Royal Government of Cambodia
General Population Census of Cambodia
[Parts of chapter 1 are omitted here.]
Census Date and Reference Time
4. March 3, 1998 has been designated as the census day. The reference time for the 1998 Census is midnight (00 hours) of March 3, 1998. This means that the 1998 Census is expected to provide the population of Cambodia as at midnight of March 3, 1998.
4.1 The preliminary work of house listing (i.e. listing of buildings and households) will, however, commence on February 27, 1998. Following is the calendar of the 1998 Census Operations:-
February 27 to March 2, 1998: House listing
March 3 to 12, 1998: Census Enumeration
March 13-15, 1998: Collection of filled-in records in the Commune offices
7. For your reference and information, certain important provisions of the Royal Decree (Kret) on the Organization of the General Population Census of Cambodia are reproduced below:-
7.1 Articles 13 and 14 lay down penalties for certain offences committed in this connection. For example, the following are punishable offences:- (i) any census officer appointed by the Government for census work who refuses to do that work or does not complete his /her task (ii) any census officer who makes any false return to the census office (iii) any census officer who discloses any information received in the census (iv) any person who intentionally gives a false answer or refuses to answer the questions asked by a census officer.
7.2 Please take note that according to the above provisions of the Royal Decree you have to perform your duty as 1998 Census Officer diligently and keep the information collected at the census confidential.
8. The 1998 Census will gather information through two schedules Form A: House list and Form B: Household Questionnaire. (See Appendix II) Form A: House list which will be canvassed during the preliminary round (February 27 to March 2, 1998) will be used to collect the following information in respect of buildings which have households in them: Building / Structure number*, predominant construction material of wall, roof and floor of building, whether building is wholly or partly residential, household number, and name and sex of head of household and number of persons usually living in the household.
[* Wherever the word building is used hereinafter it refers to a building or a structure (Building/ Structure)].
9. Form B: Household Questionnaire has four parts:- Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4. This will be used for census enumeration during March 3 to 12, 1998 in all households. In Part 1, information on usual members of household present on Census Night (March 3, 1998), visitors present on Census Night and usual members absent on Census Night will be collected.
10. Part 2 of Form B, will be used to collect the following information in respect of each usual member of household present and each visitor to household: Full name, relationship to head of household, sex, age, marital status, mother tongue, religion, birth place, previous residence, duration of stay, reason for migration, literacy, full time education and economic characteristics.
11. In Part 3 of Form B, fertility information of females aged 15 and over in the household will be collected. In Part 4 of Form B, following information will be collected on housing conditions and facilities: basis of occupation of the dwelling by household (like owner occupied or rented), main source of light available for the household, main cooking fuel used by household, whether toilet facility is available within premises, main source of drinking water supply for the household and number of living rooms occupied by household.
12. The above information collected will help in knowing the demographic and housing characteristics of the country as a whole. It is, therefore, very necessary that the information is collected as accurately as possible. The Enumerator's work will be closely supervised by a Supervisor and other supervising officers.
The enumerator's kit will contain the following:- 1. Form A House list (Nos. 8); 2. Form B Household Questionnaire (Nos. 130); 3. Enumerator's Manual (1); 4. Conversion Table for Age; 5. Chalk piece (5); 6. Form 1 House list Summary (2); 7. Form 2 Enumerator's Summary (5); 8. Form 3 Account for Questionnaires Received; 9. Call Back Card (5); 10. Note Book (1); 11. Pencil (2); 12. Eraser (1); 13. Sharpener (1); 14. Ball point pen (1); 15. Training Form A (2); 16. Training Form B (4); 17. EA Map / Village Map (1); 18. Blank EA Map Form (2); 19. White Paper (5); 20. Form 4 Certificate of Village Chief 21. Bag (1). Please satisfy yourself that you have all the items as mentioned above in the kit.
13. Form A House list will be filled in as a preliminary operation for about four days preceding the Census Night. Before the census enumeration is taken up, it is essential to locate and identify all places which are occupied or used or which are likely to be occupied or used by people. The House listing operations are mainly meant for this purpose and house listing is a primary but important step in the census. The House list will help identify households first before the enumeration is done. It will also provide preliminary information on the number of persons usually living in the household or usual members of the household.
14. The House list which is proposed to be filled during the house listing operations is given at the end of this book (Appendix A). It will be noted that the Form is simple. The manner in which the House list has to be completed and the concepts and their explanation are described in detail in this chapter. It is absolutely essential for you to become thoroughly familiar with these instructions since this job of House listing is an extremely important one. Apart from listing of houses you will also be collecting some useful data on housing which are required for planning purposes. The success of the House listing operations is very much dependent on a thorough understanding of the concepts, definitions and instructions and on a faithful application of these concepts and definitions and your following the instructions in the actual filling of the House list form. If you have any doubt you should not hesitate to ask your supervisor for clarification.
15. The House listing operations will involve certain basic steps which may be briefly summarized as follows:
(ii) Numbering of buildings and households in your EA and marking them on the EA Map.
(iii) Filling in the House list itself.
16. The procedure for updating EA map is first described and after that the basic concepts relating to a building and a household are described. This is followed by the actual instructions with regard to filling in the House list.
17. In order to be able to complete the House list, it would be necessary to locate and identify the buildings and households. This can be done only if you are thoroughly familiar with the area assigned to you for these operations. The purpose of the EA map is to help you to understand your jurisdiction or EA. Also, it is only if a EA map is with you that it will be possible for you to allot building numbers in a systematic manner. The first step, therefore, is to update the EA map and mark the residential and partly residential buildings.
18. The EA map that will be given to you is a sketch map which is not drawn to scale (See Specimen at Appendix B (i) for rural and Appendix B (ii) for urban i.e. provincial town). It was prepared a few months ago and therefore, may require updating. An EA may include a village or part of a village (in case of a big village). EAs are delineated or formed in such a way that no building or structure with one or more households is left out. The EA map shows the general topographical details. The topographical details indicated on the EA map include permanent features and landmarks such as the village site, well-known roads, cart tracks, hills, rivers etc., as also railway line, hospitals, schools, pagodas and similar clearly recognizable physical features. You may update the EA map first in consultation with the village chief concerned. Verify whether these recognizable features are found in their proper places in the EA map. You may make the necessary corrections by adding any new feature noticed by you or deleting any non-existing feature. If you find any new residential area not marked, you may indicate the same on the EA map.
19. The next step is to locate every single building occupied by one or more households in the EA. Such buildings should be marked on the EA map as indicated below:
 Building used both for residential and non-residential purposes (e.g. residence and shop, residence and hand-loom weaving, residence and workshop etc.).
20. When once the location of every building used wholly or partly for residential purposes is demarcated on the EA map it will be a simple matter to decide on numbering the buildings. No hard and fast rule can be laid down as to the direction in which the building numbers should run i.e. left to right or in a clockwise order or north-west to south-east and so on. Much depends on the lay-out. What is expected is that some convenient and intelligible order is followed.
21. The instructions given hereafter will guide you to determine a building for the purpose of House listing. A building is a readily distinguishable structure or group of structures which is taken as the unit for building numbering. The objective is to ultimately number and list out all physical units of constructions which are used for residential purposes, either wholly or partly.
22. Building: A building is generally a single structure on the ground. It is covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or with common dividing walls with adjacent buildings. In some areas the very nature of construction of houses is such that there may not be any wall. For example a conical roof almost touches the ground and an entrance is also provided and there will not be any wall as such. Such structures should be treated as buildings. Sometime a building is made up of more than one component unit which are used or likely to be used as dwellings (residences) or as establishments such as shops, business houses, offices, factories, workshops, work sheds, schools, places of entertainment and places of worship or as go-downs, stores, animal sheds, etc. It is also possible that buildings which have component units may be used for a combination of purposes such as shop-cum-residence, workshop-cum-residence, office-cum-residence, etc.
23. Sometimes a series of different buildings may be found along the street which are joined with one another by common walls on either side looking like a continuous structure. These different units are practically independent of one another and likely to have been built at different times and owned by different persons. In such cases though the whole structure with all the adjoining units apparently appears to be one building, each portion should be treated as a separate building and given separate numbers. On the other hand, you may come across cases, particularly in Phnom Penh, of multi-leveled flats. In these cases while the structure looks like one building, the flats are occupied by different persons. In case of such multi-leveled structures, having a number of flats occupied by different persons, the entire structure should be treated as one building and each household in that building should be identified and enumerated.
24. If there is more than one structure within an enclosed or open compound (premises) belonging to the same person, e.g., the main house, animal shed, sitting place, garage etc., only one building number should be given for this unit
25. The buildings should be numbered in a systematic manner as follows:
(ii) If an EA consists of a number of streets, the buildings in the various streets should be numbered continuously. Streets should be taken in uniform order from North-west to South-east. It has been observed that the best way of numbering the buildings is to continue with one consecutive serial on one side of the street and complete numbering on that side before crossing over to the end of the other side of the street and continuing with the serial, stopping finally opposite to where the first number began.
(iii) In a town / city EA, the numbering will have to run along the street and not in any arbitrary geographical direction.
(iv) Three digit numbers should be used for building numbers like 001, 002.. 999. Building number should be painted or marked on a sticker to be pasted at the entrance of the building in a manner that it can easily catch the eyes of any observer. While painting (or marking on a sticker) the building number, the letter C may be marked before it like C 008, C 021 etc. to distinguish our numbering ("C" standing for Census) from other numbers which the building may have.
26. In some cases, the pattern of habitation may be such that a group of huts located in a compound, whether enclosed or not enclosed is occupied by one household. While the main residence may be located in one hut, other huts may be used for sleeping or as kitchen, bathroom, etc. Though each of the huts is a separate structure, they form a single housing unit and therefore, have to be treated collectively as a single building/structure for the purpose of the census. If some of the huts are used by one household and the others by a second household as residence, then the two groups of huts should be treated as two separate building units. You may also find people living in floating houses near the bank of river which are fixed and do not move from place to place like boats. These floating houses may be treated as buildings/structures and numbered along with other buildings in the EA concerned. Some people may be living in caves, big steel containers or un-serviceable buses which are fixed to the ground. These may be also considered as buildings/structures of the EA concerned and numbered.
27. A household is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevented any of them from doing so. There may be a household of persons related by blood or a household of unrelated persons or having a mix of both. Examples of unrelated households are boarding houses, messes, hostels, residential hotels, rescue homes, jails, pagodas, etc. These are called "Institutional Households". There may be one- member households, two-member households or multi-member households. For census purposes each one of these types is regarded as a "Household".
28. If a group of persons who are unrelated to each other live in a building/structure, but do not have their meals from a common kitchen, then they would not constitute an Institutional household. Each such person should be treated as a separate household. The important link in finding out whether there is a household or not, is the existence of a common kitchen.
Marking Building Numbers on EA Map
29. The numbers allotted to each building and the number of households contained in each building should be marked on the EA map as shown below:
 Building No. 1 having two households living in it
 Building No. 3 which is used both for residential and non-residential
003 purposes and having one household living in it
29.2 Specimen updated EA map after building numbering may be seen at Appendix C (i) for rural and Appendix C (ii) for urban (i.e. provincial town).
30. After numbering of building and marking on EA map, the next step is to list the building and household in a prescribed schedule, namely the House list. At the census this form called Form A: House list (see Appendix A), will be canvassed by you in the first stage.
30.2 The instructions given below will guide you in filling-in the House list:
On the top of the House list form, provision is made to note the name of Khet / Krong with Code No.; name of Srok/Khand with Code No.; name of Khum/Sangkat with Code No.; name of Phum/Mondol with Code No.; and Enumeration Area No. Alternate names of administrative units like Khet/Krong, Srok/Khand are given for convenience. The names of the unit not applicable may be scored out. For example, if your EA is in Krong and not in Khet score out Khet etc. These entries which will be referred to as "Identification Particulars" hereafter, are to be filled in by you very carefully. This is the method by which every village in any Khum/Sangkat in every Srok/Khand of the Khet/Krong is identified by a combination of numbers. For this purpose every such unit would have been allotted code numbers. Your supervisor would have indicated to you the code numbers. You will have to enter these numbers in the relevant spaces against the names of the various jurisdictional units. It will be advisable to fill-in the Identification Particulars in the blank forms before your commence House listing as it will save time during your rounds.
31. Every line in the House list is to be numbered by you serially. The line numbers will be continuous for your EA. For your convenience, serial numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... 9 and 0 have already been printed in this column. The last line number may be made 10, by writing 1 before 0 in the first page. In the second page, you can convert number 1 into 11 by writing 1 before 1; number 2 can be made 12 and so on. The last number can be made 20. This procedure can be continued till the end of EA.
32. The number which has been assigned in the EA map and which has been painted (or marked on a sticker) by you on the building which contains one or more households, should be entered in this column without the letter C (e.g. 001, 002 etc.).
Columns 3 to 5: Predominant Construction Material of Building/ Structure
33. This question has been divided into three parts: (a) material of wall; (b) material of roof; and (c) material of floor. For your convenience the description of the predominant construction material has been indicated on the House list itself under each item, i.e., wall, roof and floor. A numerical code for a group of materials has been indicated. What you should do is to enquire about the materials of construction of building and enter the appropriate code in Columns 3 to 5 for each of the materials of wall, roof and floor respectively. You may be also able to see these materials.
34. For material of wall, eight codes have been provided which are indicated in the schedule itself. In order to determine the material of wall you have to take into account the material out of which the major portions of the walls of the building are made and then select the appropriate code. The code thus selected should be entered in Column 3. Dash (--) will be entered in the case of a structure with pillars and without walls, since question of wall does not arise in such a case. This can be explained in the Remarks column.
34.1 In case material of wall is other than those listed with codes 1 to 7, write 8 and give the name of material in Column 3 itself or in Remarks column.
35. For material of roof of the building, eight codes have been provided. These are indicated in the schedule itself. If two or more kinds of materials are used for roof, the material that is mostly used may be taken as the roof material. After ascertaining the material of the roof you have to give the suitable numerical code in Column 4. In case material of roof is other than those listed with Codes 1 to 7, write 8 and give the name of material in Column 4 itself or in Remarks column.
36. For material of floor, seven codes have been provided as indicated in the schedule itself. For the material of floor you have again to take the major portion of material out of which the floor of the building is made. For example, if in a building only the drawing room has ceramic tiles floor while all other rooms and corridors have just cement flooring, the material of floor to be recorded here will be "cement", i.e. Code 3. If a building has tiled floor in the bathroom and all other rooms have cement floor the material of floor will again be "cement".
37. If a building is used wholly for residential purpose, give Code 1 in this column. If it is used as a residence as well as a shop, give Code 2. If it is used as a residence and workshop (or a household industry like weaving, pottery etc.), give Code 3. If it is used as a residence and any other establishment, give code 4 and specify that establishment. Examples of code 4 are residence and school, residence and office, residence and bank, residence and pagoda etc. In these cases write 4. school; 4. office; 4. bank; 4. pagoda etc.
38. If a building is found wholly vacant, i.e. if nobody is living in it at the time of House listing and it is not used for any other purpose, it should also be marked on the EA map and numbered. In this case, write the word "Vacant" above the box marked on the EA map for this building. In Form A, Columns 1, 2 and 13 only may be filled-in for a vacant building leaving the other columns blank. In Column 1, line number may be entered and in Column 2 building number may be written for the vacant building. In the Remarks column (Column 13), the word "vacant" should be written. If a residential or partly residential building is found locked because the household members have gone on travel, then it should not be treated as "vacant". In this case also, Columns 1, 2 and 13 only may be filled-in and other columns may be left blank. The fact that the occupants have gone on a travel should be noted in the "Remarks" column as "Building locked?occupants travelling".
39. As already defined, a "household" is a group of persons who commonly live together and would take their meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevented any of them from doing so. It may be made up of related or un-related persons or of mixed type. A cook or a servant living in the house of his employer and taking his food there, is part of that household. A hostel where a number of unrelated persons live together is an institutional household provided it has a common kitchen. So also is a jail.
40. There should be a household number in Column 7 since you have noted in column 6 that the building is wholly or partly residential.
41. There may be more than one household in a building as already pointed out. Each household in one building should be given a separate number (01, 02, etc.). You will get an idea of the numbering of the buildings and households located in them from the following:
building/structure number = 009
household number = 01
Ex 2: Building No. 009 having two households
building/structure number = 009
household number = 01
household number = 02
Ex 2: Building No. 009 having two households
building/structure number = 009
household number = 01
household number = 02
household number = 03
If a building contains more than one household, the building number should not be repeated in Column 2 on the subsequent lines (please see example above). Also, the predominant construction materials of building (Columns 3 to 5) and purpose of building (Column 6) need not be filled-in on subsequent lines once these particulars have been entered against the first household of the building.
42. Columns 8 and 9 are required to be filled in, only in respect of the head of household. You have to write the name and sex of the head of household.
43. The head of household for census purposes is a person who is recognised as such in the household. He or she is generally the person who bears the chief responsibility for the management of the household and takes decisions on behalf of the household. The head of the household need not necessarily be the eldest male member, but may be a female member or a younger member of either sex. You need not enter into any long argument about it but record the name of the person who is recognised by the household as its head. In the case of an absentee de jure "Head", the person on whom the responsibility of the managing the affairs of the household falls at the time of House listing, should be regarded as the Head.
44. The name of the head of each household should be written in this column. In the case of Institutional households, such as hostels, residential hotels, jails, pagodas etc., where the head of institutional household can be recognized by designation, such as, hostel warden, jailer, chief monk, manager etc., you may enter this designation in this column after writing the name of the Institution. If there is no such designation, write the name of the recognized head of Institution.
45. In the case of institutional households, please write "I" within brackets after the name or designation of the head in this column. Example: Kolab II School Hostel, Manager (I); Mr Srey Rotha (I). Please also write "Institutional Household" in the Remarks column.
46. If the head of the household is a male write 1. If female, write 2 in this column. For eunuchs and hermaphrodites, you have to write 1 in the column.
47. Enter the number of males usually residing in the household in Column 10, number of females in Column 11 and total number of persons in Column 12 (total of Columns 10 and 11). Please note that the purpose of ascertaining these figures is to have a preliminary idea of the usual residents in the household. Casual visitors should be excluded as they will be considered at their respective places of normal residence. Persons like household helper, visitor or guest living and having their meals with the family are also considered as usual members of the household if they have been living with the household for six months or more, or if they have no other place of residence. Usual residents absent for six months or more should be excluded from the household in which they usually reside.
Column 13: Remarks
48. This will provide space for any useful information about the building, or household. As already mentioned in the Instructions for filling in Column 8, write "Institutional Household" in case of such household. If the building is vacant, write vacant here as already mentioned. If the building is locked and the occupants have traveled, you may record this in the Remarks column as already stated. This space may be also suitably used to explain Code 8 in Columns 3 and 4 or Code 7 in Column 5, if necessary.
49. Each page of the House list of the EA should be numbered continuously as 1, 2, 3, etc. The page number should be given in the place allotted on the right hand top corner of the House list. On every page of the House list for EA, the total number of pages used for EA should be given in the space provided on the right hand top corner.
50. The total number of households in Column 7 of the House list should be counted and written in the box for total under this column in each page. The figures of males, females and persons in Columns 10, 11 and 12 may be totaled and given for each page. In a separate sheet called House list Summary (Form 1), specimen of which is given in Appendix D you have to copy totals of each of these columns from each page and strike the grand totals for EA.
51. The enumerator should write his/her name and sign all the pages of the House list and also record the date in the space provided.
52. Form B Household Questionnaire will be canvassed in all households in your EA. You must take Form A along with you and identify each household and do the enumeration in Form B.
53. The reference time for the 1998 Census is Midnight of Tuesday, March 3, 1998. This means that the 1998 Census is expected to provide a snap shot of the population in the households in the EA as it exists at midnight of March 3,1998 or 00 hours of March 3, 1998. In other words, the population count relates to this reference time. As you will agree, it is not possible to ascertain the particulars of every individual at this fixed point of time. Therefore, the enumeration is spread over ten days beginning on March 3, 1998 and ending on March 12, 1998. During these days, information is collected of persons present in households at midnight of March 3, 1998 (called Census Night). Hence the entire enumeration relates to this reference time. Note that only persons alive in household at midnight (or 00 hours) of this day should be enumerated. Remember that all questions you ask must relate to Census Night unless you have specific instructions otherwise in this manual (e.g. questions on economic characteristics). Please also note that for House listing no such reference time is fixed since it is only a general preliminary inquiry. But for the Census (when Form B Household Questionnaire will be canvassed), a reference time is fixed, since census is expected to provide the population figures as at that time.
54. Form B will be filled-in for all households in your EA. All households include normal or regular households, institutional households, homeless households, boat population and transient population. Form A will help you in identifying each normal or institutional household.
54.2 Before enumerating each of the new households as mentioned in the previous paragraph, you should up-date Form A House list. This may be done by including building number, household number and other particulars of these cases under the heading "Additional Households noticed during Enumeration" at the end of Form A without disturbing the existing line numbers. This is illustrated in Appendix E.
54.3 A building which was locked during House listing may not be locked during the census enumeration. You have to enumerate the household in this building. You may up-date Form A in this case as follows: If there is only one household in such a building you may fill in Columns 3 to 12 on the line on which the building number is already entered. Columns 1 to 2 and 13 should have been filled-in for this building in Form A during House listing. If there are more than one household in that building, you may fill in particulars of second, third etc., household at the end of Form A as is done in the case of additional households found in buildings already listed. You may cancel the words "Building locked--occupants traveling" originally recorded in the Remarks column (Column 13) against this building number.
54.4 A building which was vacant during House listing may not be vacant during the census enumeration. You have to enumerate the household in this building. You may up-date Form A in this case as follows: If there is only one household in such a building you may fill in Columns 3 to 12 on the line on which the building number is already entered. Columns 1 to 2 and 13 should have been filled-in for this building in Form A during House listing. If there are more than one household in that building, you may fill in particulars of second, third etc., household at the end of Form A as is done in the case of additional households found in buildings already listed. You may cancel the words "vacant" originally recorded in the Remarks column (Column 13) against this building number.
54.5 The page total of Form A and House list Summary entries need not be corrected consequent on listing additional households in Form A during the enumeration stage in situations explained in Paragraphs 54.2 to 54.4.
54.6 Instructions for the enumeration of normal households are given in this Chapter hereinafter. Instructions for enumeration of Institutional Households are given in Chapter 4. Instructions for enumeration of homeless households, boat population and transient population are given in Chapter 5.
54.7 It is possible that between Census Night and the time of enumeration the composition of population in some households may have changed. If somebody had died after Census Night, include him or her in the count as that person was living in that household on Census Night. If a baby was born after Census Night, you should not enumerate the baby who did not exist at midnight of March 3, 1998. Visitors are enumerated in a normal or regular household only if they spent Census Night in that household.
55. Specimen of Form B Household Questionnaire is given as Appendix F. This form should be used to enumerate individuals in households in your EA. This will be done in a second round starting from March 3, 1998.
56. Fill in name and code of Khet/Krong, Srok/Khand, Khum/Sangkat and Phum/ Mondol as you have already done for Form A House list. Enumeration Area Number also will be filled in the same way. Copy from Form A, the Building No. and Household No. on the top of the form. It will be advisable to fill-in the Identification Particulars (except Building No., Household No. and Name of Head of Household) in the blank forms before your commence enumeration as it will save time during your rounds.
57. Give suitable code in the box provided for this purpose. For a normal household, give Code 1.
What to do when two or more Questionnaires are used for a Household ?
58. There is a provision on each questionnaire to enumerate 10 persons. If you have to enumerate more than 10 persons in a household, continue enumeration on a new questionnaire. This new questionnaire is in continuation of the first one and must be treated as such. Remember that whenever you use more than one questionnaire for any household, you must write Household No. ... (Continued) on the right hand top of the first page of second and subsequent questionnaires. You should fill in Identification Particulars in continuation questionnaires also. You should write in the square provided at left hand bottom of the first page (Part 1) of the first questionnaire, the total number of the questionnaires used for the household. You must clip or pin together all questionnaires of the household concerned.
59. Head of Household has already been defined. You may find his/her name against Household No. concerned in column 8 of Form A : House list. You should record that here. If there is a change in the name of head of household between House listing and now, record the new name.
60. For filling in these statements, please carefully read the following instructions: Usual members may be divided into two categories: (i) those who slept in the house occupied by the household on Census Night i.e. those who were present on Census Night and (ii) those who were away and so were absent on Census Night. Please note that persons on night duty (e.g. doctors, nurses, policemen, watchmen, prison wardens etc.) who would have normally slept in the house but for going on night duty should be treated as usual members present in household on Census Night.
61. Visitors (i.e. guests of any member of household) who slept in the house on Census Night are called visitors to household present on Census Night.
62. In Statements 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 of Form B Part I, you have to fill in some particulars of usual members of household present on Census Night, visitors to household present on Census Night and usual members of household absent on Census Night respectively.
63. You may use the number of persons usually living in the household recorded in Columns 10, 11 and 12 of the House list for guidance. But please remember that those figures related to all usual members of the household in general. You have to contact the head of the household or any responsible member of the household and obtain information for filling in the schedule as per instructions contained in the following pages. You should arrange the timing of your visit to households in your EA in such a way that you would able to meet the head of household or any responsible member of each household. Sometimes you may find that all the members of a household had gone out for a few hours for shopping, work, study etc. leaving the building locked. In such cases you should leave a message for the household concerned that you will again visit the household for census enumeration (giving time and date) and requesting them to be present at that time. For this purpose you may use Call Back Cards (Appendix H).
64. In this statement you should list out all usual members of household present on Census Night. You should write down first the name of the head of household (refer definition given earlier in paragraph 43 Chapter 2). If the head of the household was absent during the reference night, find out who was responsible for the household in the absence of head of household and record his or her name, provided this person slept in the household on Census Night.
65. In entering the names in Statement 1.1 it would be better if some system is followed. After entering the name and other particulars of the head of household, you should cover the near relations such as wife or husband of the head of household, sons and daughters, each son's wife and children, each daughter's husband and children, then other relations such as brothers, sisters, mother, father, etc., of the head of the household, then domestic servants, if any etc. Such a system of listing and entering of particulars will ensure that omissions are avoided, particularly of small children. It will also help in cross-checking replies regarding age.
66. A word of caution: - You must ask probing questions regarding relations such as unmarried sisters, parents, domestic servants and children. Otherwise, the head of the household may not indicate that there are such persons as usual members of the household present on the Census Night. Please make repeated enquiries about infants and very young children because they are often liable to be left out of the count.
67. Serial Number has to be given for each person using the numbers already printed.
68. This question hardly calls for any explanation. The names of persons starting with the head of household should be entered here. The names you put down should be such that if a second visit is paid to the house during or after the final enumeration, the persons to whom the names refer can be easily identified.
Babies who have not been named
68.1 Occasionally you will come across babies who were born before Census Night but who haven't been named by the time you call to enumerate. In such cases write down "Baby" before the family name. For example, if the newly born baby's father's name is Savongz you should put down Baby Savongz.
Persons with identical names
68.2 You may also come across households where two or more persons are known by same family name (e.g. Meas). In such cases you must record also the names by which they are distinguished in the household and by neighbors and friends (e.g. Meas Savongz and Meas Savath).
69. In this column you will have to record the relationship to head of household in full. The first person to be recorded is the head of household. In the case of the head write 'head'. For others write the full relationship. Do not use words like 'nephew', 'niece', 'uncle' or 'aunt', but state whether brother's or sister's son or daughter (for nephew or niece) or father's or mother's brother (for uncle), or father's or mother's sister (for aunt). Son or daughter will include adopted son or adopted daughter or step son / daughter. For brother-in-law, write wife's brother or sister's husband as the case may be. For grandson, write son's son or daughter's son as the case may be. In the case of boarders or domestic servants / cooks, etc., who are enumerated as members of the household though unrelated, write boarder or domestic servant/cook, as the case may be.
70. Record the code 1 for male and 2 for female. It is important to ask the sex of the persons when information is being given to you by a third person. Bear in mind that some names can be misleading in this respect. For example, Vichet or Socheat can be used for a male as well as a female. For eunuchs and hermaphrodites write 1.
71. You have to record in Statement 1.2 of Form B Part 1, the full name, relationship to head of household and sex of every visitor who was present in the household on Census Night. Follow the instructions mentioned above for filling Columns 1 to 4. You are also required to write in Columns 5 or 6, the usual residence of the visitor. If the usual residence of the visitor is within Cambodia write the name of district to which that place belongs with name of province within brackets in Column 5 and put a dash (--) in Column 6. If the visitor usually resides in another country, put a dash (--) in Column 5 and write the name of that country in Column 6. If no visitor was present in the household on Census Night, score out neatly Statement 1.2.
72. The entries in Statement 1.3 are restricted to usual members of the household who were absent from the house on census night. Note that only five lines have been provided in this column. If there are more than five persons to be entered here, you must use a continuation questionnaire and suitably enter the serial numbers.
72.2 The "Location on Census Night" (Column 6 or 7) refers to the place where the absentee usual member spent census night. If the location or place where absentee usual member of the household was residing on Census Night was within Cambodia give name of the district to which that place belongs with name of province within brackets in Column 6.. If it is another country, write only the name of the country in Column 7. If these details are not known, write "Not Known" under Column 6 or 7.
72.3 In Column 8, you are expected to write in completed months how long he/she was absent up to Census Night. For example, if the person has been away for two months three weeks, write 2 in the space provided. If he/she was absent for less than one month, write down 0.
72.4 If the usual head of household was absent on Census Night his or her name should be entered on the first line in Statement 1.3. Remember, however, to indicate in the relationship column the relationship of this person to the temporary head entered in Statement 1.1. Thus, you should never enter Head in relationship column in Statement 1.3, but specify whether this absent person is the husband, father, brother, mother, etc., of the temporary head. If no usual member of household was absent on Census Night, score out neatly Statement 1.3.
73. On the right-hand side of Statement 1.3, are boxes in which you should put down the total number of persons (male plus female) in Statements 1.1 and 1.2. If there is no entry in Statement 1.2, record "0" in the box for "Total Number of Persons in Statement 1.2". As regards, total number of persons in Statement 1.3, you need not do anything. It will be done later in office
Total of Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2
74. One box has been provided for recording the total number of persons in Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2. You are expected to add the number of persons in Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2 and put the total in the box concerned.
75. If you use more than one questionnaire for a household you should add up the number of persons listed under Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2 on each questionnaire and put the total in the appropriate boxes of the first questionnaire for the household. The boxes on the second and subsequent questionnaires should be left blank.
76. You have to give your name, signature and date at the appropriate place.
77. This part of the questionnaire is divided into columns and rows. There are columns numbered 1,2,3....20. Each column refers specifically to a questionnaire item which is clearly stated at the head of the column.
77.2 Remember that you have to fill in Part 2 only for usual members and visitors (i.e. persons listed in Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2 of Part 1 ) who were present in the household on Census Night. Do not include here usual members who were absent on Census Night (i.e. persons listed in Statement 1.3 of Part 1).
78. You have to collect information in Part 2 for all persons mentioned in Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2 of Part 1. Some of the following questions have been answered in Part 1. Therefore there will be no need to ask these questions again. In such cases all you have to do is to copy the information in the appropriate columns.
79. Serial Number has to be given for each line (i.e. for each person in the household starting from the head of household). For your convenience the serial numbers have been printed in this column which you may use suitably. Please check that the last serial number given is equal to the total number of persons in Statements 1.1 and 1.2 given in the thick square at right hand bottom on the first page (Part 1).
80. The information in these columns should be first entered from Statements 1.1 and 1.2 of Part 1 before proceeding further to fill in other columns for each person.
81. Write in spaces provided the names of all respondents in the household (as in Statement 1.1 and Statement 1.2). First, names in Statement 1.1 in that order may be copied. This may be followed by names in Statement 1.2 in that order.
82. Based on the information already collected in Column 3 of Statements 1.1 and 1.2 give code for relationship to head of household, for each person. Codes for relationship are provided on the questionnaire itself below Column 3. Read the relationship and select the proper Code. Note that Code 1 is for head of household. Always head of household will be the first person enumerated in the household. Code 2 should be given to wife of male head of household or to husband of female head of household. Code 3 should be given to son or daughter of head of household. Code 4 should be given to father or mother of head of household. Code 5 should be given to grandson or granddaughter of head of household. All other relatives of head of household should be given Code 6. You should take sufficient care to avoid wrong coding of relationship to head of household. For example, sister's son should not be coded as son (Code 3) because the word son is there. The correct Code in this case is 6. Non-relatives of head of household should be given Code 7.
84. The age of every person must be stated in completed years only, as on March 3, 1998. For those who know their birthdays, the age to be recorded is the age as at last birthday. "Age in completed years only" means that all the ages must be recorded in full years discarding fractions of years and months.
84.1 For instance, 15 years 11 months should be written down as 15. Do not write down months. Only years are required. The age of all infants who are less than one year old should be recorded as "00". In this connection you are requested to make sure that infants of the household even if one day or less than one day old as on Census Night are invariably enumerated. It is again pointed out that you should take all precautions to enumerate children (less than age 14) and infants (less than 1 year). Unless you ask probing questions they are likely to be omitted. This is a very important instruction that you should bear in mind always.
84.2 What to do when a person does not know his/her age?
(ii) Ask him / her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when that historical event occurred.
(iii) Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he/she was about 20 years old when Cambodia attained Independence, his or her age may be about 20 + 44 (November 9, 1953 to March 3, 1998) = 64 years.
(4) Only as a last resort you should estimate a person's age from his/her physical features. If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person then obviously you have to rely on the information supplied by the third person in estimating the age in respect of the person who is absent. You should not leave this column blank under any circumstances.
85. Codes are provided in the column heading itself. You have to ask this delicate question carefully and record the appropriate code numbers according to the answers given. Record Code 1 for Never Married, i.e. for those who have never entered into any form of marital union. Record Code 2 for Married, 3 for widowed, 4 for divorced and 5 for separated.
86. The category "Married" will include those persons who are contractually married but not yet living as a man and wife. Even if a marriage is disputed in the neighborhood write Code 2 if the person concerned says he or she is married and is in stable de facto union. The category separated will include both legal and de facto separations. Persons who were widowed or divorced but have remarried must be recorded as married.
87. Mother tongue of a person is the language spoken in childhood by the person's mother to the person. If the mother died in infancy, the language mainly spoken in the person's home in childhood will be the mother tongue. In case of infants and deaf mutes, the language usually spoken by the mother should be recorded. In case of doubts, the language mainly spoken in the household may be recorded.
8. Any other mother tongue which has to be specified
87.2 Please note in this connection the instructions given below:- You should tell the respondent that the information required here is mother tongue and not any other language spoken. It should also be made clear that this information is required purely for statistical purposes only.
(ii) If you have reasons to suspect that in your area mother tongue is not being truthfully returned, you should record the mother tongue returned through code and make a report to your supervisor for verification.
(iii) It is possible that mother tongue may be different for different persons in a household. It is, therefore, necessary to ask every person about his / her mother tongue.
88. Record the appropriate code number for the religion to which the respondent says he belongs. There is no need to verify this. You must accept whatever answer is given. For those claiming to belong to religions that fall under other categories, record Code 4 and specify the reported religion, e.g. 4 Hindu. For a person who says that he/ she has no religion, write 4 No religion.
89. If a person reports to have been born in this village, record Code 1 in the blank space (not in shaded boxes which are reserved for coding in office). Persons reporting to have been born in this village are those born in the same village in which you are conducting your enumeration. The birth place of a person is the place of usual residence of the person's mother at the time of birth. For example, for a person born in (a) a hospital or maternity home outside the usual place of residence of the mother or (b) mother's village or (c) some other place where the mother had gone for a short visit, the birthplace of this person will be the place in which the mother normally lives and not the place of the hospital, the mother's village or place of visit. If however, the mother's length of stay outside her place of usual residence was one month or more or the mother had the intention of staying in the new place for one month or more the "actual place of physical birth" will be considered as the birthplace of the person in question. For example, suppose Bossadine who normally resides with her husband in Bak Kheng went to Kandal Koh to deliver her child in her mother's house, and returned within 15 days the birthplace of the child will be Bak Kheng and not Kandal Koh.
89.2 For those persons reporting to have been born outside the village in which you are conducting your enumeration, record name of the district in which the village of birth falls and also write name of province of that district within brackets. For those born outside Cambodia write name of the country of birth.
90. In the blank space (not shaded boxes), record 1 if the respondent lived in the village where enumeration is being conducted continuously since birth (except for shifting to another place outside the village of enumeration for purely temporary stay) and skip to Column 13. If a person was usually residing in another village immediately before he/she came to the present village where he/she is enumerated, the earlier village is the person's previous residence. If the person had lived earlier in more than one village, the immediate previous residence of the person is what we are interested in. For example, a person enumerated in village A had lived earlier in village B and before that in village C, his/her previous residence is village B and not village C. Write name of district of previous residence and also write name of province of that district within brackets. If respondent is reported to have resided outside Cambodia, write the name of the country. It is important to note that even if a person was born at the place of enumeration but had shifted subsequently to another village for work or for studies and had come back again to place of enumeration, he/she should be considered as having had another place of residence prior to his/her enumeration here.
91. The question on duration of stay refers to duration of stay in village of enumeration since coming from last previous residence. This question "how long have you lived in this village?" is to be administered only if answer in Column 10 is that the place of last residence was another village in Cambodia or in a country outside Cambodia. In other words, the answer in Column 10 is not Code 1. Duration of stay should be recorded in Column 11 using the codes for column 11 given on the questionnaire itself. If answer in Column 10 is Code 1, put a dash (--) in Column 11.
92. "Migration", means moving to the place where you are enumerating from another village (or another country) which was the last previous residence. For persons to whom you have given code other than 1 in Column 10 and for whom you have entered duration of stay code in column 11, you have to record reason for migration by giving one of the codes applicable to the person concerned from the list of codes for Column 12 given below the column. For a person to whom you have given Code 1 in Column 10, put a dash (--) in Column 12. The reasons given are simple and easily understandable. Code 5 (Family Moved) needs an explanation. If a member of a family had to move to the place of enumeration from a previous residence because the entire family moved, this code has to be given. For example, if Ratha migrated because his place of work is transferred give Code 1 for him. For his wife and children who had to also move with him the reason for migration is family moved (5) and not Transfer of work place (1). However, if his wife or son or daughter gives a separate reason for moving to this place like "in search of employment" or "education" you have to assign the appropriate code to him/her. Give Code 7 (Repatriation or Return after displacement) to a person who was repatriated by an official agency or to a person who returned to his/her village after having left earlier due to internal disturbances or political reasons. For any reason of migration other than the first eight listed, give 9 and write down the reason in the column itself. Please note that Code 9 should be given only if the reason for migration is not covered by any of the codes 1 to 8. For instance, if a person had been repatriated, you must give Code 7 in his/her case and not write "9 (repatriated)".
93. Literacy is the ability to read and write with understanding in any language. A person is a literate when he/she can both read and write a simple message in any language or dialect. A person who cannot both read and write a simple message is considered illiterate. Also to be considered as illiterate is that person who is capable of reading only his/her own name or numbers, as well as persons who can read but not write, or vice versa.
93.2 Disabled persons who can read and write through any means such as Braille system for the blind, are considered literate.
93.3 Enter 1 for those persons who answer ' Yes ' to this question and 2, for those persons who answer ' No '. All children of the age of 6 years or less should be treated as illiterate even if the child is going to a school and may have picked up reading and writing a few odd words.
94. Full-time education refers to education in an educational institution like Primary School, Secondary School, College etc.
Column 14 (a): Have you ever attended School / Educational Institution?
95. This applies to both literates and illiterates. The answer to this question may be recorded as follows:-
(b) Now:- Record 2 if the person is still receiving full-time education at the time of the Census.
(c) Past:- Record 3 if the person received full-time education in the past and is no longer receiving it.
Note that it is possible that a person who is literate (Code 1 in Column 13), had never attended any school at all (e.g. he might have learnt to read and write in a pagoda) and may, therefore, be given Code 1 in Column 14(a).
Column 14 (b): What is the Highest Grade Completed?
96. Enter dash (--) in the two sub Columns in the case of a person who has never attended school/educational institution (Code 1 in Column 14(a)). Categories of educational levels have been provided for recording the highest grade completed in the school, college or any other educational institution attended by the respondents. A last category "other (specify)" (Code 17) has been included to cater for other educational categories not mentioned. In general, you may check whether the educational level of a person is consistent with his/her age. For example, a boy or girl of age 8 could not have completed class 11. If any such inconsistency is noted, please make probing questions and ascertain the correct answer.
97. These columns relate to the economic characteristics of population both male and female. Information proposed to be collected on economic characteristics of population includes information on economically active and economically not active population. Economically active population includes those who are employed and unemployed. Economically inactive population includes home makers; full time students; dependents; rent-receivers, retired people and other categories of income recipients; and others who are neither employed nor unemployed and also do not come under any of the inactive categories mentioned. The reference period for this is the last one year.
98. First we want to know what has been the main activity of the person during the one year preceding the Census Night. Main Activity means the activity during 6 months (183 days) or more during the last one year (i.e. for the major part of the last year). Codes have been provided on the schedule itself which are to be used while answering this question.
98.1 The "employed" comprises all persons who were in the following categories for 6 months (183 days) or more during the last one year:-
(b) Persons who during the reference period performed some work for wages, salary, profit or family gains in cash or kind.
(c) Persons who did not do any work for pay or profit during the reference period although they had a job to which they could return (e.g. off season workers like farmers or fishermen), those on sick leave or leave without pay, those who could not work due to strike or lockout in the organization they were working.
(d) Persons who were self employed (e.g. running a shop by himself or herself, selling eatables, practicing as doctors, lawyers etc.).
98.2 Work is defined as any economically productive activity that a person does for pay (in cash or kind, in any establishment, office, market, farm, private house) or for profit; or without pay on family farm or enterprise. Workers (other than those working without pay in a family farm or business) should receive pay or profit in cash or kind for their activity. Unpaid activities which are not contributing to the person's family business such as voluntary social work or voluntary community support are not classified as "work" for the purposes of this census. Work may be physical or mental in nature. Work involves not only actual work but also effective supervision and direction of work. It is important to note that it includes unpaid work on farm or family enterprise. You must ask probing questions to ascertain the existence of a job or employment or unpaid work on family farm or enterprise during the last year. Please also do not assume that women are generally home-makers. You have to specifically ask probing questions of women whether they were working. Please also remember that in rural areas where most men are engaged in cultivation, wives and daughters also participate as unpaid family workers in cultivation. Such women should be treated as working instead of treating them as home-makers or housewives since they attend to domestic duty also. You have to be very careful not to make this mistake. Similarly children who work should be regarded as employed.
98.3 What about men or women engaged in production of goods for own consumption?
Please note that the following activities for own consumption are treated as work:
(ii) Collection of water and firewood for own consumption.
(iii) The processing of primary commodities for own consumption by the producers of these items (such as drying own vegetables for later use).
(iv) Production of fixed assets for own use (such as building a house or rice paddy dike).
98.4 Activities for own consumption other than the above are not treated as work (e.g. cooking one's own food, washing one's own clothes etc.). If a person is employed but at the same time does also attend to household chores or attend school etc., he/she should be treated basically as employed.
98.5 If you give code 1 for a person after following the above instructions, you have to fill in Columns 16 to 20 which will be described subsequently.
98.6 If a person (man or woman) is not employed you should ask whether he or she was unemployed for six months (or 183 days) or over during the last year. Unemployed refers to those who were without work but were seeking work or available for work.
98.7 Please note that homemakers, students and others mainly engaged in non-economic activities during the reference period who satisfy the above criteria of unemployment should be regarded as unemployed and not as home makers, students etc., If a person returns that he / she is unemployed for the major part of the last year according these criteria, you should ask whether the person was employed any time before he / she became unemployed. If he / she says Yes, you have to record Code 2 for the person in Column 15. On the other hand, if the person says that he / she was unemployed and seeking work for the first time and was never employed any time before you should record Code 3 in Column 15. In the case of unemployed who was employed any time before (Code 2 in Column 15), you have to fill in Columns 16-20 for last employment. In case of Code 3 in Column 15, enter dash (--) in each of the Columns 16 to 20.
98.8 The employed and unemployed constitute economically active population. Those who are not employed or unemployed spend most of their time as home makers, students etc. which are not considered as economically active and hence they are called Inactive population. Use the codes given in the schedule for recording the category of people inactive for six months (or 183 days) or more during the last year.
98.9 The inactive categories are explained below:-
Home Maker is a person who was solely engaged during the reference period in household duties in his or her home. Give code 4 for this category in Column 15.
Student is a person who was attending school/ educational institution(with Code 2 in Column 14a). Give Code 5 for this category in Column 15.
Dependent: This category includes all dependents like infants and children not attending school, persons permanently disabled and hence cannot do any work and persons who cannot work because of illness or old age. Dependents will include able bodied persons who cannot be categorized in any other inactive category and are dependent on others. However if such a person was seeking or available for work he or she should be categorized as unemployed and not as dependent. For people who were dependents give Code 6 in Column 15.
Rent-receiver, retired or other income recipients: A person who has retired from service and is doing no other work, i.e. not employed again in some work or not engaged in some other work such as cultivation, business, trade etc. or a person who is a rent-receiver or a person living on agricultural or non-agricultural royalty, rent or dividend who is neither employed nor unemployed, or any other person of independent means for securing which he/she does not have to work will come under this category. You should give Code 7 in Column 15 for this category of inactive person.
Other, (specify): This category will include all inactive persons who may not come under any of the above four categories of inactive persons. For such a person (e.g. beggar) you should give Code 8 and specify
(e.g. 8 Beggar) in column 15.
99. Information in these Columns should be filled-in only for a person who is employed (Code 1 in Column 15) or unemployed (employed before) i.e. Code 2 in Column 15. For unemployed (not employed before) i.e. Code 3 in Column 15 and inactive population i.e. any Code from 4 to 8 in Column 15, no information can be furnished in Columns 16 to 20 and hence enter dash (--) in each of these Columns for these persons. Following are the instructions for filling-in Columns 16 to 20 for a person for whom Code 1 or 2 is given in Column 15. The information to be filled-in will relate to employment details of the employed person (Code 1 in Column 15). In the case of unemployed (employed before) i.e. Code 2 in Column 15, the information to be filled-in will relate to last employment held by that person.
100. Give the number of months (rounded off to the nearest month) during which the respondent was employed in the last 12 months. In the case of Code 1 in Column 15, the entry in Column 16 may be 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11 or 12 if the person was employed for 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 months respectively during the last 12 months. In the case of Code 2 in Column 15, please note that you have to enter in Column 16, the number of months employed during the last 12 months only. The entry in Column 16 will be 00 if the person was not employed during the last 12 months. The entry will be 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 if the person was employed for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 months respectively during the last 12 months.
101. Occupation refers to the name of the job the person did (e.g. cashier, primary school teacher, nurse, blacksmith, watchman, manager etc.).
102. Five categories have been provided for Employment Status or Class. When the answer corresponds to one of these, you should record the appropriate code number. Note that you should record only one code for each respondent.
(b) Paid Employee:- Record Code 2 for a person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer. All Government Servants, for example, are employees. Payment may also be in kind.
(c) Own Account Worker:- Record Code 3 for a person who operates his own enterprise (e.g. a farmer cultivating his own land, petty-trader, private doctor, advocate who practices independently) and who does not employ anybody to work for him in operation of his enterprise. He or she neither employs anybody nor is employed by anybody, (e.g. a fruit seller who does his or her business all alone).
(d) Unpaid family worker:- Record Code 4 for a person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member of his or her family without payment of wages or salary (e.g. wife who helps her husband in farming, daughter who helps in hand-loom weaving).
(e) Other, (specify):- To this category belong all persons who do not fall in any of the above groups. You should write down the person's employment status in the space provided, after recording Code 5 (e.g. 5 Apprentice)
103. You have to record here the sector of economy in which a person worked. Examples are: Cultivation, fishing, livestock rearing, selling of vegetables, automobile repairs, manufacture of toys, transport service, school or educational service, sale of clothes (retail), manufacture of eatables etc. If a person works as a sales assistant in a Gas Station his occupation is sales assistant and the nature of his trade is selling petrol (retail). The broad sectors of economy are: (i) Cultivation, fishing, livestock rearing, (ii) Mining or quarrying (iii) Manufacturing, processing, servicing (iv) Repairing (v) Construction (vi) Electricity, gas or water supply (vii) Transport and communication (viii) Trade and Commerce and (ix) Services like domestic service, public service etc. Do not be content with answer like Reaksmey Angkor and Co., Bayon and Co. etc., since from these names alone you cannot record the nature of activity of the Company. Ask probing questions to get information regarding the kind of product ( e.g. manufacture of cigarette) or the kind of trade (e.g. Newspaper selling) or the kind of service (e.g. hair dressing) in which the establishment or company is engaged in. If a person is working in a company with several activities, report the nature of the branch of the company in which the person is working. If the person is employed in a Government office or institution, the name of the office, bureau, school, etc., may be given (e.g. Ministry of Planning, Directorate of Agriculture, High court, Phnom Penh High School etc.).
104. In this column you have to record the code for the sector in which respondent's employment falls. Five sectors are listed with their codes on the schedule. If the respondent is a Government servant you have to give Code 1 in this column. If he worked in state-owned enterprise (parastatal), you have to record Code 2 (e.g. electricity supply, water supply). If a respondent was working in a co-operative establishment (e.g., a Co-operative Bank) record Code 3 and all those who were working in private establishments as own account worker will get Code 4. If a person was working in an establishment which does not come under any of the above four categories you have to give Code 5 and indicate the sector of employment (e.g. 5 UNDP).
General Instructions for Filling-In Economic Questions
105. It will be useful to discuss with each person questions covering 15 to 20 together and fill in the details. Example:- If you are interviewing a woman who says she is selling vegetables by herself in the market, find out for how many months she worked last year. She may say that she worked throughout the year. Now you can record for her as follows: 1 in Columns 15, 12 in Column 16, "vegetable seller" in column 17. 3 in Column 18, "Retail Vegetable Trade" in Columns 19 and 4 in Column 20.
106. This part of the questionnaire relates to fertility information. These questions will be asked in the case of females aged 15 and over in the household who have already been enumerated in Part 2 of Form B Household Questionnaire. Note that fertility information should be collected for all women aged 15 and above in the household irrespective of their age or marital status. In other words, this will include elderly women and women who were never married, married, widowed, divorced or separated.
107. One line should be used for recording information of one woman. Give fresh Sl. No. 1, 2, 3 etc. for each line.
108. Copy the name of females aged 15 and more in the household one by one in the same order in which these are recorded in Column 2 of Part 2. This can be done by referring to Full name (Column 2), Sex (Column 4) and Age (Column 5) of Part 2. Please do not add any name here which is not already recorded in Column 2 Part 2 as we are collecting fertility information for females aged 15 and over in the household only. Please also do not omit to copy the name of a woman aged 15 and above just because she is not married or she had no children or she is beyond 50 or 60. You have to copy the names of all women aged 15 and above in the household in Part 3 and then provide the necessary fertility information in each case. In other words, even in the case of a woman aged 15 and above for whom the question of birth does not apply at all, you have to copy her name in Column 2 and write 00 in Columns 4 and 5.
109. Please record for each woman, her corresponding Sl. No. in Column 1 of Part 2 which you have identified already and tick marked. For example, if the first woman whom you have recorded here has Sl. No. 4 in Column 1, Part 2 you have to enter 4 in this Column against her name and so on. As you will appreciate, this will enable easy reference.
110. The questions in this Column have been designed in such a way as to elicit the vital information we require without embarrassing the respondents. We have to find out the total number of children born to a woman, number of children living and number of children dead among them. Please remember that the nature of responses you will obtain will depend, to a great extent, on how tactfully you put these questions. Great care must be taken to choose words which, while retaining the exact meaning of the questions, will not give rise to any emotional feelings. Finally, please note that the word "children" in the questions refers to the woman's own offspring of whatever age and sex and not the children of a brother, sister or husband or other relative or non-relative or adopted ones who may be living with her. You should also note that some of the respondents may be old and their memory weak. You should, therefore, exercise patience and help them to recollect the correct number of children born to them. If no child is reported for any of the questions, write 00 in the column concerned.
Note: It is common experience that the birth of the child may not be reported readily if the child is not actually surviving at the time of enumeration. Infant deaths are still high in the country. There is a chance of a number of such cases being missed unless specifically questioned about. It is necessary to record all live births even if the child has died soon thereafter or had not survived to the day of enumeration. Where a woman first answers that no child was ever born to her, you may perhaps question her as follows: "It has been found in some houses that a child was born and had died soon after or a few days or months later and such cases had not been reported. It is my hope that there are no such cases here. Am I right?" This may bring in the required response. If she reports 'No' then you can be sure that no birth has been missed.
Columns 4: (a) and (b): How many Children have been born alive to you? (Separately by males in column (a) and females in Column (b))
112. It is therefore necessary for you to know the definition of live birth (or children born alive). It is as follows:-
Live birth is the complete expulsion (delivery) or extraction from its mother of a product of conception (baby), irrespective of the duration of pregnancy. The baby after such separation, breathes or shows other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Each product of such birth is considered as a live-birth.
To put it in simple terms, a live birth is one in which the baby has cried.
Columns 4: (c) and (d): How many of them are living? (separately for male children living in Column (c) and female children living in Column (d))
Columns 4: (e) and (f): How many of them have died? (separately for male children dead in Column (e) and female children dead in Column (f)
114. Record in the space provided the number of the woman's own children by sex who are dead. Note that some women may not easily remember the number of their children who have died. Therefore, you should help the respondent to find the correct number by counting your fingers as she mentions the names of the children dead. This is a sensitive question and you must ascertain the answer without wounding the feelings of the respondent.
Note: Make sure that no child is counted more than once or omitted. Please remember that the number of children born alive to a woman should be equal to the total of number of children living and number of children dead.
Column 4 (b) = Column 4 (d) + Column 4 (f).
Column 5: Particulars of Births in the last 12 months
Filling-in of Form B Household Questionnaire Part - 4 :
Housing Conditions and Facilities
116. This part of the questionnaire on housing conditions has to be filled in after completing the main household questionnaire (Form B Parts- 2 and 3). This part should be completed with the assistance of the head of the household or any responsible member of the household.
117. In cases where within a household, members use a variety of facilities, probe to establish the facility used by the majority of household members and record it for the household. For example, if the members of a household use more than one source of light you should record the main source of light used by the majority of members.
118. Please note that in this part you are required to write only the code corresponding to the appropriate answer in the square provided at the bottom of each column. Under no circumstances you should write more than one code for each question.
119. Four code numbers have been provided for recording the answers to this question. Dwelling here refers to the room or the set of rooms occupied by the household.
119.2 Rent: Give Code 2 if the household has been paying rent for its accommodation. Remember that rent here implies the payment of money at the end of a specified period.
119.3 Not owner, but rent-free: Give Code 3 if the household has an accommodation free of charge although the house or building is not the property of the head or any member of this household. For example, households staying in family houses free of rent.
119.4 Other, (specify): Give Code 4 for any answer not fitting in any of the three categories specified above and specify the basis on which the household occupies the dwelling.
120. Determine the type of lighting used in the household most of the time and give the appropriate code. The types of lighting and their codes are as follows:
3. Both city power and generator
7. ___ Other, (specify)
Please note that City Power (Code 1) means electricity supplied by Electricity Department or any Agency. Generator (Code 2) refers to private generator used by household.
121. Find out from respondent the kind of fuel used by the household most of the time for cooking. Give the code for the appropriate item. If two or more kinds of cooking fuel are used, e.g. electricity and LPG; LPG and wood; kerosene and charcoal; etc. give code for the fuel which is used most of the time for cooking.
The codes for the kind of fuel used for cooking are as follows:
4. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
7. ___ Other, (specify)
122. Only one of the Codes (1 for available and 2 for not available) should be recorded. Note that toilet here refers to any installation which is used for the disposal of human excreta. Premises refers to the house or building in which household is living and not to the household. If there is no toilet in the house or building in which household is living, you should give Code 2.
123. Give appropriate code for the household's main source of drinking water supply. If there are two or more sources of drinking water supply, give the code of the source used most of the times. Following are the codes for different sources of drinking water supply:
2. Tube / pipe well
3. Dug well
4. Spring, river, stream, lake/pond, rain
6. ___ Other, (specify)
Please note that Bought (Code 5) refers to buying water from shops or from street vendors. In that case, give Code 5. If a household gets drinking water through pipe for which payment is made, the Code to be given is 1 and not 5.
124. Record in the square provided in this column, the number of rooms occupied by the household as indicated in the column itself. If a household is in occupation of more than eight rooms you have to record only 8.
125. As already described in Paragraph 27 of Chapter 2, an institutional household is a household of unrelated persons like boarding houses, messes, hostels, residential hotels, rescues homes, jails, pagodas etc. It should be noted that if a group of persons who are unrelated to each other live in a building/structure, but do not have their meals from a common kitchen, then they would not constitute an Institutional household. Each such person should be treated as a separate household.
126. Institutional households would have already been identified by you during House listing (see Paragraph 45, Chapter 2). This Chapter relates to enumeration of inmates of these institutions. Only inmates who are present in an institution on Census Night should be enumerated. The officials of an institution like warden, manager, assistant, sweeper etc., who only work in the institution and who do not stay in the institution would be enumerated at their residences and not at the institution. Such of those officials who are on night duty at an institution will not be enumerated as inmates of that institution even if they had spent Census Night at the institution. This is because they would have normally stayed in their respective residences at that time but for coming to the institution for work.
127. The instructions for filling-in Form A House list and Form B Household Questionnaire for an institutional household are consolidated and given below:-
(i) In Column 8 of Form A, the name of the institutional household, followed by the designation of its head may be written. If there is no such designation, the name of the recognized head of institutional household may be written.
In the case of institutional household, please write "I" within brackets after the name or designation of the head in this column. Example: Kolab II School Hostel, Manager (I); Mr Srey Rotha (I). Please also write "Institutional Household" in the Remarks Column (Column 13).
(ii) All other columns are to be filled-in as in the case of normal or regular household.
(i) Give Code 2 in the box under "Type of Household/Population".
(ii) For name of head of household under Identification Particulars follow the instructions given at (i) under Form A House list above.
(iii) Instructions for filling-in other items in Part 1 are the same as for normal household except that for an institutional household, you need not fill-in Statements 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and the Total Statements in Part 1. You may, therefore, neatly scored out this portion in the questionnaire.
(i) Enumeration of inmates of institutions in this part of the Questionnaire will be on the same lines as for normal or regular households.
(ii) However, while filling-in Column 2 (Full name) and Column 3 (Relationship), please follow the instruction given below:-
(b) For every inmate (other than the head of the institutional household), give Code 7 (Non-relative) in Column 3.
(i) Fertility information of female inmates aged 15 and above in an institution will be recorded in this part of the questionnaire following the same instructions as for normal or regular household.
(i) This part of the Questionnaire on housing conditions and facilities need not be filled-in for an institutional household. Hence this portion may be neatly scored out.
128. If there is any institution in your EA with a large number of inmates (say more than ten), you may request the head of that institution during House listing round to prepare and keep ready a list of inmates who are likely to stay on Census Night in that institution.
CHAPTER - 5
Enumeration of Homeless Households, Boat Population and Transient Population
129. This type of household includes households who do not live in a building or structure (e.g. those who live on the road side, pavements, park, in open space outside a pagoda or market etc.). Such population in your EA should be enumerated around midnight of March 3, 1998 i.e. on Census Night itself. In order to do this you will have to take note of the possible places where such population normally live in your EA. You can do this during House listing. Please, however, note that since such population live in the open, without a building or structure, they will not be listed in the House list (Form A). You will have to cover all such homeless households and enumerate them in Form B on the Census Night. If there is likely to be a large number of homeless persons in your EA., you may not be able to enumerate single-handed in one night. You should report this fact to your supervisor in advance so that one or more extra enumerators can be appointed to assist you in the one-night enumeration of such homeless persons. Beggars, vagrants and persons of unsound mind who live without a shelter have to be enumerated as homeless population and should not be missed.
130. The Instructions for filling-in Form B Household Questionnaire for homeless household are given below:-
(i) Give Code 3 in the box under "Type of Household/Population".
(ii) In Identification Particulars, fill in the Building No. as 999 in respect of homeless households. The Household No. could be 01, 02 etc., for the homeless households in the EA. In other words, if there are 20 such households in the EA., the Building No. will be 999 for each of them and the Household Nos. will be 01, 02... 20.
(iii) Instructions for filling-in other items in Part 1 are the same as for normal household except that for a homeless household, you need not fill-in Statements 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and Total Statements in Part 1. Therefore, this portion of the questionnaire may be neatly scored out.
Enumeration of homeless household in this part of the Questionnaire will be on the same lines as for normal or regular households.
Fertility information of females aged 15 and above in a homeless household will be recorded in this part of the questionnaire following the same instructions as for normal or regular household.
This part of the Questionnaire on housing conditions and facilities do not arise for homeless household. Hence this portion may be neatly scored out.
If you find a group of homeless people in your EA who are unrelated (eg. street children) you should fill in their particulars in the same Form B continuously (treating it as a household of unrelated members) starting from any one of them (as head of household) and recording all others as non-relatives (code 7) for the purpose of Column 3: Relationship.
131. Persons living in boats which are on the move are referred to as boat population. They will be enumerated on Census Night. Before enumeration, boats found in a EA will be given separate three digit numbers as follows:- B001, B002 etc. The letter B before the number indicates it is a Boat number. This number will be prominently written on the boat with chalk piece or on the sticker affixed. Please note that Form A House list will not be filled-in for boats. Separate Form B should be filled-in for people in boats treating each boat as a separate building or structure. In identification particulars in Part 1 of Form B boat number should be written under building number. Give Code 4 in the box under "Type of household/ Population". Instructions for enumerating the boat population will be the same as for normal households except that (1) Statements 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and Total Statements in Part 1 of Form B will not be filled in and (2) Part 4 of Form B will also not be filled in.
132. This category of population includes the following: (i) persons who stayed on Census Night in airports, railway stations, bus stands, harbours, ferries and in carts (as travellers) (ii) nomadic population who camped on Census Night in a village (iii) persons who on Census Night stayed in ships within the Cambodian territorial waters and (iv) persons who stayed on Census Night at international border posts.
Enumeration of transient population will be done in Form B following the same instructions as given for homeless households. However, please note that in the case of transient population, you have to give Code 5 in the box under "Type of Household/Population" in Part 1. You should also indicate on the dotted line above the box, the place where such population is found (e.g. Phnom Penh Railway Station, Ship Sorya in the harbour). Special arrangements will be made to enumerate transient population on Census Night.
133. After completing enumeration of a household, you should fill in Form 2 called Enumerator's Summary (Appendix G). You should fill in the identification particulars carefully. The figures which you furnish in this Summary will be used for compiling provisional results. You should not, therefore, make any arithmetical or posting mistake. Thirty lines are provided in the Enumerator's Summary. You may abstract the required information of each household one by one from the columns concerned in Form B Part 2 and record in this Form. The number of Forms required depend on the number of households in the EA. Give page number at the right hand top for each Form used. Each line in this Form is to be used for one household. The last line is for giving total of each column. In Column 3 you have to count the number of households and give it in the total Column. In each page the total for each page may be given. In the last page the grand total for EA on a whole may be given. The procedure to fill in columns 2 to 8 of the Enumerator's Summary is explained below:
134. In these two columns copy the Building Number and Household Number of each household from the Identification Particulars given at the top of Form B Part 1 filled-in for the household.
135. You should write here the number of Form B used for the household. You must have already recorded this number in the square at the left hand bottom of first page of the first Form B used for the household.
136. You should count the number of males (Code 1) from Column 4 of Form B Part 2 and record the number in Column 5 of this Form. Count the number of females (Code 2) from Column 4 of Form B Part 2 and record the number in Column 6 of this Form. Add Columns 5 and 6 and record the number of persons in Column 7. Check whether this tallies with the last serial number in Column 1 of Form B Part 2. Do not copy the population figures from the House list Summary. What we are interested in here is the Census population and not the House list population.
137. For each household you have to indicate in this Column its type. Record Code 1 for Normal or Regular household, 2 for Institutional Household and 3 for Homeless Household, 4 for Boat Population and 5 for Transient Population.
138. In the Remarks Column you may record any useful information based on your observation.
139. At the end of enumeration, you have to give an account of questionnaires received in Form 3 given in Appendix I. You have to get a Certificate in Form 4 from the Village Chief concerned (Appendix J) that you have completely covered all households during enumeration. After you have carefully checked the entries and the totals in the questionnaires and summary statements as mentioned in this manual, you have to return the following materials placed in folders to your supervisor and obtain acknowledgement:
(b) Completed Form 1 House list Summary
(c) Completed Form 2 Enumerator's Summary
(d) Completed Form 3 Account for Questionnaires Received
(e) Completed Form 4 Certificate from Village Chief
(f) Enumeration Area Map
(g) Enumerator's Manual
If you follow the instructions contained in this manual carefully you should feel proud to have accomplished a national task well. In Appendix K, you will find some specimen entries of Form A House list, Form B Household Questionnaire, Form 1: House list Summary, Form 2: Enumerator's Summary and Form 3: Account for Questionnaires Received.