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Liberia
Ministry of Planning and Economic DEV

1974 Census and Enumeration

The following are examples of "group quarters":

1. Boarding Schools
2. Homes for Destitute
3. Convents
4. Mental Institutions
5. Prisons
6. "Bush" Societies
7. Military and Police barracks
8. Hotels
9. Nurses' Home
10. Hospital
11. Leper Colonies
12. Orphanage

4. Relationship - Column (2), Form PH-3, PH-4

Enter in Column (2) the relation which each listed person bears to the head of the household, this is usually the person who is regarded as the head by the members of the household.

Enter the word "Head" in this column on the same line as the name of the head of household.

Write "Wife", "Son", "Daughter", "Ward", etc., for other members of the household, according to their relationship to the head.

Persons not related to the head of head who are living in the household should be listed with their relatives, if any. For example, list a "lodger", his wife, and their children in that order using terms "lodger," "lodger's wife," "lodger's son", etc.

5. Relationship - Column (2), Form PH-7

Persons living in institutions or individuals with no fixed address should be designated as "Patient," "lodger," "Prisoner," etc. If you cannot find, a specific term, use "Inmate."

Official titles should be used in cases of personnel who operate the institution, provided they do not live in houses separate from institution building. If they do, treat them as regular households and follow the standard listing order.

6. Age Column 4

a. Enter the age (in completed years) of the-persons at last birthday.

Children under 1 year should be entered as "00" years old, unless it is obvious that the child is older but is unable to crawl. If the person does not know his age determine the age by applying whatever information you can obtain which will give a close approximation of his age.

b. Methods of estimating age.

1. Relating ages of family members:
a. If you know the age of one or more persons in the household it may be possible to relate the ages of persons of unknown age to those with known ages. For example, parents under normal circumstances can be 15 to 25 years older than their oldest child, depending on whether the parent is a woman or a man. Failing this, it may be possible to relate the number of rice or other annual crops sown since the occurrence of a marriage or birth.

b. In some areas where circumcision rites are performed when a child has reached a certain age, reference to when these rites should be or have boon performed on the person may provide good estimates of the person's age. In areas where the Poro or Sandi has operated, reference to attendance in such schools may provide estimates of the person's age.
2. The Estimation of Age on the Basis of Annual Groups:
a. Since most persons in the hinterland operate or work on small farms, it is often possible to estimate reasonably well the person's age and the ages of members of his household by reference to the number of times he has "made farm" since the occurrence of an event. This takes advantage of the fact that farms are made only once a year.

b. Since the most recent events are most readily recalled it is better to estimate the ages of children first, proceeding from the youngest to oldest.

c. Estimating Children's ages: Ask the head of the household: "how many times have you made farm since the birth of your youngest child?" Enter the answer in column (4) adjacent to the child's name. Then ask,'how many times did you make farm between the births of the next older child and the birth of the youngest child?" Add mentally the answer to the age of the youngest and enter the answer in column (4) adjacent to the child's name. If there are more than two children, repeat procedure of finding out the number of times farm was made between the birth of successively older children. Add this figure to the age of the younger of the two children and enter the younger of the two children and enter the answer in column (4). For example, suppose a family had three children. Farms have been made four times since the birth of the youngest child. The age of the youngest child is therefore four. This figure should be entered in column (4). Farms were made twice between the birth of the younger child and the next older child. The age of the next older child is six, the age of the youngest child plus the number of times farms was made between the birth of two children, six (6), should be entered in column (4) adjacent to the child's name. Farms were made three times between the births of the next oldest child (or middle child) and the oldest child. The age of the oldest child is therefore nine (the age of the next older child, plus the number of times farms were made between the next older child and the oldest child), nine (9) should be entered in Column (4). Circle each of these estimated ages.

d. Estimating the Mother's Age. Find out the number of times farm was made between the mother's marriage and the birth of her oldest child. Add this number to the age of the oldest child. Add fifteen (15) to the answer thus it the oldest child is nine years old and farm was made once between the birth of the oldest child and the mother's marriage, the mother should be approximately twenty-five years old, unless it is obvious that she is much older. In such a case the older age should be entered. Again, circle the estimated age.

e. Estimating the Father's Age. In general, the father's age can be approximated by adding 7 years to the age of the mother, unless it is obvious that the father is much older or somewhat younger. In such a case enter in Column (4) the age that seems most reasonably correct.
3. Relating Age to a Calendar of National, Local of International Historical events.
a. Although many people do not know what year they or others in the household were born, they may remember that they were born on or about the same time that a famous national, local or perhaps international event occurred. For example, they might know that they were born when World War II started (1939), then by subtraction you know that the person is 1974-1939 = 35 years old.
b. In some case the person knows that they were born before a given event but after another memorable occasion, such as born after president Tubman died but before President Tolbert's first Inauguration celebration, or, between 1971 and 1972.
c. In order to help you help people to estimate their age by relating it to some well-known event we have enclosed in the Appendix a Calendar of National and Local historic Events.
4. A Last Resort, Assignment of Ages.
a. In the event the above procedure is impractical a last effort should be made to determine whether a person is (a) an infant; (b) a junior child; (c) a senior child; (d) an adult in the economically active age; (e) a female in the child-bearing age; (f) an adult in the economically inactive age. The following criteria are given to distinguish between these functional groups specified above.

b. An Infant is one who may be a suckling or is suckling age but is not old enough to walk. The age of an infant is under 1 year. The age column should be double zero (00) if the child falls in this category.

c. A Junior Child is on the lower side, one who has ceased suckling or has passed suckling age, and is able to walk. On the higher side he is not yet old enough to take full care of himself on the road, or to be fully entrusted with the carrying of water for the family from a well, or with making simple purchases for the family (though he may have started these things) or attend an elementary school. The age should be marked three (3) if the child falls in this category. The range, however, is from 1 to 5 year. It is possible, by asking other questions to make a more accurate estimation [text almost completely faded on document]

c. A Senior Child is, on the lower side, one who is old enough to take full care of himself on the road, and can be entrusted safely, with the carrying of water for the family from the well, or, making simple purchases for the family or attending elementary school. On the higher side, he is not yet old enough to marry or has not fully reached the age of puberty, ie., the age of begetting or bearing children. His age group is 6-15 inclusive. As in the case of Junior Child, try, by asking questions to assign the age within the range the child most nearly approximates. Failing that, assign an age of eleven (11).

e. An Adult Male is a person who has fully reached the age of puberty and is old enough to marry or has already married, having reached that age (excluding the case of child marriage). His age group corresponds to the age group of 16 and above. If he is not yet too old to work ho is considered as in the economically active group. (It is assumed that persons over 60 years of age are not economically active). The lower limit is 16 years of age and the upper limit is 60 years of age. Again, if at all possible try to determine the approximate age within the range of 16-60. If this cannot be done although it is unlikely that it cannot, assign thirty-eight (38) as the age.

f. An Adult Female is in the child-bearing age if she is an adult and is not yet too old to bear children. This age group for women is roughly from 15 to 45. As before, an effort should be made to ascertain the correct age. Failing that, an age of 31 should be assigned females falling in this group. Women over the child-bearing age but not yet too old to work should be reported as 53 years of age. The range, however, is from 46-60. If it is possible to approximate the true age more accurately you should do it.

g. A Senior Adult is in the economically inactive age if he is too old to work. This age corresponds to 61 and above. Again, effort should be made to ascertain the true age as nearly as possible.
A guessed age is better than no age.

7. Marital status -- Column (5)

a. Never Married: All persons who have never been married. If a person was married sometimes during his or her time they cannot be Never Married. All under ten years are reported as Never Married.

b. Married: All persons who report that they are currently married. "Married" as reported by the respondent is to be accepted as such. If person considers him or herself married, regardless of whether the marriage is legal or not, they are reported to be married. Conversely, if a person is living in the married state buy does not report as being married, accept the reply and circle either (1) or (2). Person with multiple status: If a person is unmarried, as of the enumeration date, and has multiple status, such as being divorced in report to one spouse and widowed in respect to another, classify him according to the more recent of the two events.

c. Widowed: Persons whose spouse is dead and are not currently married or living in the married state.

d. Divorced or Separated: Persons legally or customarily divorced (whether or not legally separated), or, for persons who have been deserted or who have parted because they no longer want to live together but have not obtained a divorced.

8. Place of birth -- Column (6).

a. The county or Territory of Births: Do not write the District or any Clan of Chiefdom. If a person reports that he was in Harper he is listed as Maryland County. County of birth may not be the person's most frequent or longest term residence.

b. Write the present name of the county: Since 1964, all of the provinces have been changed into counties. For example, Western Province is now Lofa County. Do not use province names.

c. Persons who were born outside Liberia:

1. Persons of foreign birth, even though they are presently citizens of Liberia, should be recorded as to country of birth.

Length of residence -- Column (7)

a. Number of years person lived in present country. (Note that this is not necessarily the county or country of birth).
b. For persons who have lived in a country all of their lives enter "25" regardless of age.

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b. Group Quarters:

1. Group Quarters are defined as institutions where people reside on a permanent or semi-permanent basis and in which the residents are identified with the institution rather than with any family relationship.

2. Examples of Group Quarters are Prisons, Leper Colonies, Police and Military Barracks, Convents, "Bush Societies", Hotels.

3. In Item "C" write the name of the Group Quarter and if appropriate, enter the type of Quarters. For example enter "Travelers Roast" as the name of the Group Quarters and Hotel as the type of quarters.

4. Name-Column (1): Enter the name of each person interviewed; no particular listing order is required.

5. Relationship-Column (2): Enter the name which best describes the person's status in the Group Quarters. If for example, a prison is under enumeration, the person's relationship will be "inmate;" If the quarter is a hotel the relationship will be "lodger."

6. Remaining Columns form PH-7: Enter all information required in column 2 through 18.

c. Special group quarters:

1. In most D.A.'s the supply of Form PH.-7 in your enumeration Workbook will be more than sufficient, however in areas where a large institution or other such place is located you will not have a sufficient supply. Your supervisor will give you extra Forms; these must be included in your Workbook when you complete your B.A.

Chapter VIII

Closing Your Interview

1. Internal Consistency Checks on Forms PH-3, PH-4, PH-5, PH-6, PH-7.

a. Reviewing completed questionnaires.
1. In the process of interviewing it is easy to write down answers without considering their logic. For example: a woman may toll you her ago is 17 years and then tell you that she has 5 children. Obviously, she is either not 17 or the children are not here.

2. It is up to you to spot these inconsistencies and correct them before you leave the household. This is called field editing.
b. Specific field editing procedure.
1. Column 3 and 4, sex and age.
a. Both sexes and all ages.

1. Most people do not have an age ending in the digits "5" or "0".
2. Most people are rarely older than 65 years.

b. Males, all ages.

1. Cannot have any entries in columns 13 and 14.
c. Males under age 10 years.

1. Cannot be married, widowed, divorced or separated.
2. Cannot have completed more than 5 years of school in column 12.
3. Cannot be listed in Columns 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18.
d. Females under age 10 years.

1. Cannot be married, widowed, divorced or separated.
2. Cannot have completed more than 5 years of school in column 12.
3. Cannot be listed in Columns 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 or 18.
c. All persons age 10-14 years:

1. Persons are not likely to have completed more than 9 years of school
2. Males are not likely to be married.
3. Females are not likely to have had more than 1 child.

f. Not literate persons over age 5 years.

1. Are not likely to be attending school
2. Are not likely to have completed any grade or school.

g. Literate persons:

1. Are likely to have completed some grade of school.

h. Married, widowed or divorced/separated women ages 15-45 years.

1. Are likely to have had at least one baby ever born.
2. Are likely to have had a child every 2 years.

i. Women age 45 or over.

1. Are likely to have had over 5 children not all of whom may be still living.
2. Form PH-3 Long Form housing questions
a. H-1 permanent housing is not likely to be constructed of mud, mat, reed, bamboo, grass or other such material.

b. H-1 Semi-permanent housing is not likely to be constructed of stone, concrete or cement blocks.

c. H-5 Inside flush toilets must have inside piped water, and, most likely has electricity, and does not share toilets or kitchens.


Chapter IX


Completing Enumeration Workbook Cover

Purpose of Workbook cover:

a. Geographic Identification Purposes:
1. Each Workbook contains all the questionnaires for an
Enumeration Area. There are approximately 3,500 such EA's in Liberia. These EA's when combined, form specific Clans, Chiefdoms, Districts, and Counties. It is absolutely essential therefore that each workbook be exactly identified on the cover. All the questionnaires in the Workbook will be assigned. The particular code of the workbook cover.

2. Make sure you print the name of the County or territory, and the names of the District, Clan, Township or Concession in Items 1 through 4. Write the EA number in Item 5. If your EA was split, write the letter, write the letter suffix in the box provided.

b. Enumerator's Identification Purposes:
1. Enumeration Assignment Responsibility:
a. Although there are records of your name and address, field contingencies sometime arise where the enumerators originally assigned an EA are changed. Furthermore, if there are any discrepancies or poor workmanship in the work we must be able to pin-point the responsibility directly on the enumerator and his supervisor so that corrective measures may be taken to salvage the data collected.
2. Payroll Requirements:
a. Payroll Regulations require that the name of the enumerator shown on the Workbook cover in Item 6 and 25 must match the payroll records and Pay Authorization slip.
3. Completing Item 6:
a. Print your name clearly on the first line in Item 6. On the second and third lines print the address in which you can always be contacted.

[Calendar of National and Local Historical Events has been omitted]