income from property other than investments, royalties or pensions from previous employment.
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- The physically disabled are those whose physical state precludes any type of work.
- Other person not included in the preceding categories: Ask all members of the household aged 6 years or older the following questions: "Did you work last month?"
If the answer is YES put ACO in column 10.
If the answer is NO then ask: "Were you looking for work?" If the answer is YES then write CHO in column 18. If the answer is NO write INAC in column 18.

Special case: Housewives who do other paid work (field work, saleswoman, pottery, crafts, etc.) in addition to their house work should be categorized as employed working population, or ACO. Pay special attention to the possibility of dual work among women.

For workers in the agricultural sector the period of reference is the last 12 months.

19. Profession

Profession is related to the trade learned by the person, regardless of his/her work.
Ask all persons aged 6 or older the following question in order to obtain information related to profession: "What trade/profession did you learn?"

a. For the employed working population and the unemployed write the trade/profession learned (farmer, mason, blacksmith, tailor, teacher in 1st cycle). Avoid any confusion with regard to a profession like doctor, professor, director, etc., and always specify "doctor in medicine," "teacher in 2nd cycle," etc. Put SQ (no training) for those individuals who did not learn a trade/profession.

b. For the non-working population who learned a trade or profession, write this down and put the reason for their non-working status in the remarks column.

For the non-working population who did not learn a trade or profession, write clearly the type of non-working activity (housewife, high school or university student, retired or with a private income, etc.)

NB: put a dash or a hyphen for those aged less than 6 years.

20. Principal employment (pertains only to the employed working population)

This is the principal job in the last month of the person being interviewed. Ask the following question: "What job did you work at over the last month?" (for workers in the agricultural sector record the normal activities: farming, animal breeding, fishing, forestry).

For those people who declare more than one job, ask:

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"Which job did you spend more time at?" If the answer to this question is not enough then ask "[Which of] the two pays you the most?" and write down the answer.

Please note: put a dash or a hyphen for the non-working population, the unemployed and those aged less than 6 years.

21. Principal branch of employment

This corresponds to the economic sector in which a working person has declared his/her principal work. Ask household members aged 6 and older the following question: "What type of production was the area you worked in, either modern or traditional, involved in?"

For example: Restaurant, pottery, farming, factory, store, Niger Office, SONATAM, Sada Diallo Factory, Total, Shell, civil service, etc.

NB: this is the employment of the workplace

22. Status in main employment

The status in the main job of an employed member of the working population is his status with respect to other persons at his/her place of employment. Ask the following question: "What is your position in the main job?" Depending on the answer you receive, fill in column 22 as follows:

- P for owner (any person who works for himself in a trade and employs one or several paid employees).
- SG for paid government worker (persons who work for the government and are paid in
exchange).
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- SP for paid employee in the private sector (a person who works for an employer in a private company) and receives in exchange either pay or room and board. Include servants and paid family helpers in this category.
- I for Independent (a person who works for himself/herself and who does not employ any paid workers).
- AF: Unpaid family helpers (a person who does a given minimum of work without pay with a relative of the household. Include young people and children who help their parents in the field, and in many other jobs);
- AP: Apprentice (a person who is learning a trade);
- AUT: Other. This is for members of the working population who do not fall into the preceding categories. Put [a dash or hyphen] in column 21 for the non-working population, the unemployed and those aged less than 6 years.

1.2.3 QUESTIONS FOR PEOPLE AGED 12 AND OLDER

This category is related to household members (men and women) aged 12 years or more. Put a dash or a hyphen for those aged less than 12 years.

23. Marital Status

A person's marital status is his/her state with respect to marriage and in relation to the laws and customs of the country. It divides the population into: single, married, widowed or divorced. Ask household members aged 12 or more the following question about their marital status: "have you ever been married?"

Then write the following in column 23 according to the answer you receive:

- CEL for single (a person who has never married);
- MA for married (a person who has been married at least once, and who is currently in at least one of the marriages). But you should indicate the following for MA:
a. For men: the current number of wives.
Example: MA2 for a married man currently married to 2 wives
MA3 for a married man currently married to 3 wives
b. For women: the number of marriages already contracted, including the current one.
Example: MA1 for a woman who is in her first marriage
MA2 for a woman who is in her second marriage, etc.
- VEU for widow(er) (a person whose only and last existing marriage was dissolved by death.
- DIV for divorced (a person whose only and last existing marriage was dissolved by divorce)
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Marital status always refers to the individual's present status, or to his/her last status.

Special cases:

a. A man married to two wives whose first wife died and who is divorced from his second wife should be recorded as DIV.
b. A man who was previously married to 2 wives but who lost one of them due to death should be recorded as married to one wife (MA1).
c. A man married to 3 wives but who has divorced one wife and whose other wife has died is recorded as married to one wife. [He is recorded as] MAR because there is still an existing marriage.
d. A married man with just one wife, whose wife recently died, is recorded as widowed: VEU.

1.2.4 QUESTIONS FOR WOMEN AGED 12 AND OLDER

The questions under this heading are only for women aged 12 and older. Put a dash or a hyphen for all men, regardless of age, and for women less than 12.

24. Total live births

This is total live births by each woman aged 12 and older. Ask each of these women the number of live children she has given birth to.

A live birth is one where the baby has cried or given some sign of life after birth. Include in this number live births of legitimate as well as illegitimate births, whether they are from the woman's current marriage or from a previous marriage, and whether the children are living or not at the time of the census. Make sure that the following categories are enumerated:

- Children who died young
- Children who have left their parents home
- A woman's child/children from a previous marriage

However, the following categories should not be included on the Housing Form:

- Still-born children, who are children who did not manifest any sign of life at birth or were born prematurely.
- Adoptive children and grandchildren.

25. Surviving children

Once you have gotten the total number of live births for each woman, ask [a] question about "the number of children still alive".

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This total should include the children born from the current marriage of the woman as well as her children born to a previous marriage.

It should include living children currently living at home and children who have left home.

1-3 PART C OF THE HOUSING FORM: Births and Deaths

This section is devoted to events of the previous 12 months. It is related to births and all deaths in the household over the course of the 12 months preceding the date of the census.

These events should be recorded very faithfully and exactly to avoid omissions which could negatively affect the quality of the data. In addition, the accuracy of the results obtained is dependent upon rigorously respecting the period of the 12 months which are used as a period of reference. The date of the enumerator's visit to the household will be a point of reference in determining this period.

Thus, since the date of the enumerator's visit to the household is April 6, 1987, only those events having taken place between April 6, 1986 and that date will be recorded.

A birth or a death which took place before April 6, 1986 will not be recorded. To help in this, a seasonal calendar has been created to help illiterate people better situate the period of the 12 months preceding the census. This seasonal calendar establishes the correspondence between the dates on the French calendar and those of the Muslim calendar with those of the names of the month in Bambara. The National Council, which took place the 29, 30 and 31 of March, 1986, can be a useful reference point to help situate those events in time.

General Principal in Recording Births and Deaths
When you are ready to record these events, proceed as follows: write the date of your visit to the household on a piece of scratch paper. Let's imagine that the date is April 6, 1987. In that case, only record events which took place between April 6 1986 and that date.

For illiterate heads of household, look for the date corresponding to April 6, 1986 on the seasonal calendar in the annex to determine the reference period.
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1.3.1 Table 1: Births during the past 12 months
To get these births, write the date of your visit to the household on a piece of scratch paper. Then ask the head of household the following question: "Have there been any births in the household since April 6, 1986?" If the head of household is illiterate, this will be the lunar month corresponding to the month of April 1986 in the Muslim calendar.

- If the answer to your question is NO, cross out table 1. But before you cross it out make sure that there are no household members aged less than one year. If there are any, remind the head of household and fill out the table.

- If the answer to the question is YES, fill out table 1. But before you fill out the table, verify once more that the baby was indeed born during the reference period. If possible verify this by means of the child's birth certificate.

Table 1 will then be filled out according to the order of the columns.

1. Rank
Give a rank of 1, 2, etc to each child declared to have been born during the past 12 months.

2. First and last name
Write the first names and names of the declared child in this column. Use the first name "Boy" or "Girl" (depending on the sex of the child) for unbaptized children, followed by the family name.

3. Sex
Write the sex of the child in this column: M for masculine and F for feminine. Don't deduce the sex of the child from his/her first name; always ask the sex of the child.

4. Mother's rank
Write the mother's rank from section H of the questionnaire in this column. Be careful not to write the number found immediately before or after that of the mother's.

5. Age of the mother when the child was born
Take the age of the mother from section B of the questionnaire and put it in this column. If the mother is not on the Household Form ask the head of household her age (in the case of a woman who died shortly after the birth of the

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child. The age should be written in completed years.

Comments: The names should be recorded without any omissions. Be especially insistent with the head of household to identify the following cases (if they exist). Don't forget, for example:

- babies born during the last 12 months but deceased shortly after their birth;
- babies born to mothers who have emigrated.

Don't forget to ask the question about births in all households, even if no births were reported in the last several households questioned.

1.3.2 Table 2: Deaths during the past 12 months
This table relates to all deaths occurring in the household in the past 12 months: children, adults and old people.

The deaths will also be recorded according to the general principal indicated above. Proceed as follows: write the date of your visit to the household on a piece of scratch paper.

For example: April 6, 1987. Then ask the head of household the following question: "Have there been any deaths in the household since April 6, 1986?" For illiterate heads of household this will be the lunar month corresponding to the month of April 1986 on the Muslim calendar (annex).

- If the answer to the question is NO, cross out table 2.
- If the answer to the question is YES, fill out table 2. But before you fill out the table, first make sure that the deaths did indeed occur during the 12-month period preceding your visit to the household. Then fill out table 2 according to the order of the columns.

1. Rank
Give a rank of 1, 2, etc. to each death and write it in this column.

2. First name and last name
Write the first and last names of the deceased.

3. Sex
Write M for masculine and F for feminine.

4. Age at death
Ask the head of household the age of the person when he/she died. For persons aged more than one year, write the age in completed years. For children aged less than one year, write the age in completed months.

Comments: Record the death of those children who died before the age of one very carefully. These children should be included on the table of births. Don't forget to ask the question about deaths in all households, even if no [deaths] were reported in the last several households questioned.

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1-4 PART D OF THE HOUSING FORM: Housing

The goal of this second part is dedicated to housing is to take an inventory of housing available for households at the time of the census, to gather information on building characteristics, and to get information on the conditions in which the population is housed.

1.4.1 Census Unit: Dwelling

The unit used for the housing census is the dwelling.

a. Definition of dwelling. A dwelling is a housing unit intended for a household. It is thus a building or group of buildings or even part of a building designed or improved to serve as shelter for a household. However, such a housing unit may be occupied by more than one household at the time of the census because other households may have unexpectedly joined them.
Def: Concepts for different types of dwellings.

b. Determining the number of dwellings per compound. This determination is always made during the numbering of the compounds, when the number of dwellings was written in column 6 of the agent's register of visits. Refer again to the definition above to determine the number of dwellings per compound.
Nonetheless, in case of doubt or misunderstanding of the question, consider the number of dwellings to be equal to the number of households. Then write this number in column 6 of the agent's register of visits for each compound.
It is useful to insist on determining the number of dwellings in the compound separately, because a household does not occupy a dwelling [alone] in every case. Two or more households can [share] the same dwelling.
This usually happens in the following situations:

- Growth of the household
- Lease or sale of part of one household's dwelling to other households
- Letting the dwelling free of cost to other households
- Etc...

The enumerator should be aware of these cases.

Example 1: The household occupies a dwelling of three buildings made of sheet iron. Later the son of the head of household marries and becomes a separate household, but he continues to live in his old housing in the compound. The dwelling then becomes occupied by two households when it was only intended for one.

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Example 2: A head of household has a villa/detached house built for his household. He lives there with his household for some time and then, because of [financial] difficulties, rents out one part of the dwelling to another household. In this case also the dwelling is now occupied by two households when it was previously occupied only by the head of household's household.

These 2 cases show that a dwelling can indeed be occupied by more than one household.

1.4.3. The Different Types of Dwelling

The following types of dwellings are distinguished: classic dwellings, mobile housing, undefined (see details in the Concepts section).

1.4.5. Housing that should Not be Enumerated

We have already stressed that certain types of housing should not be numbered during the numbering [phase], but should simply bear an "X". These units are those that are not used for housing. These units are: public and administrative buildings; commercial buildings and uninhabited stores; religious buildings such as mosques and temples; schools other than boarding schools; industrial buildings, etc.

These types of buildings will also be excluded from the count; no census questions are related to them. However, if all or part of one of these [building] types is inhabited by the watchman or a member of the management personnel, this part, which was then numbered, is affected by the questions about housing.

Example: Part of an industrial building is used to house the night watchmen. This building should be numbered and the inhabited part should be enumerated.

NB: Be very careful not to confuse the uninhabited public buildings and the institutional households which are intended to shelter large groups of people who are linked by a common reason (hospital, boarding school, religious convent, boarding house, hotels, prisons, barracks, etc.)

1.4.4 Filling out the Questionnaire/Housing

Following this introduction we come to the filling out of the questionnaire itself.
These questions should also be directed to the head of household. However, in case he/she is not available, any person who normally belongs to the household may equally answer these questions. For the housing questionnaire there is no priority given to the dwelling or household questions. All the questions deal with dwellings in the same way. In all cases ask the head of household to answer these questions.

However, the enumerator must strictly respect the order in which the questions are given to avoid omitting any of them.

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The answer to each of these questions should be indicated by an X or a number, as appropriate, in one of the facing boxes. Other than the box that you mark with an X or the number indicated, and which corresponds to the typical case indicated, all the others should be left empty. Never check off or fill in more than one box for a single question.

Institutional household: Institutional households begin filling out the housing on question 4 (building materials) and [illegible] on the rest of the questions. The first three questions are not applicable for these types of households. Indeed, these households live in institutions where the building type is already known (permanent), and in most cases in dormitories.

NB: Wherever it occurs, please identify ordinary households housed in houses situated on the same grounds as an institutional household. In order to find this out ask every time if such cases exist. If such cases exist, these ordinary households should be enumerated on ordinary Housing Forms, i.e. not completed in the middle of the first page.

However, only the members of the household residing in that specific house on that institution's grounds should be enumerated on the same Housing Form.

Example: The house of a hospital's head doctor is located on the hospital grounds. The watchman also has lodgings someplace on the grounds in another house. In this case, ask the hospital administration to identify these two households and then take two ordinary Housing Forms to enumerate first the head doctor and then the watchmen, both of whom are in hospital housing.

Nomads: With respect to Nomad areas, do your best to gather the necessary information from the nomad households present at the gathering area.
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Type of Dwelling:

[] Fixed
[] Mobile

This information is used to designate the type of dwelling occupied by the household. Here it is a question of finding out if the habitation in question is a FIXED dwelling or a MOBILE dwelling. Refer to the definitions on types of lodgings to [correctly] check off one of the boxes.

NB: This question does not pertain to institutional households. However, ordinary households living in houses located on the same grounds as an institutional household should be identified and enumerated on ordinary Housing Forms.

1. Type of Building

This is the structure that shelters the household's dwelling. The type can be deduced from your observations on visiting the household. This structure is generally a compound [concession], but it may also be an apartment building, a villa/detached house or another type. Check off the corresponding box.

For example:
Type of building = compound [_] isolated building [_] apartment building [_] other [_]

2. Number of Occupied Rooms

This is the total number of rooms occupied by the household. A room is defined as a living space surrounded by wall extending from the floor to the ceiling or roof, large enough to contain an adult-size bed, and intended to be lived in. The following are thus counted as rooms: bedrooms, dining and living rooms, maids rooms, room used for business purposes and any other space used for living and corresponding to the definition of a room.

However, verandas/balconies, hallways, entryways, kitchens, toilets,

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granaries and other outbuildings are excluded. However, if the kitchens and the entryways are regularly used as living space they should be counted.

Following the above information count the total number of rooms occupied by the household (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) and write it in the facing box.

Example 1: The household's dwelling occupies a total of 8 rooms (plus 2 granaries and a kitchen that are not included in calculating the total number of rooms). Fill out question 2 as follows:
Question 2 - Number of rooms occupied: 8

Example 2: The watchmen of an institutional household (a high school) lives in a 4-room house (not including the toilet and a small store) located on the grounds of the establishment. Question 2 is filled out as follows:
Question 2 - Number of rooms occupied: 4

NB: In nomad areas consider each tent as a dwelling, and give information about the number of rooms occupied.

3. Type of occupancy

Here you must figure out in what capacity the household occupies the dwelling. The choices possible are owner, renter, or dwelling occupied in another capacity. The definitions are as follows:

a. Owner: This is the person to whom the dwelling in question belongs. He is the legal owner of the building and can, as a result, rent or even sell all or part of the dwelling.

NB: Any person who answers questions for the absent or unavailable head of household, and who normally belongs to the household, can be indicated as owner in place of the head of household when the household is owner of the premises.

b. Renter: This is anyone who occupies a dwelling in exchange for periodic payment (by week, by month, etc.) which is the rent.

c. Other: This category includes: those who are lodged for free, households that occupy the dwelling of an absent owner without paying any rent and without the authorization of the owner; and other cases not included in the above categories.

Refer to the above definitions and ask the head of household this question: "In what capacity do you occupy the dwelling?" and then check off the box corresponding to the typical case.

Example 1: A household rents a 3-room dwelling in a compound. Question 3 is then filled out as follows:

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Question 3 - Method of Occupation:

[] Owner
[x] Renter
[] Other

4. Material of the Walls

Here you describe the materials used for the exterior walls of the dwelling. [If] the dwelling itself is composed of one or several buildings, you will need to decide which building to describe. There are two possibilities:

a. The household's dwelling is a single building, in which case this is the building to describe.

b. The household's dwelling is composed of several independent buildings. In this case choose the building which you judge to be the principal building, basing your decision on, for example, the criterion of durability. However, the building must be used for housing to be thus chosen. Once you have chosen the building, try to determine the materials which make up the exterior walls, or ask the head of household. The options are: hard, semi-hard, adobe ; wood or straw; other. The definitions are as follows:
- Hard: The walls are considered hard when they are made of brick or stone or cement, or if they are made of concrete (a mix or cement and gravel or stone) whether or not they are covered with cement.
- Semi-hard: The walls are considered semi-hard when they are made of adobe bricks which have been well-covered with cement.
- Adobe: The walls are considered to be of adobe when they are made of adobe bricks, whether or not they are covered/plastered with adobe.
- Wood or straw: These walls are made of straw, wood, bamboo, leaves, palm leaves, braided plants, etc..., covered or not by adobe or cement.
- Other Walls which do not have the above characteristics fall into this category.

Refer to the above definitions to ask the head of household the following question: "What are your walls made of?" Check off the corresponding box:

Example 1: The head of household says the walls in question are made of a mixture of cement and gravel. The walls are covered in cement and whitewashed.

Question 4 is then filled out as follows:

Question 4 - Wall material

[x] Hard
[] Semi-hard
[] Adobe
[] Wood or Straw
[] Other
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Example 2: The building to be documented is a tent:
Question 4 - Wall material

[] Hard
[] Semi-hard
[] Adobe
[] Wood or Straw
[x] Other

Example 3: The building in question has adobe brick walls covered in adobe.
Question 4 - Wall material

[] Hard
[] Semi-hard
[x] Adobe
[] Wood or Straw
[] Other

NB: The question on wall materials also pertains to institutional households. However, the dwellings of ordinary households situated on the same grounds as institutions should be documented separately on an ordinary Housing Form.

5. Roof Material

Here also you describe the roof of the building being documented. The possible choices are: Sheet metal or tile, concrete, adobe, thatch, other. The terms concrete and adobe are defined above. As for sheet metal or tile, only put housing of acceptable quality in this category. Makeshift housing made partially or completely of sheet metal should be put in the "other" category.

- Thatch: A thatched roof is made of straw, bamboo, palm leaves or leaves of other plant material. It is generally used to cover most of the traditional round huts.
- Other: A roof in this category has none of the characteristics of sheet metal or tile, concrete, adobe or thatch.

Example 1: The building being described is a multi-storey building with a concrete roof. You write:
Question 5 - Roof Material:

[] Sheet metal or Tile
[x] Concrete
[] Adobe
[] Thatch
[] Other

Example 2: The building is made of adobe and the roof is made of wood covered with adobe.
Question 5 - Roof Material:

[] Sheet metal or Tile
[] Concrete
[] Adobe
[] Thatch
[x] Other

The question also pertains to institutional households.

6. Floor Material
In this section describe the floor of the building being documented. The options are: cement or tiles, beaten earth or other. Consider as cement or tile the "hard" floors (cement, concrete, tiles, stone, etc.)

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Always observe the floor of the building yourself or else ask the head of household this questions: "What is the material of the floor?" and check off the corresponding box.

Example 1: The building you are describing is a round hut with a floor which is nonetheless made of cement. You should record this as:
Question 6 - Floor material:

[x] Cement or tile
[] Beaten Earth
[] Other

Example 2: The 'building' is a tent, boat, pirogue, etc.
Question 6 - Floor material:

[] Cement or tile
[] Beaten Earth
[x] Other

This question also applies to institutional households. Ordinary households housed on the same grounds as an institutional household are considered separately.

7. Water Supply

This question should be reported for each household. The most important thing is to determine the household's water supply. This may be through the public water supply system (public tap, well, public reservoir) or a private source such as a well or a natural source (river, spring, etc.). The water supply is determined by coverage of essential water needs for cooking and laundry, and not just for bathing. Ask the head of head of household the following question: "How is the household supplied with water?"

Example 1: The household is provided with water through a public well with a pump Record the answer as follows:
Question 7 - Water Supply:

[] Public tap
[x] Well
[] Fountain
[] River
[] Spring
[] Other

Example 2: The household is supplied with water from a public tap in the street.
Question 7 - Water Supply:

[x] Public tap
[] Well
[] Fountain
[] River
[] Spring
[] Other

8. Type of Toilet Facility
This question indicates whether or not the household has a toilet at its disposal. For institutional households (see Concepts) indicate the number of toilets [cabinet].

Definition: A "toilet", also called a WC, is a facility intended for the disposal of waste or human excrement. It can be a flush toilet or a latrine.

a. The flush toilet. A flush toilet (or modern WC) is an installation linked to a network of water pipes through which human waste is evacuated.

b. Latrine. This is the most common type of WC. It is a hole in the ground, the sides of which may or may not be cemented, and located in a small building in a corner of the compound. It is used as a bath for household members, in addition to their [toilet] needs.
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Refer to these definitions and then ask the head of household the following question: "Does the household have a toilet facility?" Check the corresponding box according to their response.

Example 1. The household uses a WC located in a corner of the compound as a toilet. It is a simple hole with cemented sides and surrounded by walls.
Question 8 - Type of Toilet Facility:

[] Flush Toilet
[x] Latrine
[] Other

9. Lighting

This is the type of lighting used to light the household (electric, gas, lamp, other).

a. Electricity: The household has a permanent lighting fixture available to it, one whose wires are connected to a central distribution source for electricity (Energie du Mali, factory, mine, etc.) or a private source such as a battery.

b. Gas: This type of lighting is a gas-fueled lamp or fixture.

c. Oil Lamp: The household uses an oil lamp.

d. Other: Vegetable- or animal-oil lamp, wood fire, other, none.

Ask the following question to find out the type of lighting: "What type of lighting is used by the household?" Refer to the above definitions and then check the correct box according to the typical case.

10. Fuel

This is fuel used for cooking and heating the household. The options are: gas, wood, coal, others to be specified. Ask the head of household about the type of fuel used and check off the corresponding box.

11. Improved fireplace

Ask the head of household about the possibility of the existence of an improved fireplace and check off "yes" if it exists and "no" if it doesn't.

[end of page 48-52 not translated]

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CHAPTER V -- OTHER ASPECTS OF THE CENSUS

5.1 Persons Who Should Not Be Enumerated
Please do not enumerate persons in the following categories during the census:

1. Malian diplomats and members of their family who are living abroad and who happen to be in Mali at the time of the census. The will be enumerated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.

2. Foreign diplomats and consular personnel and the members of their family who are of the same nationality as they are. However, Malians from these embassies should be enumerated normally. Do not confuse these diplomats with residents from a foreign country (French, other Europeans, etc.) who are either international aid workers or business men, and should be enumerated.

3. Household members who have been gone for more than six months.

Members of the military, police, etc.

5.2 Enumerating the Nomad Population
Data collection on the nomads consists of having the tribal chiefs and the administrative authorities group the nomads together at pre-determined spots. These points are established on maps according to the information given by the authorities.

At the time of the census the Central Census Bureau (B.C.R.) will give the approximate count of the different tribes to be grouped at the same spot.

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Annexes

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General Census of the Population and Housing

Excerpt of the Historical Calendar of Mali

1885

- Construction of the Sikasso fortress

1893

- Death of Tiéba, king of Kénédougou. His brother Babemba succeeds him.

1898

- (May) Siege and capture of Sikasso by the French army.

1900

- Death of Samory.

1904

- Abolition of slavery in West Africa. The railway from Kayes to Bamako, part of the Dakar-Niger railway, is completed.

1909

- Establishment of French military posts in Araouane and Kidal.

1911

- Opening of the Koranic school [Medersa] in Timbuktu.

1913

- Inauguration of the colonial hospital in Bamako (Point G hospital).
- Severe drought followed by a famine

1914

- Beginning of the First World War

1916

- Revolt of the Bobos, in the villages of Belena, Yangasso, Touton, Bana, Tominian and Koro (Mopti and Ségou regions).

1918

- End of the First World War
- Construction of the main Post Office in Bamako.

1920

- Opening of the first motion picture theater in Bamako.

1924

- Completion of the submersible bridge on the Senegal river in Kayes.

1925

- Introduction in Sudan of the harnessed plow for cattle.

1929

- Completion of the submersible bridge on the Niger River in Bamako (Sotuba).
- Invasion of migratory locusts (grasshoppers)
- Inauguration of the Sotuba dam

1932

- Creation of the "Niger Office" [Office du Niger irrigation plan]

1938

- Beginning of construction on the Markala dam.

1940

- General mobilisation for the Second World War.

1945

- End of the Second World War (Demobilization)
- Visit to Sudan of the great marabou Seydou [Nour] (Kayes, Kita, Bamako)

1947

- End of construction on the Markala dam.
- Inauguration of the Sansanding dam
- Departure of soldiers for Indochina
- General strike of the workers of the Dakar-[Niger] railways company.

1949

- Opening of the Federal School of Agriculture in Katibougou, which later became the Technical College of Agriculture (CTA) and eventually the Rural Polytechnic Institute.

1950

- (May 15-20) Visit to Bamako by Cheik Mohamed Haidara, also known as Cheik Fanta Mady or Kankan Sedouba.
- Opening of the Girls Normal School in [Markala]
- Beginning of the "Zazou" fashion
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- Inauguration of the botanical park at the bottom of Point G Hill.

1951

- Opening of the "Girls Modern School" in Bamako
- (April) Visit to Bamako by Moro Naba
- Construction of the Djenné dike.

1953

- (March 7-8) Visit by General De Gaulle to Bamako, and inauguration of the monument erected in memory of Governor Felix Eboue.

1954

- Beginning of "Samba" and "Goumbe" styles.
- Return of soldiers from Indochina
- Beginning of the French strike in Algeria
- Inauguration of the new "N'Tomikorobougou stadium", originally called the "Bouvie stadium" and then the "Mamadou Konate stadium."

1955

- Death of Tierno Mountaga Tall in Ségou
- Smallpox epidemic in Sudan
- The fully-licensed townships of Kayes, Mopti, Ségou and Bamako are created.

1956

- (May 11) Death of Président Mamadou Konate in Bamako.
- (October 23) Death of Maridie Niare.
- Abolition of forced labor in Western Africa.
- Famous boxing encounter: Baladji Cisse wins against Diawara in Bamako

1957

- (July 12) First broadcasts by " Radio Soudan" (Radio Mali).
- Unrest between Wahabist and Religious Fundamentalists in Bamako.

1958

- (October 5) Sudan wins its independence.
- The Bamako zoo receives its first elephant.
- Bazoumana Sissoko makes his first musical recordings on Radio Soudan.
- General De Gaulle comes to power in France.

1959

- (April 4) President Senghor visits Sudan.
- Official constitution of the Mali Federation.

1960

- (January l) Inauguration of the Bamako bridge.
- (June 20) Declaration of Independence from Senegal and from Sudan in the Mali Federation.
- (August 20) Collapse of the Mali Federation.
- Interruption of rail service between Senegal and Mali.
- (September 22) Declaration of independence by the Sudanese Republic, which later became the Republic of Mali.

1961

- (January 20) Mali demands the evacuation of French army bases on its territory
- (January 20) Festival of the Malian Army.
- (December 15) Terasson de Fougeres High School in Bamako becomes Askia Mohamed High School.

1962

- (July 1) Creation of the Malian Franc. Mali quits the UMOA [Monetary Union of West Africa].
- (September 22) Inauguration of the new Radio house of Bozola, in Bamako.
- [(November) Implementation of the reform of schooling in Mali.]

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- Establishment of Bishop Luc Sangare
-"Yeye" fashion popular in Mali.

1963

- (January 11) Creation of the Inter-Army Military School in Kati.
- (June) Resumption of rail service between Mali and Senegal.
- (December 28) First Chinese Exhibition.
- First Catholic Pilgrimage to Kita.

1964

- (February 21) Inauguration of the Canned Food factory in Baguineda. [Usine de Conserves SOCOMA].
- (October 2) Death of General Abdoulaye Soumare, Head of State and the Armed Forces.

1965

- Inauguration of the ship "General Abdoulaye Soumare," built in Mali.
- Inauguration of the Djoliba Cigarette factory
- Flooding in Niono

1966

- (August 24) Inauguration of the tile factory in Djikoroni, Bamako.
- Inauguration of the school complex in Badalabougou.
- Opening of the National Art Institute in Bamako.

1967

- Inauguration of the Babemba movie theater in Bamako
- Devaluation of the Malian Franc
- Inauguration of the Kati Hospital
- Inauguration of the sports complex in Bamako
- Fall of Ghanaian President Kwan Nkrumah

1968

- (November) The Army seizes power.
- Inauguration of the Comatex [factory] in Ségou.

1969

- (January-April) Meningitis epidemic.
- "Appolo" fashion popular in Mali.

1970

- (September 17) Bamako-Dakar Express train accident in Badougou (province/state of Kita).
- First biennial Artistic and Cultural Exhibition in Mali.
- Cholera epidemic in Mali.
- Start up of a new radio broadcasting center in Kati
- Constitutive assembly for the CEAO in Bamako [Economic Community of West Africa]
- Creation of the Ahmed Baba Center for Documentation and Historical Research in Timbuktu.

1971

- Conjunctivitis epidemic (Appolo)
- Opening of the National Police Academy [Ecole Nationale de Police] in Bamako
- Creation of the national lottery.

1972

- Congo-Mali soccer game in Yaoundé in the final of the Africa Cup of Nations tournament.
- Beginning of the great drought.
- Publication of "Kibaru," a monthly magazine written in Bambara, the national language.
- Beginning of rural development operations [opérations de développement rural].

1973

- Famine caused by the drought.
- Beginning of improvements on Independence Boulevard in Bamako.
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1974

- Beginning of construction on the Great Mosque in Bamako.
- (June 2) Referendum for the adoption of the new constitution.
- (August) Crash of Air Mali plane "Ilyouchine 18" in Upper Volta.
- (September) Train accident near the city hall in Bamako
- (December) First border incident between Mali and Upper Volta

1975

- (January) Second border incident between Mali and Upper Volta
- Creation of the "Sepama" [peanut factory] in Kita.

1976

- (April) Inauguration of the Seribala Agro-business Factory
- (July) Inauguration of the Great Mosque in Bamako
- (July-August) Operation Green Sahel [Sahel Vert].
- (November 19) Official creation of the Democratic Union of the Malian People political party ( U.D.P.M.) [Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien]
- (December) First General Census of the Population
- New administrative apportionment in the country. Creation of Bamako district; the Koulikouro and Timbuktu regions; and the provinces/states of Kati, Bla and Youwarou.

1977

- (January) School strike in Mali
- Death of former president Modibo Keita
- (September 28) Inauguration of the telecommunication station in Sollymambougou.
- (October 15) Inauguration of the "hôtel de l'Amitié" in Bamako.

1978

- (February 28) Several government members are arrested (Kissima Doukara, Tiécoro Bagayoko, Karim Dembele et Charles Samba Sissoko)
- Beginning of construction on the Sélingué dam.
- Beginning of construction on the culture palace in Bamako.

1979

- (May 24) Inauguration of the Inter-Army Military School in Koulikoro.
- Beginning of the construction of the Sévaré-Gao road
- (December 25) "Salif Keita" Jubilee
- "Disco" and "Rasta" appear in Mali.
- First Constitutional Congress of the U.D.P.M. [Democratic Union of the Malian People]

1980

- (March) Strike of high school and university students resumes.

1981

- Round table organized by international funding agencies.

1982

- First ordinary congress of U.D.P.M. [Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien]

1983

- (September) Inauguration of Malian Television.
- Sélingué dam is completed

1984

- Beginning of construction on Manatali dam.
- (June 1) Mali returns to the U.M.O.A. [Monetary Union of West Africa] and exchanges the Malian franc for the CFA [Colonies Françaises d'Afrique] franc.
- (October) Cholera epidemic.
- (November) Death of President Sekou Toure of Guinea

1985

- (February) Plane crash in Timbuktu
- (March) Second ordinary congress of U.D.P.M.

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- (December) Border conflict between Mali and Burkina

1986

- (June) Cabinet reshuffling. Creation of the position of Prime Minister
- (December) Verdict of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, concerning the border conflict between Mali and Burkina