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Morocco 1994 Enumeration Instructions
Kingdom of Morocco
Ministry of Interior/High Commission for Planning
General Census of Population and Housing, 1994

Census definitions

Census: Is all operations to gather, analyze and disseminate demographic, economic and social data about all population in a specific time.

Administrative division considered in the census is about the same as the official one. National territory is divided into regions. Each region is divided into provinces. Each province is divided into municipalities in urban areas, and into cercles in rural areas. Cercles are composed of rural communities, whose population belongs to "mashikhat" and douar. Sometimes they may contain other centers considered as urban areas. Geographic code manual present all names and corresponding codes of different divisions.

Census district is an urban or rural area with clear geographic limits. Each census district is enumerated by a census enumerator. Each census district is made up of part, whole or several lots in urban area, or of a whole or several lots in rural area. A lot is made up of several continuous constructions. It is generally limited by several public roads.

Lot in urban area is made up of a group of continuous buildings and limited usually by several public roads (street, avenue, roads) or empty land. Lots are very diverse in form and number of buildings it contains. We may find large lots as well as small ones with few building if not only one building.

Lot in rural area is defined as a geographical area with natural or physical clear limits that contains a group or more of residential buildings. The latter is made up of housing units and rural buildings close to each other and gathered with no separation such as mountains, rivers or large empty land. These rural residential areas could be classified as "douar" (village), part of "douar" or several "douars".

Building: has been constructed to house people and their belongings or just to keep such belongings, or to be used for professional, administrative, service or religious purposes. A building may have a unique or multiple uses, such as building that has residential area and professional area.

Types of buildings:
Villa: according to its normal definition, it is every building prepared for residence, stands alone from its architectural stand of view and not over two story and usually has a garden. A villa could be used for things other than residence during the census period.

Story building: is prepared for collective housing and made up of several apartments. It could be used for residential or other purposes.

Modern Moroccan house: is an individual building, made up of one or several stories used for residence or other purposes. There are no similarities between modern Moroccan house, villa or traditional Moroccan house.

Moroccan traditional house: found usually in old/traditional neighborhoods. It is characterized by a hall in the middle, surrounded by rooms for residence.

Slum, informal construction: it's about unique constructions from architectural or materials, such as wood, zinc.

Administrative, professional or service: all independent locals, whose architect are different from the constructions mentioned above and not used only for residence.

Other buildings: They are about other constructions that cannot be classified above.

Dwelling: a residence is made of one room or several rooms prepared for residence. It has one or more direct entry. The direct entry may open up on a hall, stairs, another premise for professional use, public way or empty land. It should be noted that a hotel should not be considered as only one residence. Each of its rooms is a residence, unless several rooms are used by the same household. Regarding traditional hotels (foundouk), they are usually found in old neighborhoods. Each room or several rooms occupied by a household is considered a dwelling. Likewise each empty room is considered a dwelling. The same goes for a group of dwellings occupied by one household. These dwellings are considered as one, and hence the number of rooms is the total number of rooms of theses dwellings. A dwelling may not have been prepared for residence initially, but parts within it are now being used as residence. In this case these parts should be considered as dwellings.

Types of dwellings: As mentioned above, types of dwellings are villa, apartment in a story building, Moroccan modern building, Moroccan traditional building and slums. In additions the following types should be added:

Rural dwellings: are all dwellings that are enumerated in the rural areas and suburban areas, which are not within the former types.

Room in establishment: is a room or several rooms in an establishment (hotel, school, factory, mosque) used for residence during the census period.

Premises not prepared for residence in the first place: are locations that were built for other purposes than residence but are being used as residence during the census period.

Other cases: about other types not mentioned above, such as car, tent.

Professional premises: are all premises that are being used for professional purpose, even if they were not prepared to this end in the first place.

Household: is a group of persons, parented or not, that usually lives in the same dwelling and have common expenses. A person living alone is considered a one-person household.

Household head: is the individual resident declared as household head by household members. He enjoys moral or material obligations, or both. The head of household is not necessarily the oldest, the one who earns the most or the one related to all family members. Also, the household head could be either a man or a woman. She could be the widow living with her son's family or the person who decides about the use of agricultural land regarding agricultural families or the elderly who isn't participating any longer in agricultural activities.

Status of residence in dwelling: During the census reference date, residents of a dwelling could be present or temporarily absent. A dwelling could be on construction, empty, secondary or seasonal. Following are definitions of these cases:

Dwelling whose residents are present during the census: it's about every dwelling usually occupied by one or several households during the census reference date.

Dwelling whose residents are temporarily absents: it's about every dwelling usually occupied by one or several households, but they are absent during the census reference date.

Secondary or seasonal dwelling: is every dwelling used as a secondary residence by household who has a primary residence elsewhere. In this category we also find dwelling owned by Moroccan resident abroad but occupied during vacations.

Empty dwelling: is non-secondary or residential dwelling not occupied by any household during the census reference date. Only dwellings prepared for residence and not demolished are considered such. In addition, only certain types of dwellings are considered: villa, apartment in a story building, Moroccan modern house or Moroccan traditional house. Hence, rural houses and slums are not to be considered.

Dwelling under construction: is a dwelling being constructed but its primary features are apparent and can be classified. These dwelling could be sometimes occupied by household(s) during the census reference date.

Residence and census reference date:
Residence: resident is anyone living in a place or planning to live in it for at least 6 months. In the census context:

"Present resident" is anyone present at his usual place of residence during the census reference date.
"Resident temporarily absent" is anyone absent from his usual resident for a period shorter than 6 months.

"Transit individual" is anyone living in a place different from his usual residence for a period shorter than 6 months. Transit individuals, whether living in hotels or ordinary households, are not counted as part of the legal population.

Census reference date: All gathered questionnaires during the census refer to the 2nd of September 1994 at 0 hour.

Counted population during census: counting legal population is primary the objective of census. It's made up of two categories: Municipal population and separately counted population.

Municipal population: Counted as usual resident within the census district among normal households or grouped households. And they are:

  • All persons usually residing in the dwelling on the census reference date, whether they were present or temporarily absent for a duration no longer than 6 months.
  • All persons residing in the census district, if they were living in a car.
  • All homeless individuals, after they have been gathered by local government at a specific date during the census (September 15, 1994).
  • Foreign employees at consulates and embassies should be counted if they are residing outside these establishments.
  • Foreigners residing in Morocco even if they were abroad during the census. They would be counted as temporary absent during that period, regardless of their activity status: students, employees, retired, landowners, etc.
  • All transit/visiting persons not usually residing within the household but present during the census period for fewer than six months should be registered in specific table. But if their presence is over 6 months, they should be counted as members of household.

Persons that should not be counted at all are:

  • Foreigners of diplomatic corps residing at embassies and consultants
  • Any person out of the country for a period over 6 months.
  • Every person who has been away from his original household for over 6 months.

Exceptional cases:

  • Every student residing in schooling in dormitories during the school year is counted with his household only if he was present at household during the census reference date.
  • In case of person owning several residences, every person found in his primary residence is counted as resident present. If he/she happens to be in secondary residence then they should be considered as transit, because they will be counted as absent resident in their primary residence by other enumerator.
  • Persons who changed residence permanently should not be counted as "Absent [from] residence" because they will be counted as "Present [at] residence" within their primary residence, even if their period of residence in their new home is less than 6 months.
  • Persons often on the move, such as conductors, should be counted as absent resident in their primary residence if they were absent during the census reference date, or present resident if they were present.

Persons counted separately: Persons counted within the establishment where they live. They are:

  • Military and other officials residing in military buildings or similar
  • Individuals being treated in hospitals for a period over 6 months
  • Prisoners
  • Residents of child care establishments
  • Residents of community housing
  • Students present at such schools at census reference date
  • Workers residing in their place of work and with no usual residence or for a period over 6 months.


1994 Household and housing questionnaire

Province____
Cercle _____
Municipality or rural community____
Center____
Machikha____
Douar____
Census district number____
Dwelling unit number, in census track____

Numbers from 001 to the total number of dwelling units within census district____

No number can be duplicated or omitted. Include professional premises used as residence.

Number of households in the dwelling: ____

It's possible to have one household, several or none if the dwelling unit is empty (e.g. secondary residence). In such case "00" is used as code.

Household number, in the dwelling: from "01" household to the last household within the dwelling____

Number of questionnaires filled for this household: ____

For each household that has over 9 members, additional questionnaires are provided. Hence this code will differentiate between questionnaires for the same household.

Questionnaire number filled for this household: ____

For each household that has over 9 members, additional questionnaires are provided. Hence this code will differentiate between questionnaires for the same household.

Total number of household members: ____

All members, usually resident members, present or temporarily absent during the census reference date. It is total number of Morrocan and foreigners. This question should be filled at the end after enumerating all household members. Also, in case of using more than one questionnaire per household, only the first questionnaire should be filled. If dwelling is empty this question takes code "00".

Of which:

Morrocans____
Foreigners____
Total____

Precise address of the dwelling unit: ____
Date of interview: ____
Name of the census enumerator: ____
Name of the supervisor: ____
Date of the supervision: ____
Observations: ____

Individuals: (multiple records)
Q1. Number of household members: ____

It's the order number of usual resident belonging to a household.

Q2. Last and first names of household members____

(Resident present or resident temporarily absent) written in table 1 to determine household members according to rank explained in instruction manual.

Q3. Relationship to household head:

0 Household head
1 His wife
2 Son or daughter
3 Grandson or granddaughter
4 Father or mother
5 Brother or sister
6 Son-in-law or daughter-in-law
7 Other relative to determine
8 No relationship

Q4. Status of residence:

1 "Resident present" is anyone present at his usual place of residence during the census reference date
2 "Resident temporarily absent" is anyone absent from his usual residence for a period shorter than 6 months

Q5. Sex:

Always ask this question:

1 Male
2 Female

Date of birth or age. Show clearly date of birth or age according to declaration.

Q6a. Date of birth____

Example: declared 9 July 1953, write "09" "1953"

Q6b. Age in years____

Example: declared 48 years old. Put "48". For [persons] younger than 1 year, write "00".

Q7. Matrimonial status:

1 Single, never married
2 Married is anyone legally/religiously married, even if the marriage has not been consummated yet.
3 Widowed is anyone whose husband or wife died
4 Divorced is anyone who legally/religiously divorced through a judgment

Q8. Nationality:

01 Moroccan
02 Algerian
03 Tunisian
40 French
41 Spanish
Other nationality, write out and do not code ____

Q9. Civil status (for Moroccan): Is this person registerd in civil status?

All Moroccan to be considered

1 Yes
2 No

Q10. Place of birth____

If place of birth is in the same town or village write code "10000". Or, mention name of town (or village and community with closest city).

Q11. Place of last residence prior to current residence____

In case of residence in the same house write "00000"
In case of changing house, but still on same town or village write "10000"
In case of changing town or village write name of town or village with closest town

Q12. Length of residence: ____

Remember length of residence in town or village where person lives. For people who have never changed their town of village of residence write "99".

Q13. Place of residence during or before last Al-aid Adha holiday ____

In case of residence in the same house, write "00000"
In case of changing house, but still on same town or village, write "10000"
In case of changing town or village, write the name of the town or village with closest town

For married women, widowed, divorced. Show total number of children born alive (male and female)
[Questions 14a-f.]

During lifetime of mentioned women
[Questions 14a-c.]

Q14a. Who currently live with the household ____
Q14b. Who do not currently live with the household but live in Morocco ____
Q14c. Who currently live out of Morocco ____

During last 12 months for women younger than 51
[Questions 14e-f.]

Q14e. Who are still alive ____
Q14f. Who died ____

For persons age 10 or older
[Questions 15-16.]

Q15. Read and write:

0 None
1 Only Arabic
2 Arabic and French alone
3 Arabic, French and other languages to be mentioned
4 Arabic and languages other than French
5 Other cases to be mentioned ____

Q16. Highest educational degree, primary, secondary, tertiary or professional____

Q17. Last educational level attained in public school____

Q18. Activity type:

0 Active occupied
Every person, man or woman, age 7 or older who declared at the census reference date that he/she has a professional activity, is considered to be "Active employed". According to this definition, individuals who have a certain job (farmers, individuals with periodical jobs), even if they were not practicing their activity during the census period are considered to be active employed. [This defintion] also includes individuals with a job but absent from their job during the census period because of annual leave, sickness, or accident.

1 Unemployed never worked before
Anyone age 15 or older, who declares that he/she has no job at the census reference date, but is looking for it is "Active unemployed". These individuals never worked in the past.

2 Unemployed who has worked in the past
"Active unemployed" is anyone age 15 or older, and declares that he/she has no job at the census reference date, but is looking for it. These individuals have worked in the past.

3 Housewife
Every girl or woman age 15 or older who does not practice any work but is taking care of the house and household members (cleaning, cooking, etc.). Not all women are to be automatically classified in this category. Enumerator should separate between housewife and woman that does some activities (weaving, agriculture, service) for money or in kind values. Therefore these women should be classified in the former categories according to their status during the census.

4 Student
Every individual whose primary activity is limited to going to school or professional training establishment during 2003-2004 school year, if he was not planning to attend next year. But, the student who finished his schooling is considered an actively occupied or unemployed depending on his situation.
If a student has a part time job, even if it was paid, he is still considered to be a student. In addition, a student civil servant is considered a student even if he is receiving a salary. However an employee who is a taking night classes or education to improve his skills is considered as occupied active.

5 Landlord or retired
He/she is not active. His earnings are from renting properties (apartment, farming land) or his earnings are from retirement plan from private or government establishments. But, if this person is practicing economic activities, then he/she should be considered occupied active.

6 Sick or handicapped
Sick or handicapped is every person whose handicap/illness prevents him from doing any job.

7 Child
Younger than 15, does not work and [is] not in school.

8 Other cases to be noted ____
Younger than 15, does not work and [is] not in school.

Q19. Primary profession carried on____

This question is asked to every actively occupied or unemployed [person]. This question was coded at a later stage (please see the instructions manual to code the profession). It concerns [persons who are] actively occupied, active not working but held a job in the past, and active never worked before but with qualifications.

Q20. Primary activity of the establishment or professional premises where the person is working or worked____

This question was coded at a later stage (please see activity code manual). It concerns active occupied and active not working but held a job in the past.

Q21. Status in primary profession:

1 Employer
Employs at least one salaried person

2 Independent with a premise
Works for himself and does not employ any salaried person, although he/she may seek familial aids. This individual works at a specific premise other than his own home. This definition may be difficult to apply for self-employed farmers. We consider each farmer working on his own land within this category.

3 Independent worker from his home
Works for himself and does not employ any salaried person on a permanent basis, although he/she may seek familial aids or apprentice. This individual works in his own home.

4 Independent travelling or without premise
Works for himself and does not employ any salaried person, although he/she may seek familial aids. This individual does not have specific premise.

5 Salaried employee
Works for a salary, in kind, or both. This individual works for public sector, such as government, local communities, external services of ministries or for private sector

6 Family appointed
Works for his family members with no salary and lives with them.

7 Trainee
Works for an employer or is self-employed to learn some skills. He/she may receive some salary.

Housing record

Q21. Status of housing

1 House whose inhabitants are present during the census
2 House whose inhabitants are temporarily absent
3 Empty house
4 Secondary or seasonal house
5 House under construction

Q23. Type of housing:

0 Villa or level of villa
According to its normal definition is every building prepared for residence, separated from its architectural stand of point and not over two stories, and usually has a garden. A villa could be used for other things besides residence during the census period.

1 An apartment in a building
Within a building that is prepared for collective housing and made up of several stand alone apartments. The latter could be used for residential or other purposes.

3 Moroccan traditional house
Is an individual building, made up of one or several stories used as residence or other purposes. There are no similarities between modern Moroccan house, villa or traditional Moroccan house.

4 Room in an establishment
Is a room or several rooms in an establishment (hotel, school, factory, mosque) used for residence during the census period.

5 Slum or archaic housing
It is about unique constructions from architectural or material, such as wood, zinc

6 Premise not originally prepared for housing (garage)

7 Rural housing
Are all dwellings that are enumerated in the rural areas and suburban area, which are not within the former types.

8 Other cases: Other types not mentioned above, such as car, tent

Basic construction material
[Questions 24a-b]

Q24a. Walls

1 Rocks or bricks with cement
2 Rock with clay
3 Rock only
4 Tabia (clay and straw),
5 Wood, zinc, grass, cane
6 Other material

Q24b. Ceiling:

1 Dalla (reinforced concrete)
2 Wood, grass covered with clay
3 Wood, grass or cane not covered
4 Iron or zinc
5 Wood or bricks
6 Other material

Housing equipment
[Questions 25a-g.]

Q25a. Kitchen:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25b. Toilet:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25c. Modern bathroom or shower:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25d. Traditional bathroom:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25e. Public water supply network:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25f. Water from well within dwelling

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q25g. Public electricity supply network:

1 Private
2 Shared
3 Not available

Q26. Lighting method (for housing with no electricity):

1 Lighting with gasoline
2 Lighting with gas
3 Kandil
4 Candle
5 Other cases

Q27. Status of occupation:

1 Owner or associated partner
2 Towards ownership
3 Tenant
4 Accommodation that goes with the job
5 Housed for free
6 Other cases

Q28. Number of rooms inhabited by household____

Handicapped individuals (multiple records)

Q29. Number of individual within questionnaire____

Q30a. Type of handicap:

1 Deaf
2 Dumb
3 Blind
4 Can't move
5 Amputated hand or hands
6 Amputated leg or legs
7 Retarded
8 Other handicap

Q30b. Handicap cause:

1 Since birth
2 Sickness
3 Traffic accident
4 Work-related accident
5 Aging
6 Other reason to be mentioned

Q30c. Length of handicap (until census time) ____