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Bureau of Statistics Lesotho
2006 Population and Housing Census
Instructions to Enumerators

[Omitted Table of Contents.]

Part l: Introduction

What is a Population census?
1. A population census is a complete count of every inhabitant of a given geographic entity at a given time. It is usually done every ten years in Lesotho.
2. The definition used by the United Nations is as follows: "A census of population may be defined as the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or delimited territory"

Objectives and uses
3. To review, facilitate and update periodic planning and evaluation of population activities.
4. Lesotho policy makers and development planners need to know the number of Basotho, young children, adults of working age and old people in order to formulate sound development plans and make effective administrative decisions. They need the information in the preparation of realistic plans for the provision of adequate infrastructure and services
5. The data is not only used at the national level but it is also used for small areas such as villages and towns.

Legal Basis
6. The Statistics Act of 2001 authorizes the Bureau of Statistics to collect information in relation to population and housing as directed by the Minister of finance and development planning. According to the act, every person shall to the best of his knowledge and belief, answer when so required, all questions asked. The Statistics Act therefore provides the legal authority for the 2006 Population and Housing Census of Lesotho. The act also provides penalties in the form of a fine or imprisonment if either you or members of the public fail in their duties.

7. All information obtained from persons and households will be in strict confidence as required by Law (the Statistics Act, 2001). All information will be used and made available to other persons in the aggregate form only. No individual information (or questionnaire) will be released to anyone except to the personnel of the Bureau of Statistics for the compilation of the required statistics.
[pg. 4]
8. You are not permitted to discuss information obtained, gossip about it, or show your records to anyone who is not an authorized officer in the census organization. Make all entries of the questionnaire yourself. Do not leave your questionnaire lying around where an unauthorized person may have access to it.

The Census Organization
9. Lesotho is divided into 80 constituencies with multiple enumeration areas within constituencies.
10. The Director of the Bureau of Statistics is responsible to the Lesotho Government for censuses undertaking.

Bureau of Statistics Census Structure
Minister of Finance and Development Planning
Principal Secretary of Finance and Development Planning
Census Commissioner
Deputy Census Commissioner
Regional Census Coordinators
District Census Coordinators
Census Supervisors
Census Enumerators


Role of Enumerator
11. The success of the census depends mainly on good enumeration. Bad enumeration may only mean that a lot of resources would have been spent on worthless information, which can only lead to wrong decisions being made by Government.
12. Your job is to enumerate every household in your enumeration area.
It is to ask questions and to record the answers that are required. It is the most important single job in the census. You must make an effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them correctly. Do not think that few households that are not counted will be of no importance. If each enumerator does think the same, the few omitted by all the enumerators individually could sum up to a considerable number.

Interviewing Techniques
13. Initially, when approaching a household for interview, gain the confidence of the respondent to secure his/her willingness to answer your questions.
14. The first impression and the first things you do or say are of vital importance in gaining the co-operation and confidence of the respondent. Start by introducing yourself stating your name (if you are not known to the respondent),and that you are an employee of the Bureau of Statistics, followed by what your visit is all about. The following example may be followed.

" Good morning. I am (your name) working for the Bureau of Statistics. My visit today is part of the nation-wide census..."

15. As far as possible the questions on individuals should be answered by the person concerned, that is himself/herself. Emphasize the confidentiality of the data being sought and explain that no individual's name will be used and that information pooled will be made to the public only in the form of statistical aggregates.
16. It is important that you remain absolutely neutral as you administer the questionnaire. Do not lead the respondents to certain answers; do not show surprise, approval of the responses by your tone of voice or facial expression.
17. During the interview let the respondents take their time, never put answers in their mouths. It may happen that the respondent's answer to a question be incomplete or irrelevant, or that he/she has not been able to understand the question. If that happens, you will need to obtain complete or relevant answers by asking some additional questions. This is called probing. It may take the form of repeating or explaining the question. But again, make sure that you do not suggest answers to the respondent.
[pg. 6]
18. When leaving the household and or village remember to thank the people for their cooperation.

Refusal and Difficult cases
19. Should you come across someone who refuses to answer questions, continue to be courteous. Point out the importance of the census to the national development. Inform him/her that the operation is not being undertaken in connection with the political activities, such as elections or for tax collection purposes. Also information about individual persons will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Should the person still be uncooperative, report the matter to the village headman first and, if still necessary, to your supervisor.
20. Inform the respondents that the individual names listed on the questionnaire are purely to make sure that every household selected is listed and that the information relates to that particular person. It also helps to ensure complete coverage and good quality information, and that it will never appear anywhere again in an individual form.
21. Should it also happen that an entire village refuses to cooperate, you must report this to the headman and your supervisor at the earliest opportunity, either on his next visit to you or when you have completed the enumeration of the other villages in the E.A.

22. When you have completed your training you will be supplied with a bag containing the following: -

(a) Questionnaires
(b) E.A Boundary Description
(c) Village List
(d) Instruction to enumerators
(e) Calendar of events
(f) Identity cards
(g) Letters of introduction
(h) Pens
(i) Green and white stickers
(j) Enumerators record of visits
(k) Pens
(1) Pencils
(m) Pencil sharpener
(n) Eraser


Careful Handling of Materials
23. When you receive your field material you have to check the equipment and make sure that it is complete before you sign for it. You are solely responsible for equipment until you have completed the assignment and handed everything to your supervisor who will in tum record the number of items received.
24. You should handle the census documents and other materials carefully. You should never destroy any document. At the completion of your work, all census documents unused or canceled questionnaires should be returned to your supervisor.

Conditions of Service
25. Because of the importance of the census and the complexity of the questionnaire willing temporary applicants with C.O.S.C and above will be engaged in enumeration.
26. Employment will only be offered to those who will satisfy the standards set at the training course in both theoretical as well as practical work.
27. You will be trained for the period of two weeks.
28. You will also be working irregular hours starting your interviews very early in the morning. Remember it is you who has to find the household members at their homes at those times, which are convenient to them. They have no obligation to await your arrival. During the fieldwork, you will be expected to work every day including Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. It is important to understand this, as there will be no exceptions.
29. Transport to your area of work, if necessarily far, will in all cases be provided by the Bureau of Statistics Office. In the mountain areas, your supervisor will authorize you to hire horses to take you to your areas whenever this should be necessary. However, as soon as you reach your area of work, you will have to travel on foot from village to village.
30. On reaching your area of work, you have to seek and find your own accommodation in one of the villages, preferably one that is centrally situated within the area. In this connection you will find most village headmen very helpful.
31. You have to provide your own food and clothing.


Part II Activities of Enumeration

32. You have been recruited as enumerators for the 2006 Population and Housing Census. Before you actually go out to the field you will undergo an intensive two­ weeks training.
33. The training will include reading of the manual paragraph by paragraph, giving examples, discussions, tests and practical.
34. Employment will be offered to those who satisfy the standards set at the training course in both theoretical as well as practical work.

The Enumeration Area
35. You will be allocated an enumeration area (EA), and you are required to visit every dwelling unit in the area and complete the questionnaire relating to all persons in each unit.
36. An EA in the rural areas has a well-defined boundary and may be a village or a group of villages. In the urban areas, an EA will comprise of well-defined block of dwelling units.
37. You will be provided with an EA boundary description and a list of villages within your EA. Your supervisor will accompany you to your EA and show you its boundaries. Make sure that you are familiar with your EA and its boundaries before you record particulars of the households.
38. You are expected to complete your work within an allocated time. This will be possible if you work conscientiously every day of the week of enumeration. You should however not stop work in the area until all households have been covered. If you realize that you may not be able to complete the work within an allocated time, you should inform your supervisor as soon as such an eminent delay is apparent.
39. All EA's have been assigned a numerical code with 9 digits. The first two specify the district, the second two show the constituency, the third pair indicates the community council, the seventh number shows the zone number, and the last two indicate the E.A. number.
40. This number code is very important for identifying the location of any cluster of villages. It is the principal guide for the office in directing all enumerators to their respective areas of work.
41. On reaching their EA' s there is a possibility that enumerators may find that in a few cases names of villages have been misspelt or village names misplaced. It is therefore very important that, on reaching their respective areas, all enumerators should ascertain that the villages listed for each EA are actually located in the area. Check with the village headman and make the necessary corrections.
42. Should it happen that a listed village is not known in the neighborhood, or existing village has not been listed, the enumerator must report this to hishe/her supervisor during the first visit. If the enumerator is unable to report earlier she/he should continue with enumeration of this unlisted existing village, but report afterwards.

Preparation of Itinerary
43. Once you are familiar with your EA and its boundaries, prepare an itinerary in an orderly fashion.
44. You should use whatever means at your disposal to advise and warn villagers about the approximate time you should expect to enumerate their villages. This will greatly facilitate your work in a large number of cases.

Part III Enumeration Documents
45. All information required during the census is to be recorded on the questionnaire.

Enumerators Record of Visits (Enumerators control form)
46. At the end of village enumeration, before you move to the next village, complete the control form.
47. Write the District, EA number; village name, relevant page numbers of that village and whether enumerations was complete, and if it was not complete give reasons.

Retrieval and Delivery forms
48. For all material supplied, the enumerator has to acknowledge the receipt with signature. Similarly, when he/she returns the material after completing the assignment, the enumerator has to make sure that the receipt is acknowledged with signature by the supervisor.


Part IV How to Complete the Questionnaire

49. Fill in the questionnaire yourself. Remember that the information is strictly confidential and that it must not be left lying about or given to anyone other than a census officer.
50. List the names of the household members in the following order: -

Head of the household regardless of whether he has slept in the household during the reference night or not.
Usual members of the household who slept in the household during the reference night.
Visitors who slept in the household during the reference night.
Usual members of the household who did not sleep in the household during the reference night and were absent and are elsewhere in Lesotho.
Usual members who are absent and are in the republic of South Africa.
Usual members who are absent, not in Lesotho and not in the Republic of South Africa.

51. Make sure that you list all members in column 1 appropriately before moving to other columns.
52. Fill in the particulars of each person row by row until you get to the end.
53. Remember to use a fresh questionnaire form for each household you interview.
54. In the rare event that a household has more than 10 members you should continue on the next form. Fill in all household particulars in part A of the second questionnaire and change the serial numbering on this form so that the first person on the second form will be number 11.
55. Use the pencil provided. Do not use felt pen or ballpoint pen.
56. Write legibly and keep the questionnaire clean.
57. If you make a mistake do rub it off neatly and write the correction legibly.


Part V Who to Enumerate

58. A household is one person or a group of persons who live together and have common catering arrangements, whether or not they are related by blood or marriage.
59. The household is the most convenient small group of persons; for the purpose of a census; and you will enumerate the population by household.
60. If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate living and eating arrangements, treat them as separate households.
61. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included in the household. However, if the servant cooks and eats separately she/he should be enumerated as living in a separate household.
62. In the same way, a visitor and any of hishe/her children who eat with the household are counted as members of the household. Visitors are persons who do not stay or intend to stay longer than 6 months with the household members.
Visitors-persons found in the household who slept there on the reference night whose purpose of stay is visit. The census cut-off duration of visit is six months if a person says she/he is a visitor, but is with the household for more than six months she/he should be included among present members.

Examples of visitor:
A married child, his wife and children who usually live with own family elsewhere but are found at parents' house at the time of the census, should be treated as visitors.
An unmarried child who works elsewhere and usually lives in hishe/her own household should also be treated as a visitor in hishe/her parent's house if found there during the census.
If this unmarried person lives alone but at night of the census was visiting friends or parents. In his residence there will be a callback and when he is found he will be considered as being present.
Students living with a household of which they are not usual members but are there for the purpose of schooling should be treated by that household where they were found as visitors.

63. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building, part of a building or many buildings.
64. You should enumerate all usual members of the household and those visitors who spent the reference night with the household.
65. Persons to be enumerated in private households will therefore be the following: -

The household head irrespective of residential status
Usual members of the household who spent the reference night in the dwelling unit.
Visitors who spent the reference night with the household and lived with the household for less than six months.
Usual members of the household who were elsewhere in Lesotho for less than six months. Absent members who were in institutions such as boarding schools. Members in institutions such as the convents should be excluded irrespective of duration of residence.
Usual members of the household who were in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) during the reference night and have been away (since their last visit) from the household for a period not exceeding three years e.g. migrant workers.
Usual members of the household who were not in Lesotho nor in the Republic of South Africa during the reference night and have been away since their last visit for a period of less than three years.

Period of enumeration
66. Enumeration is expected to take two weeks.

Who to interview
67. You must interview as many respondents in the household as may be necessary to enable you to obtain accurate information of all persons who were in the household on the reference night. It will be best if the head of the household is present for interview. If not, one responsible adult can give the information required, except in the case of child headed households.

Part VI the Questionnaire Schedule

68. Remember that you will have to pay particular attention to understanding and mastering thoroughly this part of the instructions; if you are to be offered appointment as enumerators.
69. The questionnaire schedule consists of nine parts: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I.

Part A of the questionnaire
70. Part A is for the purpose of identifying households, as well as for checking purposes both in the field and in the office.
Geographic Identification Particulars

District: Record here the code of the district under which the village is administered. You will get this information from your supervisor.
Zone: Record here the code of the zone, under which the village falls which could be either Lowland, Foothills, Senqu River Valley, or mountain. The village list provided will have this information.
Ward: Record here the code of the ward under which the village falls. You will get this information from your supervisor.
EA code: Record in the appropriate space the enumeration area to which you will be assigned by the office. The village lists provided will also have this information.
Household number: Ensure consistent numbering of your household for each village in your E.A.
Health Service Area number: Record here the name of the clinic which is nearest to the village recorded. Each clinic has a number, you have to fill in the number in the space provided e.g. J4458
Village: write the name and number of the village in the space provided
Record all the names by which the village is known, beginning with the one which appears more permanent than the others, e.g. if a village is called after the name of the present headman, such a name is not very permanent because it may die with that headman. So try to find out if there are other names of a permanent nature.
Be careful about the villages, which share a common area name. An example of this phenomenon will be found in villages, which surround Qeme Plateau. Such villages should be clearly distinguished from one another by local names, e.g. Qeme, Ha Mantsebo, Qeme Ha Mpo, Qeme Ha Ramorakane etc. If it is a town, write the name of the township e.g. Ha hoohlo Maseru, Lisemeng in Hlotse and Mampoboleng in Moyeni.
Local Community Council: Record here the number of the local community council under which the recorded village falls.
Urban/Rural: Record here whether the area is Urban or Rural. Your supervisor will make this known to you. If it is urban, delete rural and write code 1. If it is rural, delete urban and write code 2 in the appropriate box.
Household bead: Record the names of the head of the household (first name and surname) as given by the head or a responsible member of the household. In the absence of the entire household, the neighbors or the headman will supply this information. The head of the household (hlooho ea lelapa) is generally the one who is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the household. He/she is not necessarily the oldest person in the household. However, your main guide to who is the head is whoever will be pointed to you as the head when you ask.
Names of Principal/Ward Chief, Area Chief, Village Chief/Headman.
Record here in sequence the name of the principal/ward chief; that of the area chief and finally that of the village chief or headman responsible for administering the village.
In some cases it will happen that the principal/ward chief is simultaneously an area chief (chief of a number of villages). In such cases, his name will show in two cases. I.e. as area chief, and principal/ward chief. If people in the village do not know the names of the principal and /or ward chief of their area, the village headman will help you.

Part B of the questionnaire
For all persons

The first column must be completed before entries are made anywhere else in the questionnaire.
71. Column 1: Name

Name commonly known by: beginning with name of the head of the household, in this column, enter names of all the household members and visitors. If there is a baby who has not been given a name yet, record "baby." If in the reference night, the household member was alive and died during your visit record his/her status according to the reference night, that is, as alive.
List persons according to the order given in column 1 of the questionnaire. Do not forget to include the names of domestic servants, visitors (persons who do not stay longer than six months with the household members), small children and babies who slept m the household on the reference night.
Include as present, also persons who should have slept at the household the reference night and did not sleep at any other household. Such people are policemen on night duty, night-watchmen, hospital, hotel, and prison staff working throughout the night and persons who spent the night at the wake (tebelong), or border post or accidentally slept on the way home not at any other household.
A person who is temporarily absent from the household, of which she/he is usually a member, should be included, e.g. staying as a visitor in another household, studying at and living in a boarding school or being a patient at the hospital.
Member elsewhere in Lesotho: Do not include persons who are living in Lesotho but have been away from the household for more than 6 months except those specified in section 66; i.e. those in all institutions but convents.
Migrant Workers outside Lesotho should be counted as temporarily absent, provided they have not been away from Lesotho longer than 3 years. (Do not include persons who have been away from Lesotho longer than 3 years)
On the other hand, members within Lesotho should be excluded, if they are living permanently elsewhere in the country. Otherwise, they should be included as absent household members.

72. Column 2. Relationship to head

The relationship of each member of the household to the head of the household must be shown in this column by using the codes listed. Spouse means husband or wife (MOHATSA).

73. Column 3. Sex

Use the codes given to indicate whether each member of the household is male or female
Code 1 if male Code 2 if female

74. Column 4. Age

Age in Completed Years: The question to be asked here is " Lilemo tsa hao Ii kae tseo o Iiqetileng?" (How old are you in completed years) e.g. if a person is aged 37 years and 11months, the exact age in completed years to be recorded is 37. Sometimes the person will not know hishe/her age, but will remember hishe/her birth year and you will have to work out hishe/her age in completed years. In the event that the person does not know hishe/her age, but remembers historical event associated with hishe/her birth, use the calendar of events. If the event is not included in the calendar, ask how old the person was at some recorded event. Note that the question on age is one of the most important ones on the questionnaire. If the above methods on ascertaining age prove to be fruitless, obtain an estimate of hishe/her age from relatives, the neighbors, and the village headman and then put a circle around it after recording it
Always try to get answers that are accurate or reasonable in the sense that they are consistent with the person's status in the family. For example, a 65-year-old grandmother is not expected to have a 1-year-old child, or an 18-year-old son be mothered by a 19 year old woman. Please note that children under the age of 1 should be entered as 00 in the column of age.

75. Column 5: Date of birth

Enter month and year of birth in the space provided; these should be consistent with the age given in column 4.
If both month and year are given: If the month of birth is before the census night (she/he has had her/his birthday this year), then her/his age should be equal the year of interview (2006). If the month of birth is after the census night (she/he has not had her/his birthday this year), then her/his age plus her/his year of birth should equal the previous year 2005. If the month of birth is the same as the month of interview, then a sum of either 2005 or 2006 is acceptable. If the sum is incorrect, then either the year of birth or the age (or both) are incorrect and need to be corrected. If the sum is off by exactly one year, then it is possible that the month of birth is incorrect and the other information is accurate. In such cases, the age and the month of birth all need to be reviewed to see where the error lies.
Example: If respondent tells you that she/he was born in January 1955, she/he is 51 years old, and you are interviewing him/her in April 2006 you would add 1955 to 51. If the information the respondent gave you is consistent, the sum should be 2006, since April comes after January. If another respondent tells you that she/he was born in December 1968 and she/he is 37 years old, the sum should equal 2005 since she/he will not become a full year older until December (April is before December).
If only year of birth is recorded: Add the year of birth to the respondent's age and accept a sum of either 2005 or 2006. For example, if she/he says she was born in 1970, but she/he does not know the month, she should be either 35 (since 1970+35=2005) or 36 (since 1970+36=2006). If the sum does not equal either 2005 or 2006, probe to find out whether the year of birth or age is incorrect.
How to correct inconsistent answers: If the age plus the year of birth do not add to 2005 or 2006 as appropriate, probe to get consistent information. For example, the sum equals 2004 and it should be 2005, then you need to add 1 to either the age or the year of birth after checking with the respondent to see which one is wrong. If the sum adds to 2007 and it should be 2005, you need to subtract 2 from either the age or the year of birth or else subtract 1 from both the age and the year of birth. It is important to understand that either the age or year of birth or both may be incorrect.

76. Column 6. Marital status

Please code according to list giving the present status; thus a person divorced and remarried is married.
A man who is married to one woman and a woman who has no co wives is monogamously married, irrespective of past status (Code 2).
A man who is married to more than one woman or a woman who has co wives (whose husband has more than one woman) is polygamously married (Code 3).

77. Column 7: Age at first marriage (for those who ever married)

Enter age in completed years. Ask only those who have ever married that is those coded 2, 3,5,6,7.

[pg 18]

8. Column 8: If ever married, is first or only spouse still alive?

Please code the response according to the list of codes given. Enter 8 if person was never married. Avoid code 9 'Don't know' if possible. Remember for a person who has been married only once he/she answers for this only spouse; for a person who has been married more than once, the answer is for his/her first spouse.

79. Column 9 and 10: Is natural mother/father still alive

Code l if natural mother/father is still alive. Code 2 if natural mother/father is dead. The question concerns the natural mother/father only, not social. Code 9 for DK

80. Column 11: What is (name's) current residential status?

Members of the household and visitors are present if they spent the reference night in the household. This includes members who ought to have slept in the household and were away on night duty such as nurses, night watchmen, or the like or were at a wake.
Absent members are those who did not spend the night in the household, these are usual members who were elsewhere in Lesotho, in the RSA or outside Lesotho and RSA.
For a member of the household please refer to paragraph 66.
Please code according to list.

81. Column 12. If absent outside Lesotho where is he/she now staying?

Please code according to the list; enter 88 for persons who are present or elsewhere in Lesotho. If place of residence is RSA, code 15. For Swaziland code 20 and for Europe code 80, and so on.

82. Column 13. Duration of stay outside Lesotho

Give here the duration of stay in completed years. Enter 00 for those who lived outside Lesotho for less than one year; 02 for those who lived outside Lesotho for 2 years and some months even if it is more than six months. Note here that duration to be entered starts from the time of last visit home.

83. Column 14. Citizenship

Please code 10 for Lesotho citizen. For citizens of other countries not listed in the questionnaire. i.e. code 65 or 85, state the name of country of citizenship in full. If dual-citizenship, give one citizenship. For countries listed enter codes according to list.


84. Column 15. Place of birth-where was (name) born?

Code 11 if the person was born in the village/town of enumeration.
Code 12 if born in a different village/town, but in the same district.
Code 01-10 if the person was born in another district.
Code 13 if person was born in RSA
Code 14 if person was born in another country other than RSA
Code 99 for Don't Know.

85. Column 16: Where was (name) living in April 1996?

Give here the place of residence in the last census. Code 11 if the person lived in the same village/town of enumeration.
Code 12 if the person lived in a different village/town, but in the same district.
Code 01 to 10 if the person lived in another district, 13 if the person lived in RSA and 14 if the person lived in other countries.
Code 99 for DK.

86. Column 17: For how long has (name) lived in this village?

Give here the duration of residence of each eligible household member in this village/town. Changing of houses within a vi11age/town should be regarded as no move at all. If a person left the household (village) for a period of six months or more and later returned to this household/village, give duration for the latest period of stay only. For present members of the household write duration of residence as obtained. For visitors inquire if they lived with the household for six months or less, then enter 00; if you do not consider them as members of the household.


Part C of the questionnaire for all persons (Disability)

87. Column 18: Is (name) disabled.

Ask for the main disability and code according to the list.

88. Column 19: For how long has (name) been disabled?

Code according to the list provided. Code 888 for not applicable and code 999 for DK.

89. Column 20: What was the cause of disability?

Code 1 for born disabled. Code 88 for no disability/not applicable.

Part D of the Questionnaire
For persons aged 2 years and over

90. Column 21: Full-time school attendance has (name) ever attended School?

Please code according to list. For all children under the age of 2 years enter code 8.
For those aged 2 years and over
Code 1 for persons who have never at any time attended received full-time education,
Code 2 for persons still attending and receiving full-time education at the time of the census (still attending). Code 3 for persons who have ever received a full-time education in the past and are no longer receiving it. (Left school)

91. Column 22: What is (name's) highest level of education completed?

Give highest qualification held, even if obtained through part-time education, using codes from the list provided. Make sure that code 88 is for persons who are less than two years of age.
Code 01 for persons who have passed standard 1; 02 for persons who have passed standard 2 etc.; 07 for those who have passed standard 7 or the old standard 6 (refer to conversion table in paragraph 93). For persons who have passed Form A, enter code 11; Form B, failed JC, code 12, Form C, failed Form D, code 13 and Form E or COSC/Matric code 15.
Code 20 for persons who have had any training in diploma/certificate after primary.
Code 22 Post JC for persons with post JC qualifications other than Form D or E, these include persons who have had vocational training after JC, nursing, LPTC, PhD, etc.
Code 24 for persons with post COSC qualifications, these include persons who have had vocational training after COSC, S.T.C, S.T.T.C, Certificate in Agriculture, Diploma in Agriculture, Diploma in Science, and Certificate in Statistics.
Note: that these qualifications are not equivalent to a University Degree. Codes for University Degrees are 26 and 27.

92. The following conversion table will help you write the appropriate standard for respondents who attended the former "elementary" school and the comparatively new school system and reached a particular grade.
[Table omitted.]


93. Column 23: Does (name) know how to read and write?

Provide each eligible member (i.e. those coded 01-07, 28, and 29 in column 22) with a literacy card and ask them to read out one of the given sentences; alternate the sentences as some members might memorize what some of the members read out even if they cannot read themselves.
Code 1 for those who read with ease, code 2 for those who read with difficulty, code 3 for those who could not read at all, code 4 for the blind, code 5 if someone does not know either Sesotho or English, code 8 for those not eligible in this column (not applicable) and code 9 for Don't Know (DK).
Part E of the questionnaire
For persons aged 10 years and over

94. Column 24: Employment Status during last week

Here ask for the work that occupies most time of each eligible member of the household and code according to list, enter 88 for persons too young to work. Own account worker refers to a self -employed person.
Code 32 casual workers for a laborer who gets a piece-job casually.
Code 40 unpaid family workers for all persons 10 years and over who worked without pay for three days or more in an establishment or farm operated by a member of their family.
This category of unpaid family worker includes the following:-
(i) Wives who during the reference period worked at their husband's store or farm or other economic enterprise. If these wives are paid they should not be classified as unpaid family workers or housewives.
(ii) Children aged 10 years and over, who during the reference period helped in the father's or family member's farm, shop or assisted them on other economic activities such as fruit/vegetable selling.
Remember to exclude as unpaid family workers, all persons aged 10 years and over who helped family members in their farm, shop or business, but were full-time students in educational institutions. The code is 80 for students.
Housewives are persons who are only engaged in household activities.
Homemakers are persons who are considered active; they do household activities as well as other income generating activities such as selling vegetables from the backyard gardens. Enumerators have to probe in order to find out these extra activities.
Job seekers coded 50 and 55 are persons who have been actively looking for a job and are still looking e.g. Making application or going from place to place asking. Code 50 are people who once worked but are currently out of a job and actively looking for a job. While, code 55 are people who never worked, but are currently looking for a job.
If two answers are possible in this column give status that claims most of his/her time.

95. Column 25: If job seeking, what was (name's) employment status in April 2005.

This question is applicable to persons who were coded 50 in column 24. For other persons code 88. The codes in column 24 and 25 are the same.

96. Column 26: If employed, (last week), who was your employer?

This question applies to those coded 10, 20, 31, 32, 40 and 60 in column 24.
Please code according to the list. Enter 88 for persons not in employment last week or are under the age of 10 years. Persons not in employment last week are in codes 50-90 exclude code 60.
Code 2 (Parastatal) for persons employed at:
1. Lesotho National Bank and its subsidiaries
2. Lesotho National Development Corporation
3. Telecom Lesotho
4. Lesotho Electricity Corporation
5. Lesotho Housing and Land Development
6. State Trading Corporation
7. Lesotho Freight Services
8. Lesotho Flour Mills
9. Maluti Mountain Brewery
11. Water and Sewage Authority
12. Lesotho Highlands Development Authority
13. Lesotho Pharmaceutical Corporation
Code 3 (Private) includes all persons who are self-employed.
Note: For persons who are employed in the Embassies and international organizations such as UNDP, WHO, UNICEF, FAO, ILO, IPPF, in Lesotho, or other countries, code 5 and specify

97. Column 27: Type of work done (last week)

State the occupation. If the person is job seeking for not longer than 5 years, give last type of work done. You have to avoid making entries of a generalized nature such as "civil servant'' or "businessman". Write the exact work that the person does, e.g. Medical doctor, stenographer, herbalist, teacher, etc. Peasants will be classified as farmers. For people with two occupations enter the one that claims most of his/her time.
A list of the most common occupation is annexed to this manual to help you take the proper classification.
Code 88 for not applicable

98. Column 28: Main product/service/activity of place where worked.

This refers to the main activity of the establishment or enterprise in which the individual works. If job seeking, state the last establishment or enterprise where employed. Give an exact description of the activity or service of firm e.g. a driver for beer brewery (in column 27 write driver, column 28 beer brewery); an accountant in a gold mine (column 27 accountants, column 28 gold mine); an owner of a cafe (column 27 shop owner. Column 28 retail shop); a domestic helper (column 27 domestic help, column 28 household); a waiter at a restaurant (column 27 waiter, column 28 restaurant); a driver for a transport company (column 27 driver, column 28 transport). Differentiation between Coal-Gold-Diamond mine or wholesale and retail trade must be clear. The main activity of a farmer is Agriculture that of a teacher is teaching or education. For persons unemployed but job seeking, enter the activity which they were last employed (not longer than five years ago). For persons who have not worked before, students, pupils and other persons without occupation enter code 88.

99. Column 29: Location of place of work

This column refers to the place of work of an individual. Code 11 when the individual works in the same village or town of enumeration, e.g. Code 11 if a person lives in Maseru West and works in Maseru West. Code 12 if an individual works in a different village or town but in the same district, e.g. code 12 for commuters from Maseru to Roma. Code according to the list for persons employed at different district from where they are enumerated. For example code 01 for Butha-Buthe, code 13 for RSA.

100. Column 30: Location of employment in urban areas

Code according to the list provided. Code 88 for those who work in the rural areas.


101. Column 31: Ever worked in RSA in the past 10 years (since 1996).

Code 1 if never worked in RSA, Code 2 if worked in the past 10 years, Code 3 if presently working in the RSA and code 88 if not applicable.

102. Column 32: If ever worked in RSA in the past 10 years, how long has she/he worked in RSA'?

Enter the number of completed years. Code 00 for less than one year, and enter 88 for those persons who never worked in the past 10 years RSA.

Part F of the questionnaire
For women aged 12 to 49 years (fertility)

103. Column 33: Number of pregnancies

Enter number of pregnancies in the space provided. Enter 00 for no pregnancies. We need the number of pregnancies that ever occurred, regardless of whether the pregnancy went up to nine months. If the answer is 00, skip to column 45.

104. Column 34: Have you ever given a live birth. If yes how many.

Enter the total number of live births the woman has ever home that is the total number of children ever born. The total given here should be consistent with the total number from column 39 to column 44. If the answer is no, enter 00 and skip to column 45.

105. Column 35: Have you given birth in the last 12 months?

Enter number of live births; enter 00 for no live births in the last 12 months i.e. from April 2005.

106. Column 36: When did you give your last live birth?

Enter month and year of the most recent live birth (include those who were born alive and later died).


107. Column 37: What was the sex of the last live birth?

State the sex of the most recent birth, include those who were born alive and later died

108. Column 38: Is the last child still alive.

Code 1 if the last-born is still alive and code 2 if the last-born is dead.

109. Column 39: How many sons live with you?

Enter number of sons who live in the household, enter 00 for no sons

110. Column 40: How many daughters live with you?

Enter number of daughters who live m the household, enter 00 for no daughters

111. Column 41: How many sons are alive, but do not live with you?

Please enter the number of sons who do not live in the household. Enter 00 for none.

112. Column 42: How many daughters are alive, but do not live with you?

Please enter the number of daughters who do not live in the household. Enter 00 for none.

113. Column 43: How many sons have died?

Enter number of dead sons; enter 00 for no dead sons.

114. Column 44: How many daughters have died?

Enter number of dead daughters; enter 00 for no dead daughters.


Part G of the questionnaire
For women aged 12 to 49 years (maternal mortality)

115. Column 45: How many sisters (of the same mother) do you have aged 15 years and over?

Enter the number of sisters in the space provided; enter 00 for no sisters and sisters less than the age of 15.

116. Column 46: How many sisters (of the same mother) died after reaching the age of 15?

Enter the number of dead sisters who died after reaching the age of 15 in the space provided; enter 00 for no sisters who died or sisters who died aged less than the age of 15.

117. Column 47: How many of these dead sisters died during pregnancy?

Enter number of dead sisters who died during pregnancy after reaching the age of 15; enter 00 for no sisters or sisters who died aged less than the age of 15.

118. Column 48: How many of the dead sisters died during childbirth?

Enter number of dead sisters who died during childbirth after reaching the age of 15; enter 00 for no sisters or sisters who died aged less than the age of 15.

119. Column 49: How many of these dead sisters died during six weeks after the end of pregnancy?

Enter number of dead sisters who died during six weeks after the end of pregnancy after reaching age 15; enter 00 for no sisters or sisters who died aged less than the age of 15.

Part H of the questionnaire
Housing Characteristics and Household Possessions (for the household head)


120. Column 50: What is the tenure of the house?

Please code according to the list provided.

121. Column 51a: Plot acquisition

Please code according to the list provided.

122. Column 51b: Government agency where plot was acquired.

Please code according to the list provided.

123. Column 52: Number of housing units.

Please record the number of housing units in the household. If the household has two rontaboles and one polata, then the number of housing units is 2 for rontabole and 1 for polata. Check annex 4 for definitions of different types of houses.

124. Column 53: Number of rooms.

Please record the number of rooms for each housing unit in the household. Do not include bathroom and toilet, include garages if they are used for living purposes, and exclude the garage if it keeps the car. If the household has more than one house, enter number of rooms for each building excluding the stables and rooms used for agricultural purposes.

125. Column 54: Main type of house

Ask for the main type of house and code according to list. Check annex 4 for definitions of different types of houses.

Annex 4 [pg. 59-60]
Types of Houses
1. Rontabole
A round building with a pitched thatched, tiled or corrugated iron roof and walls of local of local materials such as sandstone, rubble or mud brick and render. Floors are normally earth, but can also be cement. There is normally no ceiling.
2. Heisi
A rectangular building with a thatched roof and walls of sandstone, rubble, mud, sand, cement, brick and render. Internally the heisi is normally finished as for the rontabole and the number of rooms is usually three or less.
3. Polata
A rectangular building with a flat corrugated iron roof and walls of concrete blocks, sandstone, rubble, burnt or mud bricks. This type of dwelling may be rendered and decorated externally. The level of internal finish is highly variable from flooring of earth or concrete covered by linoleum or vinyl tiles and ceilings either not installed or of decorated rhino board. It usually has three rooms or less.
4. Malaene
Rectangular building normally of concrete blocks or local bricks with a flat corrugated iron roof, which normally comprises single rooms for rent to individual household. The standard of internal is highly variable. The definition of habitable rooms in the Malaene accepted that the norm is to combine living, cooking, eating and sleeping arrangements in a single room.
5. Optaka
A single storey house of a rectangular, L or T design with a double-pitched roof of corrugated iron of corrugated iron sheets or thatch. Walls are normally of sandstone, rubble, brick or concrete blocks. Internal finishes are highly variable. The Optaka is considered to have five or less habitable rooms.
6. Bungalow
A single or multiple story house of variable designed with either flat or double-pitched roof of corrugated iron sheets, tiles, or thatch. Walls may be of sandstone, first grade brick or rendered and decorated concrete block. The level of internal finishes normally includes cement flooring and rhino board ceiling.
7. Apartment own house
A single or multi-story complex of self-contained dwelling units built of modem construction materials such as concrete block or first-grade brick with flat or double­ pitched roof of corrugated iron sheets or tiles. These housing units are normally rented out. The factor which distinguishes the apartment/town house units from malaene is the number of habitable rooms and the level of services.
8. Temporary structure/Mok'huk'hu
Informal housing structure commonly built by old and disused roofing materials. They don't normally have defined space and are characterized by inhabitable living conditions.

126. Column 55: Main material of construction of walls of the main type of house.

Please code according to the list.

127. Column 56: Main material of floor of the main type of house.

Please code according to the list.


128. Column 57: Main material of construction of roof of the main type of house.

Please code according to the list.

129. Column 58-60: Relate to main types of fuel used by the household for cooking, heating, and lighting.

Use the codes provided in each question.

130. Column 61: Main toilet facility.

Please code according to the list.

131. Column 62: What is the source of drinking water for the household?

Column 62 relates to source of drinking water for the household. Code according to the response and the given list.

132. Column 63: How long does it take to get water?

Please record the minutes the household takes to get to the source of drinking water, get water and come back (walking).

133. Column 64: Possession of certain assets in the household

State whether the household possesses a working radio, television, telephone, cell, fridge, bed/mattress, car, scotch cart, internet and computer, or not. A household possesses a 'working' radio, television, telephone, cell, fridge, bed/mattress, car, scotch cart, internet, computer, if at least one member possesses one of the mentioned items and are items present in the household. A radio, television, telephone, cell, fridge, bed/mattress, car, scotch cart, internet, computer are considered to be 'working' if they were 'working' in the past month.

134. Column 65: Number and type of certain agricultural assets.

Please record the number of fields, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, pigs, improved poultry, unimproved poultry, mules and rabbits owned by one of the household members and are present in the household. Use the codes provided.

135. Column 66: How does this household dispose of its refuse/rubbish?

State where the household disposes of its refuse or rubbish. Code according to the response and the list given.

Part I of the questionnaire
Deaths of the Household Members during the Past 12 Months, Since April 2005

136. State the name, sex, age, and cause of death of all the members of the household that died in the past 12 months, that is since April 2005

How to achieve complete coverage
Systematic coverage of the Enumeration Area
137. On entering the village, introduce yourself to the village headman or his representative and request his assistance as you move in the village.
138. Get to know your area as thoroughly as possible before you start work. Plan your work so that you visit each household. Work in an orderly way in order to save yourself much walking and a great deal of trouble. Tell your supervisor where you will start and which path you will follow so that he/she can find you.

Enumeration and Control Form

Make sure that at the end of each village enumerated, and before you move on to the next village, you have completed the control form. Also that at the end of the EA enumeration, the total number of villages and households on the control form, tally with the number in the EA list.

What happens if there is no one at home? (Call -Backs)

It may happen when you visit an inhabited house that you are unable to obtain any information. This can occur because there is no one at home, or because all the adults are away at the time, or for some other reason.
If there are people present enquire as to the best time to call. If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the reference night. If there was ask when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly.
If you are working in the urban area, complete a call back card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it at the house so that the people may know when you will be returning. If you are in the rural area, leave word about the time of your next visit.
If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the address and tell your supervisor when you meet.
It may be that for some reason your call is at an inconvenient time for members of the household. Do not allow yourself to be put off, but arrange to return at a more suitable time.
Callbacks will involve you in much extra work, be wise and send word ahead of you so that people know when to expect you. If you have to make callbacks, clear them early. If you made an appointment to return, keep it and be punctual

What to do After Enumeration
You have completed the questionnaire. Now check:

That there is no one you have omitted, that you should have included
That no column has been left blank, that should have been completed
That your entries can be read easily
That your entries correspond item by item and that you have not written anything, which cannot be correct.
Check your work systematically:

First, make sure that the information identifying the household, in Part A has been entered.
Next, look at the household in terms of the relationship and ages of the people. Make sure that the children are not shown as older than their parents that men are not shown as having born children, that babies and young children are not shown as having university education or are working, etc.
Then look at the questions you have completed for women and girls aged 12 years and over. Check the ages of all females and make sure that if the woman has no children in a particular category you have written '00' in the appropriate column.
If you find that things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct your record. It must be completed and accurate in all respects before you leave the household.
Finally, make sure that all callbacks have been made and check the control form before you leave the village.
Make sure that you fill in the rest of the information on the top cover of the questionnaire.
When you have completed your work for the whole EA, return all documents to the supervisor for checking.

[Codebook and Annex omitted.]