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Lesotho 1996
Population Census
Instructions to Enumerators

[pg.119]
[Omitted table of contents.]

[pg.120]

Part 1 Introduction

What is a Population Census?
1. A population census is a complete count of the country's population which is combined with collecting certain other facts about the people.

History
2. Population censuses are by no means something new or modern. You may recall that a population census took place about 2000 years ago, when Christ was born.

3. Lesotho has had a long history of census taking, dating as far back as 1875. The last three censuses of 1966, 1976 and 1986 were conducted by Lesotho Government, Bureau of Statistics. The census undertaking is now due in April 1996.

Objectives and uses
4. To review, facilitate and update periodic planning and evaluation of population activities, population censuses need to be carried out every ten years as recommended by the United Nations (UN) to member countries.

5. Lesotho policy-makers and development planners need to know the number of Basotho, young children, adults of working age and old people in order to formulate sound development plans and make effective administrative decisions. They need the information in the preparation of realistic plans for the provision of adequate health facilities, schools, jobs, food etc. Let us take a school as an example. To build the necessary number of schools and provide an adequate number of teachers it is necessary to know the number of children of school going age.

6. All these data will not only be needed at the national level, but also for small areas such as villages and towns.

Legal basis
7. The Statistics Act, 1965 authorizes the Bureau of Statistics to collect information in relation to population and housing as directed by the Minister. According to the act, every person shall to the best of his knowledge and belief answer, when so required, all questions asked. The Statistics Act therefore provides the legal authority for the 1996 Population Census of Lesotho. The act also provides penalties in the form of a fine or imprisonment if either yourself or members of the public fail in their duties.

Confidentiality
8. All information obtained from persons and households will be in strict confidence as required by law (the Statistics Act, 1965). All information will be used and made available to other persons in aggregate form only. No individual information (or questionnaire) will be released to anyone except to the personnel of the Bureau of Statistics for the compilation of the required statistics.

9. You are not permitted to discuss information obtained, gossip about it or to show your records to anyone who is not an authorized officer in the census organization. Make all entries of the questionnaire yourself. Do not leave your questionnaire lying around where an unauthorized person may have access to it.

The census organization
10. Lesotho is divided into 10 districts 65 constituencies and enumeration areas within constituencies.

11. The Director of the Bureau of Statistics is responsible to the Lesotho government for the overall census undertaking and the census organization structure is as shown below:-

[pg. 121]

The census organization structure

Census Director
Head Quarters Support Staff District Supervisors Constituency Supervisors
Constituency Assistant Supervisors
Enumerators

12. To help you carry out your work successfully, you will be aided by Constituency Assistant Supervisor. The supervisor has been posted in the field to help you with your difficulties and will guide you to your enumeration area. He will check on the accuracy and completeness of your work.

Role of an enumerator
13. The success of the population census depends mainly on good enumeration. Bad enumeration may only mean that a lot of resources would have been spend on worthless information which can only lead to wrong decisions being made by the government.

14. Your job is to enumerate every person in your enumeration area. It is to ask questions, to record the answers that are required. It is the most important single job in the census. You must make an effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them correctly. Do not think that a few persons not counted will be of no importance. If each enumerator does think the same the few omitted by all the enumerators individually could sum up to a considerable number.

Interviewing techniques
Initially, when approaching a household for interview, gain the confidence of the respondent to secure his/her willingness to answer your questions. The first impression and the first things you do or say are of vital importance in gaining the co-operation and confidence of the respondent. Start by introducing yourself, stating your name (if you are not known to the respondent), that you are an employee of the Bureau of Statistics and what your visit is all about.

The following example may be followed:
"Good morning. I am (your name) working for the Bureau of Statistics. My visit today is part of the nation-wide population census."

17. As far as possible the questions on individuals should be answered by the person concerned, that is himself/herself. Emphasize the confidentiality of the data being sought and explain that no individual's names will be used and that information pooled will be made public only in the form of statistical aggregates.

18. It is important that you remain absolutely neutral as you administer the questionnaire. Do not lead respondents to certain answers; do not show surprise, approval or even disapproval of the responses by your tone of voice or facial expression.

19. During the interview let the respondents take their time never put answers in their mouths. It may sometimes happen that the respondent's answer to a question be incomplete or irrelevant, or that he/she has not been able to understand the question. If that happens you will need to obtain complete or relevant answers by asking some additional questions. This is called probing. It may take the form of repeating or explaining the question. But again make sure that you do not suggest answers to the respondent.

20. When leaving the household and/or village remember to thank the people for their cooperation.

Refusals and difficult cases
21. If you come across someone who refuses to answer questions, continue to be courteous, and point out the importance of the census for national development. Inform him/her that the operation is not being undertaken in connection with political activities such as elections or for tax collection purposes and that [pg. 122] information about individual persons will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Should the person still be uncooperative, report the matter to the village headman first and, if still necessary, to your supervisor.

22. Inform the respondents that the individual names listed on the questionnaire are purely to make sure that everybody is listed and the information relates to that particular person and that it helps to ensure complete coverage and good quality information, and that it will never appear anywhere again in an individual form.

23. Should it also happen that an entire village refuses to cooperate, you must report this to the headman and your supervisor at the earliest opportunity, either on his next visit to you or when you have completed the enumeration of the other villages in the E.A.

Equipment
24. When you have completed your training successfully you will be issued a bag containing the following:-

(a) Books of Census Questionnaires
(b) E.A. Boundary Description
(c) Village List
(d) Instructions to Enumerators
(e) Calendar of Events
(f) Pens
(g) Letters of Introduction
(h) Green and White Stickers
(i) Enumerators Record of Visits

Careful handling of materials and their accountability.
25. When you receive your field material you have to check the equipment and make sure that it is complete before you sign for it. You are solely responsible for your equipment until you have completed your assignment and handed over everything to your supervisor who will in turn issue you with a receipt.

26. You should handle the census documents and other materials carefully. You should never destroy any document. At the completion of your work all census documents including unused or canceled questionnaires should be returned to your supervisor.

Conditions of service
27. Because of the importance of the census and the complexity of the questionnaire willing Primary School Teachers and any other temporary applicants with COSC and above will be engaged in enumeration.

28. Employment will only be offered to those who will satisfy the standards set at the training course in both theoretical as well as practical work.

29. You will be trained for a period of two weeks during which you will be given a training allowance at the rate of 20 Maluti a day. The following week will be a census week. You will be given an honorarium of 300 Maloti for the completed work.

30. During the field work, you will be expected to work every day including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. You will also be working irregular hours starting your interviews very early in the morning. Remember it is you who has to find the household members at their homes at those times which are convenient to them. They have no obligation to await your arrival.

31. Transport to your area of work, if reasonably far, will in all cases be provided by the Statistics Office. In the mountain areas, your supervisor will authorize you to hire horses to take you to your areas whenever this should be necessary. However, as soon as you reach your area of work, you will have to travel on foot from village to village.

32. On reaching your areas of work, you have to seek and find your own accommodation in one of the villages, preferably one which is centrally situated within the area. In this connection you will find most village headmen very helpful.

33. You have to provide your own food and clothing.

[pg. 123]

Part II Activities before enumeration

Training
34. You have been recruited as enumerators in the 1996 population census. Before you actually go out to the field you will have to undergo intensive two week training.

35. The training will include reading of the - manual paragraph by paragraph, giving examples, discussions, tests and practical.

36. Employment will be offered to those who satisfy the standards set at the training course in both theoretical as well as practical work.

The enumeration area
37. You will be allocated an enumeration area (EA) and you are required to visit every dwelling unit in the area and complete the questionnaire in respect of all persons in each unit.

38. An EA in the rural areas has a well-defined boundary and may be a village or a group of villages with around 100-150 households. In the urban areas, an EA will comprise well defined block of dwelling units.

39. You will be provided with an EA boundary description and a list of villages within your EA. Your supervisor will accompany you to your EA and show you its boundaries. Make sure that you are familiar with your EA and its boundaries before you record particulars of the households.

40. You are expected to complete your work within a week. This will be possible if you work conscientiously every day of the week of enumeration. You should however not stop work in the area until all households have been covered. If you realize that you may not be able to complete the work within one week you should inform your supervisor as soon as such eminent delay is apparent.

41. All EA's have been assigned a numerical code with 4 digits. The first two are the constituency number and the last two are the EA number.

42. This number code is very important for identifying the location of any cluster of villages; it is the principal guide for the office in directing all enumerators to their respective areas of work.

43. On reaching their EA's, there is a possibility that enumerators may find that in a few cases names of villages have been misspelt or village names misplaced. It is therefore very important that, on reaching their respective areas, all enumerators should ascertain that the villages listed for each EA are actually located in the area. Check with the village headman and make the necessary corrections.

44. Should it happen that a listed village, is not known in the neighborhood, or existing village has not been listed, the enumerator must report this to his/her supervisor during the first visit. If the enumerator is unable to report earlier s/he should continue with enumeration of this unlisted existing village but report afterwards.

Identification of institutions and location of outdoor sleepers
45. After checking your EA and its boundaries and verifying the list of villages, prisons, barracks etc. in your area, update your map accordingly. Ask the village chief of any possible outdoor sleepers (i.e. homeless persons who are likely to be omitted in households).

Preparation of itinerary
46. Once you are familiar with your EA and its boundaries prepare an itinerary, starting with the institutions and then villages' in an orderly fashion.

47. You should use whatever means at your disposal to advise and warn villagers about the approximate time you should expect to enumerate their villages. This will greatly facilitate your work in a large number of cases.

Part III Enumeration documents

The household questionnaire
48. All the information required during the census is to be recorded on the questionnaire which will be issued to you in pads of 40 questionnaire forms. Each schedule is numbered at the bottom right hand corner. No page should be pulled out or destroyed. If the recording is erroneous or untidy you have to cancel the page and start on a fresh questionnaire. You will have to account for all pages of each booklet.

The institution questionnaire
49. You will be supplied with institution questionnaire booklet with ten questionnaires each. The institution questionnaire is much simpler and excludes most parts of the household questionnaire. Warn the institution supervisor about your visit the day preceding the census night or the reference night. The census night is the midnight of Sunday 14th of April 1996.

The cattle post questionnaire
50. You will also be supplied with one or two loose sheets of cattle post questionnaire. This questionnaire like the institution questionnaire is also simple. You will find mainly the herd boys at the cattle posts but you are expected to enumerate everybody who slept at the cattle post the day proceeding the census night.

Enumerators record of Visits (Enumerators control form)
51. At the end of village enumeration, before you move to the next village complete the control form (the summary on the top cover of the questionnaire).

52. Write the District, EA number, Village name, relevant page numbers for that village, whether the village is completely enumerated or not and if the village was not completely enumerated give reasons.

53. If the village is continued in another book write the words" continued in book No. ....." Delivery and Retrieval Forms

54. for all material supplied, the enumerator has to acknowledge the receipt with signature. Similarly, when he/she returns the material after completing the assignment the enumerator has to make sure that the receipt is acknowledged with a signature by the supervisor.

Part IV How to complete questionnaire
55. Fill in the questionnaire yourself. Remember that the information is strictly confidential and that it must not be left lying about or given to anyone other than a census officer.

56. List the names of the household members in the following order:

i. Head of the household regardless of whether he slept in the household on the census night or not.
ii. Usual members of the household who slept in the household during the reference night.
iii. Visitors who slept in the household during the reference night.
iv. Usual members of the household who did not sleep in the household during the reference night and were absent elsewhere in Lesotho.
v. Usual members who are absent in the Republic of South Africa.
vi. Usual members who are absent, not in Lesotho and not in the Republic of South Africa.

57. Make sure that you list all members in column 1 and you simultaneously fill in column 2 before seeking information for succeeding columns.

58. Fill in the particulars of each person row by row until you get to the end.

59. Remember to use a fresh questionnaire form for each household you interview.

60. In the rare event that a household has more than 10 members you should continue on the next form. Fill in all household particulars in part A of the second questionnaire and change the serial numbering on this form so that the first person on the second form will be number 11.

61. Use the blue ball-point pen provided. Do not use felt pen or pencil.

62. Write legibly and keep the questionnaire clean.

63. If you make a mistake do not try to rub it off, cross it out neatly and write the correction legibly. If there is no room to make the correction, cross out the whole row neatly and write along it "mistake" and use the next row.

Part V Who to enumerate

Categories of population and definitions

1. The household (private)
64. A household is one person or a group of persons who live together and have common catering arrangements, whether or not they are related by blood or marriage.

65. The household is the most convenient small group of persons for the purpose of census count and you will enumerate the population by household.

66. If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate living and eating arrangements, treat them as separate households.

67. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included in the household. However, if the servant cooks and eats separately s/he should be enumerated as living in a separate household.

68. In the same way, a visitor and any of his/her children who eat with the household are counted as members of the household. Visitors are persons who do not stay or intend to stay longer than 6 months with the household members.

Visitors - Persons found in the household who slept there on the census night whose purpose of stay is visit. The census cut-off duration of visit is six months. If a person says s/he is a visitor but is with the household for more than six months s/he should be included among present members.

Examples of visitor
A married child, his wife and children who usually live with own family elsewhere but are found at parents' house at the time of census should be treated as visitors
An unmarried child who works elsewhere and usually lives in his/her own household should also be treated as a visitor in his/her parent's house if found there during the census.

If this unmarried person lives alone but at the night of census he was visiting his parents or friends. In his residence there will be a call-back and when he is found he will be considered as having been elsewhere in Lesotho.
Students living with a household of which they are not usual members for the purpose of schooling should be treated by that household where they were found as visitors.

69. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building, part of a building or many buildings.

70. You should enumerate all usual members of the household and those visitors who spent the census night with the household.

71. Persons to be enumerated in private households will therefore be the following:

(i) The household head irrespective of residential status
(ii) Usual members of the household who spent the reference night in the dwelling unit.
(iii) Visitors who spent the reference night with the household and lived with the household for less than six months.
(iv) Usual members of the household who were elsewhere in Lesotho for less than six months. Absent members who were in institutions such as boarding schools, prisons and hospitals should be included. Members in institutions such as the convents and barracks should be excluded irrespective of duration of residence.
(v) Usual members of the household who were in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) during the reference night and have been away (since their last visit) from the household for a period not exceeding five years e.g. migrant workers.
(vi) Usual members of the household who were not in Lesotho nor in the Republic of South Africa during the reference night and have been away since their last visit for a period of less than 5 years.

2. Institutions
73. Enumerate all persons in hospitals, colleges, barracks or prisons who spent the reference night in these institutions. But remember that those working in these institutions, but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their households and not with the institutions.

74. Identify all institutions in your EA and treat them as instructed in the following paragraph.

How to fill in the institution questionnaire
75. Fill in the particulars of the institution in the identification part of the special form for the institutions. Instructions are the same as for the corresponding parts in the main census questionnaire. Then list all the inmates of the institution in column 1 of the special form and give sex, age, citizenship, educational attainment and employment status where applicable for each inmate. Instructions are the same as those for the corresponding column in part B in the main questionnaire.

76. If you have Mophato (Initiation School) in your area, make sure that you arrange with Mosuoe (Headmaster) to enumerate all persons who slept at that Mophato during the reference night. (Do not try to get to the Mophatoas this may not be safe in most cases).

Cattle posts
77. Cattle post (Metebo) unlike institutions are places where herd boys stay to look after animals. You may find such a place in your area.

78. Enumerate all persons who slept in the cattle post on the census night. Identify all cattle posts in your area and treat them as instructed in the following paragraph.

How to fill the cattle post questionnaire
79. Fill in the particulars of the cattle post in the identification part of the special form for the cattle post. Instructions are the same as for the corresponding parts in the main census questionnaire. Write the name of the cattle post in column 1. Then list all the persons who slept at the cattle post in column 2 of the special form and give sex, age, highest standard passed, employment status and type of work done where applicable for each person. Instructions are the same as those for the corresponding column in part B in the main questionnaire.

Points to remember
80. Remember to enumerate yourself once only with the household with which you spend the first night as an enumerator.

81. Remember your reference census night is fixed to the night of Sunday 14 April 1996 even if you have to make a call back or even several of them.

82. If, during the course of your counting, you find someone in the household who claims to have already been counted in another village, you must count him/her again with the household if he/she spent the reference night in this household. If he/she refuses to answer your questions on the grounds that he/she has already been counted obtain all the information you can get about him/her from the head of the household. Write all the identification particulars of the household in which the person was first enumerated (including the name of that head of household in full), at the back of the questionnaire.

Period of enumeration
83. The census enumeration is scheduled to be a period of one week starting from midnight of the 14 April, 1996 to midnight of 20 April, 1996. It is possible to finish within that period. However if you fail to finish within the specified period continue to enumerate until work is completed. Note reasons why you were unable to finish on time.

Who to interview
84. You must interview as many respondents in the household as may be necessary to enable you to obtain accurate information of all persons who were in the household on the Census Night. It is not likely that you will see all members of the household nor is it absolutely necessary that you should. It will be best if the head of the household is present for interview, if not, one responsible adult can give the information required.

Part VI: The questionnaire schedule
85. Remember that you win have to pay particular attention to understanding and mastering thoroughly this part of the instructions if you are to be offered appointment as enumerators

86. The questionnaire schedule consists of seven parts: A, B, C, D, E, F and G.

1. Part A of the questionnaire
87. Part A is for purposes of identifying households, as well as checking purposes both in the field and in the office.

Geographic identification particulars
88. District: Record here the code of the district under which the village is administered. You will get this information from your supervisor.

89. Zone: Record here the code of the zone under which the village falls which could be lowland, foothills, Senqu River Valley or mountain. The village list provided will have this information.

90. Ward: Record here the code of the ward under which the village falls. You will get this information from your supervisor.

91. EA number: Record in the appropriate space the Enumeration Area to which you will be assigned by the office. The village lists provided will also have this information.

92. Village/institution/cattle post: If you are enumerating a village you will write the name of the village in the space provided. If it is a cattle post, fill in the cattle post questionnaire. Use an institution [pg. 128] questionnaire for the institution. If a private household or households fall in the premises of an institution, use the household questionnaire and record the name of the village where the institution is located.

93. Record all the names by which the village is known, beginning with the one which appears more permanent than the others, e.g. .if a village is called after the name of its present headman, such a name is not very permanent because it may die with that headman. So try to find out if there are no other names of a more permanent nature.

94. Be careful about villages which share a common area name. An example of this phenomenon will be found in villages which surround Oeme Plateau. Such villages should be clearly distinguished from one another by local names. e.g. Oeme, Ha 'Mantsebo, Oeme, Ha Mpo, Oeme Ha Ramorakane etc. If it is a town, write the name of the township e.g. Ha Hoohlo in Maseru, Lisemeng in Hlotse and Mampoboleng in Moyei'i.

95. Urban/Rural: Record here whether the area is urban or rural. This will be made known to you by your supervisor. If it is urban delete rural and write code 1, if it is rural delete urban and write code 2 in the appropriate box.

Household identification particulars
96. Household number: Assign a number to every household you enumerate in a village, and record this number in the space provided.

97. The procedure for assigning the household a number will be as follows: Assign the number 001 to the first household you enumerate, 002 to the second household, 003 to the third household; ...047 to the forty seventh, and so on until you reach the last household in the village. Begin from 001 again when starting a new village, and once again number the household in sequence until you reach the last household in the village.

98. Household head: Record the names of the head of the household (first name and surname) as given by the head or a responsible member of the household. In the absence of the entire household, the neighbors or the headman will supply this information. The head of the household (hlooho ea lelapa) is generally the person who is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the household. He or she is not necessarily the oldest person in the household. However, your main guide as to who is the head is whoever will be pointed to you as the head when you ask.

Names of principal/ward chief,
Area chief
Village chief/headman:

99. Record here, in sequence the name of the principal or ward chief: that of the area chief, and finally that of the village chief or headman directly responsible for administering the village.

100. In some cases it will happen that the principal or ward chief is simultaneously an area chief (that is, chief of a number of villages). In such a case, his name will show in two cases. I.e. as area chief, and principal or ward chief. If people in the village don't know the names of the principal and/or ward chief of their area, the village headman will help you.

2. Part B of questionnaire
(Questionnaire concerning the individual members of the household) the questions are marked by numbers to be read from left to right.

The first two columns must be completed before entries are made anywhere else in the questionnaire.

101. Column 1: Name
Name commonly known by; beginning with the name of the head of the household, enter in this column the names of all the household members and visitors. If there is a baby who has not been given the name yet, record 'baby'. If on the census night, a household member was alive and died during your visit record his/her status according to the census night, that is, as alive.

102. List persons according to the order given in Paragraph 56 or in column 2 of the questionnaire. Do not forget to include the names of domestic servants, visitors (persons who do not stay longer than 6 months with the household members), small children and babies who slept in the household on the census night.

103. Include as present also persons who should have slept at the household the census night and did not sleep at any other household. Such people are policemen on night duty, night­watchmen, hospital, hotel and prison staff working throughout the night and persons who spent the night at the wake (tebelong), or border post or accidentally slept on the way home not at any other household.

104. A person who is temporarily absent from the household, of which s/he is usually a member, should be included, e.g. staying as a visitor in another household, studying at and living in a boarding school or being a patient at the hospital.
Member elsewhere in Lesotho: Do not include persons who are living in Lesotho but have been away from the household for more than 6 months except those specified in Paragraph 71; ie those in all the institutions but the barracks and convents.

105. Migrant workers outside Lesotho should be counted as temporarily absent, provided they have not been away from Lesotho longer than 5 years. (Do not include persons who have been away from Lesotho longer than 5 years).

106. On the other hand, members within Lesotho should be excluded, if they are living permanently elsewhere in the country. Otherwise, they should be included as absent household members.

107. Column 2: Present or absent
Members of the household and visitors are present if they spent the census night in the household. This includes members who ought to have slept in the household and were away on night duty such as nurses, night watchmen etc. or at a wake.
Absent members are those who did not spent the night in the household. These are usual members who were elsewhere in Lesotho, in the RSA or outside Lesotho and RSA.
For a member of the household please refer to paragraph 70.
Please code according to list.

108. Column 3: If absent outside Lesotho where are they now staying
Please code according to list, enter NA for persons who are present or are elsewhere in Lesotho. If place of residence is RSA code 15. For Swaziland code 20 and for Europe 75 etc.

109 Column 4: Duration of stay outside Lesotho.
Give here duration of stay in completed years. Enter 0 for those who lived outside Lesotho for less than one year; 4 for those who lived outside Lesotho for 4 years and some months even if it is more than six months. Note here that duration to be entered starts from the time of last visit home.

110. Column 5: Relationship to head
The relationship of each member of the household to the head of the household must be shown in this column by using the codes listed. Spouse means husband or wife.

111. Column 6 Sex
Use the codes given to indicate whether each member of the household is male or female
Code 1 if male Code 2 if female

112. Column 7: Age
Age in completed years: The question to be asked here is "Lilemo Ii kae tseo u Ii qetileng?" (how old are you in completed years?)
e.g. if a person is aged 37 years and 11 months, the exact age in completed years to be recorded is 37. Sometimes the person will not directly remember his age, but will remember his birth year and you will have to work out his age in completed years. In the event that the person does not know his age but remembers historical event associated with his birth, use the calendar of events. If the event is not included in the calendar asks how old the person was at some recorded event. Note that the question on age is one of the most important ones on the questionnaire. If the above methods on ascertaining age prove to be fruitless, obtain an estimate of his/her age from the village headman and the neighbors, and then put a circle around it after recording it in column 5 e.g. (74). (This will be the only instances where ages are surrounded with circles).

113. Always try to get answers that are accurate or reasonable in the sense that they are consistent with the person's status in the family. For example, a 65 year old grandmother is not expected to have a 1 year old child, or an 18 year old son be mothered by a 19 year old woman. Please note that children under the age of 1 should be entered as '00' in the column of age.

114. These five columns must be completed before entries are made anywhere in the questionnaire.

115. Column 8: Marital status
Please code according to list giving the present status; thus a person divorced and remarried is married.
A man who is married to one woman and a woman who has no cowives is monogamously married, irrespective of past status (Code 2). A man who is married to more than one woman or a woman who has cowives (whose husband is married to more than one woman) is polygamously married (Code 3).

116. Column 9: If ever married is first or only spouse still alive?
Please code the response according to the list of codes given. Enter NA if person was never married. Avoid code 9 'Do not know' if possible. Remember for a person who has been married only once in life, he/she answers for this only spouse; for a person who has been married more than once, the answer is for his/her first spouse.

117. Column 10: Citizenship
Please code 10 for a Lesotho citizen. For citizens of other countries not listed in the questionnaire state name of country of citizenship in full (no codes). If dual citizenship, give one citizenship. For the countries listed enter codes according to list.

118. Column 11: Place of birth - Where was (name) born?
Code 11 if the person was born in the village/town of enumeration. Code 12 if born in a different village/town but in the same district. Code 01 to 10 if the person was born in another district.
Code 13 if the person was born outside Lesotho and Code 99 for don't know.
(Caution: as the district of Thaba-Tseka was established recently, make sure that those places now within the boundaries of Thaba-Tseka are listed under this district not in their former districts).

119. Column 12: Where was (name) living in April 1986? Give here the place of residence in the last census.
Code 11 if the person lived in the same village/town of enumeration.
Code 12 if the person lived in a different village/town but in the same district.
Code 01 to 10 if the person lived in another district and 13 if the person lived outside Lesotho and 99 for Don't Know.

120. Column 13: If (name) has moved, for how long has s/he lived here?
Give here the duration of residence in this village/town. Changing of houses within a village/town should be regarded as no move at all. If a person left the household (village) for a period of six months or more and later returned to this household/village give duration as only the latest period of stay. For present members of the household write duration of residence as obtained. For visitors inquire if they lived with the household for six months or less, then enter 00; if not consider them as members of the household.

121. Column 14, 15: Is natural mother/father still alive.
Code 1 if natural mother/father is still alive. Code 2 if natural mother/father is dead. The question concerns the natural mother/father only not social. Code 9 for unknown.

3. Part C of the questionnaire
122. Column 16: Full-time School Attendance.
Please code according to list.
For all children under the age of 5 years enter NA. For those aged 5 years and over
Never attended school - code 1 for persons who have never at any time received full-time education, or children in day care centers and nursery schools.
Still attending - code 2 for persons still receiving full- time education at the time of the census.
Left school - Code 3 for persons who received full-time education in the past and are no longer receiving it.

123. Column 17: If ever attended school give highest standard passed.
Give highest qualification held, even if obtained through part-time education, using the code from the list provided. Make sure that Code NA is for persons who either never attended school, or are too young, or are attending/attended school but have not passed standard 1, or are attending school but are under the age of 5 years even if they have passed standard 1.

Code 01 for persons who have passed standard 1; 02 for persons who have passed standard 2 etc.;
Code 07 for those who passed old standard 6 and latest standard 7 (refer to conversion table in paragraph 124).

For persons who have passed Form A, enter code 11; Form B, failed JC, code 12, Form C, failed form D, code 13; Form D, failed Form E code 14 and Form E or COSC/Matric code 15.

Code 20 for persons who have had any training including vocational training after standard 7.

Code 21 Post JC for persons with post JC qualifications other than Form D or E, these include persons who have had vocational training after J.C, nursing, LPTC, PH etc.

Code 22 for persons with post COSC qualifications, these include persons who have had vocational training after COSC, S.T.C, S.T.T.C., Certificate in Agriculture, Diploma in Agriculture, Diploma in Science and Certificate in Statistics.

Note that these qualifications are not equivalent to a University Degree. Code for university degree is 23.

124. The following conversion table will help you to write the appropriate standard for respondents who attended the former "elementary" school and the comparatively new school system and reached a particular grade.

[Chart omitted.]

4. Part D of the questionnaire

125. Column 18: Employment status during last week.
Please code according to list, enter NA for persons too young to work. Own account worker refers to a self-employed person

Code 32: Casual worker for a laborer who gets a piece-job casually.

Code 40: Unpaid family workers for all persons 10 years and over who worked without pay for three days or more in an establishment or farm operated by a member of their family.
This category of unpaid family workers includes the following:

(i) Wives who during the reference period worked at their husband's store or farm or other economic enterprise. If these wives are paid they should not be classified as unpaid family workers or homemakers.
(ii) Children aged 10 years and over who during the reference period helped in the father's or family members' farm or shop or assisted them on other economic activities such as fruit/vegetable selling.

126. Remember to exclude as unpaid family workers, all persons aged 10 years and over who helped family members in their farm, shop or business but were full-time students in educational institutions. The code is 80 for students. Job seekers coded 50 and 55 are persons who have been actively looking for a job and are still looking e.g. Making application or going from place to place asking.
If two answers are possible in this column give the status that claims most of his/her time.

127. Column 19: If job seeking what was your employment status in April 1995 (one year ago). This question is only applicable to persons who answered code 50. For all other persons enter NA.
The codes in column 19 are the same as in column 18.

128. Column 20: If employed, (last week) in column 18, who was your employer. This question applies to those who gave codes 10, 20, 31, 32 and 40.
Please code according to list. Enter NA for persons not in employment last week or are under the age of 10 years. Persons not in employment last week are in codes 50 to 90.
Code 2 (Parastatal) for persons employed at:

1. Lesotho National Bank and its Subsidiaries.
2. Agricultural Bank.
3. Lesotho National Development Corporation.
4. Lesotho Airways Corporation.
5. Lesotho Telecommunications Corporation.
6. Lesotho Electricity Corporation.
7. Lesotho National Tourist Organization.
8. Basotho Enterprise Development Corporation.
9. Lesotho Housing Corporation.
10. State Trading Corporation.
11. Lesotho Freight Services.
12. Lesotho National Bus Service.
13. Lesotho Flour Mills.
14. National Abattoir and Feedlot Complex
15. Maluti Mountain Brewery.
16. Water and Sewage Authority
17. Lesotho Highlands Development Authority
18. Lesotho Drug Association

Code 3 (Private) includes also all persons who are self-employed.
For persons who are employed in the Embassies and international organizations such as UNDP, WHO, UNICEF, FAQ, ILO, IPPF, etc., in Lesotho, code 5.

129. Column 21 Type of work done (last week).
State the occupation. If the person is job seeking for not longer than 5 years (column 18, code 50) give last type of work done. You have to avoid making entries of a generalized nature such as "civil servant" or "Businessman". Write the exact work that the person does, e.g. Medical Doctor, Stenographer, Herbalist, Teacher etc. Peasants will be classified as farmers. For people with two occupations enter the one that claims most of his/her time.

130. For homemakers/housewives state "homemaker" only if a person of either sex was wholly engaged in household duties during the reference period and was not paid for this work. If such a person traded one full working day in the 7 days preceding census night or worked regular hours daily or engaged in some other economic enterprises (e.g. worked on a farm, sells beer etc.) or did any part time work e.g. typing, dress making in her own house or in any other premises) as part time work or more without pay the person should not be classified as home-maker, but should be classified according to type of work done. For students, pupils and persons without occupation write NA.

131. A list of the more common occupation is annexed to this manual to help you make the proper classification.

132. Column 22: If employed or job seeking main product/service/activity of place where worked. This refers to the main activity of the establishment or enterprise in which the individual works, if job seeking the last establishment or enterprise. Give an exact description of the activity or service of firm. e.g. a driver for a beer brewery (in column 21 write driver, column 22 beer brewery); an accountant in a gold mine (column 21 accountant and column 22 gold mine); an owner of a cafe (column 21 shop owner, column 22 retail shop); a domestic help (column 21 domestic help, column 22 household); a waiter at a restaurant (column 21 waiter column 22 restaurant); a driver for a transport company (column 21 driver, column 22 transport). Differentiation between coal, gold, diamond mines or wholesale and retail trade must be made clear. The main activity of a farmer is Agriculture, that of a teacher if teaching or education. For persons unemployed but job seeking, enter the activity in which they were last employed (not longer than 5 years ago). For persons who have not worked before, students, pupils and other persons without occupation enter NA.

133. Column 23: Location of Place of Work
Section 231 of column 23 refers to the place of work of an individual. Code 11 when the individual works in the same village or town of enumeration. E.g. Code 11 if a person lives in Maseru West and works in Maseru West. Code 12 if an individual works in a different village or town but in the same district of enumeration; e.g. code 12 for commuters from Maseru to Roma for instance.

Code according to list for persons employed at different district from where they are enumerated. Code 01 for Butha-Buthe, Code 13 for RSA etc.
Section 232: Location of employment in Urban Areas.

Code NA if a person works in the rural areas.
Column 24: Ever or presently working in RSA.
Code NA if not applicable
Code 1 if never worked in RSA.
Code 2 if worked in the past.
Code 3 if presently working in the RSA.

Column 25: If ever worked in the RSA, how long has he/she worked in the RSA. Please code according to the list, write NA to persons who either have never worked at all or never worked in RSA. It will be difficult to get data on persons presently working outside Lesotho, try to get some information, but do not spend too much time on this question.


5. Part E of the questionnaire

Columns 26 to 30 should be asked only of women aged 12 years and over

137. Column 26: Has (name) given any live birth
This question refers to women 12 years and over. For men and children under 12 years enter NA because the question is not applicable to them. If the individual is a woman and she is 12 years and above but has never had a child enter 00. A woman who has no child because the child died has had a child. If YES in this column fill in the number of children accordingly in sections 271 to 276 and columns 28 to 30.

138. Column 27 to 30. Enter NA if the person is male or female under 12 years and 99 if the respondent does not know about the woman's fertility and the woman in question is absent. If the woman is 12 years and over and has never born a child enter a 0 in sections 271 to 276.
Sections 271 and 272 Total number of children living with the mother at the time of census. Write in these columns the total number of male and/or female children actually born to this woman living with her.
Sections 273 and 274: Those who are living elsewhere (such as those in institutions, married and living with their family elsewhere).
Sections 275 and 276: Those that were born alive and died even if they only lived for a few minutes. Do not include still births (ba hlahileng ba khathetse).
Note: before asking the next question check that the total number of children given in column 26 agrees with the numbers given in sections 271 to 276.

139. Column 28: When was [the respondent] last live birth?
Record the particulars of her last child born even if the child lived for a few minutes and died.
Record here the month (mm) and the year (yy) when the last birth occurred. (Khoeli le selemo seo ngoana oa mosali eo ho botsoang ka eena oa ho fela a hlahileng ka tsona). Enter NA not applicable for women who have never had children. Write DK if the respondent does not know the month and the year the child was born only if nobody else in the household knows.

140. Column 29: Sex of the last live birth. Was it a boy or a girl?
It the last live births were multiple births, enter sex of the last twin.

141. Column 30: Is the last child still alive? In case of twins record particulars of the second-born twin.

Remember to fill in part F and G.

6. Part F of the questionnaire (housing)

142. Column 31: Ownership of the housing unit.
Code 1 if the house is owned, Code 2 if the house is rented and Code 3 if neither of the two apply.

143. Column 32 to 34: For column 32 circle only the main type of house and give number of housing units in column 33; eg If the household uses two rondavels and one polata and the Polata is considered the main type of house circle 3 in column 32 and enter 2 in column 33 against the rondavel row and if each rondavel has one room enter 2 under number of rooms in column 34. If there is only one polata enter 1 in column 33 and if this polata has 3 rooms enter 3 in column 34. Remember in column 32 it is main type of house that is important.
Examples of the type of housing units are shown on the following page of this instructions manual.

[Drawing omitted.]

144. Column 34: Number of rooms
Do not include bathroom and toilet. If the household has more than one house, enter number of rooms for each building excluding stables and rooms used for agricultural purposes.

145. Columns 35 to 37 relate to types of fuel used by the household for cooking, heating and lighting. Use the codes provided in each question to record responses you receive. If more than one fuel is used for either purpose give one mainly used. In case of doubt let the respondent decide on one of the items.

146. Column 38: Relate to toilet facilities possessed by the· household. Circle (Where appropriate) Code O for a household without toilet facilities.
Code 1 if the household uses a sewerage system toilet.
Code 2 if the household possesses a pit latrine.
Code 3 if the household possesses an improved pit latrine with a ventilator.
Code 4 if the household possesses a bucket system latrine.
Code 5 will only be for a few households in some urban areas where public toilets are conveniently accessible to the entire household.

147. Column 39: Source of water for the household. What is the source of water for the household? Circle the appropriate code according to the response and the list given.

148. Column 40: State whether the household possesses a radio or not. A household possesses a radio if at least one member possesses a working radio in the household.

149. Column 41: Fields and Livestock.
Circle 2 No, if the household does not possess the fields and the specified type of livestock.
Fields

150. Ask of the head of the household about the ownership of fields by members of the household. Include in this, fields fallowed for a continuous period of under 5 years, but exclude those left fallow for over five years.
Ask of the head or other knowledgeable member of the household if the household has the specified categories of livestock, even those kept at the cattle posts. Both adult and young stock should be listed. Include stock "mafisad" into the household but exclude "mafisad" out to other households. Thus all stock kept by the household regardless of ownership should be deemed as owned.

7. Part G of the questionnaire

152. Column 49: Deaths to household members during the last 12 months.
Make sure that the deceased was a member of the household at the time of his/her death, and make sure that the deceased died in April 1995 or after. List the name(s) of the deceased, sex and age at death. If the deceased is a woman aged 12-49 years, ask if she died while pregnant, giving birth or one month after giving birth.

F. Important hints
In part B there should be entries in columns 1 to 15 for every person. There have to be entries in Parts F and G.
With the exception of columns 1, 5, 11, 13, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 entries should be codes. Note the difference between Columns 21 and 22 (Type of work and place where worked).
Please check the above after interviewing each household.

Part VII: How to achieve complete coverage.
Systematic coverage of the Enumeration Area.

On entering the village, introduce yourself to the village headman or his representative and request his assistance as you move in the village.

Get to know your area as thoroughly as possible before you start work. Spend as much time as you can go around it, finding out where the houses or huts are and introducing yourself to the people so that when you begin the enumeration they will know you and will be expecting you.

Plan your work so that you visit each inhabited place and each household in turn. Work in an orderly way in order to save yourself much walking and a great deal of trouble. Tell your supervisor where you will start and which paths you will follow so that he/she can find you.

A messenger should be sent to the headman of the next village in good time to inform him when you expect to arrive there.

Stickers
158. The white sticker is to ensure that no household is enumerated twice and none is missed. It should be used to mark those dwellings which have been visited and whose occupants have been enumerated. It should be fixed for others checking your work. Ask the people not to remove it. This should be fixed to or on the metal plate or on the door or above the main entrance if there is any.

159. A green sticker is to be fixed on any dwelling that has not been enumerated. If this is because the occupants were temporarily absent and there is evidence people slept there the night before your arrival, write 2 on the tape; if no one slept there code 3; Code 4 on the green sticker means that for some other reasons enumeration has not taken place or enumeration was not completed either due to sudden bereavement or other reasons. If for any other reason (e.g. refusal) do not put any sticker at all but write down the details of the household on the call-back list and report the problem to your supervisor. You must also enter these codes on your callback list. If enumeration was successful on a subsequent visit, remove the green sticker and replace it with a white one.

160. On no account should a white sticker be fixed on any dwelling unless a questionnaire has been completed in respect of its occupants.

Enumeration and control form

161. Make sure that at the end of each village enumerated, and before you move on to the next village, you have completed the control form. Also that at the end of the EA enumeration, the total number of villages on the control form tally with the number in the EA book.

What happens if there is no one at home? (Call-backs)
162. It may happen when you visit an inhabited house that you are unable to obtain any information. This can occur because there is no one at home, or because all the adults are away at the time, or for some other reason.

163. If there are people present enquire as to the best time to call. If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the Census Night. If there was, ask when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly.

164. If you are working in the urban area, complete a callback Card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it at the house so that the people may know when you will be returning. If you are in the rural area, leave word about the time of your next visit.

165. If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the address and tell your supervisor when you see him.

166. It may be that for some reason your call is at an inconvenient time for members of the household. Do not allow yourself to be put off, but arrange to return at a more suitable time.

167 Call-backs will involve you in much extra work, be wise and send word ahead of you so that people know when to expect you. If you have to make call-backs, clear them early. If you made an appointment to return, keep it punctually.

Part VIII What to do after enumeration
168. You have completed the questionnaire. Now check:

That there is no one you have omitted, that you should have included.
That no column has been left blank that should have been completed.
That your entries can be read easily.
That your entries agree item by item and that you have not written anything which cannot be correct.

169. Check your work systematically.
First, make sure that the information identifying the household, in Part A has been entered.
Next, look at the household in terms of the relationship and ages of the people. Make sure that children are not shown as older than their parents that men are not shown as having born children, that babies and young children are not shown as having university education or are working etc.
Then look at the questions you have completed for women and girls aged 12 years and over. Check the ages of all females and make sure that you have made entries where necessary. Make sure that if the woman has no children in a particular category you have written '00' in the appropriate column i.e. 26 and intersections 271 to 276.
If you find that things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct your record. It must be completed and accurate in all respects before you leave the household.

171. Finally, stick the appropriate sticker where it will be easily seen on the dwelling and where it is convenient to the householders, and move on to the next household.

172. Make sure that all call-backs have been made and check the control form before you leave the village.

173. Make sure that you fill in the rest of the information on the top cover of the questionnaire.

174. When you have completed your work for the whole EA, return all documents to the supervisor for checking and obtain a receipt.

[Codebook, example forms, event calendar, and schedule of assistant supervisors, record keeping forms, editing and coding manual, results sheets, and list of tables omitted.]