Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart



Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey, 2013
Enumerator's manual

Ministry of Planning

National Institute Of Statistics
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Funded by
UNFPA and JICA
September, 2012

[p. 1]

Chapter 1

Introduction
As a survey enumerator, you are performing a duty, which is of great national importance. While you are privileged to be a survey enumerator, you have a big responsibility as well. You have to fulfill it with a sense of pride and devotion to duty. Please read this instruction manual thoroughly which will help in discharging your duties satisfactorily.

This chapter gives the background and objectives of the Cambodia Inter-Censal Population
Survey, 2013 (CIPS 2013) which is a sample survey. It also explains the various uses of survey data and some facts about the survey undertaking.

1. The Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey

The Survey involves listing of persons in select households and recording the characteristics of every one of them as at a specified time. When the information thus collected in the survey are compiled and analyzed we get to know about the size and distribution of the population by estimation as well as its demographic, social, economic and cultural characteristics. These are very essential for making suitable plans and programs for national and local development.

1.1 In February-March 2013, the demographic survey of population called the Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey will be conducted on a sample basis using updated 2008 Census frame that covered all parts of the country including remote and far flung areas. It will collect basic demographic, economic, social and cultural information of each individual as well as some information on buildings occupied by households and housing conditions and facilities available to households and some health information.

2. Objectives of the 2013 survey
The Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey, 2013 will be conducted with the following objectives.

(i). To strengthen the capacity of the staff of NIS and the provincial and district staff in demographic data collection.

(ii). To provide information to government and data users on population and household characteristics such as household size, age, sex, marital status, literacy and educational characteristics, economic characteristics, fertility, mortality and migration as well as housing and household characteristics and amenities. This should be useful to the government to evaluate the Rectangular Strategy plan in achieving its intended goals. It will help outline priority goals and strategies to reduce poverty rapidly, and develop Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDG's) and other Socioeconomic Development Goals. It will also be useful to the National Institute of statistics (NIS) in improving data availability and accessibility and in utilization of data until the 2018 census information is made available.

3. Uses of survey data

The survey data are required not only for administration but for also for economic and development planning. The ultimate aim of such planning is to provide a better way of life for the people of Cambodia. This will include reduction of poverty, increasing employment opportunities, improving the educational levels of the population and providing health for all.

3.1 Planning for education obviously requires a knowledge of the number of children of school age who are likely to require schooling at various levels. The Government cannot know where to build the

[p. 2]
necessary schools or how many school teachers must be trained unless it knows where the need is great in terms of the number of children who should be going to school.

3.2. The Government wishes to improve and extend the medical services of the country so as to eliminate diseases, to reduce the number of children dying in infancy and early childhood and reduce maternal mortality. But if medical services are to be planned properly, the Government must know the number of persons already involved in this task, the number of children being born and the rate at which they are dying, the number of maternal deaths etc.

3.3 For providing these services, it is not enough just to know how many people there are at the time of the survey because figures of this kind get out-of-date very quickly, We must know also how fast the population is increasing, so that the Government could know how many people there will be, not only this year but also next year, in five years, in ten years time etc. We therefore obtain information not only of people now living, but also of the number of children being born and the number of children who have died.

3.4 For planning for proper housing and to improve amenities like electric supply, drinking water, sewerage etc. the survey data will provide guidelines to the planners and administrators. Survey data will also be useful in several ways in trade, commerce, industry and population research.

4. Survey date and reference time

March 3, 2013 has been designated as the survey day. The reference time for the 2013 survey is
midnight (00 hours) of March 3, 2013. This means that the 2013 survey is expected to provide the estimated population of Cambodia as at midnight of March 3, 2013.

4.1. The preliminary work of house-listing (i.e. listing of buildings and households) will, however, commence on February 28, 2013. Following is the calendar of the 2013 survey operations:

Date: Name of operation

February 26-27, 2013: EA mapping
February 28 to March 2, 2013: house listing
March 3 - March 6, 2013: survey enumeration
March 7 - 10, 2013: collection of filled-in records at NIS

5. Authority for the 2013 survey

The CIPS 2013 is conducted under the authority of the Royal Decree (Kret) No. JS/RKT/02-96/08 dated February 29, 1996 on the organization of the General Population census of Cambodia. The Survey officers are expected to perform their duty diligently and keep the information collected at the survey confidential. The respondents are also expected to cooperate with the enumerators.

6. Field organization of the survey

The CIPS 2013 is conducted by NIS in the Ministry of Planning (MoP). It will be carried out under the overall control of H.E Director General of National Institute of Statistics who has the responsibility for instructing, deciding and endorsing all general items of work related to the survey. During the conduct of the survey, the population census office of the NIS under the Director of survey will be the central unit that will serve as the monitoring and communication and action center for the survey.

[p. 3]

6.1. The Province Director of planning will act as the province survey officer for his/her province and will be responsible for the operations in the province. In technical matters he/she will be assisted by an officer from NIS. District, Commune and village officers will also provide general assistance during the survey.

6.2 Enumerators will be drawn from District planning offices/ provincial planning offices at the rate of one enumerator for one EA in one village or PSU. Generally one supervisor will be appointed to closely supervise the work of three enumerators. Outside the NIS, special bodies will be created to make possible the much needed inter-agency co-operation and involvement in conducting the survey successfully.

[2013 Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey 2013 Organization chart omitted.]

[p. 4]

7. The 2013 Survey schedules

The 2013 survey will gather information through two schedules Form A: House list and Form B: household Questionnaire (See Appendix I and iII). Form A: House list to be canvassed during the preliminary round (February 28 to March 2, 2013) will be used to collect the following information in respect of buildings which have households in them: building / structure number*, predominant construction material of wall, roof and floor of building, whether building is wholly or partly residential, household number, and name and sex of head of household and number of persons usually living in the household. The word building is used in the survey to refer to a building or a structure made of any material.

7.1 Form B: household Questionnaire has five parts: parts 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. This will be used for survey enumeration during March 3 to 6, 2013 in selected households. In part 1, information on usual members of selected household present on survey night (March 3, 2013), visitors present on survey night and usual members absent on survey night will be collected. This survey covers only normal or regular household and not institutional or homeless households.

7.2 Part 2 of Form B, will be used to collect the following information in respect of each usual member of selected household present and each visitor to household: full name, relationship to head of household, sex, age, particulars of mother, children aged 0-14, marital status, age at first marriage, mother tongue, religion, birth place, previous residence, duration of stay, reason for migration, literacy(including literacy in Khmer language and literacy in another language), full time education, disability and economic characteristics.

7.3 In part 3 of Form B, age of females at the birth of the first child, fertility information of females aged 15 and over, the assistance of these females during the delivery and child registration information for the child born to these females in the household will be collected.

7.4 In part 4 of Form B, particulars in respect of members of household who had died during the previous 12 months will be collected.

7.5 In part 5 of Form B, following information will be collected on housing conditions and facilities: basis of occupation of the dwelling by household (like owner occupied or rented), main source of light available for the household, main cooking fuel used by household, whether toilet facility is available within premises with the type of these facilities, main source of drinking water supply for the household and its location, number of living rooms occupied by household and whether kitchen facility is available within premises. Information on ownership of some facilities like: radio/transistor, television, desk telephone, cell phone, personal computer, bicycle, motorcycle, refrigerator, washing machine, air-conditioner, fan, car/van, boat, tractor and whether the household accesses the internet, will also be collected.

7.6. The above information collected will help in knowing the demographic and housing characteristics of the country as a whole. It is, therefore, very necessary that the information is collected as accurately as possible. The Enumerator's work will be closely supervised by a Supervisor and other supervising officers.

[p. 5]

[Section 8 Enumerator's kit is not presented here.]

[p. 6]

Chapter 2

Filling-in of Form A: house list

9. The house list

Form A House List will be filled in as a preliminary operation for about three days preceding the
Survey night. Before the survey enumeration is taken up, it is essential to locate and identify all places which are occupied or used or which are likely to be occupied or used by people. The house-listing operations are mainly meant for this purpose and house-listing is a primary but important step in the survey. The house list will help select and identify households before the enumeration is undertaken. It will also provide preliminary information on the number of persons usually living in the household or usual members of the household.

9.1. The house-list which is proposed to be filled during the house-listing operations is given at the end of this book (Appendix I). It will be noted that the Form is simple. The manner in which the house-list has to be completed and the concepts and their explanation are described in detail in this chapter. It is absolutely essential for you to become thoroughly familiar with these instructions since this job of house-listing is an extremely important one. Apart from listing of houses you will also be collecting some useful data on housing which are required for planning purposes. The success of the house-listing operations is very much dependent on a thorough understanding of the concepts, definitions and instruction and on a faithful application of these concepts and definitions by you and following the instructions in the actual filling of the house-list form. If you have any doubt you should not hesitate to ask your supervisor for clarification.

9.2. The house-listing operations will involve certain basic steps which may be briefly summarized as follows:

(i). Updating enumeration area map (EA map) given to you in respect of your enumeration area
(EA).
(ii). Numbering of buildings and households in your EA and marking them on the fresh EA map to be drawn by you and
(iii). Filling in the house-list itself.

9.3. The procedure for EA map is first described and after that basic concepts relating to a building and a household are described. This is followed by the actual instructions with regard to filling in the house-list.

10. Updating EA map

You will be told which is the selected EA for the survey in the selected village (PSU) allotted to you.
In order to be able to complete the house-list in the EA allotted to you, it would be necessary to locate and identify the buildings and households in that EA. This can be done only if you are thoroughly familiar with the village area assigned to you for these operations. The purpose of the EA map is to help you to understand your jurisdiction or EA. Also, it is only if an EA map is with you it will be possible for you to allot building numbers in a systematic manner. The first step, therefore, is to update the EA, draw a fresh map and mark the residential and partly residential buildings in the EA.

10.1. The EA map of the selected EA that will be given to you for reference is a sketch map which is not drawn to scale (See Specimen at Appendix V and VI for rural and urban). It was prepared a few months

[p. 7]

prior to the survey and therefore, may require updating. An EA may include a village or part of a village (in case of a big village). EAs are delineated or formed in such a way that no building or structure with one or more households is left out. The EA map shows the general topographical details. The topographical details indicated on the EA map include permanent features and landmarks such as the village site, well-known roads, cart tracks, hills, rivers, irrigation channel, lake, etc., as also railway line, hospitals, schools, pagodas and similar clearly recognizable physical features. You may update the EA map first in consultation with the village chief concerned. Verify whether these recognizable features are found in their proper places in the EA map. You may make the necessary corrections by adding any new feature noticed by you or deleting any non-existing feature. If you find any new residential area not marked, you may indicate the same on the EA map. You should draw a fresh map for the selected EA in the blank form given to you after incorporating any changes or mentioned above.

10.2. The next step is to locate every single building occupied by one or more households in the EA. Such buildings should be marked on the EA map as indicated below:

Building wholly used for residential purpose

[] Building used for residential only
[] Building used both for residential and non-residential purposes (e.g. residence and shop, residence and hand-loom weaving, residence and workshop etc.)

10.3 When once the location of every building used wholly or partly for residential purposes is demarcated on the EA map it will be a simple matter to decide on numbering the buildings. No hard and fast rule can be laid down as to the direction in which the building numbers should run i.e. left to right or in a clockwise order or north-west to south-east and so on. Much depends on the lay-out. What is expected is that some convenient and intelligible order is followed.

11. Numbering of buildings

The instructions given hereafter will guide you to determine a building for the purpose of house
listing. A building is a readily distinguishable structure or group of structures which is taken as the unit for building numbering. The objective is to ultimately number and list out all physical units of constructions which are used for residential purposes, either wholly or partly.

11.1 Building: a building is generally a single structure on the ground. It is covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or with common dividing walls with adjacent buildings. In some areas the very nature of construction of houses is such that there may not be any wall. For example a conical roof almost touches the ground and an entrance is also provided and there will not be any wall as such. Such structures should be treated as buildings. Sometime a building is made up of more than one component unit which are used or likely to be used as dwellings (residences) or as establishments such as shops, business houses, offices, factories, workshops, work sheds, schools, places of entertainment and places of worship or as godowns, stores, animal sheds, etc. It is also possible that buildings which have component units may be used for a combination of purposes such as shop-cum-residence, workshop-cum-residence, office-cum- -residence, etc.

11.2 Sometimes a series of different buildings may be found along the street which are joined with one another by common walls on either side looking like a continuous structure. These different units are practically independent of one another and likely to have been built at different time and owned by different persons. In

[p. 8]

such cases though the whole structure with all the adjoining units apparently appears to be one building, each portion should be treated as a separate building and given separate numbers. On the other hand, you may come across cases, particularly in Phnom Penh, of multi-storeyed flats. In these cases while the structure looks like one building, the flats are occupied by different persons. In case of such multi-storeyed structures, having a number of flats occupied by different persons, the entire structure should be treated as one building and each household in that building should be identified and enumerated.

11.3 If there is more than one structure within an enclosed or open compound (premises) belonging to the same person, e.g. the main house, animal shed, sitting place, garage etc., only one building number should be given for this unit

11.4. The buildings should be numbered in a systematic manner as follows:

(i). Only buildings containing households should be numbered for listing. Thus, buildings which are wholly residential and buildings which are partly residential and partly non-residential (like a shop in which a family is also living; an office in which the watchman is living etc, should be numbered. Building which are wholly used for non-residential purpose need not be numbered. Vacant building, Locked building, building occupied by an institutional household should also be numbered. Buildings under construction where no household is living should not be numbered.

(ii). If an EA consists of a number of streets, the building in the various streets should be numbered continuously. Streets should be taken in uniform order from North-west to south-east. It has been observed that the best way of numbering the buildings is to continue with one consecutive serial on one side of the street and complete numbering on that side before crossing over to the end of the other side of the street and continuing with the serial, stopping finally opposite to where the first number began.

(iii). In a town / city EA, the numbering will have to run along the street and not in any arbitrary geographical direction.

(iv). Three digit numbers should be used for building numbers like 001, 002... 999. Building number should be painted or marked on a sticker to be pasted at entrance of the building in a manner that it can easily catch the eyes of any observer. While painting (or marking on a sticker) the building number, the letter S may be marked before it like S 008, S 021 etc. to distinguish our numbering ("S" standing for Survey) from other numbers which the building may have.

11.5 In some cases, the pattern of habitation may be such that a group of huts located in a compound, whether enclosed or not enclosed is occupied by one household. While the main residence may be located in one hut, other huts may be used for sleeping or as kitchen, bathroom, etc. Though each of the huts is a separate structure, they Form A single housing unit and therefore, have to be treated collectively as a single building /structure for the purpose of the survey. If some of the huts are used by one household and the other by a second household as residence, then the two groups of huts should be treated as two separate building units. You may also find people living in floating houses or boats near the bank of river which are fixed and do not move from place to place like boats. These floating houses may be treated as building /structures and numbered along with other buildings in the EA concerned. Some boats may be numbered as B120, B121 etc. Some people may be living in caves, big steel containers or un-serviceable buses which are fixed to the ground. These may be also considered as building /structures of the EA concerned and numbered.

[p. 9]

12. Household
A household is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevented any of them from doing so. There may be a household of persons related by blood or a household of unrelated persons or having a mix of both. Examples of unrelated households are boarding houses, hostels, residential hotels, rescue homes, jails, pagodas, etc. These are called "Institutional Household". There may be one-member households, two member households or multi-member households. For 2013 Survey purposes only the normal households living in buildings/structures/boats fixed at bank of a river are included. All Institutional Households and homeless households are excluded.

12.1 If a group of persons who are unrelated to each other live in a building /structure, but do not have their meals from a common kitchen, then they would not constitute an Institutional household. Each such person should be treated as a separate normal household. The important link in finding out whether there is a household or not, is the existence of a common kitchen.

12.2 Each household in a building will be allotted numbers like 01, 02 etc., and will be listed according to the instructions that follow. As each household will be related to the physical structure of a building, the household number as such may not be painted (or marked on a sticker) on the door of each building. In case there are several households in a building (e.g. flats) household numbers may be painted on the door (or marked on a sticker) for easy identification.

13. Marking building numbers on EA map

The numbers allotted to each building and the number of households contained in each building should be marked on the EA map as shown below:

[EA map omitted here]

13.1 With the help of arrow marks at convenient intervals, the direction in which the building numbers run should be indicated.

13.2 Indicate vacant, locked and institutional household buildings by letters V, L and I respectively on the EA map near the building number concerned. Indicate a pagoda by the letter P.
13.3 Specimen updated EA map after building numbering may be seen at Appendix VII for rural and appendix VIII for urban.

14. House-listing

After numbering buildings and marking on EA map, the next step is to list the buildings and households in a prescribed schedule, namely the house list. At the survey this form called Form A: House list (see Appendix I), will be canvassed by you in the first stage.

[p. 10]

14.1 You have to visit every building in your EA and make sure to list buildings that have households or persons living in them. You have to be careful in the case of office and business building as watchman or some members of staff may use them as premises. You must include such buildings used for both residential and non-residential purposes in the list.

14.2 The instructions given below will guide you in filling-in the house list:

On the top the house list form, provision is made to note the name of Khet/Municipality with Code No.; name of Srok/Khand/Krong with Code No.; name of Khum/Sangkat with Code No.; name of Phum/Mondol with Code No.; Sample enumeration area (EA) number and number of households in that EA. Alternate names of administrative units like Khet/Municipality, Srok/Khand/Krong are given for convenience. The names of the unit not applicable may be scored out. For example, if your EA is in Krong and not in Srok score out Srok etc. These entries which will be referred to as "Identification particular" hereafter, are to be filled in by you very carefully. This is the method by which every village in any Khum/Sangkat in every Srok/Khand/Krong and of the Khet/Municipality is identified by a combination of numbers. For this purpose every such unit would have been allotted code numbers. Your supervisor would have indicated to you the code numbers. You will have to enter these numbers in the relevant spaces against the names of the various jurisdictional units. It will be advisable to fill-in the Identification particulars in the blank forms before you commence house listing as it will save time during your rounds.

15. Column 1: line number

Every line in the house list is to be numbered by you serially. The line numbers will be continuous for your EA. For your convenience, serial numbers 1,2,3,4,...9 and 0 have already been printed in this column. The last line number may be made 10, by writing 1 before 0 in the first page. In the second page, you can convert number 1 into 11 by writing 1 before 1; number 2 can be made 12 and so on. The last number can be made 20. This procedure can be continued till the end of EA.

16. Column 2: building / structure number

The number which has been assigned in the EA map and which has been painted (or marked on a sticker) by you on the building containing one or more households, should be entered in this column without the letter S (e.g. 001, 002,... etc.). In the case of vacant building, locked building, building occupied by an institutional household and pagoda fill in this column with the building number and put dash in columns 3 to 12 of the house list. In column 13 write vacant, locked, institutional household or pagoda as the case may be.

17. Columns 3 to 5: predominant construction material of building/ structure

This question has been divided into three parts: (a) material of wall; (b) material of roof; and (c) material of floor. For your convenience the description of the predominant construction material has been indicated on the house-list itself under each item, i.e., wall, roof and floor. A numerical code for a group of materials has been indicated. What you should do is to enquire about the materials of construction of building and enter the appropriate code in columns 3 to 5 for the materials of wall, roof and floor respectively.

[p. 11]

18. Column 3: material of wall

For material of wall, eight codes have been provided which are indicated in the schedule itself. In order to determine the material of wall you have to take into account the material out of which the major portions of the walls of the building are made and then select the appropriate code. The code thus selected should be entered in column 3. Dash (-) will be entered in the case of a structure with pillars and without walls, since question of wall does not arise in such a case. This can be explained in the Remarks column.

18.1 In case material of wall is other than those listed with codes 1 to 7, write 8 and give the name of material in column 3 itself or in Remarks column.

19. Column 4: material of roof

For material of roof of the building, eight codes have been provided. These are indicated in the schedule itself. If two or more kinds of materials are used for roof, the material that is mostly used may be taken as the roof material. After ascertaining the material of the roof you have to give the suitable numerical code in column 4. In case material of roof is other than listed with Codes 1 to 7, write 8 and give the name of material in column 4 itself or in Remarks column.

20. Column 5: material of floor

For material of floor, seven codes have been provided as indicated in the schedule itself. For the material of floor you have again to take the major portion of material out of which the floor of the building is made. For example, if in a building only the drawing room has ceramic tiles floor while all other rooms and corridors have just cement flooring, the material of floor to be recorded here will be "cement", i.e. Code 3. If a building has tiled floor in the bathroom and all other rooms have cement floor the material of floor will again be "cement".

20.1 It is emphasized that while recording the materials of wall, roof and floor, you have only to give the code number in the columns provided for this purpose and not description, except for other (specify).

21. Column 6: purpose of building / structure

If building is used wholly for residential purpose, give code 1 in this column. If it is used as a residence as well as a shop, give code 2. If it is used as a residence and workshop (or a household industry like weaving, pottery etc.), give code 3. If it is used as a residence and other establishment, give code 4 and specify that establishment. Examples of code 4 are residence and school, residence and office, residence and bank, residence and pagoda etc. In these cases write 4. school; 4. office; 4. bank; 4. pagoda etc.

22. Important

If a residential or partly residential building is found locked because the household members have gone on travel, then it should not be treated as "vacant". Write in the "Remarks" column: "Building locked occupants traveling". If a building is locked because the occupants have gone to market, farm and are likely to return in the day you may contact them using the call back card and fill in all columns without treating them as locked.

[p. 12]

23. Column 7: household no.

As already defined, a "household" is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevented any of them from doing so. It may be made up of related or un-related persons or of mixed type. A cook or a servant living in the house of his employer and taking his food there is part of that household.

23.1. There should be a household number in column 7 since you have noted in column 6. That the building is wholly or partly residential.

23.2. There may be more than one household in a building as already pointed out. Each household in one building should be given a separate number (01, 02, etc.). You will get an idea of the numbering of the buildings and households located in them from the following:

Ex 1: building no. 009 having one household
Building/structure number = 009
Household number = 01

Ex 2: building no. 009 having two households
Building/structure number = 009
Household number = 01
Household number = 02

Ex 2: building no. 009 having two households
Building/structure number = 009
Household number = 01
Household number = 02
Household number = 03

If a building contains more than one household, the building number should not be repeated in column 2 on the subsequent lines (please see example above). Also, the predominant construction materials of building (Columns 3 to 5) and purpose of building (Column 6) need not be filled-in on subsequent lines once these particulars have been entered against the first household of the building.

24. Columns 8 and 9: particulars of head of household

Columns 8 and 9 are required to be filled in, only in respect of the head of household. You have to write the name and sex of the head of household.

25. Definition of head of household

The head of household for survey purposes is a person who is recognized as such in the household. He or she is generally the person who bears the chief responsibility for the management of the household and takes decisions on behalf of the household. The head of the household need not necessarily be the eldest male member, but may be a female member or a younger member of either sex. You need not enter into any long argument about it but record the name of the person who is recognized by the household as its head. In the case of an absentee de jure "Head", the person on whom the responsibility of the managing the affairs of the household falls at the time of house-listing, should be regarded as the head.

[p. 13]

26. Column 8: name

The name of the head of each household should be written in this column.

27. Column 9: sex (1: male, 2: female)

If the head of the household is a male, write 1. If female, write 2 in this column. For eunuchs and hermaphrodites, you may write 1 in the column.

28. Column 10 to 12: number of persons usually living in the household

Enter the number of males usually residing in the household in column 10, number of females in column 11 and total number of persona in column 12 (total of columns 10 and 11). Please note that the purpose of ascertaining these figures is to have a preliminary idea of the usual residents in the household. Casual visitors should be excluded as they will be considered at their respective places of normal residence. Persons like household helper, visitor or guest living and having their meals with the family are also considered as usual members of the household if they have been living with the household for six months or more, or if they have no other place of residence. Usual residents absent for six months or more should be excluded from the household in which they usually reside.

28.1 After entering the figures in these three columns, you must arithmetically check whether number of males in column 10 plus number of females in column 11 is equal to persons in column 12.

29. Column 13: remarks

This will provide space for any useful information about the building, or household. As already mentioned in the Instructions for filling in column 8, write "Household living in boat or B" in case of such household. If the building is vacant, write vacant here as already mentioned. If the building is locked and the occupants have traveled, you may record this in the Remarks column as already stated. This space may be also suitably used to explain code 8 in columns 3 and 4 or Code 7 in column 5, if necessary.

30. Column 14: serial number of household

This column should be filled by the supervisor. Therefore this column should be left out by the enumerator. The column "Number of households in the EA" at the top should be filled in at the end of house listing after adding the total number of households given at each page under column 7.

31. General

Each page of the house-list of the EA should be numbered continuously as 1, 2, 3, etc. The page number should be given in the place allotted on the right hand top corner of the house-list. On every pages of the house-list for EA, the total number of pages used for EA should be given in the space provided on right hand top corner.

31.1. The total number of households in column 7 of the house-list should be counted and written in the box for total under this column in each page. The figures of males, females and persons in columns 10, 11 and 12 may be totaled and given for each page. In a separate sheet called House list summary (form 1),

[p. 14]

specimen of which is given in appendix II you have to copy totals of each of these columns from each page and strike the grand totals for EA.

31.2 It is important to check whether the figures entered in the house list summary are arithmetically correct. The sum of number of males in column 3 and the number of females in column 4 should be equal to the number of persons in column 5. This should be checked for every line and total line of house list summary.

31.3. The enumerator should write his/her name and sign all the pages of the house list and also record the date in the space provided.

[p. 15]

Chapter 3

Filling-in of Form B household questionnaire

32. General

Form B Household Questionnaire will be canvassed in 30 selected households in your EA. The supervisor will select the households from Form A House List according to instructions. The supervisor would tick mark (x) in column 14 for each of the 30 selected households. You should interview and fill in the Form B only for the selected households. You must take Form A along with you and identify each selected household and do the enumeration in Form B. Under no circumstances the selected household should be replaced or substituted by another household.

33. Reference time is midnight of March 3, 2013

The reference time for the 2013 Survey is midnight of Sunday, March 3, 2013. This means that the 2013 Survey is expected to provide a snap shot of the population in the households in the EA as it exists at midnight of March 3, 2013 or 00 hours of March 3, 2013. In other words, the population count relates to this reference time. As you will agree, it is not possible to ascertain the particulars of every individual at this fixed point of time. Therefore, the enumeration is spread over four days beginning on March 3, 2013 and ending on March 6, 2013. During these days, information is collected of persons present in households at midnight of March 3, 2013 (called survey night). Hence the enumeration relates to this reference time. Note that only persons alive in household at midnight (or 00 hours) of this day should be enumerated and that all questions you ask must relate to survey night unless you have specific instructions otherwise in this manual (e.g. questions on economic characteristics). Please also note that for House listing no such reference time is fixed since it is only a general preliminary inquiry. But for the Survey (when Form B Household Questionnaire will be canvassed), a reference time is fixed, since survey is expected to provide the population figures as at that time.

34. Important Note

Form B will be filled-in for all selected normal households in your EA. Form A will help you in identifying each normal household.

34.1 It is possible that between survey night and the time of enumeration the composition of population in some households may have changed. If somebody had died after Survey night, include him or her in the count as that person was living in that household on survey night. If a baby was born after Survey night, you should not enumerate the baby who did not exist at midnight of March 3, 2013. Visitors are enumerated in normal or regular household only if they spent survey night in that household.

35. Specimen Form of questionnaire

Specimen of Form B household Questionnaire is given as appendix II. This form should be used to enumerate individuals in selected households in your EA.

Instructions for filling-in Form B household questionnaire part I: identification and population particulars

[p. 16]

36. Identification particulars

Fill in name and code of Khet/Municipality, Srok/Khand/Krong, Khum/Sangkat and Phum/Mondol, and sample EA Number as you have already done for Form A Houselist. Copy from Form A, the Building no. and Household no. and serial number of selected household on the top of the form. It will be advisable to fill-in the Identification particulars, Building no., Household no. and name of head of household and serial number of selected household, in the blank forms before you commence enumeration as it will save time during your rounds.

37. What to do when two or more questionnaire are used for a household?

There is a provision on each questionnaire to enumerate 10 persons. If you have to enumerate more than 10 persons in a household, continue enumeration on a new questionnaire. This new questionnaire is in continuation of the first one and must be treated as such. Remember that whenever you use more than one questionnaire for any household, you must write household no... (Continued) on the right hand top of second and subsequent questionnaire. You should fill in Identification particulars in continuation questionnaire also. You should write in the square provided at left hand bottom of the first page (Part 1) of the first questionnaire, the total number of the questionnaires used for the household. You must clip or pin together all questionnaires of the household concerned.

37.1 Serial numbers are printed in column 1 of statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 of part 1 and column 1 of part 2, like 1, 2, 3... 0. The last serial number in the first page may be made 10 by writing 1 before 0 for the tenth person. In the next continuation questionnaire, you may continue numbering by putting the digit 1 before the numbers already printed on the second questionnaire to form 11, 12, 13 etc., and for the last one you have to put 2 before 0 to make it 20. When you use a third questionnaire (May be rarely), you should put 2 before the existing numbers to form 21, 22, 23... and so on.

38. Name of head of household

Head of household has already been defined. You may find his/her name against household no. concerned in column 8 of Form A: House list. You should record that here. If there is a change in the name of head household between house-listing and now, record the new name.

39. Serial number of household selected

Copy the serial number of selected household from column 14 of Form A house list.

40. Filling in of statements 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3

For filling in these statements, please carefully read the following instructions: usual member may be divided into two categories: (i). those who slept in the house occupied by the household on survey night i.e. those who were present on survey night and (ii) those who were away and so were absent on survey night. Please note that persons on night duty (e.g. doctors, nurses, policemen, watchmen, prison wardens etc.) who would have normally slept in the house but for doing on night duty should be treated as usual members present in household on survey night.

[p. 17]

40.1 Visitors (i.e. guests of any member of household) who slept in the house on survey night are called visitors to household present on survey night.

40.2 In statements 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 of Form B Part 1, you have to fill in some particulars of usual members of household present on survey night, visitors to household present on survey night and usual members of household absent on survey night respectively.

41. Important note

You use the number of persons usually living in the household recorded in columns 10, 11 and 12 of the house list for guidance. But please remember that those figures related to all usual members of the household in general. Now you have to contact the head of the household or any responsible member of the household and obtain information on usual members and visitors present on survey night for filling in the schedule as per instructions contained in the following pages. You should arrange the timing of your visit to households in your EA in such a way that you would able to meet the head of household or any responsible member of each household. Sometimes you may find that all the members of a household had gone out for a few hours for shopping, work, study etc. leaving the building locked. In such cases you should leave a message for the household concerned that you will again visit the household for survey enumeration (giving time and date) and requesting them to be present at that time. For this purpose you may use call Back Cards (Appendix IX).

42. Statement 1.1 usual members present on survey night

In this statement you should list out all usual members of household present on survey night. You should write down first the name of the head of household (refer definition given earlier in paragraph 41 Chapter 2). If the head of household was absent during the reference night, find out who was responsible for the household in the absence of the head of the household and record his or her name, provided this person slept in the household on survey night.

42.1 In entering the names in statement 1.1 it would be better if some system is followed. After entering the name and other particulars of the head of household, you should cover the near relations such as wife or husband of the head of the household, sons and daughters, each son's wife and children, each daughter's husband and children, then other relations such as brothers, sisters, mother, father, etc., of the head of the household, then domestic servants, if any etc. Such a system of listing and entering of particulars will ensure that omissions are avoided, particularly of small children. It will also help in crosschecking replies regarding age.

42.2 A word of caution: you should ask probing questions regarding relations such as unmarried sisters, parents, domestic servants, and children. Otherwise the head of the household may not indicate that there are such persons as usual members of the household present on the Survey night. Please make repeated enquiries about infants and very young children because they are often liable to be out of the count.

43. Column 1: serial number

Serial number has to be given for each person using the numbers already printed.

[p. 18]

44. Column 2: full name

This question hardly calls for any explanation. The names of persons starting with the head of the household should be entered here. The names you put down should be such that if a second visit is made to the house during or after the survey, the persons to whom the names refer can be easily identified.

Babies who have not been named

44.1 Occasionally you will come across babies who were born before Survey night but who haven't been named by the time you call to enumerate. In such cases write down "Baby" before the family name. For example, if the newly born baby 's father 's name is savongz you should put down baby savongz.

Persons with identical names

44.2 you may also come across households where two or more persons are known by same family name (e.g. Meas). In such cases you must record also the name by which they are distinguished in the household and by neighbours and friends (e.g. Meas Savongz and Meas Savuth).

45. Column 3: relationship to head of household

In this column you will have to record the relationship to head of household in full. The first person to be recorded is the head of household. In the cases of the head write "Head". For others write the full relationship. Do not use words like "nephew" "niece", "uncle" or "aunt", but state whether brother's or sister's son or daughter (for nephew or niece) or father's or mother's brother (for uncle), or father's or mother's sister (for aunt). In the case of adopted son or adopted daughter or step son / daughter write as such and do not write son/daughter. For brother in-law, write wife's brother or sister's husband as the case may be. For grandson, write son's son or daughter's son as the case may be. In the case of boarders or domestic servants / cooks, etc., who are enumerated as members of the household though unrelated, write boarder, domestic servant or cook.

46. Column 4: sex

Record the code 1 for male and 2 for female. It is important to ask the sex of the persons when information is being given to you by a third person. Bear in mind that some names can be misleading in this respect. For example, Vichet or Socheat can be used for a male as well as a female. For eunuchs and hermaphrodites write 1.

47. Statement 1.2: visitors present on survey night

You have to record in statement 1.2 of Form B Part 1, the full name relationship to head of household and sex of every visitor who was present in the household on survey night. Follow the instructions mentioned above for filling column 1 to 4. You are also required to write in column 5 to 6, the usual residence of the visitor. If the usual residence of the visitor is the same village write same village. If another village within Cambodia write the name of district to which that place belongs with name of province within brackets in column 5 and put a dash (-) in column 6. If the visitor usually resides in another country put a dash (-) in column 5 and write the name of that country in column 6. If no visitor was present in the household on survey night, score out neatly statement 1.2.

[p. 19]

48. Statement 1.3: usual members absent on survey night

The entries in statement 1.3 are restricted to usual members of the household who were absent from the house on survey night and staying somewhere else. Note that only five lines have been provided in this column. If there are more than five persons to be entered here, you must use a continuation questionnaire and suitably enter the serial numbers.

48.1 In statement 1.3 you should, in addition to full name, relationship to head of household and sex, record age, location on survey night and duration of absence of every usual member of the household who was absent on survey night. For filling in the name, sex and relationship to head or temporary head, follow the instructions mentioned above. For filling the age, follow the instructions given for filling column 5: age, of Form B Household questionnaire part 2: individual Particulars.

48.2. The "location on survey night" (Column 6 or 7) refers to the place where the absentee usual member spent survey night. If the location or place where absentee usual member of the household was residing on survey night was the same village write same village. If another village within Cambodia give name of the district to which that village belongs with name of province within brackets in column 6. If it is another country, write only the name of the country in column 7. If these details are not known, write "not known" under Column 6 or 7.

48.3 In column 8 you are expected to write in completed months how long he/she was absent up to survey night. For example, if the person has been away for two months three weeks, write 2 in the space provided. If he/she was absent for less than one month, write down 0.

48.4 If the usual head of household was absent on survey night his or her name should be entered on the first line in statement 1.3. Remember, however, to indicate in the relationship column the relation of the person to the temporary head entered in statement 1.1. Thus, you should never enter Head in relationship column in statement 1.3, but specify whether this absent person is the husband, father, brother, mother, etc., of the temporary head. If no usual member of household was absent on survey night, score out neatly statement 1.3.

49. Total numbers of persons in statement 1.1 and 1.2

On the right-hand side of statement 1.3, are boxes in which you should put down the total number of persons (male plus female) in statement 1.1 and 1.2. If there is no entry in statement 1.2, record "00" in the box for "Total Number of persons in statement 1.2 ". As regards, total number of persons in statement 1.3, you need not do anything. It will be done later in office.

50. Total of statement 1.1 and statement 1.2

One box has been provided for recording the total number of person in statement 1.1 and statement 1.2. You are expected to add the number of persons in statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 and put the total in the box concerned.

50.1 If you use more than one questionnaire for a household you should add up the number of persons listed under Statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 on each questionnaire and put the total in the appropriate boxes of the

[p. 20]

first questionnaire for the household. The boxes on the second subsequent questionnaires should be left blank. You have to give your name, signature and date at the appropriate place.

Instructions for filling-in Form B household questionnaire part 2: individual particulars

51. The layout of Form B household questionnaire part 2

This part of the questionnaire is divided into columns and rows. There are columns numbered 1,2,3...24. Each column refers specifically to a questionnaire Item which is clearly stated at the head of the column.

51.1. There are ten lines. Each line is reserved for one person. This means that if you are writing down the particulars of one person, you must use one line only starting from the left and moving along the line to the right.

51.2 Remember that you have to fill in part 2 only for usual members and visitors (i.e. persons listed in statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 of part 1) who were present in the household on survey night. Do not include here usual members who were absent on survey night (i.e. persons listed in statement 1.3 of part 1).

52. Instructions for filling-in column 1 to 25 of Form B: part 2

You have to collect information in part 2 for all persons mentioned in statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 of part 1. Some of the following questions have been answered in part 1. Therefore there will be no need to ask these questions again. In such cases all you have to do is to copy the information in the appropriate column.

53. Column 1: serial no.

Serial number has to be given for each line (i.e. for each person in the household starting from the head of household).

For your convenience the serial numbers have been printed in this column which you may use suitably. Please see that the last serial number given for the household is equal to the "Total number of persons in statement 1.1 and 1.2" given in the thick square at right hand bottom on the first page (Part 1).

54. Columns 2 to 4:

The information in these columns should be first entered from statement 1.1 and statement 1.2 of part 1 before proceeding further to fill in other columns for each person.

55. Column 2: full name

Write in space provided the names of all respondents in the household (as in statement 1.1 and statement 1.2). First, names in statement 1.1 in that order may be copied. This may be followed by names in statement 1.2 in that order.

[p. 21]

56. Column 3: relationship
Based on the information already collected in column 3 of statements 1.1 and 1.2 give code for relationship to head of household, for each person. Codes for relationship are provided on the questionnaire itself below column 3. Read the relationship and select the proper Code. Note that Code 1 is for head of household. Always head of household will be the first person enumerated in the household. Code 2 should be given to wife of male head of household or to husband of female head of household. Code 3 should be given to son or daughter of head of household. Code 4 should be given to stepchild. Code 5 should be given adopted/foster child. Code 6 should be given to father or mother of head household. Code 7 should be given to sibling (brother or sister of the head of household). Code 8 should be given to grandson or granddaughter of head of household. Code 9 should be given to niece/nephew or daughter/son of brother/sister of head of household. Code 10 should be given to son/daughter-in-law. Code 11 should be given brother/sister-in-law meaning brother/sister of wife/husband of head of household. Code 12 should be give to father/mother-in law or father/mother of wife/husband of head of household. All other relatives of head of household not mentioned above should be given code 13. You should take sufficient care to avoid wrong coding of relationship to head of household. For example, sister's son should not be coded as son (code 3) because the word son is there. The correct Code in this case is 9. A servant should be given code 14. Non-relatives of household including boarder should be given code 15.

57. Column 4: sex

This column may be filled in by copying the information from column 4 of statement 1.1 and 1.2 for the persons concerned.

58. Column 5: age

The age of every person must be stated in completed years only, as on March 3, 2013. For those who know their birthdays, the age to be recorded is the age as at last birthday. "Age in completed years" mean that all the ages must be recorded in full years discarding fractions of years and months.

58.1 For instance, 15 years 11 months should be written down as 15. Do not write down months. Only years are required. The age of all infants who are less than one year old should be recorded as "00". In this connection you are requested to make sure that infants of the household even if one day or less than one day old as on survey night are invariably enumerated. It is again pointed out that you should take all precautions to enumerate children (less than age 14) and infants (less than 1 year). Unless you ask probing questions they are likely to be omitted. This is a very important instruction that you should bear in mind always. It would be desirable to ascertain the date of birth wherever possible and calculate the age in completed years.

58.2 What to do when a person does not know his/her age?

For such a person use any of the following methods to estimate his/her age:

You may ask him/her to state the year of birth according to animal calendar. Based on the information furnished and using the conversion table given to you, record the age carefully in completed years.

[p. 22]

(i). Ask him/her to name any historical event (preferably a local one) which he/she has been told as having occurred around the time of his/her birth. You may be given a list of historical events for this purpose and you may suggest a suitable event from this list also.
(ii). Ask him/her to give an indication of how old he/she was when that historical event occurred. (iii). Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he/she was about 20 years old when Cambodia attained Independence, his or her age may be about 20+59 (November 9, 1953 to March 3, 2013) = 79 years.

Sometimes the age can be ascertained with reference to the age of another person of known age, who may be living in the same household or in the neighboring household or that of a well-known person of the village chief.

Only as a last resort you should be estimate a person's age from his/her physical features. If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person then obviously you have to rely on the information supplied by the third person in estimating the age in respect of the person who is absent. You should not leave this column blank under any circumstances.

59. Column 6: mother - is mother (i.e. natural mother) of the person alive?

The question is to be asked for knowing whether the person's mother is living at all. If the mother is alive anywhere you should give code 1. In case mother had died you should give code 2. In case the respondent does not know whether his mother is alive or not due to separation from her at the time of war or political disturbance or any reason, you should give code 3. If you record code 1 for a person you should proceed to fill in column 7, if the person is aged 0-14. If that person is aged 15+ skip to column 8. If you record code 2 or code 3 for the person skip to column 8.

60. Column 7: whether living with own mother

For a child in the age group of 0-14 with code 1 in col. 6. This question has to be asked to know, if the child has his/her own mother in this household. If mother is living in the same household you should write the serial number (see column 1) of the mother in this column. For example if the wife of head of household is the natural mother of a male child aged 6, you should record her serial number (say 2 or 3) in this column in respect of that child.. It mother is not living in the same household, record "0" in this column.

61. Column 8: marital status

Codes are provided in the column heading itself. You have to ask this delicate question carefully and record appropriate code numbers according to the answers given. Record code 1 for Never Married i.e. for those who have never entered into any form of marital union. Record code 2 for Married, 3 for widowed, 4 for divorced and 5 for separated.

61.1. The category "Married" will include those persons who are contractually married but not yet living as a man and wife. Even if a marriage is disputed in the neighborhood write code 2 if the person concerned says he or she is married and is in stable de facto union. The category separated will include both legal and de facto separations. Persons who were widowed or divorced but have remarried must be recorded as married.

62. Column 9: age at first marriage

[p. 23]

This question should be asked for other than never married persons. Age at first marriage of a person in completed years is the age at the time the person got married for the first time of his/her lifetime. This question should be asked only if the marital status of the person is "married or widowed or divorced or separated".

63. Column 10: mother tongue

Mother tongue of a person is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person. If the mother died in infancy, the language mainly spoken in the person's home in childhood will be the mother tongue. In case of infants and deaf mutes, the language usually spoken by the mother should be recorded. In case of doubts, the language mainly spoken in the household may be recorded.

63.1 You have to use the following codes for recording answer to this question:

Mother Tongue and codes
Code: mother Tongue
01: Khmer
02: Vietnamese
03: Chinese
04: Lao
05: Thai
06: French
07: English
08: Korean
09: Japanese
10: Chaaraay
11: Chaam
12: Kaavaet
13: Klueng
14: Kuoy
15: Krueng
16: Lon
17: Phnong
18: Proav
19: Tumpoon
20: Stieng
21: Ro Ong
22: Kraol
23: Raadear
24: Thmoon
25: Mel
26: Khogn
27: Por
28: Suay
29: Any other mother tongue which has to be specified

63.2 Please note in this connection, the instructions given below: You should tell the respondent that the information required here is mother tongue and not any other language spoken. It should also be made clear that this information is required purely for statistical purposes only.

However, you are bound to record the language as returned by the person as his/her mother tongue and you should not enter into any argument with him/her and try to record any language other than what is returned.

If you have reasons to suspect that in your area mother tongue is not being truthfully returned, you should record the mother tongue returned through code and make a report to your supervisor for verification.

[p. 24]

It is possible that mother tongue may be different for different persons in a household. It is, therefore, necessary to record for every person in the household his/her mother tongue. The codes from 10 to 28 relate to ethnic groups.

64. Column 11: religion

Record the appropriate code number for the religion to which the respondent says he/she belongs. There is no need to verify this. You must accept whatever answer is given. For those claiming to belong to other religions record code 4 and specify the reported religion e.g. 4 Hindu. For a person who says that he/she has no religion, enter 4 no religion.

65. Column 12: birth place

If a person reports that he/she was born in this village (i.e. village of enumeration), record code 1 in the blank space (not in shaded boxes which are reserved for coding in office). Persons reporting to have been born in this village are those born in the same village in which you are conducting your enumeration. The birth place of the person is the place of usual residence of the person's mother at the time of birth. For example, for a person born in (a) hospital or maternity home outside the usual place of residence of the mother or (b) mother's village or (c) some other place where the mother had gone for a short visit, the birth place of this person will be the place in which the mother normally lives and not the place of the hospital, the mother's village or place of visit. If however, the mother's length of stay outside her place of usual residence was one month or more or the mother had the intention of staying in the new place for one month or more the "actual place of physical birth" will be considered as the birthplace of the person in question. For example, suppose Bossadine who normally resides with her husband in Bak Kheng went to Kandal Koh to deliver her child in her mother's house, and returned within 15 days the birthplace of the child will be Bak Kheng and not Kandal Koh.

65.1 If however, Bosadine stays in Kandal Koh for one month or more, then the Birth place of her child will be Kandal Koh and not Bak Kheng.

65.2 For those persons reporting to have been born outside the village in which you are conducting your enumeration, record the district in which the village of birth falls and also write name of province of that district within brackets. For those born outside Cambodia write name of the country of birth.

66. Column 13: previous residence

In the blank space (not shaded boxes), record 1 if the respondent lived in the village where enumeration is being conducted continuously since birth (except for shifting to another place outside the village of enumeration for purely temporary stay) and skip to Column 16. If a person was usually residing in another village immediately before he/she came to the present village where he/she is enumerated, the earlier village is the person's previous residence. If the person had lived earlier in more than one village, the immediate previous residence of the person is what we are interested in. For example, a person enumerated in village A had lived earlier in village B and before that in village c, his/her previous residence is village B and not village c. Write name of district of previous residence and also write name of province of that district within brackets. If respondent is reported to have resided outside Cambodia, write the name of the country.

[p. 25]

Important note: (i). Even if a person was born at the place of enumeration but had shifted subsequently to another village for work or for studies and had come back again to place of enumeration, he/she should be considered as having had another place of residence prior to his/her enumeration here. (ii) If a person is not able to say the name of district of previous residence please ask for the name of commune or village of last residence and record it instead of the district. In such cases put a asterisk (star mark) on it and write in the space below column 13 whether it is the name of the commune or village.

67. Column 14: duration of stay

The question on duration of stay refers to duration of stay in village of enumeration since coming from last previous residence. This question "how long have you lived in this village?" is to be administered only if answer in column 13 is that the place of last residence was another village in Cambodia or in a country outside Cambodia. In other words, the answer in column 13 is not Code 1. Duration of stay should be recorded in column 14 using the codes for column 14 given on the questionnaire itself.

67.1 If a person is reported to have resided in a village (since coming from last previous residence) for less than 1 year, record 00; if from 1 year to less than 2 years, record 01; if from 2 years to less than 3 years, record 02 and so on. For 98 years and over, record 98 only.

68. Column 15: reason for migration

"Migration", means moving to the place where you are enumerating from another village (or another country) which was the last previous residence. For persons to whom you have given code other than 1 in column 13 and for whom you have entered duration of stay code in column 14, you have to record reason for migration by giving one of the codes applicable to the person concerned from the list of codes for Column 15 given below the column. The reasons given are simple and easily understandable. Code 5 (family moved) needs an explanation. If a member of a family had to move to the place of enumeration from a previous residence because the entire family moved, this code has to be given. For example, if Ratha migrated because his place of work is transferred give code 01 for him. For his wife and children who had to also move with him the reason for migration is family moved (05) and not transfer of work place (01). However, if his wife or son or daughter gives a separate reason for moving to this place like "in search of employment" or "education" you have to assign the appropriate code to him/her. Give code 09 (Repatriation or Return after displacement) to a person who was repatriated by an official agency or to a person who returned to his/her village after having left earlier due to internal disturbances or political reasons. For any reason of migration other than the first eleven listed, give 12 and write down the reason in the column itself. Please note that Code 12 should be given only if the reason for migration is not covered by any of the codes 01 to 11. For instance, if a person had been repatriated, you must give code 09 in his/her case and not write "12 (repatriated)".

69. Column 16: literacy

69.1. This information should be collected for all persons. Literacy is the ability to read and write with understanding in any language. A person is a literate when he/she can both read and write a simple message in any language or dialect. A person who cannot both read and write a simple message is considered illiterate. Also to be considered as illiterate is that person who is capable of writing or reading only his/her own name or numbers, as well as persons who can read but not write, or vice versa. For the present survey all children of the age of 6 years or less (i.e. completed age 0,1,2,3,4,5 and 6) should be treated as illiterate

[p. 26]

even if the child is going to a school and may have picked up reading and writing a few odd words in a language.

69.2 A person who knows how to read and write but at the time of the survey he/she can no longer read and write due to some physical defects or illness is still considered literate. An example of this is an aged person who knows how to read and write but can no longer perform these activities due to poor eyesight. Disabled persons who can read and write through any means such as Braille system for the blind, are considered literate.

69.3 Having described the concept of literacy, the following instructions are given for filling-in cols.16(a) and 16(b). For children aged 6 or less enter code 2 in col.16 (a) and code 1 in col.16(b).

69.4 Column16(a): literacy in Khmer language

The person aged 7 and above should be asked whether he/she can read and write with understanding in Khmer language. If the answer is yes, record 1 in col. 16(a). If it is No, record 2 in that column. If you are not sure whether the person can read and write, you may show the person the survey instruction manual and ask him to read a line or ask him to write a simple sentence in Khmer.

69.5 Column 16(b): literacy in another language

The person who said yes in col. 16(a) may be asked whether he/she can read and write with understanding in any other language i.e. whether he/she is literate in one more language(other than Khmer).

69.6 If he/she says "No", record code 1 for him/her in col.16 (b). If he/she tells the name of a language give the code of that language in col. 16(b) from the list given under the column. If it is any language other than the seven languages with codes, give code 9 and specify that language.

69.7. The person who said "No" (Code 2) for Col. 16(a) may be asked to tell the language in which he/she can read and write with understanding. If he/she says again "No" give code 1 for him/her in col. 16(b). If he/she tells the name of the language in which he/she can read and write with understanding, give the code of that language in col. 16 (b) for him/her according to the same list of codes. If it is any language other than the seven codes, enter Code 9 and specify that language.

69.8 In both the cases mentioned above if the respondent is literate in more than one language, only one language has to be recorded that being the best of the languages in which he is literate.

70. Column 17: full time education

[p. 27]

Full-time education refers to education in an educational institution like Primary school, Secondary school, College, Training center, etc. This question should be filled-in for all persons.

70.1. Column 17 (a): have you ever attended school / educational institution?

This applies to both literate and illiterate persons. The answer to this question may be recorded as follows:

(a) Never: record 1 if the person has never at any time received full-time education from a School or educational institution.
(b) Now: record 2 if the person is still receiving full-time education at the time of the Survey in a school or educational institution.
(c) Past: record 3 if the person received full-time education in the past and is no longer receiving it now.

Note that it is possible that a person who is literate (Code 00 in column 17(a)), had never attended any school at all (e.g. he might have learnt to read and write in a pagoda) and May, therefore, be given code 00 in column 17(a).

70.2 Column 17 (b): currently attending grade (for code 2 of column 17(a))

Enter dash (-) in the two sub-columns in the case of a person who has never attended school/education institution (Code 1 in column 17(a)) and in the case of a person who attended school/educational institution in the past (Code 3 in column 17(a)). Enter the suitable code in column 17(b) from the code list given below the question for a person currently attending school or educational institution (Code 2 in column17(a). Code 00 should be given to a child currently attending pre-school/Kindergarten class.

70.3 Column 17 (c): what is the highest grade completed?

If you have given code 1 in column 17(a), enter dash (-) in the two sub-columns of column 17(c). For Codes 2 and 3 in column 17 (a) give suitable code from the code list given below the question, based on the answer given by the respondent.. A last category "other (specify)" (Code 20) has been included to cater for other educational categories not mentioned. In general, you may check whether the educational level of a person is consistent with his/her age. For example, a boy or girl of age 8 could not have completed class 11. If any such inconsistency is noted, please make probing questions and ascertain the correct answer. Code 88 should be given for a person who has not completed any grade. Examples of this are: kids in the preschool/ kindergarten, drop outs from school who have not completed any grade.

70.4 Note on the code Lists for Currently attending grades and completed Grades Given Under Column 17

For both the columns 17(b) and 17 (c), code list is the same for Pre-school to Grade 12. This is explained below: suppose a person is currently attending grade 9 give code 09 in column 17(b). If another person has completed Grade 9 give code 09 in

[p. 28]

Column 17 (c) and so on.

Beyond Grade 12 currently attending grades can be coded in column 17 (b) from the list Called "Separate codes for Col.17 (b)" which contains Codes 15 to 20 for higher courses. Two Codes 13 and 14 will not apply to Column 17(b).

In the case of column 17(c) completed grades beyond Grade 12 should be coded using the list of codes called "Separate codes for Column 17(c)" which contains Codes 13 to 20 and code 88 for no grade completed. Examples: if code 15 is entered in column 17(b) it means the person is studying in the presecondary diploma course. If code 15 is entered in column 17(c) it means that the person concerned has completed pre-secondary diploma course and so on. If code 18 is given in column 17(b) it means the person is studying in the post-graduate class. If code 18 is given in column 17(c) it means the person has completed his Master's degree.

Important: in the case of a person who has successfully completed a diploma, certificate or degree course it is not necessary that she/he should have the completed certificate with her/him at the time of the survey. She/he should be treated as having completed the course.

70.5 Column 17 (d): main subjects of study for codes 15 to 20 in col. 17(b) or 17(c).

For a respondent who had given the highest grade completed in school, college or any other educational institution and for whom one of the codes 15 to 20 has been entered in column 17(b) and 17(c), or only in 17(c) the main subject of study should be ascertained and recorded in this column (Example: statistics, Economics, Business Management, Mechanical Engineering etc.). The choice of the main subject should be left to the respondent.

71. Column 18: physical/mental disability, if any

This question is a sensitive one and should be canvassed without offending the feelings of the respondent or other members of the household. The purpose of this question is to elicit the information whether the respondent has any physical/mental disability. If he/she has no such disability put (0) in column 18. The types of disabilities identified for survey purpose are given below:

71.1 In seeing:
(i). A person who cannot see at all (has no perception of light) or has blurred vision even with the help of glasses or contact lens will be considered as having disability in "Seeing" or visually disabled.
(ii) A person with proper vision only in one eye will also be treated as visually disabled
(iii)A person may have blurred vision and difficulty in seeing, but would not have tested whether her / his eye-sight would improve by using spectacles. Such persons also would be treated as visually disabled.

71.2 In speech:
(i). A person would be recorded as having speech disability, if she/he is dumb or he cannot speak at all.
(ii)A person whose speech is not understood by a listener of normal comprehension and hearing would be treated as having speech disability.
[p. 29]
(iii) A person who speaks single words only and is not able to speak in sentences has speech disability
(iv) A person who stammers to that extent that the speech cannot be understood is having speech disability.

71.3 In Hearing:
(i). A person who cannot hear at all (deaf) or can hear only loud sounds will be
considered as having hearing disability
(ii) A person who is able to hear, only by using hearing - aid will be treated as disabled
under this category.
(iii) If a person cannot hear through one ear though her/ his other ear is
functioning normally, should also be considered as having hearing disability.

71.4 In movement:
(i). If a person does not have leg/s or arm/s or hand/s or there is absence of all the fingers or toes or a thumb she/he is disabled in movement
(ii) If any part of the body is deformed (Example: hunch back), the person will be treated as disabled under this category
(iii) A person who cannot move herself/himself or without the aid of another person or without the aid of stick, wheel chair etc., will be treated as disabled under this category.
(iv)A person will be treated as disabled in movement if she /he is unable to move or lift or pick up any small article placed near her/ him.
(v) A person who may not be able to move normally because of problems of joints like arthritis and has to invariably limp while moving, will also be considered to have movement disability.
(vi)Very short statured persons (dwarfs) are considered as having movement difficulty.

71.5 Mental Retardation: This refers to
(i). A person with lower intelligence or has delayed development (walking, talking, learning etc).
(ii) One who lacks comprehension appropriate to her/ his age.
(iii)A person who has difficulty in communicating her/his needs and generally depends on her/his family members for performing daily routine.
Note: mental Retardation is generally from birth. If the person has got mental impairment at a later age, it may be mental illness

71.6 Mental Illness. This refers to:
(i). A person who exhibits unusual behavior like talking/laughing to self, staring in space, excessive fear and suspicion without reason.
(ii) A person who has problems like loss of memory, depression etc which are usually related to old age
(iii) Exhibits other symptoms indicative of mental disturbance
Note: a mentally ill person may or may not take medicines for her/his illness. It should be left to the respondent to report whether a member of the household is mentally disabled and no argument may be made on this issue.

71.7 Any other (specify)
Examples are: specific learning difficulties, Epilepsy which is not controlled and which limits daily function etc. Even if you find it difficult to categorize based on the explanation given by the person, then also write code 7.

Multiple Disabilities: this refers to a person having more than one disability described above

71.8 If a person is disabled as mentioned above enter code according to the following list:
[p. 30]
Disability code
[] 1 In seeing
[] 2 In speech
[] 3 In Hearing
[] 4 In movement
[] 5 Mental retardation
[] 6 Mental illness
[] 7 Any other (specify)
[] 8 Multiple disabilities (In this case write 8 and specify the disabilities within brackets. Example: 8(1,4) or 8 (,2,3,4), 8 (2,7-Epileptic fit), 8(4,5).

71.9. The disability of a person will be decided with reference to the date of enumeration. Persons with temporary disability on the date of enumeration will not be considered as disabled. For example, a person's movement may have been restricted because of some temporary injury and she/he is likely to return to his normal state after sometime, such a person will NOT be treated as disabled.

72. Column 19 to 25 on economic characteristics of population

These questions should be asked of all persons irrespective of age. These columns relate to the economic characteristics of population, both male and female. Information is proposed to be collected on economic characteristics of population. Economically active population includes those who are employed and unemployed (including those available for work or seeking work). Economically inactive population includes home makers; full time students; dependents; rent-receivers, retired people and other categories of income recipients; and others who are neither employed nor unemployed and also do not come under any of the inactive categories mentioned. The reference period for this is the one year or 12 months before the survey night, that is from 4 March 2012 to 3 March 2013. This is also referred to as last year or last one year in this instruction manual.

73. Column 19: main activity during last year

First we want to know what has been the main activity of the person during the one year preceding the Survey night. Main activity means the activity during 6 month (183 days) or more during the last one year (i.e. for the major part of the last year). Codes have been provided on the schedule itself which are to be used while answering this question.

Employed
73.1. The "employed" comprises all persons who were in the following categories for 6 months (183 days) or more during the last one year:
(a) Persons who were in paid employment (e.g. working in public or private organization etc.).
(b) Persons who during the reference period performed some work for wages, salary, profit or family gains in cash or kind.
(c) Persons who did not do any work for pay or profit during the reference period although they had a job to which they could return (e.g. off season workers like farmers or fisherman), those on sick leave or leave without pay, those who could not work due to strike or lockout in the organization they were working.
[p. 31]
(d) Persons who were self employed (e.g. running a shop by himself or herself, selling eatables, practicing as doctors, lawyers etc.).
73.2 Work is defined as any economically productive activity that a person does for pay (in cash or kind, in any establishment, office, market, farm, private house) or for profit; or without pay on family farm or enterprise. Workers (other than those working without pay in a family farm or business) should receive pay or profit in cash or kind for their activity. Unpaid activities which are not contributing to the person's family business such as voluntary social work or voluntary community support are not classified as "work" for the purposes of this survey. Work may be physical or mental in nature. Work involves not only actual work but also effective supervision and direction of work. It is important to note that it includes unpaid work on farm or family enterprise. You must ask probing questions to ascertain the existence of a job or employment or unpaid work on family farm or enterprise during the last year. Please also do not assume that women are generally home-makers. You have to specifically ask probing questions of women whether they were working. Please also remember that in rural areas where most men are engaged in cultivation, wives and daughters also participate as unpaid family workers in cultivation. Such women should be treated as working instead of treating them as home-makers or housewives since they attend to domestic duty also. You have to be very careful not to make this mistake. Similarly children who work should be regarded as employed.

73.3 What about men or women engaged in production of goods for own consumption?

Please note that the following activities for own consumption are treated as work:
(i). Production of primary products for own consumption as growing of food grains or vegetables for own consumption.
(ii). Collection of water and firewood for own consumption.
(iii). The processing of primary commodities for own consumption by the producers of these items (such as drying own vegetables for later use).
(iv). Production of fixed assets for own use (such as building a house or rice paddy dike).
73.4 Activities for own consumption other than the above are not treated as work (e.g. cooking one's own food, washing one's own clothes etc.). If a person is employed but at the same time does also attend to household chores or attend school etc., he/she should be treated basically as employed.

73.5 If you give code 1 for a person after following the above instructions, you have to fill in columns 20to 24 which will be described subsequently.

Unemployed

73.6 If a person (man or woman) is not employed you should ask whether he or she was unemployed for six months (or 183 days) or over during the last year. Unemployed refers to those who were without work but were seeking work or available for work.

73.7 Please note that homemakers, students and others mainly engaged in non-economic activities during the reference period who satisfy the above criteria of unemployment should be regarded as unemployed and not as home makers, students etc., If a person returns that he/she is unemployed for the major part of the year according these criteria, you should ask whether the person was employed any time before he/she became unemployed. If he/she says yes, you have to record code 2 for the person in column 19. On the other hand,
[p. 32]
if the person says that he/she was unemployed and seeking work for the first time and was never employed any time before you should record code 3 in column 19. In the case of unemployed who was employed any time before (Code 2 in column 19), you have to fill in columns 20-24 for last employment. In case of code 3 in column 19, enter dash (-) in each of the columns 20 to 24.

Inactive Population

73.8. The employed and unemployed constitute economically active population. Those who are not employed or unemployed spend most of their time as homemakers, students etc. which are not considered as economically active and hence they are called Inactive population. Use the codes given in the schedule for recording the category of people inactive for six months (or 183 days) or more during the last year.

73.9. The inactive categories are explained below:
Home maker is a person who was solely engaged during the reference period in household duties in his or her home. Give code 4 for this category in column 19.

Student is a person who was attending school/ educational institution (with Code 2 in column 17(a). Give code 5 for this category in column 19.

Dependent This category includes all dependents like infants and children not attending school, persons permanently disabled and hence cannot do any work and persons who cannot work because of illness or old age. Dependents will include able bodied persons who cannot be categorized in any other inactive category and are dependent on others. However if such a person was seeking or available for work he or she should be categorized as unemployed and not as dependent. For people who were dependents give code 6 in column 19.
Rent-receiver, retired or other income recipients: a person who has retired from service and has been doing no other work during the reference period, i.e. not employed again in some work or not engaged in some other work such as cultivation, business, trade etc. or a person who is a rent receiver or a person living on agriculture or non-agricultural royalty, rent or dividend who has been neither employed nor unemployed, or any other person of independent means for securing which he/she did not have to work will come under this category. You should give code 7 in column 19 for this category of inactive person.

Other, (specify): this category will include all inactive persons who may not come under any of the above four categories of inactive persons. For such a person (e.g. beggar) you should give code 8 and specify (e.g. 8 Beggar) in column 19.

74. Columns 20 to 24

Information in these columns should be filled-in only for a person who is employed (Code 1 in column 19) or unemployed (employed before) i.e. Code 2 in column 19. For unemployed (not employed before) i.e. Code 3 in column 19 and inactive population i.e. any code from 4 to 8 in column 19, no information can be furnished in columns 20 to 24 and hence enter dash (-) in each of these columns for these persons. Following are the instructions for filling-in columns 20 to 24 for a person for whom code 1 or 2 is given in column 19. The information to be filled-in will relate to employment details of the employed person (Code 1 in column 19). In the case of unemployed (employed before) i.e. Code 2 in column 19, the information to be filled-in will relate to last employment held by that person.

[p. 33]

75. Column 20: employment period

Give the number of months (rounded off to the nearest month) during which the respondent was employed in the last 12 months. In the case of code 1 in column 19, the entry in column 20 may be 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11 or 12 if the person was employed for 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 months respectively during the last 12 months. In the case of code 2 in column 19, please note that you have to enter in column 20, the number of months employed during the last 12 months only. The entry in column 20 will be 00 if the person was not employed during the last 12 months. The entry will be 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 if the person was employed for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 months respectively during the last 12 months.

76. Column 21: occupation

Occupation refers to the name of the job the person did (e.g. cashier, primary school teacher, nurse, blacksmith, watchman, manager, taxi driver etc.)

76.1 you must write the occupation of a person as clearly and as fully as possible. You should not write only "staff member". Probe further to find out whether he/ she was a clerk, statistician, data entry operator etc. Do not write "Casual Labourer" which is rather vague. Find out whether he/ she was a construction worker, hand-loom weaver etc. If a person says that he/ she has been doing two or three jobs, find out the job he/ she was doing mostly (i.e. most time) and record the same.

77. Column 22: employment status

Five categories have been provided for Employment status or Class. When the answer corresponds to one of these, you should record the appropriate code number. Note that you should record only one code for each respondent.

(a) Employer: Record code 1 for a person who operates his own enterprise directly or through another person (e.g. a manager or caretaker) and who for the operation of this enterprise hires one or more employees whom he pays. Note that persons considered employees here exclude unpaid family workers and apprentices.
(b) Paid employee: Record code 2 for a person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer. All Government servants, for example, are employees. Payment may also be in kind.
(c) Own account Worker: Record code 3 for a person who operates his enterprise (e.g. farmer cultivating his own land, petty-trader, private doctor, advocate who practices independently) and who does not employ anybody to work for him in operation of his enterprise. He or she neither employs anybody nor is employed by anybody, (e.g. a fruit seller who does his or her business all alone).
(d) Unpaid family worker: Record code 4 for a person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member of his or her family without payment of wages or salary (e.g. wife who helps her husband in farming, daughter who helps in hand-loom weaving).
[p. 34]
(e) Other, (specify): To this category belong all persons who do not fall in any of the above groups. You should write down the person's employment status in the space provided, after recording code 5 (e.g. 5 Apprentice).

78. Column 23: nature of industry, trade or service

You have to record here the sector of economy in which a person worked. Examples are: cultivation, fishing, livestock rearing, selling of vegetables, automobile repairs, manufacture of toys, transport service, school or educational service, sale of clothes (retail), manufacture of eatables etc. If a person works as a sales assistant in a Gas station his occupation is sales assistant and the nature of his trade is selling petrol (retail). The broad sectors of economy are: (i). Cultivation, fishing, livestock rearing, (ii) Mining or quarrying (iii) Manufacturing, processing, servicing (iv) Repairing (v) Construction (vi) Electricity, gas or water supply (vii) Transport and communication (viii) Trade and commerce and (ix) Services like domestic service, public service etc. Do not be content with answer like Reaksmey angkor and Co., Bayon and Co. etc. since from these names alone you cannot record the nature of activity of the company. Ask probing questions to get information regarding the kind of product (e.g. manufacture of cigarette) or the kind of trade (e.g. Newspaper selling) or the kind of service (e.g. hair dressing) in which the establishment or company is engaged in. If a person is working in a company with several activities, report the nature of the branch of the company in which the person is working. If the person is employed in a Government office or institution, the name of the office, bureau, school, etc., may be given (e.g. Ministry of planning, Directorate of agriculture, High court, Phnom Penh High School etc.).

79. Column 24: sector of employment

This refers to the sector in which the institution or establishment of the employed person falls. Eight sectors are listed with their codes on the questionnaire.

79.1 You have to give one of the appropriate codes as explained below:

1.Government: includes state, provincial, district and commune government agencies and ministries.

2. State owned enterprise: This includes financial institutions like the National Bank of Cambodia and all other State-controlled enterprises such as Camintel, Cambodian pharmaceutical Company, Electricity du Cambodge, State rubber plantations, State construction enterprises, State fishery enterprises, State printing house, State utilities, State courier and mail enterprises.

3. Cambodian enterprise (private): This includes enterprises or businesses owned and operated by private Cambodians from a location that is not also a household or private residential dwelling of the owner(s) of the business. Do not include non-profit institutions. If there is a joint venture with any foreign enterprise it will be treated as a Cambodian enterprise (Private) or as a foreign enterprise depending on the share of each.
[p. 35]
This category includes financial institutions like Cambodian controlled banks and other Cambodian controlled businesses producing goods or services for sale. In brief it includes all private Cambodian enterprises.

4. Foreign enterprise: Foreign enterprises are enterprises or businesses owned and operated by foreign establishments or persons from a location that is not also a household or private residential dwelling of the owner(s) of the business. Do not include non-profit institutions. Includes foreign controlled financial institutions like foreign controlled Banks (e.g. ANZ Royal, MayBank) and all other foreign controlled businesses producing goods or services for sale.

5. Non profit institution: This includes all Cambodian and foreign NGOs providing goods and services for free or for a nominal fee that are not controlled and financed by government. Also included are trade unions, professional associations, political parties, charities, pagodas and other religious institutions, and aid organizations financed by voluntary transfers.

6. Household sector: This includes all businesses operating out of a household or private residential dwelling. Domestic workers should be included here.

7. Embassies, International institutions, and foreign aid and development agencies: This category includes all persons working for foreign consulates, embassies, foreign aid and development agencies, ADB, IMF, and UN agencies.

8. Others, (specify): This includes institutions not falling in any of the sector described above.

Some examples for Sector of employment with their codes are given below: farmer (Code 3), National Bank of Cambodia Staff (Code 2), Staff of mobitel (Code 2), Staff of aNZ Bank (Code 4), Staff of UNPFA (Code 7), Staff of red cross (Code 5), Vegetable seller or fruit seller (Code 3), Moto driver (Code 3), Guard of a house (Code 6), Staff of moP (Code 1), Thai Airways staff (Code 4), Maid working in a household (Code 6).

80. General instructions for filling-in economic questions 19 to 24

It will be useful to discuss with each person, questions covering 19 to 24. Together and fill in the details. Example: if you are interviewing a woman who says she is selling vegetable by herself in the market, find out how many months she worked last year. She may say that she worked throughout the year. Now you can record for her as follows: 1 in column 19, 12 in column 20, "vegetable seller" in column 21, 3 in columns 22, "Retail Vegetable Trade" in column 24.

81.1 Please note again that if you have given code 1 in column 19 for a person, you have to fill in columns 20 to 24. If you have recorded code 2 in columns 20 for a person you have to fill in columns 20 to 24 for

[p. 36]

his last employment. If you have recorded any of the code 3 to 8 for a person in columns 20, you have to put a dash (-) in columns 21 to 24.

81. Column 25: secondary economic activity

81.1 This column has to be filled-in for all persons with one of the codes 1 to 8 in col. 19. The purpose of this column is to find out whether the person who was mainly economically active or inactive last year had a second job or a secondary economic activity last year which gave him/her additional income or some income in cash or kind.

Please note that the activity recorded in this column constitutes the secondary activity in the case of those who were mainly employed last year (code 1 in column 19). In respect of others (codes 2 to 8 in column 19) it constitutes their marginal activity last year.

A commune chief (or village chief) might have also participated in work in his own farm for some time. His/her main activity is commune administration (or village administration) and secondary activity is unpaid employment in farming. A woman who was a home maker most of the time (Code 4 in col. 19) could have assisted in farming as an unpaid family worker in her spare time. Her secondary economic activity was unpaid employment in farming. A girl might have been mainly a student. You would have given her Code 5 in col.19 to earn some money she might work in a house as a maid during her spare time. Her secondary economic activity was maid. A youth who was studying in school might work as a security guard in the night and earn money. His secondary activity was security guard. You have to accept whatever is returned as the person's secondary economic activity.

81.2 If a person had more than one secondary economic activity during last year you have to ascertain in which job he/she spent more time and that job should be considered as his/her secondary economic activity. For example a person whose main activity last year was farming might have worked as seller of fruits for some time and as a construction worker some other time. You should ask the person to tell in which he/she spent more time. That constitutes his/her secondary activity. It is not necessary that every person should have had a secondary economic activity. Hence some respondents may answer "No" to this question.

81.3 Having ascertained the information, you have to record the answer in terms of a code from the list of codes for col. 25 given below the column. If the person says he had no secondary job or economic activity record code 01 (None).

81.4 Give code 02 if he/she had worked additionally in farming (i.e. cultivation) without receiving any payment. Code 03 has to be given if he/she was a wage earner working in a farm. Code 04 should be given for a person with unpaid employment in animal rearing/production (cattle, pig, poultry etc.). Code 5 should be given for one in paid employment in animal rearing/production. Code 6 will be given for one in fishing (in land or marine).

81.5 Code 07 will be given for a person who had worked or rendered service in any other household based industry producing or servicing any good (both unpaid and paid in cash or kind). Examples are: weaving, pottery, stitching, processing food articles or food items for sale, processing corn and other food crops, drying fish for sale etc. which are carried out at home in which mostly household members are engaged. In rural areas this may be done outside the residence of the household also for want of space e.g. court yard.

[p. 37]

81.6 Code 8 will be given for one in construction activities (buildings, structures, bridges, roads, paddy dike etc.). Code 9 has to be given for any wholesale or retail trade run within or outside the household. Code 10 is for a worker in transport services. Examples of this are cyclo drivers, moto drivers, Tuk Tuk drivers etc. Code 11 is intended for all other paid employment (other than household-based employment).

81.7 Please note that the secondary economic activity has to be recorded in col. 25, only if it is a second job or economic activity. For instance if a person was cultivating in his farm and that was his main activity last year and he did not get any supplementary income (cash or kind) from any other economic activity, he did not have secondary economic activity and code to be given is 1.

82. Filling-in of Form B household questionnaire part 3: fertility information of females aged 15 and over listed in column 2 of part 2

This part of the questionnaire relates to fertility information. These questions will be asked in the case of female aged 15 and over in the household who have already been enumerated in part 2 of Form B household Questionnaire. Note that information should be collected in this part for all women ages 15 and over in the household irrespective of their age or marital status. In other words, this will include elderly women and women who were never married, widowed, divorced, or separated.

82.1 you have already listed the names of usual members present and visitors present in the household on survey night in column 2 of part 2. You have also collected information about the persons in column 3 to 25 of part 2. Now you have to first identify from columns 2, 4 and 5 of part 2, all female aged 15 and over in the household. As an indication that you have identified each such female, you should tick mark the serial number of the female concerned in column 1 of part 2. You have to collect fertility information about these women and record them in columns 4 to 7 of Form B Part 3 of the questionnaire.

Following are the instructions for filling-in columns 1 to 7 of Form B part 3 of the questionnaire

83. Column 1: serial number

One line should be used for recording information of one woman. Each line has sl. No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

84. Column 2: full name

Copy the names of females aged 15 and more in the household one by one in the same order in which these are recorded in columns 2 of part 2. This can be done by referring to Full name (Column 2), Sex (Column 4) and age (Column 5) of part 2. Please do not add any name here which is not already in column 2 Part 2 as we are collecting fertility information for females aged 15 over in the household only. Please also do not omit to copy the name of woman aged 15 and above just because she is not married or she had no children or she is beyond 50 or 60. You have to copy the names of all aged 15 and above in the household in part 3 and then provide the necessary information in each case. In other words, even in the case of a woman aged 15 and above for whom the question of birth does not apply at all, you have to copy her name in column 2 and write dash(-) in sub-columns of col.4 and write 00 in columns 5(a),5(b),6(a),6(b),7(a),7(b) and 8.

[p. 38]

85. Column 3: serial number in column 1 of part 2

Please record for each woman, her corresponding sl. No. in column 1 of part 2 which you have identified and tick marked. For example, if the first woman you have recorded has sl. No. 4 in column 1, Part 2 you have to enter 4 in this Column against her name and so on. As you will appreciate, this will enable easy reference.

86. Column 4: age of woman at the time of birth of the first child.

Please record for each woman her age at the time of birth of her first child. Write the age of the woman in total years completed at the time of birth of her first child. As already mentioned, for women who had not given birth to any child enter dash in the two sub-columns.

87. Column 5, 6, 7: number of children born.

The questions in these columns have been designed in such a way as to elicit the vital information we require without embarrassing the respondents. We have to find out the total number of children born to a woman, number of children living and number of children dead among them. Please remember that the nature of responses you will obtain will depend, to a great extent, on how tactfully you put these questions. Great care must be taken to choose words which, while retaining the exact meaning of the questions will not give rise to any emotional feelings. Finally, please note that the word "children" in the questions refer to the woman's own offspring of whatever age and sex and not the children of a brother, sister or husband or other relative or non-relative or adopted ones who may be living with her. You should also note that some of the respondents may be old and their memory weak. You should, therefore, exercise patience and help them to recollect the correct number of children born to them. If no child is reported for any of the questions, write 00 in the column concerned.

Note: it is common experience that the birth of child may not be reported readily if the child is not actually surviving at the time of enumeration. Infant deaths are still high in the country. There is a chance of a number of such cases being missed unless specifically questioned about. It is necessary to record all live births even if the child has died soon thereafter or had not survived to the day of enumeration. Where a woman first answers that no child was ever born to her, you may perhaps question as follows: "It has been found in some houses that a child was born and had died soon after or a few days or month later and such cases had not been reported. It is my hope that there are no such cases here. Am I right?" This may bring in the required response. If she reports 'No' then you can be sure that no birth has been missed.

88. Columns 5: (a) and (b): how many children have been born alive to you? (separately by males in column (a) and females in column (b))

Record the number of children born alive to the respondent in the space provided, for male children in column (a) and for female children in column (b).Give the number in two digits as instructed at the heading of this column. When administering the question care must be taken to ensure that only the number of children born alive to a respondent is recorded. When a child is not born alive it is called a still birth and it should not be included while furnishing information in columns 5(a) or (b).

88.1 It is therefore necessary for you to know the meaning of live birth (or children born alive). It is as follows:

[p. 39]

Live birth is the complete expulsion (delivery) or extraction from its mother of a product of conception (baby), irrespective of the duration of pregnancy. The baby after such separation, breathes or shows other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Each product of such delivery is considered as alive-birth. To put it in simple terms, a live birth is one in which the baby has cried.

89. Columns 6: (a) and (b): how many of them are living? (separately for male children living in column (a) and female children living in column (b)

Record in the space provided, the number of the woman's own children by sex who are alive. Some of them may be in the same household and others may live elsewhere. You have to record all of them. Remember to include in this category any of the woman's own children who normally live in this household but who are absent at the time of the interview. In some cases when the children are away from their mother, she may not know whether they are living or not. In those cases write "not known" under column 6 (a) and (b).

90. Column 7: (a) and (b): how many of them have died? (separately for male children dead in column (a) and female children dead in column (b)

Record in the space provided the number of the woman's own children by sex who are dead. Note that some women may not easily remember the number of their children who have died. Therefore, you should help the respondent to find the correct number by counting your fingers as she mentions the names of the children dead. This is a sensitive question and you must ascertain the answer without wounding the feelings of the respondent.

Note: make sure that no child is counted more than once or omitted. Please remember that the number of children born alive to a woman should be equal to the total of number of children living and number of children dead.

Column 5 (a) = Column 6 (a) + Column7 (a)
Column 5 (b) = Column 6 (b) + Column 7 (b)

91. Column 8: (a) and (b): particulars of births in the last 12 months (separately for male child in column (a) and female child in column (b))

Column 8 relates to births last year for women aged 15 -49 only. Hence for other women i.e. aged more than 49 enter 0 in each of the sub-columns.

91.1 This question is aimed at collecting births (separately as male or female birth) in the 12 months prior to the date of enumeration to all female aged 15 to 49 years. Please note that the number of children born alive, already recorded in columns 5(a) and 5(b), include the child born alive to the woman in the last 12 months. In the case of older woman (say beyond age 50) or widows or divorced woman, there may not be any birth in the last 12 months generally. In their case also you have to fill in these columns by entering 0. Please however, remember that occurrence of births is not entirely ruled out in such case. Only if the child was born alive, you should record 1 under male or female as the case may be. Still births, i.e., a child which is born dead should not be taken in to account for this purpose. So you should make sure that every case of birth of a

[p. 40]

child born alive, even if it is not alive on the date of enumeration, is reported. You should not reckon it if the child was born lifeless. Suppose a child was born alive then died immediately after birth it is a live birth which should be reported. You have to make sure that any live birth that has occurred to a woman in the last one year is recorded whether the child is surviving till date of enumeration or not.

Special Case. Suppose a child was born alive then died immediately after birth it is a live birth which should be recorded here. Remember that the death of this infant should be recorded in part 4 of the questionnaire.

91.2 If the answer to this question is 'Yes', you should ask whether the child was born male or female. If male, record 1 under male and 0 under female. If female, record 0 under male and 1 under female. If the answer is ' No', enter 0 both under male and female and put dash (-) in columns (9) and (10). In case where the woman has had twins, please write 2 under male or female as the case may be. If it was 1 male and 1 female, record accordingly. If there were multiple births enter suitably following this procedure.

92. Column 9: state who assisted her during the delivery.

92.1. Note that this question has to be answered only if there was birth in the last twelve months to women aged 15 to 49 (i.e. column 8 has entries other than 0). As already stated, if there is 0 in column 8 (a) and 8(b) you have to put dash (-) in this column.

Ascertain who attended on the woman during delivery of her child in the last twelve months. Please enter the appropriate code from the list given under Column 9. Which is reproduced below:

[] 1 Doctor
[] 2 Nurse
[] 3 Midwife
[] 4 Traditional birth attendant (TBA)
[] 5 Other
[] 6 None

93. Column 10: did she get the birth of this child registered with the civil authority in commune/Sangkat? Yes: 1; No: 2

Note that this question has to be answered only if there was birth in the last twelve months to women aged 15 to 49 (i.e. column 8 has entries other than 0 and column 9 has one of the codes 1 to 6).

Birth registration means that the baby who was born in a household was reported by his/her parent to the commune/Sangkat. If the respondent says that the baby was registered with the civil authority in the commune/Sangkat concerned you should give code1, otherwise give code 2. As already stated if there is 0 in column 8 (a) and 8(b) you have to put dash (-) in this column.

94. Filling-in of Form B household questionnaire part - 4: death in household

This section is considered as part of household questionnaire with very sensitive questions. You should be polite and patient when asking these questions. You should explain to the respondents about this information which is very necessary for studying the death rate (per 1000 population), maternal death rate and for the calculation of the population growth rate. You should take special care to see that correct information is ascertained; you may have to put probing questions patiently to achieve this.

94.1 Deaths in household in the last 12 months: total Number of deaths

[p. 41]

Columns (1) to (6) for recording death of any member of household in the last 12 months

This relates to death of any member of household during the last 12 months in the same household. Before recording any death you should know that the death of the person took place when he/she was living in the household. For example a woman who was formerly a member of household during the census had died as member of another household (which she joined after marriage) her death should not be recorded in the census household.

94.2 If a member of the census household died at hospital irrespective of the period of stay in the hospital such death should be recorded as in the census household. If a member of census household was traveling to some place for getting health care and died in that place, it should be recorded as in the census household. For example Nara who is member of household (A) in Kandal fell ill and went to Phnom Penh to receive treatment and stayed in the household of (B) in Phnom Penh. If he died in Phnom Penh, his death should be recorded in household (A) and not in household (B). To determine to which household a member belongs in such cases, six months or more may be treated as the period the person should have stayed in the household to treat him/her as belonging to that household.

94.3 For recording death in household in the last 12 months ten columns are provided. One line should be used for recording one death. The first column is for the serial number. In column 2 you should write full name of the deceased. In case of infant death where the infant is not given a name, write "Infant (Kouy Kim Deth's infant)". In column 3 you should fill-in sex of the deceased. In column 4. The relationship to head of household should be filled-in. For filling in col.4, the code list for relationship given below the column may be referred to and suitable code given. In column 5. The age at death in completed years of the deceased at the time of death should be recorded. In column 6 give appropriate code for the cause of death of the person. The list of causes of death given on the questionnaire contains one group of codes for illness and another for accidents. The codes from 01 to 11 relate to illness and codes from 12 to 15 for accidents. If there are two or more causes, give the code for one cause only after probing which was the most important cause.

If with all efforts (i.e. discussing with other members etc) you are not able to ascertain the actual cause of death of any person, enter code 16 (Not Known).

Column 7: has the death been registered with the civil authority in commune/Sangkat? yes: 1; No: 2

Death registration means that the death in the household was reported by any of the household members or any relative to the commune/Sangkat. If the respondent says that the death was registered with the civil authority in the commune/Sangkat concerned you should give code1, otherwise give code 2.

95. Columns 8(a), 8(b) and 8(c) for recording maternal deaths among females aged 15 - 49

These columns are intended to know whether the death of a woman aged 15-49 in the household, if any, was a case of maternal death. If the woman died while pregnant, during delivery or within 42 days after delivery you should take it as maternal mortality. You would have already noted such a death with Code 09 or 10 in col. 6. It is possible that initially some other code might have also been given in col. 6 for the death of woman aged 15-49 who died within 42 days after giving birth. Hence you have to probe carefully to obtain the information for Col. 8 (a), 8(b) and 8(c).

95.1 For Col. 8(a) you should ask and find out whether the death of the woman took place when she was pregnant or during her delivery time or within 42 days after she gave birth to a child. If the answer is "Yes" give code 1, in col. 8 (a), if "No" give code 2 and enter dash in col. 8(b) and 8(c). If "Yes" in column 8(a) you should record the appropriate code in column 8(b) for the place where the death took place, from the code list given below that column. The codes are:

[] 1 Hospital
[] 2 Health center
[] 3 Home
[] 4 Other
[p. 42]

Further you should record the appropriate code in col. 8 (c) (from the list given below that column) for the person who attended on the woman before her death. The codes to be given are as follows:

[] 1 Doctor
[] 2 Nurse
[] 3 Midwife
[] 4 Traditional birth attendant (TBA)
[] 5 Other (specify) ____
[] 6 None

96. Filling-in of Form B household questionnaire part -5: housing conditions and facilities

96.1. This part of the questionnaire on housing conditions of the household has to be filled in after completing the main household questionnaire (Form B Parts- 2 to 4). This part should be completed with the assistance of the head of the household or any responsible member of the household.

96.2. In cases where within a household, members use a variety of facilities, probe to establish the facility used by the majority of household members and record it for the household. For example, if the members of a household use more than one source of light you should record the main source of light used by the majority of members.

96.3. Please note that in this part of the questionnaire, for columns 1 to 8 and 23 to 25 you are required to write only the code corresponding to the appropriate answer in the square provided at the bottom of each column. Under no circumstances you should write more than one code for each question.

97. Column 1: on what basis does the household occupy this dwelling?

Four code numbers have been provided for recording the answers to this question. Dwelling here refers to the room or the set of rooms occupied by the household.

97.1 Owner occupied: Give code 1 if the household has a dwelling belonging to either the head or a member of the household for which no rent is being paid. Note that this group includes persons occupying houses or buildings on hire purchase basis or living in houses or buildings built with loan from financial institutions for which full payments have not been made. Note also that even if the head or a member of household owns part of a family house which was occupied by the household you should give code 1.

97.2 Rent: Give code 2 if the household has been paying rent for its accommodation. Remember that rent here implies the payment of money at the end of a specified period.

97.3 Not owner, but rent-free: Give code 3 if the household has an accommodation free of charge although the house or building is not the property of the head or any member of this household. For example, households staying in family houses free of rent.

97.4 Other, (specify): Give code 4 for any answer not fitting in any of the three categories specified above and specify the basis on which the household occupies the dwelling.

98. Column 2: main source of light

[p. 43]

98.1 Determine the type of lighting used in the household most of the time and give the appropriate code.

The types of lighting and their codes are as follows:

[] 1 City power
[] 2 Generator
[] 3 Both city power and generator
[] 4 Kerosene
[] 5 Candle
[] 6 Battery
[] 7 Other (specify) ____

Please note that City power (Code 1) means electricity supplied by electricity department or any agency. Generator (Code 2) refers to private generator used by household.

99. Column 3: main cooking fuel

99.1 Find out from respondent the kind of fuel used by the household most of the time for cooking. Give the code for the appropriate item. If two or more kinds of cooking fuel are used, e.g. electricity and LPG; LPG and wood; kerosene and charcoal; etc. give code for the fuel which is used most of the time for cooking.

The codes for the kind of fuel used for cooking are as follows:

[] 1 Firewood
[] 2 Charcoal
[] 3 Kerosene
[] 4 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
[] 5 Electricity
[] 6 None
[] 7 Other (specify) ____

100. Column 4: toilet facility within premises

100.1 If toilet facility is not available within premises give code 1 in the square provided. If available ascertain the type of toilet and enter one of the codes 2 to 5 as appropriate in the square.

101. Column 5: main source of drinking water supply

101.1 Following are the codes for different sources of drinking water supply:

[] 1 Piped water
[] 2 Tube/pipe well
[] 3 Protected dug well
[] 4 Unprotected dug well
[] 5 Rain
[] 6 Spring, river, stream, lake/pond
[] 7 Bought
[] 8 Other (specify) ____
[p. 44]

Give appropriate code for the household's main source of drinking water supply. If there are two or more sources of drinking water supply, give the code of the source used most of the times.

Please note the following in this connection:

Code 1 refers to supply of drinking water by municipality or any local body by piped connection. In this case even though the household may pay to the authorities for water supplied, it should not be treated as water bought, but considered as piped water. Code 5 Rain includes rain water stored and used. Code 6 should be given in the case of households drawing water directly from spring, river, stream or lake/pond. In some households living near sources like river or lake, arrangements are made to pump water to the premises through pipes using motor pumps. For such households give code 6 and not Code 1. Code 7 should be given if the household bought water. "Bought" includes water bought by any means like water provided by vendors, water sold in bottles or containers and water from tanker trucks.

102. Column 6: location of drinking water source

100.1 Having ascertained the main source of drinking water for the household in column 5 you have to find out where that source is located. If it is within premises give code 1 in the square, if near the premises give code 2 or if away from the premises give code 3. "Near the premises" refers to a walking distance of about five minutes. "Away" is more than such a distance.

103. Column 7: no. of rooms occupied by household

Record in the square provided in this column, the number of rooms occupied by the household using code given in the column itself. If a household is in occupation of more than eight rooms you have to record only 8.

101.1 A room should have four walls with a roof and a doorway. It should be wide and long enough for a person to sleep in. In giving the number of rooms occupied by household you should exclude kitchen, store room, bathroom and toilet, which are not normally usable for living or sleeping. A room which is shared by more than one household will not be counted by any of them.

104. Column 8: availability of separate kitchen within premises

104.1 A kitchen is defined as a space that conforms in all respects to the criteria for a room mentioned for Column 7 and is equipped for the preparations of the principal meals of the day and intended primarily for the household. If a separate kitchen is available within premises give code 1 in the square provided. If not available give code 2 in the square provided.

105. Columns 9 to 22(a) and (b): facilities owned by the household

105.1. Thirteen items of utility are given one each in columns 9 to 21 and two in col. 22. Ascertain for each whether the household owns the facility. If not owned write "00" in the square concerned. If owned ascertain how many items are owned and give that number in the square concerned.

[p. 45]

106. Columns 23, 24 and 25: state whether the household has access to internet at home, outside home and both at home and outside

106.1 Column 23: if one or more members of the household have access to internet facility at home give code 1 in column 23. If not, give code 2 in column 23.

106.2 Column 24: if one or more members of the household have access to internet outside home at an Internet Caf?, browsing center or office or any other place, record code 1 in column 24. If not, give code 2 in column 24.

106.3 Column 25: if one or more members of the household have access to internet both at home and outside home at an Internet Caf?, browsing center or office or any other place, record code 1 in column 25. If not, give code 2 in column 25.

[p. 46]

Chapter 4

Preparation of enumerator's summary

107. After completing enumeration of a household, you should fill in Form II called enumerator's summary (Appendix IX). You should fill in the identification particulars carefully. The figures which you finish in this summary will be used for compiling provisional results. You should not, therefore, make any arithmetical or posting mistake. Thirty lines are provided in the Enumerator's summary. Take the figures for each household one by one from the columns concerned in Form B part 2 and record in this form. The number of forms required depend on the number of households in the EA. Give page number at the right hand top for each Form used. Each line in this Form is to be used for one household. The last line is for giving total of each column. In column 3 you have to count the number of households and give it in the total column. In each page the total for each page may be given. In the last page the grand total for EA as a whole may be given. The procedure to fill in column 2 to 8 of the Enumerator's summary is explained below:

108. Columns 2 and 3: building no. and household no.

In these columns copy the Building number and household number of selected household from the Identification particulars given at the top of Form B part 1 filled-in for the household.

109. Column 4: no. of questionnaires used

You should write here the number of Form B used for the selected household. You must have already recorded this number in the square at the left hand bottom of first page of the first Form B used for the household.

110. Columns 5 to 7: population

You should count the number of males (Code 1) from column 4 of Form B Part 2 and record the number in column 5 of this Form. Count the number of females (Code 2) from column 4 of Form B Part 2 and record the number in column 6 of this Form. Add columns 5 and 6 and record the number of persons in column 7. Check whether this tallies with the last serial number in column 1 of Form B Part 2. Do not copy the population figures from the house list summary. What we are interested in here is the Survey population and not the house list population.

111. Column 8: remarks

In this Remarks column, you may record any useful information based on your observation

112. Total for the column 4, 5, 6 and 7

After filling-in the figures for the column 4, 5, 6 and 7 for each line (e.g. households) as instructed above you should enter the total of each column in the last line. This should be done carefully. You can cross-check the column total by using the following method. The total in column 7 should be equal to the sum of totals of columns 5 and 6. If you don't get the total there should be error in some lines. You should verify again carefully.

[p. 47]

113. Documents to be handed over to supervisor

At the end of enumeration, you have to get a certificate from the Village chief concerned (Appendix X) that you have completely covered all 30 sample households during enumeration. After you have carefully checked the entries and the totals in the questionnaires and summary statements as mentioned in this manual, you have to return the following materials placed in folders to your supervisor and obtain acknowledgement (see Appendix XII).

All questionnaires i.e. Form A and Form B arranged separately for completed and unused. Note that the total number returned should be equal to the number received by you.
Completed form 1 House list summary
Completed form 2 Enumerator's summary
Call back cards (both used and non-used)
Completed form 4 Certificate from village chief
Village/Enumeration area maps
Enumerator's Manual

If you follow the instructions contained in this manual carefully you should feel proud to have accomplished a national task well. In appendix XI, you will find some specimen entries of Form A House list, Form B Household Questionnaire, Form 1 House list summary, Form 2: Enumerator's summary.

[Appendices I - XII are omitted here.]