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Lao people's democratic republic
Peace independence democracy unity prosperity

Lao Census 95
Enumerator manual
Census steering committee national statistical centre (secretariate) Vientiane, November 1994

[Table of contents is omitted here]


1. Why a Population Census is taken
Detailed and up-to-date information is vital for the development of a society and the welfare of its population. The scope and objectives of the 1995 Population Census has been settled after thorough discussions with main users of census information. The purpose is to provide information on the population and its living conditions, which will be used for planning purposes in most sectors of our society, e.g. education, labour market, housing and construction, water and electricity supply, etc.

In the first Population Census in Laos, taken in 1985, the population was found to be approximately 3.5 million people. A population head count in 1990 showed a population growth to ... million persons. The second Population Census in Lao P.D.R. will now, in line with United Nation recommendations for a ten-year span between censuses, be taken with March 1, 1995 as the reference date.

2. The enumerator's task
The quality of work of enumerators largely decides the quality of the census results. It is therefore important that you follow the instructions in the manual and closely observe and apply the definitions of various concepts used in the census.

Some of the key concepts in the census are:

- the de jure approach
- the private household
- the collective household
- the head of household

The definitions of those concepts are found on page 12 - 14 in this manual. Study those concepts carefully.

Enumerators will be assigned so called Enumeration Areas (EAs), which are small areas exclusively created for census data collection purposes. One enumerator might be assigned one or more EAs, depending on the size and the population of the areas. One EA has normally about 500 inhabitants.

The enumerator has various tasks and obligations before, during and after the enumeration. The enumerator is reporting to the supervisor in all the three stages. A summary of the tasks is presented in Section 2.1 -2.3 in this manual.


2.1 Tasks before the start of the enumeration

- To identify the enumeration area (EA) and to update the EA map if you Find any errors
- To widely publicise the census and its objectives among the population in order to create good-will and ensure good cooperation from the public
- To handle and care for documents and supplies
- To take care of your own travel arrangements
- To present yourself at the enumeration where interviews are to be conducted
- To make appointments with the households in the EA
- To enter identification data on the booklet covers

2.2 Tasks during the enumeration

- To ask questions and to record the answers
- To check each questionnaire for completeness, correctness and consistency between various questions
- To mark absent households on the map and to revisit them
- To mark the house after enumeration has been completed

Among these activities the most important one for the enumeration is to carry out careful interviews and properly record the responses. Every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate responses and to record them correctly.

2.3 Tasks after the enumeration

- To deliver used and unused booklets to designated officers/supervisor
- To convey information on any relevant issues or observations to the supervisor that are not reported in writing

2.4 Place of work
Provincial Census Offices, headed by Provincial Census Officers (PCOs), have been established in the provinces. Districts Census Offices have likewise been established in the Districts. These are headed by the District Census Officer (DCO), who will be in charge of several supervisors. A supervisor will be in charge of six enumeration areas or more.

The enumerators will spend most of their time in the field. Each enumerator will be assigned one or more EAs and your responsibility will be to visit every household in your assigned area and record, as accurately and neatly as possible, ail the particulars required of every person and household.


2.5 Training of enumerators
One can only become a good enumerator through experience. The training will consist of class room training and field work (practical exercises). Before each lesson, you must carefully read the manual along with the questionnaire and note down the questions that you might want to ask. You can ask questions at any time so as to avoid errors in the actual practice.

Your supervisor will be present during training and it is important that you get to know him/her. During the training you will be informed how to conduct an interview and observe a simulation of interviews. There will be explanations of each section and question in the questionnaire. The class session will be followed by a series of workshops. You will also do some field practice interviews. Mock questionnaires will be used for practice interviews, these questionnaires must not be mixed up with actual census questionnaires.

2.6 Supervision and support
Next step will be the actual field work in which you will carry out the actual enumeration for the Population Census. You will be working together with supervisors who will again check your completed questionnaires, make corrections and help you during the enumeration period of the Census.


3. General guidelines
Successful interviewing is an art and not a mechanical process. Although the art of interviewing develops with practice, below are some basic principles on how to conduct an interview.

3.1 How to establish contact with the respondent
You must contact the Village Chief and the Village Committee before approaching the households. You should also make appointments with the households before the actual enumeration. The following may be helpful in establishing contact:

- Approaching the dwelling unit
Use a direction that appears to be well used as an entrance. Do not straddle fences or any other property boundaries.
- Language of interview
When you approach the household, establish the language or languages spoken there. Find a language both of you could understand (to be added: what to do if no common language can be found)
- Make a good first impression
- Always have a positive approach
- Stress the confidentiality of responses when necessary
- Answer any question from the respondent frankly
- Avoid the presence of other persons other than members of the household during the interview

3.2 Hints on conducting the interview

- Be neutral throughout the interview
People are polite and may give answers they think you want to hear. Never allow the respondent to think that s/he has given the "right" or "wrong" answer by expression on your face or tone of your voice and never appear to approve or disapprove of any of the respondent's answers. Note that the questions in the questionnaire are carefully worded to be neutral and do not suggest that one answer is more likely or preferable to another. Failing to read the complete question may destroy that neutrality. If an ambiguous answer is given, try to probe in a neutral way by asking like this:
"Can you explain a little more";
"I did not quite hear you, could you please tell me again".
- Never suggest answers to the respondents


If a given answer is not relevant to the question, do not prompt by saying something like "I suppose you mean that... Is that right?". Probe in such a way that the respondent comes with a relevant answer on his/her own. You should never read out the list of response alternatives.

- Do not change the wording or the sequence of questions
- Handle hesitant respondents tactfully
- Do not hurry the interview

Ask questions clearly to ensure understanding by the respondent, pause after each question. Work steadily and make sure answers are complete and correct before you write anything down. Do not accept at once any statement you believe to be mistaken, but tactfully probe in a neutral way to obtain the correct answers.


4. Field procedures

4.1 Material and equipment
Each enumerator must ensure that s/he has sufficient materials and equipment and is aware of the role to be performed.

Each enumerator will be provided with the following documents and equipment:

- Questionnaire booklets with serial number
- Enumerator manual
- Sketch map of EA
- Equipment for writing
- ID-card

4.2 The duration of the enumeration
The enumeration will last for about five (5) days; this is the time limit within which interviewing of households in the EA assigned to you must be completed. If, for any reason, you think it will take longer, inform your supervisor early, so arrangements for help arc made. Also, if you catch ill or cannot continue for other reasons, you must let your supervisor know at once, (how? - to be discussed)

4.3 How to schedule the enumeration
To be able to enumerate efficiently, planning ahead is necessary. Bear in mind that the best times of interviewing households vary with the economic activity of the household members. The best time for interviews is often in the early morning, before people start work, and in the evenings when they return for the day. There will however be households that are present during daytime. You must plan accordingly to create an even workload during the day.

4.4 Confusion over boundaries
Confusion over boundaries may occasionally arise. If you or your colleague in another EA have mistakenly enumerated a household in another EA, take careful note of the identities of the households mistakenly enumerated and inform your supervisor. Do not enumerate the households a second time but continue with the other households in the area.


5. General procedures for completing the questionnaire
To be able to undertake the duties of an enumerator, you must know

- how to fill in the questionnaire;
- how to ask the questions;
- what information the question is attempting to collect;
- how to handle problems which might arise during the interview;
- correctly record the answers given by the respondent;
- follow any special instructions in the questionnaire

5.1 Asking questions and probing
When asking questions, follow the order on the questionnaire and ask them exactly as in the questionnaire. Speak clearly for the respondent to have no difficulty in hearing and understanding; at times you may have to repeat the question. You should rephrase the question only as a last resort, (to be discussed)

5.2 Recording responses
The recording of answers on the questionnaire should be done using blue ballpoint pens. The types of questions to be encountered on the questionnaire include those with:

- pre-coded responses where the responses are listed on the questionnaire, to record the answer, you circle or enter the number (code) corresponding to the reply, e.g. district codes;
- open-ended responses where one must write the respondent's answer in the space provided, e.g. number like age, number of children; answers in words, e.g. occupation.

It is important to record answers neatly. Write legibly where you are required to write.
Some questions may not be applicable to some persons or a response may not be known. In such cases entries should be made as follows:

- 'N/A" will be used for Not Applicable questions. Where one column or a number of columns for a individual do not apply, place the "N/A" in the centre of the columns and indicate the extent by lines as shown in the margin;

For example: for columns under questions on number of children ever born, write "N/A" in the lines for all men (since men obviously can not be pregnant and deliver a baby) and for women below and above age range for the question;

- "9" (nine) will be used where the response is "not known". The use of the code must be very restricted. The appropriate number of nines should be entered depending on the number of digits allowed for the response; e.g. if only one digit has been allowed, then a "9" will be entered; for two digits, "99" will be entered.


This recording, if done properly, will simplify the work of other persons, for example supervisors checking your work and data entry personnel.

5.3 How to correct mistakes
If you make a mistake in entering an answer or the respondent changes response, cross out the incorrect response and enter the correct one. Use two horizontal lines through the wrong response and write the correct one next to it, in the same column. Do not erase or obliterate the wrong entry.

If you make several mistakes for one person in the household, cross out the whole line neatly with a single stroke and record the entire information using a new line.

If you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the questionnaire and write "Spoilt" along it. The spoilt questionnaire should not be removed from the booklet but handed in together with the rest of the correctly completed questionnaires. (Instructions not to split booklets must be entered somewhere, maybe here)

None of the questionnaires are to be destroyed, as you will have to account for all the questionnaires issued to you, whether they are filled in or not.

5.4 Irrelevant questions
Care must be taken not to ask questions which have become irrelevant. In cases where a particular response makes subsequent questions irrelevant, an instruction is written on the questionnaire. However, a "N/A" must be entered.

5.5 Action in case of non-response
Report to supervisor and/or the village chief, (to be discussed, reasons can vary)

5.6 Do not re-copy
Do not re-copy a questionnaire as long as it is readable. Re-copying increases the risk of errors and the quantity of questionnaires produced is not enough for other than very occasional re-copying.

6. How to fill in the booklet cover
The questionnaire is a one-page questionnaire bound in booklets of 36 questionnaires. Every booklet has an unique control-number printed on the cover. This number will help to keep track of the booklets during the whole enumeration process. Some information on the cover is to be filled in before enumeration, while some information must be filled in when the booklet is finalised.


6.1 Geo-codes and other codes
First of all, geo-codes should be filled in the box at the upper left comer of the cover sheet of the booklet. Geo-codes give the geographical situation of your enumeration area.

- Provincial and district codes are provided in this manual and on the back of the questionnaires. The code for province ranges from 01 to 19. The code for district follows the official two-digit district code, ranging from 01 to 11. Village code is the code assigned as on the sketch map. Enter the codes and names for province, district and village when you start working in an EA.

- Enumeration area number is the sequence number of the EA in a village. If the village comprises
of only one EA, enter "1". If the village is partitioned into several EAs, enter "1", "2", "3", or "4" and so on according to in which EA number this booklet is being used. The sequence number is assigned (to be discussed: how and
who assigns the EA number). Enter the code for the enumeration area when you start working in an EA.

- Booklet number is the sequence number of a booklet in one EA. If the EA uses only one booklet, enter "1". If the EA needs more than one booklet, enter "1", "2", "3" and so on according to the actual booklet you are working on. Enter the code for booklet number when you start on a new booklet.

- Booklet control-number is a pre-printed number giving the booklet identification mainly used during dispatch collection and later data-processing. This number is unique and must not be changed or deleted. You must never split or remove a questionnaire from a booklet.

6.2 Information for urban/rural classification
In order to be able to classify villages as urban or rural at a later stage during the census, you must fill in the information regarding marketplace and access road to the village to which your EA belongs.

- Check if the village has a permanent marketplace and tick the relevant box on the booklet cover
- Check if at least one access road to the village is good enough to be used by a sedan car during the dry season and tick the relevant box on the booklet cover

6.3 Summary table
When an interview with a household is finished, the number of males/females/total should be entered into the summary table on the cover; see also under section H on page 36 in this manual.

6.4 Box for comments
The box for comments should be completed by writing observation about the census, for instance problems encountered, cooperation of the local authorities and people,


understanding of the questions by respondents and any other irregularities occurred, ethnic groups not found as pre-coded alternatives, etc. The box at the lower left corner of the cover sheet is for use by the data processing section at NSC and should not be filled in.


7. Key concepts and definitions
Before going into how to fill in the questionnaire, some key concepts and definitions must be explained.

7.1 Household and family - two different concepts
The population census is focusing on registration of persons in households, which means that household is not identical to the concept family; the latter concept is not used at all in the census.

7.2 Who is to be enumerated and in which household?
The 1995 Population Census is a so called de jure census. This means that persons are to be enumerated as belonging to their usual place of residence, not to the place where they are actually interviewed in the census. Consequently, you must i) at first decide whether each person is to be enumerated at all in the Laotian census and ii) next whether it is your task to enumerate or if enumeration will be done by another enumerator.

Those to be enumerated by you are to be found in the shaded box in the graph below.

[The graph is omitted here]

These are the guidelines to follow when deciding who are to be enumerated by you. Apply them when you address the head of household at arrival in the household.


7.3 Two household types: Private and collective households
The distinction between a private and a collective household is sometimes very difficult to make. Private households can sometimes also be found at the premises of an otherwise collective household.

Private households
The households in your enumeration area will mostly be private households. They can be single person or multi-person households.

A single-person household comprises of one person living in a part or the whole of the dwelling unit, arranging for food and other life necessities on his own without joining other persons and possessing his own civil registration book.

A multi-person household comprises of two or more persons living in a part or the whole dwelling unit, and who together arrange for food and other life necessities and share a common registration book.

Collective households
Occasionally, a collective household will however be found. Collective households would consist of accommodation units of an enterprise, factory, school, temple, hospital, etc. Examples of collective households are KM 62 Orphanage House, Middle Level Medical School hostel, Dongdok University hostel, a temple where the monks live. The pre- conditions for being enumerated in the collective household are;

- that s/he is to be registered in your enumeration area (see also page 13)
- that the persons must be registered under the common registration book for the collective household;

Otherwise, the persons found in the collective household are to be enumerated in their respective private households.

Although tied accommodation and collective households might look similar, a clear distinction must be made between the two. In tied accommodation occupants usually live in private households and maintain separate registration books, which is not the case in a collective household.

7.4 The head of household
The head of household will be the chief respondent to most of your questions.

In the Lao society, the husband will often be the head of household. In case of his absence, someone else must speak for the household and assume the head of household role. Therefore, interview another knowledgeable senior member of the household who lives up to the definition, (i.e. the wife, a grown-up son or daughter, etc.) and who is selected by the household.

Questions on children born should, as far as possible, be addressed to the mother of the children.


8. How to fill in the questionnaire
The sections of the questionnaire are the following:

Section A: Identification particulars of enumeration area and household
Section B: Information on all members of the household
Section C: Education questions for those aged 6 years and above
Section D: Labour force questions for those aged 10 years and above
Section E: Fertility information for women aged 15 - 49 years
Section F: Deaths in the household
Section G: Housing characteristics
Section H: Number of persons in the household by sex

Completion of the questionnaire, that is sections A to H, should follow the above order.

Section A: Identification
Before beginning an interview, fill in the identification in the upper left hand corner of the questionnaire. The identification numbers for province, district, village and enumeration area shall be the same as the one on the cover of the questionnaire booklet and on the sketch map. In addition, a household serial number is to be entered by the enumerator as work is progressing.

The household number within the enumeration area must always have three digits. It must be entered by the enumerator in a sequence (001, 002, 003 etc.) within the EA.

Special numbers are allocated to collective households. The first collective household in your enumeration area should be given household number 801, the second should be given 802, etc.

Section B: For all persons

Question 1: "Who was the member of this household on March 1, 1995?"
The purpose of this question is i) to identify the household and to give the structure for the interview, ii) to identify the head of each household and iii) to list all members of the household.

- The first step is to list all the members of the household. Enter their names and work downwards. All persons who, according to the definitions in Section 7, were members of the household on March 1, whether they were present or temporarily absent, are to be recorded. "Temporarily" means in this case less than six months.
- Always enter the head of household as person number one.
The order of the listing should be as follows:
- head of household;
- spouse;
- unmarried children to head of household;
- married children to head of household, then their spouses and children;
- other relatives to the head of household;
- persons not related to the head of household;
- In situations where a man has more than one wife, list the first wife with her children, followed by the second wife and her children, etc.;
- For babies who have not yet been named, write "Baby of (mother's or fathers name)" in the space for name;
- Where members of the household have the same surname, the first name and the first letter of the surname can be used for the members other than the head. When surnames differ, write full surname;
- In cases where a respondent refuses to give his name, explain that the name is used only in relation to subsequent information. State that publication of information will only be in statistical form and at no time will names be published. The names are entered on the questionnaires but will not be data captured;
- When you have entered all the names: Check the above information by reading out the names you have written down and then by asking the head of household if the list is correct and complete. At this stage probing and observation is essential, especially where you feel someone who is physically present at the time of interview has been left out;
- Complete a separate questionnaire for each household. If a household has more than 10 members, continue listing the members on the next questionnaire making certain that:
- the identification on the questionnaires relating to a single household is the same;
- the person numbers on the second questionnaire are changed by adding the digit "1", i.e. from 1, 2, 3.... to 11, 12, 13...;
- similarly, for a household with more than twenty persons, the person numbers on the third questionnaire are - - changed by adding the digit "2", i.e. from 1, 2, 3.... to 21, 22, 23...;
- information relating to Sections F to H must be crossed out on the all but the last questionnaire for the household. Section F to H should be completed on the last questionnaire for the household;
- indicate that additional questionnaires follow, by ticking the box on the bottom right hand corner of the questionnaire.

How to list and enumerate a collective household
Persons staying in collective households in your enumeration area will basically be enumerated by you according to the same procedures you enumerate a private household. Some differences should however be observed:

- The would-be collective household(s) identified during the census listing is/are shown on the sketch map for your enumeration area; (to be discussed)
- To enumerate collective households, the ordinary questionnaire is used but with some special instructions, see below;
- When encountering a collective household, your first step is to find out if there are any private households registered there. It can for example be a doctor and his family staying in their private household on hospital premises, eating from a common pot in the family and not with the patients and have a common registration- book there. Such households should be enumerated as private households;
- The next step is to investigate who is actually to be part of the collective household and who is to be enumerated in their respective private households in the same EA or in other EAs. Use the definitions and guidelines in Section 7;
- The head of a collective household will not know the particulars of each individual. Every present member of the collective household must therefore be addressed, while the head of the household must be addressed for those absent during enumeration;
- In some special cases of large collective households, special arrangements may be made by the supervisor and you may be asked to assist in this work;
- The household number series for collective households starts at 801,- i.e. the first collective household enumerated by you should have household number 801, the second 802, etc.
- Note that if it is a big collective household, you must use several questionnaires. As only two digits are allowed in the person number column, not more than 99 persons must be entered in one household. For the 100th and the following persons in that collective household, another household with a consequent household number must be created and, again, not more than 99 persons must be entered in that household.
- Question 2 and Question 19 to 26 should not be answered by collective households. Enter "N/A".

Remember: One questionnaire can only be used in one household but one household can use several questionnaires

Question 2: What is [the respondent's] relationship to the head of household?
The purpose of this question is to collect information on the composition of the household.

Circle the appropriate answer. Adopted children and step-children to the head of household will be recorded under "Son/Daughter". Nieces, nephews, grandsons will be included under the "Other relative" category.

These not related to the head of household by blood or marriage will be recorded as "Not related". Where several persons who are not related by blood or marriage constitute a private household, code one of them as a head and the rest as "not related".


Question 3: Is [the respondent] male or female?
Sex is one of the most important questions as much analysis of data depends on respondent's sex. It also determines whether certain questions are to be answered or not. Circle the correct response, i.e. either "1" for male or "2" for female.

If the person is around, you can observe the gender without necessarily asking the question, but avoid inferring the gender of the person from names as there are names used by both genders. In case the name is preceded by title, namely "Thao" and "Nang", sex of respondent can readily be determined.

Question 4: How old was [the respondent] at his/her last birthday?
Age is one of the most important questions as much analysis of data depends on respondent's age, for example, fertility rates are calculated by age of woman etc. Age also determines whether certain questions are to be answered or not. Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday.

Entries should be made in completed years as follows:

- "0" for children aged less than a year
- actual age in completed years for other respondents, e.g., 8 years and three months is recorded as "8"
- "999" for not known (very limited cases)

If the age is not known, probe to try to estimate age. This is time-consuming and sometimes tedious. But it is important to take time to try to get the best possible information. There are several ways which can be used to probe for age:

You may use the calendar of events found in Appendix 3 to improve the reporting of age data. A person's age can sometimes be better assessed in relation to events which he/she can recall or which occurred near to his/her birthday. The age of the person's relatives is sometimes a useful indicator.'

If probing does not help, you may have to estimate the age as a last resort when all other efforts failed. The use of the code "999" (viz. not known) is for rare cases.

In case the respondent knows the year when he/she was born only in Lao year or lunar calendar, or he/she gives date of birth in solar calendar, you must refer to tables for age conversion in the Appendix 4 of this manual.

Question 5: Where was [the respondent] born?
The purpose of this question is to get a measure of "life-time" migration.

Birth place refers to the place where the birth actually occurred. For those born in Lao P.D.R, enter the code referring to the relevant province/district and for those born outside Lao P.D.R, the code of country of birth.

A list of the districts and countries is shown in Appendix 2 and at the back of each questionnaire. For not known use code "9999".


Question 6: Where was [the respondent] living at last census in March 1985?
The purpose of this question is to get a measure of "inter-censal" migration.

Enter Province/District code if the person was living in Lao P.D.R. in March 1985, otherwise the country code. A list of the districts and countries is shown in Appendix 2 and at the back of each questionnaire.

For children below the age of ten, record N/A. For not known, use code "9999".

Question 7: What is [the respondent's] citizenship?
Do not deduce someone's citizenship from the language an individual speaks or his/her country of birth. Record what the respondent tells you.

A list of the country codes for citizenship is shown in Appendix 2 and at the back of each questionnaire. For not known, use code "99".

Question 8: What is [the respondent's] ethnic origin?
The purpose of this question is to establish the respondent's ethnic origin if a Laotian citizen. Ethnic origin for persons from other countries is of little interest and is not to be collected at all.

This question is just for Lao citizens, that is when the answer to question 7 is "00". For all other citizenships in question 7, record "N/A" in question 8.

A list of the codes for ethnicity (47 different codes) for Lao citizens is shown in Appendix X
and at the back of each questionnaire. For "not known", use code "99".

Record what the respondent tells you. In some cases you may have to probe culture, religion, and traditions. If the respondent comes up with an ethnic origin that cannot be coded with one of the 47 codes, probe if the answer is a sub-group to one of the pre-coded alternatives. If there is a local "ethnic representative", contact him/her. If ethnic origin remains unclear after probing, enter code "48" and take down the response in the comments box on the questionnaire.

Question 9: What is [the respondent's] marital status?
People who live together as husband and wife or who so regard themselves without being formally married, should be recorded as married. Thus in the main, the answer must be accepted as given by the respondent and the legal aspect of the marital status should not be questioned. It is the respondents who define their marital status.

If a person has been widowed but has since re-married, s/he should be recorded as married.

A divorce does not have to have gone through the court or other formalities for it to be considered an actual divorce in census terms.

Please note that "never married" is not equivalent to "single" as the latter includes those who have never married and those who have been married but are currently divorced/separated or widowed. "Never married" strictly refers to those who have never entered any marital union. In the very few cases of not known, write "9" in the column for this question.


Question 10: What is [the respondent's] religion?
Enter relevant code from code list. The categories are:

[] 1. Buddhism
[] 2. Animism
[] 3. Christianity
[] 4. Islam
[] 5. Other

The list of religion codes is also shown at the back of each questionnaire. For not known
use code "9".

Note that all members of the same household might not have the same religion. If a respondent gives a branch of religion that you do not recognise, probe to find out to which main religion (of alternatives 1-4 above) the branch belongs.

If a person's answer is "no religion", enter code "5 - Other".

Section C: For persons aged 6 years and above
Section C deals with education questions. These questions shall be asked to all who is 6 years and above. For small children, less than 6 years, section C, D and E should be marked "N/A".

Question 11: Can [the respondent] read and write in Lao language?
The purpose of this question is to measure the literacy rate.

For a person to be considered literate (able to read and write) he/she must at least be able to read a newspaper or a bill-board and also at least be able to write a simple letter in official Lao. Note that both conditions (read and write) must be fulfilled for a positive response to be entered and also that the question refers to Lao official language.
Circle the appropriate answer. For not known, enter "9".

Question 12: Has [the respondent] ever attended school?
The purpose of this question is to establish the degree of school enrolment.

"School" refers to participation in full-time education in an institution like primary and secondary schools, university, etc.

The category "never been" includes those who have not attended school at all.

"At school" refers to all persons who are attending formal educational institutions and include those who are temporarily absent from school or those on holiday.

"Left school" refers to those who once attended formal school but have left or completed their cycle and are no longer attending.

Circle the appropriate answer. For not known, enter "9".


Question 13: What is [the respondent's] highest level of education completed?
The purpose of this question is to establish the respondent's highest level of education completed. Make sure that all respondents understand that the question refers to completed education.

Enter code from code list. A list of the codes for highest level of education completed is shown in Appendix 3. The list of codes is also shown at the back of each questionnaire. For not known use code "99".

Check with question 4 for consistency, particularly for children. Probe, if discrepancies between the answers are found.

Section D: For persons aged 10 years and above
Section D deals with employment questions. These questions shall be asked to all who is 10 years and above. For children, less than 10 years, section D and E should be marked "N/A".

Three different questions are asked to collect labour market information. The questions are interrelated and the purpose of each question must be clearly understood. Explain to the respondent that you will start by asking information on his/her employment status, then his/her profession and lastly about the sector s/he was working in.

Question 14: What was [the respondent's] main activity the last twelve months?
The purpose of this question is to collect information on whether s/he was working or not, studying, retired, etc.

Enter code from code list You may need to probe to reassure that the respondent understands the concept of economic activity.

The response categories are:

01 Paid employee (Government)
Here is included those who work for and are paid from the government {not state enterprise or joint enterprise).

02 Paid employee (State Enterprise)
Here is included those who work for and are paid from state enterprises {not government or joint venture).

03 Paid employee (Private)
Paid employee includes those who work for a private employer and are paid either wages, salary, commission, tips, contract or in kind by the employer. Paid family workers are also to be included here.

04 Paid employee (Joint venture)
Here is included those who work for and are paid from joint venture enterprises (partly government, partly private).

05 Employer
A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.


06 Own account worker
Own account workers are those who operate their own enterprise, e.g. farmer, petty trader, carpenter without paid employees and work for own consumption or profit.

07 Unpaid family worker
Unpaid family workers refer to those members of the household who worked in the enterprise operated by the household without pay or profit.

08 Looking for work/unemployed
These are persons who were ether without a job or were available for work or were seeking work.

09 Student
A person who attends a regular formal educational institution, public or private. S/he should be full-time or part-time student not usually engaged in an economic activity.

10 Homemaker
Homemaker is a person of either gender involved in household chores in their own households and who do not work for pay or for profit. If the person worked in the household business, s/he should be recorded as self employed or unpaid family worker. Domestic workers engaged for pay should not be included in this category but under paid employee.

11 Retired person /sick/too old
A retired person is one who reports that for most of the last twelve months s/he was not engaged in any economic activity because s/he had retired either due to age, sickness or voluntarily

12 Others
Prisoners are one of the categories to be included here. For rare cases of "not known", enter "99".

Question 15: What was [the respondent's] main occupation during the last twelve months?
The purpose of this question is to collect information on the occupation of the respondent.
This question is put to persons coded 01 to 07 in question 14, i.e. paid employees, employers, own account workers and unpaid family workers. Record "N/A" for all others.

Occupation refers to the type of work, trade or profession performed by an individual during the last 12 months, irrespective of the industry or status in employment of the individual. Where multiple occupations are common, the main or usual occupation should be determined. This is done by determining the duration of work in each occupation during the last 12 months.

For persons with more than one occupation at the same time, record the persons main occupation - where s/he spends most of the time.

Write a short description of the type of work the person performed for most of the last twelve months preceding the census night. The type of work should be recorded as fully as possible, e.g. grocery retailed seller, wood carpenter, key punch operator, motor vehicle


mechanic panel beating foreman etc. Avoid unclear descriptions as operator, foreman etc. If the occupation in very rare cases is not known, write "999".

Question 16: In which industrial sector was [the respondent] mainly working during the last twelve months?
The purpose of this question is to collect information on the industrial sector the respondent was working in.

This question is put to persons coded 01 to 07 in question 14, i.e. paid employees, employers, own account workers and unpaid family workers. Record "N/A" for all others.

Industrial sector refers to the activity performed, that is what is made or done at the work place (by the establishment) where the person mainly worked during the last 12 months, irrespective of the occupation of the person. Where a company has multiple activities (makes or does many things), the main activity should be determined. This is done by determining the activity which occupies most persons at that workplace.

For persons working at more than one place during this period, record the industrial sector where s/he spends most of the time.

Write a short description of what is made or done at the workplace where the person worked for most of the last twelve months preceding the census night. The activity should be recorded as fully as possible, e.g. primary school teaching, retail trade of clothes, motor car repair, rice growing. Avoid unclear descriptions as teaching, trading etc. If the industrial sector in very rare cases is not known, write "99".

Section E: For women aged 15 - 49 years
The purpose of questions 17 and 18 is to collect information for estimating fertility and infant and child mortality, preferably directly from the woman concerned.

Information on live births (fertility) should be obtained for all women aged 15 to 49 years. For all others, i.e. for women less than 15 years and those more than 49 years and all males, "N/A" should be recorded.

Information should be requested of all women 15-49 years, irrespective of their marital status or whether you think they have borne children or not. Efforts should be made to get responses from the women themselves and permission to do so should be obtained from the head of household. If the woman concerned is not present, someone else - preferably the head of household - should be used to answer the questions.

Definition of live birth
A child born alive is one who cries after being born. Thus, a live birth is a birth which results in a child that shows any sign of life irrespective of the time of period within which these signs are manifest.

Question 17: Children ever born
Identify all eligible women using the age of the woman. Check with question 2 for consistency; the number of children in question 2 must be equal or higher than the number in question 17 (the higher number in question 2 accepted because foster children also are eligible in that question).


There are four parts to this question and the order of asking them is as follows:

Have you (or the respondent) given any live birth?
If the answer is "no", circle code 2 in column 'r' and enter "N/A" in the rest of the section to show that it is not applicable.

If the answer is "yes", circle code 1 and complete the other three parts of the questions.

It should be noted again that the children referred to in question 17 are the respondent's own children in the biological sense and not foster children, e. g. children of the husband by another woman or children of another relative.

How many children born alive to you (or the respondent) were with you (or her) on the census night?
Record the number (incl. "0") of males and females.

How many children born alive to you (or the respondent) were elsewhere on the census night?
Record the number (incl. "0") of males and females. These are children still alive but who were not at home on census night, e.g. they may be staying with some relative, be at a boarding school, have been given up for adoption or are grown-up children who have left the household.

Further probing may be necessary as all these children are to be entered whether they are members of the household or not.

How many children born alive to you (or the respondent) have died?
Make the appropriate entries under columns for males and females.

This information is extremely important and it is difficult to obtain accurate data, because some respondents may fail to mention children who died very young or a long time ago. Probe by asking "Any male or female child who was born alive but only survived a few days or hours?"

Many respondents will be reluctant to talk about child deaths and become sad or upset that you are asking such questions. Be very tactful in such situations. Explain that you know the subject is painful but that the information is very important for calculation of death rates (mortality).

Question 18: How old were you/name when you/she had your/her first live birth?
The question refers to the age of the mother at the time of the first live birth {not first pregnancy), and to be recorded in completed years:

actual age in completed years

"99" for not known (very limited cases)


Check the consistency with question 4 and 17.

Section F: Deaths in the household
The data on deaths required here refers to deaths in the last twelve months of members of the household. Deaths which occur after the census night are not to be recorded. Remember that respondents will be reluctant to talk about deaths and become sad or upset that you are asking such questions. Be very tactful in such situations.

Question 19: Did any deaths occur in the household in the last twelve months?
Circle the appropriate answer.

If the answer is "no" write "N/A" on the rest of the section. If the answer is "yes", obtain, for each death, the following details:

a. Was the deceased male or female ?
Circle the appropriate response, i.e. "1" for male; 2" for female.

b. How old was the deceased?
This refers to age at last birthday of the deceased and entries, in completed years, should be made as follows:

- "0" for children less than a year
- actual age in completed years for other deaths,
- "999" for not known (very limited cases)

c. For women aged 15 to 49 years and for deaths other than from an accident:
Did she die because of pregnancy, while giving birth or within 42 days after giving birth?
This question intends to measure maternal mortality. It is therefore essential that you identify the actual reason of death and that the death actually occurred during the last twelve months. Remember that respondents will be reluctant to talk about deaths and become sad or upset that you are asking such questions. Be very tactful in such situations.
- "Yes" should be recorded (circle "1") if death was caused by pregnancy, birth- giving or pregnancy- or birth-related disease causing death within 42 days after giving birth
- "No" should be recorded (circle "2") for all women who i) were not pregnant and for ii) a pregnant woman who, for example, was killed in a car accident or died from malaria; these are deaths that are not not related to pregnancy or birth.

If more than four deaths occurred in the household in the last twelve months, then proceed to the next questionnaire to complete the information. Remember to fill in Section A: Identification in such cases.

Section G: Housing characteristics
Responses to questions 20 to 22 and 24 to 26 are pre-coded. Circle the correct response. Write a "9" for not known.

Question 20: What is the tenure status of the household?
This refers to the arrangements under which the household occupies its living quarters in the nature of its right to be there. The categories, for which you are to circle the appropriate one, are:

1. Owner/purchaser
An owner or purchaser is one who owns the house or is in the process of buying it.
Some people may own their house in terms of customary law and should be recorded as owners.

2. Tenant
A tenant rents and occupies the whole dwelling unit and generally pays electricity and water charges to the urban authority.

3. Lodger
A lodger rents part of a dwelling unit which is normally occupied by the owner/purchaser.

4. Tied accommodation
A person living in tied accommodation occupies it by virtue of his or her job. The accommodation belongs to the employer and is made available as parts of terms of employment. If the person leaves the job, s/he is required to move out of the dwelling unit. An example are domestic workers quarters.

5. Other
This category includes those staying free in a dwelling unit but constituting a separate household

Question 21: Type of dwelling unit
The purpose of this question is to collect information on the type of housing occupied by the household, defined by the type of material used for the household's dwelling unit.

1. Concrete house (of either of three types)
- Concrete structure, concrete wall, concrete roofing, each floor is made from concrete
- Concrete structure, concrete wall, concrete floor, wooden roofing structure
- Concrete structure, concrete wall, wooden floor and roofing structure


These three alternatives are all to be coded with "1" (concrete house).

2. Wooden house (of either of two types)
Wooden structure, concrete ground floor, wooden floor, wooden roofing structure
Wooden structure, wooden ground floor, wooden floor, wooden roofing structure. These two alternatives arc to be coded as "2" (wooden house).

3. Concrete/wood house
Ground floor structure and wall made from concrete, second floor structure and wall are from wood.

This is to be coded as "3" (concrete/wood house).

4. Semi-permanent housing or other general type of housing
All other semi-permanent structures of bamboo, plywood, grass, etc.

5. Other types of housing (N.B: must be defined along with category 4)

Question 22: Is this dwelling unit electrified?
The response alternatives are:

[] 1. Yes - own meter
[] 2. Yes - shared meter
[] 3. Yes - own generated (diesel/hydro-power)
[] 4. Yes - car battery
[] 5. No

Alternative 1 and 2 above refers to public utility procurement of electricity, while alternative 3 refers to electricity produced locally by a co-operative or a household.

Question 23: What is the living area of the dwelling unit?
The purpose of this question is to capture the living area of the dwelling unit and to enable calculations on living area averages. The living area is not identical to building area, but comprises rooms, kitchen (remains to be defined)

- If the household occupies a two-storey building, the living area is the sum of the living areas in each floor.
- If the household occupies two or more houses, the living area is the sum of the living areas in the two houses.
- If two or more households share a house, each household should state the living area they occupy in the house.

Enter the living area in square meters, e.g.:

7 m2 = "7"
65 m2 = "65"
98 m2 = "98"

At most 3 digits are allowed, "998" is to be recorded for living area of 998 m2 or more. If the living area is not exactly known, make an estimate.

For not known, use "999".

Question 24: Water for drinking and cooking
The question asks for information on:

- main water source
- distance to that water source
- indirectly also whether water source is safe or not

The response alternatives are:

- Piped water, inside or outside
- Well/borehole, protected
- Well/borehole, unprotected
- River/stream/dam
- Rain water from tank/jar
- Other

If the main source of water varies during the year, record the source that supplies the largest quantity of water.

Question 25: What type of toilet facility is mainly used by this household?
This information can be used in obtaining a measure of sanitation level of the household since these facilities are important for disease control and health improvement. Please note that it is access to a toilet facility which is referred to here and not the ownership.

The response alternatives are:

1. Modern toilet: constructed according to the standards of toilet construction and has a filter system (better definition needed?)
2. Normal toilet: a tank inserted into a pit, with a toilet seat
3. Dry toilet: does not have toilet seat, with a pit dug in the ground and planks of wood at the floor and wall
4. Other types
5. None


Question 26: What is the household's main source of energy and cooking?
This refers to type of energy most often used during the year.

If the household uses electricity, check if the dwelling is electrified.

Section H: Total number of persons
Check the totals for males, females and grand total for the household and record these in the appropriate boxes in section H.

Fill in the totals for the household on the first empty line of the summary sheet on the cover of the booklet. The households are to be filled in on the cover in the order they appear in the booklet. In the case a booklet contains less than 36 households, there will obviously be empty positions in the summary section on the booklet cover.

9. Control of completed questionnaires

9.1 Check your work
Check your work for completeness in order to avoid a renewed visit to the household and ensure that:

- all answers are legible;
- any skip instructions have been followed correctly;
- identification has been entered in section A;
- household members' relationship and ages are consistent, e.g. children are not shown as being older than their parents; men are not shown as having borne children; babies are not shown as having university education, etc.;
- for females aged 15-49, appropriate entries have been made as required in section E;
- questions on education in section C have been asked to all persons aged 6 years and above;
- employment questions in section D have been asked to all persons aged 10 years and above;
- the totals for males, females and grand total have been entered in appropriate boxes in section H; and transferred to the cover of the questionnaire booklet;
- all relevant sections have been filled in and nothing has been overlooked;
- record the physical address of the household, enter the date of the interview on the space provided and sign the questionnaire. Your name is your certification that the information on the questionnaire is complete and accurate.


9.2 Census wall-mark
When the check shows that the interview with the household is complete, use the piece of chalk to mark the wall at the main entrance to the house with a cross as information for the supervisor or other officials that the household has been enumerated. Explain to the household that this cross must not be removed until the census period is over.

Thank the household for their participation.

10. When enumeration is terminating
The village headman will certify that the workload has been completed before you are allowed to leave the EA.

Once you have received this certification, you travel back to the District Centre and hand in your workload for checking by the district office staff and/or your supervisor. When the work has been accepted, your mission is completed.