Republic of Kenya
2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census
24th/25th August, 2009
Enumerator's Instructions Manual
Part 1: Introduction
This manual has been prepared with the enumerator as a user in mind. An attempt has been made to clarify various concepts and definitions to ensure that they are well understood. Various examples have been cited for illustration. The enumerator is expected to understand all the details contained in this manual.
1. Population Census
Population census is a complete enumeration (count) of all persons in a country at a specified time. It is the primary source of benchmark statistics on the size, distribution, composition and other social and economic characteristics of the population. Kenya has conducted six censuses since 1948 with the last one having been conducted in August, 1999. Since 1969, Kenya has conducted censuses at intervals of ten years. The 2009 census will be the seventh.
2. Objective of the 2009 Population and Housing Census
The main objective of 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census will be to provide information that is essential for evidence based development planning, making administrative and policy decisions, and research. It is, therefore, extremely important that the data collected in the census is complete and accurate.
The 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census is being managed through an elaborate structure as detailed below:
3.1 National Census Officer
The National Census Officer is the Permanent Secretary (PS) in the Ministry charged with conducting Population and Housing Censuses. In this case it is the PS, Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030. He/she in collaboration with stakeholders is responsible for formulating census policies, and providing leadership and guidance towards undertaking a successful census.
3.2 Board of Directors, KNBS
The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) is managed by a board of directors as stipulated in the Statistics Act, 2006. The Board advises the Minister in charge of the Census and the Census Secretariat/Census office on issues pertaining to census undertaking. It also reviews plans and reports submitted by the Secretariat and facilitate the implementation of all aspects of the project.
3.3 National Census Coordinator
The Director General of KNBS is the National Census Coordinator. He/she will oversee the overall coordination of the census project and provide day to day professional, technical and administrative support to other organs of census. In addition he/she will mobilize resources for the census undertaking.
3.4 National Census Steering Committee (NCSC)
The NCSC draws its membership from government, private sector, learning and research institutions, special groups, faith based organizations and Non?Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The committee is charged with responsibilities of formulating all relevant census policies and fostering linkages with the general public. It also reviews strategies and plans related to publicity and advocacy; reports on the census implementation; and examines the census instruments. In addition, it liaises with all stakeholders to provide the required support for a successful population and housing census.
3.5 Technical Working Committee (TWC)
The committee draws its membership mainly from government agencies, line ministries and learning and research institutions. This committee reviews the census instruments and makes recommendations on the best practices for preparatory activities, data collection and processing; quality assurance guidelines; and monitoring and evaluation of all the technical activities of the census at all stages.
3.6 Census Secretariat
The secretariat comprises KNBS officers from various directorates. The secretariat manages all aspects of the census on a daily basis. It also establishes and maintains linkages among various committees and/or individuals involved in the census process.
3.7 District Census Committees (DCC)
These committees are chaired by District Commissioners and draw membership from heads of government departments, private sector, special groups, faith based organizations and NGOs. For purposes of census implementation, 158 district census committees have been constituted to cater for the entire country. Their main function includes general administration, coordination and execution of census activities in consultation with the Census Secretariat. In particular, the committees will undertake publicity and advocacy activities, make security arrangements, ensure the safety of all census materials under their control, and provide logistical support during recruitment, training and enumeration.
3.8 Divisional Census Committees
Divisional Census Committees which are sub?committees of the DCC's have been constituted in all divisions across the country. Their functions include general administration, coordination and execution of census activities within their divisions in consultation with the District Census Committees. In particular, these committees will undertake publicity and advocacy activities within their divisions, make security arrangements in their respective divisions, ensure the safety of all census materials under their control, and provide logistical support during recruitment, training and enumeration.
4. Legal authority to undertake the Census
4.1 The Statistics Act 2006 of the Laws of Kenya empowers the Director General of Kenya National Bureau of Statistics to carry out censuses at periodic intervals. This census is being carried out under the provisions of this Act. A legal Notice No.107 of 8th August, 2008 was gazetted to provide the necessary legal framework to carry out the 2009 census.
4.2 As a census official, the law allows you access to any premises, compound or house for the purpose of enumerating persons. However, the law forbids you from conducting yourself inappropriately. In particular, it provides that you only ask such questions as are necessary to complete the questionnaire or check entries already made.
4.3 Penalties are provided for if members of the public fail to furnish you with the required information or you fail in your duties. The law particularly stresses on confidentiality of the information collected from individuals.
5. Confidentiality of the Information
5.1 The information you obtain is confidential and will be used for statistical purposes only. You are not permitted to discuss, gossip, or share the information with anyone who is not an authorized officer within the census organization. Make all entries on the questionnaire yourself. On no account should you allow any unauthorized persons to fill any part of the questionnaire. Do not leave your questionnaires lying around where unauthorized persons may have access to them.
5.2 To enforce this confidentiality, you will take an Oath of Secrecy during the training. This oath is prescribed by the law and will be administered to all persons engaged in the census under the Statistics Act, 2006.
6.1 The enumerator's role is central to the success of the census. It is important therefore that all enumerators carefully follow the laid down procedures.
Your duties and responsibilities include;
- Ensuring that you have all the necessary materials to be used for enumeration before the exercise.
- Asking all questions and recording particulars for persons who will have spent the night of 24th/25th August, 2009 in the area assigned to you. You must make every effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and record them correctly;
- Being polite, patient, presentable and tactful at all times so as to win public cooperation which is critical to the success of the census;
- Checking the completed questionnaire to be sure that all questions were asked and that responses were neatly and legibly recorded before you leave the household;
- Making callbacks on respondents who could not be interviewed during earlier visits;
- Preparing debriefing notes for the supervisor on any problems/noteworthy issues encountered; and
- Forwarding to the supervisor all questionnaires (used and unused), maps, notebooks and any other materials as directed.
7.1 The enumerator and the respondents might be strangers to each other and therefore one of the main tasks of the enumerator is to establish rapport with the respondent. The respondent's first impression of you will influence her/his willingness to cooperate in the census. Make sure that you are presentable and friendly at all times.
7.2 Act as though you expect friendly cooperation and behave so as to deserve it. Start interviewing only when you have observed the following: exchanged proper greetings; identified yourself; explained the purpose of your visit; and have answered any questions and/or clarified issues about the census that the people may ask. However, do not spend too much time asking and/or answering unnecessary questions. You may avoid such questions by indicating that you have limited time. You are advised to avoid long discussions on issues which are not related to the census and which may consume a lot of your time.
7.3 After building rapport with the respondent, ask questions slowly to ensure the respondent understands what he/she is being asked. After you have asked a question, pause and give the respondent time to think. If the respondent feels rushed or is not allowed to form his/her opinion, he/she may respond with "I don't know" or give an inaccurate answer. Ensure that the information given is correct by keeping the respondents focused on the questions.
7.4 Always stress the confidentiality of the information you obtain from the respondent. Never share a completed questionnaire with other interviewers or supervisor in front of a respondent or any other person. This will automatically erode the confidence the respondent has in you.
7.5 The following guidelines will assist you to handle interviews appropriately:
- Ask the questions exactly as they are written. Small changes in wording can alter the meaning of a question.
- Ask the questions in the same order as they are given in the questionnaire. Do not change the sequence of the questions.
- Ask each question, even if the respondent answers multiple questions at once.
- Help your respondents to feel at ease, but make sure you do not suggest answers to them. During the interview, let people take their time to answer. Do not ask leading questions. Do not accept at once any statement you believe to be incorrect. Tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answers, i.e. probe.
- Remain neutral throughout the interview. Please note that most people are usually polite especially to strangers. They tend to give answers that they think will please the interviewer. It is therefore extremely important that you remain absolutely neutral. Do not show any surprise, approval or disapproval of the respondent's answer by your tone of voice or facial expression
- Do not rush the interview. Give the respondent time to understand the question.
- Do not leave any question unanswered unless you have been instructed to skip it.
- Record answers immediately the respondent gives you the responses. Do not write answers in a notebook for transfer to the questionnaire later.
- Check the whole questionnaire before you leave the household to be sure it is completed correctly.
- Always remember to thank the respondents for their cooperation before leaving the household.
7.6 It may happen that someone refuses to answer your questions. This is mostly because of misunderstanding. Remain courteous. Stress the importance of the census and that the information is confidential; that no one outside the census organization will be allowed access to the records; that details of individual people are never released for any purpose whatsoever and; that census results are published only as numerical tables. You should be able to clear any misunderstanding. Otherwise report the incident to your supervisor or any other responsible census official at the first opportunity.
[Text omitted, required materials during and after training]
9. Some key concepts for the 2009 Census undertaking
It is an isolated compound with one or more structures, and may be inhabited by one or more households. In most cases homesteads will be surrounded by fences, hedges, walls etc. A homestead may contain, for example, a hut or a group of huts. A manyatta will thus be considered a homestead. However, a wall/fence or hedge need not necessarily surround a homestead. For instance, boys' quarters, garage, kitchen etc. may be part of a homestead whether or not they are surrounded by a fence/wall, etc. During enumeration, you will visit homesteads and identify the structures, dwelling units and households in them.
9.2.1 A household is a person or group of persons who reside in the same homestead/compound but not necessarily in the same dwelling unit, have same cooking arrangement, and are answerable to the same household head.
There are three important questions used to identify a household.
b) Are they answerable to the same head? (i.e. persons in a household are answerable to a person they recognize to have authority)
c) Do they have the same cooking arrangement? (i.e. members of a household cook together)
If the answer to each of the above criteria is "yes", then you have adequately identified a household. If the answer to one or more of these criteria is "no", then there are more than one household.
There are two types of households: conventional and non?conventional households.
9.2.2 Conventional households
- Determination of households may not be easy. However, the following examples should guide you in deciding who should form a household.
- A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building or part of a building or many buildings in the same compound/homestead.
- If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate cooking arrangements, treat them as separate households.
- A domestic worker who lives and eats with the household should be included in the household. If the domestic worker cooks and eats separately, he/she should be enumerated as a separate household.
- The particulars of persons who will have spent the Census night with another household should be recorded in the questionnaire for that particular household where they were that night i.e. visitors. For people attending ceremonies such as burials and weddings etc. from the neighborhood, they should be enumerated with their usual households, if not from the neighborhood, enumerate them with this household.
- In a polygamous marriage, if the wives are living in separate dwelling units and have separate cooking arrangement treat the wives as separate households. Each wife with other persons who live with her will therefore constitute a separate household. The husband will be listed in the household where he will have spent the Census night. If the wives cook together and live in the same compound, and are answerable to one head then treat them as one "household".
- It is the custom in many parts of Kenya for boys to live in separate quarters between circumcision and marriage, while continuing to take their meals with their parents. Enumerate them with their parent's households. For those who "borrow sleep" they should be enumerated with their usual households.
- For census purposes, you will list only those persons who will have spent the Census night (the Night of 24/25 August 2009) with the household, whether visitors, servants, etc.
9.2.3 Unconventional households
- Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to an "ordinary" household. Examples are hospital in?patients, people in police cells, travelers, guests in hotels, or prison inmates and outdoor sleepers. These are "special" population groups and will be covered separately, using short questionnaires. Students in boarding schools and colleges, military barracks and GSU camps will be enumerated using the main questionnaire. The name of the institution will be written at the top of the questionnaire form. The District Census Committees (DCC) will make arrangements to have this population enumerated. Some of the institutional managers may also be called upon to help with the enumeration of these "special" population groups (or non?conventional households). Such persons shall all be enumerated strictly on the Census night.
- Vagrants/outdoor sleepers will be enumerated using the relevant short questionnaire. You will be required to record the place/street of enumeration and collect details about all the persons at the place of enumeration. The required information include: name, sex, age, home district/country, tribe/nationality, and education level. Arrangements will be made to have some members of the street families to accompany enumerators during the census. The DCC will make the necessary arrangements to have them enumerated and such persons shall all be enumerated strictly on the Census night.
- A short questionnaire specific for the population in hotels/lodges and boarding houses, police cells, prison and hospital will also be issued. On the evening of the Census night, hotel managers, heads of hospitals, police stations and prisons, with the assistance of the supervisors and /or enumerators, will ensure that all persons who will spend the Census night in these institutions are enumerated. The DCC will make the necessary arrangements and such persons shall all be enumerated strictly on the Census night. Information to be collected include: name, sex, age, duration of stay, education level, home district/country, tribe/nationality. Duration of stay should be in months if less than one year. For example, people who have been in prison for 6 months should be recorded as '6' under the column for months and "0" under the column for years. Those who have stayed for over a year, say 2 years 5 months should be recorded as '5' in the column for months and '2' in the column for years.
- Persons working in institutions such as those listed above but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their own household members and not with the institution. Thus, a nurse on night duty should be enumerated with her household and not with patients at the hospital. Similarly, a teacher should be enumerated with his/her household and not with students or boarders at the school or training institution. The same applies to night workers of all kind such as watchmen, factory workers, policemen etc. Probe to establish whether this group of workers has households where they usually reside. If they don't, enumerate them as outdoor sleepers.
- All persons who will be on transit or travelling on the Census night by road, rail, water or air will be enumerated at the place of boarding or disembarkment. You will be issued with short questionnaires for the purpose of enumerating such people. You will also be supplied with Enumeration Cards to issue to such persons once you count them. Inform them that they are to keep the cards until the census is over to avoid being counted twice. The information required from such people include: name, sex, age, home district/country, and tribe/nationality. Do not spend a lot of time trying to establish the age of such respondents. A rough estimate will do. The DCC or the Divisional census committee will make the necessary arrangements to have them enumerated and such persons shall all be counted strictly on the Census night.
This is the most responsible/respectable member of the household who makes key decisions of the household on a day to day basis and whose authority is recognized by all members of the household. It could be the father, the mother or a child, or any other responsible member of the household depending on the status of the household.
This is the person who answers census questions during enumeration. This maybe the head of household or any other member of the household who can provide most if not all the information about the household members at the time of the interview as per the questionnaire requirements.
A structure is a building used for the purposes of residential, business or any other activity. For census purposes, a structure constitutes a building used for dwelling purposes. In rural areas, most of the structures will be found within a homestead. A structure can contain one or more dwelling units. In urban areas a structure may contain several dwelling units. For example, story buildings, or any other building contain more than one dwelling unit.
9.6 Dwelling unit
This is a place of abode or residence occupied by one or more households with a private entrance. There can be many dwelling units within a structure.
9.7 Enumeration area (EA)
This is an area with an average of about 100 households but may vary from 50 to 149 households depending on the population density, terrain and vastness of the area concerned. An EA may be a village, group of villages or part of a village. For the purposes of this census, the term village is common in many rural areas but may be used to mean a Manyatta or Bulla in other parts of Kenya. In urban areas, an estate may take the concept of village. Ideally, an EA will be covered by one enumerator during census enumeration. In urban areas a flat may constitute more than one enumeration area depending on the number of households.
De facto census is one that enumerates all persons depending on where they spent the Census Night. The 2009 Population Census is being undertaken on a de facto basis, meaning that all persons shall be enumerated where they will be found or where they would have spent the night of 24th/25th August, 2009.
10.1 The country has been divided into small counting units called enumeration areas (EAs) during cartographic mapping for purposes of enumerating all people within Kenyan boundaries.
10.2 Importance of the map
- They will assist you to identify the EA boundaries and plan your work
10.3 During cartographic mapping each sub?location is divided into EAs and map(s) drawn for each sub?location. However, there are other areas which have been mapped without reference to any sub?location e.g. national parks/game reserves and forest areas.
10.4 Ideally, an EA should constitute on average about 100 households. It may comprise part of a village, a whole village or group of villages. However, owing to other factors, mainly population density, geographic terrain and distances to be traveled, EAs have been conveniently demarcated to facilitate effective canvassing by an enumerator.
10.5 You will be assigned an EA or part of it during the enumeration and you will be responsible for visiting each and every household and recording the particulars of all persons who spent the Census Night in the EA. Do not miss out or double count any household in the EA.
10.6 The boundaries of your EA which in most cases follow easily identifiable features are shown on the map. Your supervisor with the assistance of assistant chiefs and village elders will help you to identify the EA boundaries. Make sure you acquaint yourself with your EA before you start work.
10.7 Spend at least one day before the Census Night going round your EA. Find out where the houses and paths are and introduce yourself to the people so that when you begin enumeration, they already know and are expecting you.
10.8 Make sure that you study the EA map carefully so that the boundaries are clear to you both on the ground and, on the map. In most cases, the boundaries of your EA follow easily identifiable features such as rivers, streams, roads, tracks and footpaths. In the densely populated areas and where the EA boundary is imaginary, the households/structures on each side of the EA boundary have been plotted.
10.9 On each map, there is a legend (key) showing what each symbol represents. Please consult the legend (key) for proper identification of features (see map 1). [Not included]
10.10 Liaise with enumerators working in adjacent EAs to ensure there is no confusion about the boundaries of your EAs. This way you will avoid any possible omission or double count of households along the EA boundary.
10.11 Use the EA map to plan your work so that you can confirm each inhabited structure in turn. Work in an orderly way, by starting the enumeration from a convenient point. You will save yourself much walking time and a great deal of trouble if you do this. Inform your supervisor where you will start and which paths you will follow so that he/she can easily locate you and in addition give her/him your mobile number.
11. Different categories of EAs
11.1 There are four distinct categories of EAs, i.e. (a) EA in settled agricultural areas, (b) urban/peri-urban, (c) arid and semi?arid areas, and (d) forests/national parks or game reserves.
11.2 EAs in the settled agricultural areas are based on villages e.g. an EA is formed by part of a village (as is the case of Nyambara village which has been split to form two EAs: 003 and 004), a whole village (as is the case of Bar Awendo village EA 008) or by combining two or more villages (as is the case of EA 002 which is made up of two villages i.e. Ujwanga and Ngungu) (see map 1). In case of difficulty or doubt about the EA boundary, please contact your supervisor, the Assistant Chief or Village Elder.
11.3 In the core urban areas, the EAs are based on estate boundaries/blocks (flats). All the structures in this category have been numbered and are clearly shown on the maps. For example, the 9th structure is numbered KPC/KNBS/09/009 and 009 on the map. In the peri-urban areas, the EAs are based on villages and hence are mapped as EAs in settled agricultural areas (see map 2). [Not included]
11.4 In the arid and semi?arid areas, the EAs have been delineated on the basis of settlement points. The boundaries have been fixed arbitrarily. You should establish exactly where the settlements are in your EA. You must contact your supervisor, the assistant chief or village elder to assist you to find the settlement points (see map 3). [Not included]
11.5 Large forests and national parks and reserves have been treated as EAs on their own. You must, with the assistance of the forest officials or game wardens, identify where the people live in such EAs. (see map 4). [Not included]
Before starting to use a map in the field, it is important that you align the map correctly with the features on the ground. Start by establishing the north direction in relation to where you are standing. The following steps will help you orient your map properly:
Step 1: Stretch out your arms and stand facing the direction from where the sun rises. You are now facing east. Your right arm is pointing to the South direction and your left arm to the North direction.
Step 2: Identify on the map a point, a facility or a feature, which you can identify on the ground.
Step 3: Identify on the map; the road, track, or footpath on which you are standing and align the map such that the road junction, track/footpath on the ground and the one on the map point the same direction.
13.1 The EA maps have been prepared using various scales for different areas. The following are examples of such scales:
Scale / Category
1:2,500 / Urban / 1 cm on the map represents 25m on the ground
1:5,000 / Urban ? Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 50m on the ground
1:10,000 / Urban ? Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 100m on the ground
1:12,500 / Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 125m on the ground
1:20,000 / Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 200m on the ground
1:25,000 / Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 250m on the ground
1:50,000 / Rural / 1 cm on the map represents 500m on the ground
1:250,000 / Arid and Semi?arid / 1 cm on the map represents 2500m on the ground
13.2 Measuring distances on the map
A scale is provided on the map to assist you in measuring distances on the map. Distances on a map can be measured by using a piece of paper or string and then scaling the measured distance against the linear scale provided on the map. For example, to determine the distance from point A to point B along a curved road:
Step 1: Place one end of a piece of paper/string on point A and follow the curve of the road until it reaches point B;
Step 2: Mark the point on the string/paper; and
Step 3: Place the piece of paper/string on a linear scale and read the equivalent distance on the ground in kilometers and meters.
13.3 Measuring distances on the ground
In order to determine distances on the ground using the map, you must use your paces. For example, take your pace to be approximately 1m. Measure the distance on the map as shown (section 12.2.) i.e. measure the distance you want on your map in cm's and using the map scale find the distance in meters on the ground. If for example you are using a map with a scale of 1:10,000 and you measure 2cm on the map, this is equivalent to 200 meters on the ground. You are therefore supposed to walk approximately 200 paces to cover the distance measured on the map.
14. Codes and coding of the identification panel
Each EA has been given a unique code number composed of twenty digits. The twenty digits represent various levels as shown below.
- 3rd and 4th digits represent the district;
- 5th and 6th digits represent the division;
- 7th and 8th digits represent the location;
- 9th and 10th digits represent the sub?location or forest or national park;
- 11th, 12th and 13th digits represent the EA number;
- 14th digit represents EA type (The digit will either be a '1' for rural, '2' for urban or '3' for peri-urban);
- 15th digit will either be a 4 for a slum or a 9 for formal settlement;
- 16th ,17th and 18th digits represent constituency; and
- 19th and 20th digits represent ward (local authority representation area)
15. How to fill the identification panel
You will be required to fill in the identification panel on the front cover of each book of questionnaires by writing the names and code of various units. In addition you have to fill the identification details for each questionnaire by writing the codes of the various units. All these codes are to be obtained from the EA map that you will be given by your supervisor. All the administrative units i.e. (province, district, division, location and sub location) and political units' (constituency and ward) names and codes will be obtained from the map on the top right hand side. The codes for the EA are printed within each EA. The EA code is composed of five digits where the first three digits is the EA number, the fourth digit is the EA type and the fifth digit is the status. Make sure that you copy the codes and the names correctly.
16. Structure numbering during enumeration
16.1 During the enumeration you are expected to number all the structures in the EA. The numbering in the EA should be done in a systematic manner so that there are no omissions or duplications.
16.2 You will use chalk and/or card to number all the structures only after you have enumerated household members.
16.3 The structure and household number should be written neatly and somewhere conspicuous but where it cannot be tampered with.
16.4 The structure and household number will start with an S followed by a four digit number for the structure, then a slash followed by a three digit number for the household e.g. if structure number fifteen had household number thirty, it will be written as S0015/030. This information should also be appropriately entered in the relevant parts of the questionnaire.
16.5 Households will be serially numbered after completing enumeration. Suppose you are visiting structure number S0046 which has six households and you have already enumerated 70 households in the EA. During the time of your visit you were able to cover three of the households in S0046. The first household covered in the structure will be numbered as S0046/071, the second, S0046/072 and the third S0046/073. Make arrangements to visit the remaining households later. You would have to move to the next structure(s) and continue enumeration and numbering both the structures and households accordingly. If during this time you visit four structures with one household each, then the numbering would be S0047/074, S0048/075, S0049/076, S0050/077. If you make call backs after enumerating household 077 then for the remaining three households in structure S0046, you should number them as: S0046/078, S0046/079 and S0046/080 respectively. Remember that for households with more than one structure you will only number the main one.
17. Who and when should you enumerate
17.1 You must obtain particulars of all persons who will have spent the Census Night in the household. However, it is not likely that you will see all members of the households, nor is it absolutely necessary that you should. It will be best if the head of the household is present. However, it will be enough if there is one responsible adult who can give the information required.
17.2 Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept in the household on the Census Night but who are/were temporarily absent due to the nature of their work and are/were elsewhere within the borders of Kenya where they could not be enumerated. Examples are watchmen, nurses, police officers and shift workers on night duty, herdsmen out with livestock, night fishermen, hunters, honey harvesters and persons attending hospital outpatient departments at night. Such persons are to be enumerated with their usual household members.
17.3 You should try to cover as many households as you can on the Census Night as this will greatly reduce your chances of duplicating or missing out some people.
17.4 You will start work as early as possible on the Census Night (24th/25th August 2009) as directed by the DCCs and ensure that the work is completed within the shortest period possible. The period of enumeration will go on up to 31st August 2009 by which time you should have enumerated everyone who will have spent the Census Night in the area assigned to you. If, for some reason, you think it will take longer, you should inform your supervisor in good time so that he/she may be able to arrange to have someone to help you. If, for instance, you become ill or get injured so that you cannot continue with the enumeration, you must let your supervisor know at once. People will often stay to meet you if you send word that you will visit.
17.5 The enumerator will be required to enumerate the households in the language in which the household members are most comfortable. You have been assigned duties in an area where you should not have language problems. However, if the respondent can only speak a language you do not understand, then you must raise the issue with your supervisor. Similarly, in cases of language barrier (a respondent with hearing or speech difficulties), the enumerator should contact his/her supervisor for guidance. In certain circumstances, sign language interpreters' maybe available e.g. in institutions.
18. What happens if there is no one at home
18.1 It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because there is no one at home, or because all adults are away at the time, or for some other reason those present cannot provide information.
- If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the Census night. If there was, enquire whether they have any idea when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly.
- If you are working in an urban EA, complete a call?back card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it with a neighbor or push it under the door so that the people are aware of your intended visit. If you are in a rural EA, leave word about the time of your next visit. Keep a record of the call ?backs.
18.2 If after several visits you do not succeed in finding any responsible person at home, note the address and inform your supervisor about it.
18.3. Callbacks involve extra work for you. On any enumeration day; send word of your intended visit early enough and be punctual.
18.4. At times due to confusion of EA boundaries, you may find that enumeration has been undertaken in your area. If this happens make sure, first of all, that you are within your area, as you understand the boundaries. If you have crossed your boundary by mistake, return to your area and go on with your work. If you are satisfied that you are right and that the households are in your area, make a note of the affected households and immediately inform your supervisor. Do not enumerate the people a second time. Continue enumerating other households in your area.
19.1 You will be supplied with chalk and/or cards which will be used to mark those households you have visited and whose occupants you have enumerated. Cards will normally be used in ASAL areas to indicate households enumerated. Put the structure and household number on the card and leave it with the household.
19.2 The purpose of this is to ensure that no household is enumerated twice or missed out. It will also serve to give each household a temporary address for census purposes. This makes checking easier.
19.3 When you have enumerated the members of the household, write the household number in some conspicuous place. Write the number neatly where it will be easily visible to your supervisor and out of reach of small children. Ask the household members to leave it up until the end of November 2009, so that they may be spared the inconvenience of unnecessary visits by census staff. Explain that the number is used for census purposes only.
19.4 If there is more than one household in a building or structure, write the number at the entrance to the household's living quarters.
19.5 If the household occupies more than one building or structure, write the number on the main dwelling structure.
19.6 Do not mark a dwelling until you have enumerated the members of the household.
20. The main census questionnaire
The main census questionnaire will be used to cover persons in conventional households, refugee camps and in institutions like schools, barrack, colleges etc. The questionnaires will be issued to you bound in books of forty forms. No forms are to be torn out or destroyed. You shall have to account for all of them. You must handle these forms with utmost care and avoid crumpling or mutilating them, as this might result in rejection during data processing.
20.1. The information recorded on the questionnaire should be summarized on the front cover of the books.
20.2. Details on how to complete the main questionnaire are provided in Part III of this manual.
Check your work before you leave the household to make sure that you have filled the questionnaire accurately and fully in order to avoid being sent back to correct errors. In particular, check that you have enumerated everybody who will have spent the Census Night in the household and that all the relevant questions have been answered correctly.
Part III: How to fill in the main questionnaire
22.1. Complete the questionnaire yourself
22.2. Keep it clean
22.3. Write legibly in capitals using only the pencil provided
22.4. Code strictly in the boxes provided on the questionnaire
22.5. Start each household on a separate questionnaire.
22.6. If you make a mistake, rub it out neatly with a clean eraser and correct it.
22.7. If, for some reason, you make a mistake likely to make the whole questionnaire illegible; put an X in the "spoilt" checkboxes. These check boxes are printed directly below the structure number and are located to the east and west of the word "spoilt". It's critical that both boxes be marked. By checking both boxes, you are indicating that all information on the form is not eligible to be data captured. Under no circumstances are you to remove the questionnaires that have been deemed "spoilt" from the booklet. You are responsible for returning all questionnaires to your supervisor to ensure payment for your services as an enumerator.
If you wish to cancel a person due to excessive mistakes in the data or because you have discovered, after the fact, that they should not be enumerated in this household, you should mark an "X" through the line number on both pages 1 and 2 of the main questionnaire for that person. Do the same for a person who you wish to cancel from the short questionnaire.
22.8. If there are more than ten people in the household, you must: Go to page 2 of the questionnaire and write "Continuation ___ of ___ ". For example, if there are 25 people in a household, you would document the first questionnaire as being "Continuation 1 of 3 ", the second questionnaire you would document as being "Continuation 2 of 3 " and the third questionnaire you would document as "Continuation 3 of 3". Make sure to transfer the identification information in the first questionnaire to the subsequent continuation questionnaire.
22.9. It is important that each enumerator asks the questions in the same way. You must understand the form and the order in which the questions are to be put.
22.10. It is extremely important to note at the very outset that the 2009 Census will employ electronic (scanning method) rather than manual data capture to read the census questionnaires. Consequently you must complete the questionnaire carefully by writing legibly and clearly within the boxes provided. Make sure any writing is done within the confines of the boxes (white area) provided. Try as much as possible to avoid making mistakes as they will warrant frequent erasing, which will not augur well for accurate capture of information from the questionnaire. Whenever you pose a question to the respondent listen carefully to the response and write it down only when you are sure it is satisfactory.
22.11 Please refer to the back of the cover page for an illustration on how to properly fill the questionnaire and avoiding making mistakes.
22.12 Remember: For the purpose of filling the census questionnaire all entries will be right justified i.e. if there are more than one box to be filled, start filling from the your right hand side. In other words, do not put leading zeros! However, leading zeros are acceptable for the identification panel, as these are already pre?coded.
22.13 It will be illustrated during training how to complete the summaries on the cover page.
23. Layout of the main census questionnaire
The top of the questionnaire is reserved for information identifying the household and summaries per each household. This section must be completed for each household. Note that each questionnaire has a serial number and they are bound in bundles of 40 questionnaires which must be accounted for after enumeration.
23.2. The main census questionnaire is divided into twelve sections:
- Section A: Information regarding all persons. This information is contained in columns P00 to P23. Questions in this section will apply to all persons.
- Section B: Information regarding females 12 years old and above. This section covers columns P24 to P36. It pertains to live births and should be asked of all females aged 12 years and above and make appropriate entries for each. As much as possible, obtain the information directly from the female concerned. Information should only be obtained from someone else if the respondent cannot be reached.
- Section C: Information regarding disability. It covers columns P37 and P38 and asks questions relating to disabilities. You are required to ask these questions to all persons unless where stated otherwise.
- Section D: Information regarding education status for persons aged 3 years old and above. This section covers columns p39 to p41. Questions on education shall be asked of all persons aged 3 years and above.
- Section E: Labor force particulars. This section covers columns p42 to p44 and should be asked of all persons 5 years old and above.
- Section F: Information regarding ICT (information, communication and technology). It covers columns P45 to P51 and applies to all persons 3 years old and above
- Section G: Annual live births: This section covers column H10 and seeks information on all the live births that occurred within the household between 24/8/2008 and 24/8/2009 (last 12 months).
- Section H: Recent deaths in the household. This section covers columns H11 to H16. The questions in this section should be posed to the head of the household or any other responsible member of the household.
- Section I: Information regarding livestock: The section covers column H17 and captures data on types and number of livestock kept by the household members. The questions in this section should be posed to the head of the household or any other responsible member of the household.
- Section J: Housing conditions and amenities. This section covers columns H18 to H27 on housing conditions and amenities. These questions are to be posed to the Head of the Household or any other responsible person.
- Section K: Ownership of household assets: This section covers column H28 and seeks information on the ownership of common assets such as radio, television, mobile phone etc. This question is applicable to all households.
- Section L: Emigrants: This section covers column H29 and seeks information on any member of the household who may have migrated to another country since 1995. Details of emigrants will be captured using the emigrant short questionnaire.
24.1 Census Night: All enumeration must relate to Census Night. This will be the midnight of 24th/25th August, 2009. This night will be the reference time to which all enumeration should relate. Note that only persons alive in Kenya at this time should be enumerated.
24.2 The Census Nighthas been publicized in advance throughout the country. Remember that all the questions you ask must relate to the Census Nightunless you have specific instructions to the contrary in this manual, e.g. the labor force participation question and deaths in household.
24.3 Note that between the Census Nightand the time of enumeration, the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after Census Night, you should enumerate him as living on Census Night. If a baby was born after Census Night, you should not enumerate him/her. Visitors are enumerated if they will have spent the Census Night in the household.
24.4 When you arrive at a house, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator. You will have an identification badge for this purpose.
24.5 Ask for the head of the household. Note that the head of household is the person who is regarded by the members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. For the purpose of the census he/she must have spent the Census Nightwith the household. If the head of the household was not present on the Census Night, ask for the next senior and/or responsible person who will have spent the Census Nightin the household. Make this person the household head. However, if the head of the household is present, he/she may furnish you with the details of the household, despite he/her not spending the Census Nightwith the household.
24.6 When you are enumerating members of an institution, you will seek assistance from the person in charge of the institution to be able to get the required information.
24.7 Explain that you must record particulars of everyone who was present at the institution on the Census Night. However, remember to exclude people who live in their households within the institution or people who work in the institution but live with their households elsewhere.
24.8 Next, complete the information required in the boxes at the top of the questionnaire. Write the codes of the province, district, division, location, sub?location, EA number, household number, and household type. All the above information is contained on the EA maps except the household numbers and structure numbers. Enter the household type code depending on the type of the household, i.e. "1" for ordinary/conventional households and "2" for institutional households and '3' for refugees.
25. Section A; Information regarding all persons
- Write the names in Column (P00). Some people have many names. It is not necessary to write them all as long as you record the name(s) or names that the person is usually known by. Identifying members of the households with their correct names will help you not only in listing down all of them but will also come in handy when call?backs on certain members are to be made. It is important that you list at least two names, as shown on the questionnaire, of the persons in a set order so that you have a clear picture of the household from the very beginning.
- List members of the household by nuclear family; starting with the head and his wife and children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest. If the head has more than one wife living in the same household, list the first wife and her children followed by the second wife and her children, then other relatives and non?relatives in that order, including visitors.
- Very young children are sometimes forgotten or even deliberately left out as being unimportant. All persons must be enumerated . Pay particular attention to getting all babies counted. If the infant has no name, write 'baby of..... (mother's or father's name)'.
- Remember to ask about, and include night workers. Exclude hospital inpatients, persons staying in hotels, students in boarding schools/colleges, prisoners, people in police cells, travelers, and the like. The above people will be covered using the small questionnaires as explained earlier.
- When you have written down all the names, read over the list, and ask, "is that correct?" If not, correct the list. Then ask "Was there anyone else here on the Census Night i.e. visitors, young children"; if so, include them.
25.2 Line number of [the respondent]
- You'll note that the numbers in the second box in the column are pre-coded so that you will only need to insert "0" in the first box. If the members are 10 or more so that an additional questionnaire is used, then you will insert "1" in the first box of the continuation questionnaire.
25.3 Columns P10 and P11: Relationship and sex
- After you have written all?the names in column P00, code relationship in column P10 and sex in column P11. For example: for head, code "1" in P10 and insert the appropriate code in P11 as far as sex is concerned. Then code the relationship of each person to the head, that is "2" for spouse (refers to the partner or wife or husband depending on who the household?head is), "3" for son/daughter, "4" for grandchild, "5" for brother/sister, "6" for father/mother, "7" for "nephew/niece" ''8" for in?law, "9" for grandparent, "10" for other relative not elsewhere classified , "11" for non?relative such as visitors, friends etc., and "99" for those who say "don't know" relationship.
- You must probe to find out whether the children you have coded as sons and daughters are the head's biological children. If they are not, establish further whether they should fall under "10" (other?relative) or "11" (non?relative). Note that relatives like stepson or stepdaughter, parent?in? law, son or daughter-in?law, adopted son or daughter will be treated as "other relative" and will fall under category "10".
- There are several persons who may not be related by blood or marriage but constitutes a household, mostly in urban areas. Without telling them code one of them as 'head' (code "1 ") and the rest as 'non?relative' (code "11").
- Sometimes it may happen that members of the household are away and cannot be reached even after several visits, and the most responsible person you meet is a house?help or any other such person employed by the household. You must probe to establish the most senior member who will have spent the Census Night in the household. This person must be made the household head. You may then proceed to ask the house help to provide information on the household members.
- There are certain communities where women are culturally allowed to "marry" other women. For purposes of the census, marriage should involve only partners of opposite sex. Whenever you encounter such cases where one woman (supposedly the head of the household) claims that another woman is her "spouse", code "10" (other?relative) rather than "2" (spouse) in P10.
- Make sure you understand the relationship well before you make any entry. In other words, relationship of each person is linked to the household head (person No. 1 on the list). For instance, the head's relationship to himself/herself is code 01 (head). Ensure that the entry is strictly and legibly written within the boxes provided.
- Check that the sex is compatible with relationship; do not assign "male" to persons shown as wives or daughters nor "female" for persons shown as sons or husbands. Take particular care to record the sex of very young children correctly. Often, you will not know whether a baby carried on its mother's back is a boy or a girl. In such cases, you must ask ? do not guess. You should ensure that everybody's sex is recorded.
25.4 Column P12: Age
Age is one of the most important pieces of information to be sought in a census. You must try as much as possible to record the correct age of the respondent. Under no circumstances should this column be left blank. You must probe to make sure that you get even a rough estimate.
- Always start by asking the person's age and follow up with the question on the date of birth as a consistency check on the former. Write the person's age in completed years ? that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write "0". Persons aged 95 years and over should be coded "95". Make sure always that your writing is legible and within the appropriate box.
- Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday. A child who is aged four years and eleven months should, for example be entered as "4" and not "5".
- Many people do not know their ages. If a person's age is not known, you must make the best estimate possible.
- There are various ways in which you can estimate a person's age. Sometimes, people have documents, such as baptismal certificates, which show the year of birth, in which case it is easy to calculate age.
- Most people have identity cards showing when they were born. These ID cards may be grossly inaccurate for some of the older people. Avoid using the IDs as the sole means to estimate such a person's age. However, for persons below 50 years of age the ID cards may generally give a more accurate representation of age.
- Generally, it is not so easy to estimate age for members of the household if all of them are ignorant of their ages. Concentrate first on establishing the age(s) of one or two persons in the household. One reliable age may help in working out the ages of others if it is known whether they are older or younger and by how many years.
- It is sometimes possible to estimate a person's age by relating his or her birth to some notable historical event. With these instructions is a historical calendar of events (see appendix 1) which lists the dates of events in the history of districts. If the person can remember how old he/she was at the time of the event, you can work out the person's age.
- How to use the historical calendar of events to estimate the respondent's age:
- Ask how old the respondent was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.
- Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent was about 15 years when Kenya attained her Independence, this person should be 15 + 45 (i.e. 12th Dec. 1963 to 24th August 2009) = 60 years. If this method fails, you should try the following approach.
- Ask whether he/she has heard about any of those events.
- If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he/she was born.
- Then, from this information, work out his/her age.
- Some tribes have systems of 'age grades' or 'age sets' from which a person's age can be worked out. A person's age grade may only give a rough idea of his or her age since the same grade may have in it people of widely different ages, but it is better than nothing. Some tribes have grades for men but not for women, but you can often obtain an idea of a woman's age by asking which age grade of men she associated with, or which set her brothers belonged to and whether they are older or younger. Some age grades are listed in the calendar of events.
- If all else fails, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old however small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following methods:
- Determine the age of her oldest child.
- Ask her to give an estimate of her age at the birth of this child. However without further probing, you should not base your assumption on the oldest child who is presently living. There is the likelihood that in certain cases, the first child died or that the woman had miscarriages or stillbirths. Therefore, if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born, you should make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage/still?birth or live birth.
- Only as a last resort should you estimate a person's age from his physical features. If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third party then rely on the information given to you to estimate the absent person's age.
- When you have arrived at the best estimate you can make of a person's age, check that it is compatible with his or her relationship to others in the household. Obviously children cannot be older than their parents.
- Any estimate of age, however rough, is better than leaving the column blank. Do the best you can to report ages accurately.
Note: Questions P10?P12 on relationship, sex and age are extremely important and must be responded by all persons enumerated in the household.
25.5 Column P13: Line number of mother
Ask to determine whether [the respondent]'s mother is alive and is a member of the household. For each household member listed in column P00, record the 'line number' of the biological mother if she is listed in the household. Record '0' if the biological mother is not in the household.
25.6 Column P14: Usual member of household
"Usual residence" for purposes of 2009 census is defined as the place at which the person lives at the time of the census, and has been there for some time or intends to stay there for some time. Most of the people to be enumerated during the census have not moved for some time and thus categorizing them as "usual residents" should be clear.
Ask: "Is [the respondent] a usual member of this household?" A usual member of a household is one who spends most of his/her time in the household. However, that person must be answerable to the household head, shares cooking arrangements with the rest and lives in the same house or compound or dwelling unit. If the answer is yes, code "1", if the listed person is not a "usual" member, then code "2" for No in the appropriate box. Usual residents may be citizens or not and may include refugees. Foreigners who have been in the country for a period of at least 6 months should be considered usual residents. Persons who have been absent from the household for most of the last 12 months should be excluded. A threshold of 6 months will be applied. If a person has lived continuously for most of the last 12 months, i.e. at least 6 months, not including temporary absences, or intends to live for at least six months at the place of enumeration then this is a usual member of the household. This also applies to newborns or those who have come to stay indefinitely. Exceptions include children who are in schools and live in the households.
25.7 Column P15: Tribe/nationality
Ask: What is [the respondent]'s tribe or nationality?
- For Kenyans code the tribe code list, for example: 'Kikuyu, "130"; 'Nandi, 608' etc. Accept the answer as given to you without question. For Kenyans of other origins, code using the country codes as provided. For example, persons originating from Asia should be code "801", whereas persons originating from European countries should be coded "802" etc. For foreigners, code using country of origin. For example, persons originating from United Arab Emirates should be coded "965".
- Do not get involved in any argument on this issue. The census is not concerned with the legal position. Accept what the person tells you and record the tribe or nationality to which the person considers he/she belongs.
25.8 Column P16: Religion
Ask: What is [the respondent]'s religion?
In column P16, code the person's religious group i.e. "1" for Catholics, "2" for Protestants, "4" for Muslims, etc.
- Protestants, code "2": Group of churches which broke away from the Roman Catholic church e.g. Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK), Presbyterian, African Inland Church (AIC), Lutheran, Quakers(Friends), Methodists, Seventh Day Adventists (SDA), Salvation Army and Baptists.
- Other Christians, code "3": This category caters for Christians who are not covered under code "1" and code "2" above e.g. Legio Maria, Israel, Jehovah Witnesses, etc.
- Muslims, code "4": Those who profess the Islamic faith and recognize Muhammad as the prophet of God
- Traditionalists, code "6": Those who believe in divine powers, e.g. Dini ya Msambwa, Tent of the Living God, etc.
- Others, code "7": Include people with religious affiliations other than the above?mentioned e.g. Buddhists, Bahais, and Hindus etc.
- No religion, code "8": These are people who do not believe in the existence of supernatural powers. They do not follow any particular religion.
26. Column P17: Marital status
(Is this person monogamously or polygamously married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married?)
26.1 Persons who have never married including young children should be coded "1" (never married).
26.2 People who regard themselves as husband and wife should be coded "2" or "3" regardless of whether or not they have been through any civil, religious or customary ceremonies. The census is not trying to find out who is legally married and who is not. Accept the answer as it is given to you.
26.3 If a person is widowed at the time of the Census, he/she should be coded as "4", i.e. widowed. If a person has been widowed but has since remarried, he/she should be coded as married ("2" or "3" as the case may be).
26.4 If people think of themselves as divorced or separated, code them as such. It does not matter whether they have been to court or gone through other formalities. Accept the answer as it is given to you.
26.5 Accept what people say about their marital status. Do not embarrass yourself or the respondent by inquiring into the nature of marriage or divorce.
27. Column P18: Birth place
Ask: Where was [the respondent] born?
Birthplace is the usual place of residence of mother at the time of the respondent's birth. This question is meant to establish persons who are not enumerated in their places of birth and hence have migrated. Sometimes expectant mothers move from the rural areas to urban areas for purposes of delivery since maternity services are better at the latter. This kind of movement is short lived and must not be confused with a migratory one. For example, if a woman who usually resides in Ruiru district moves to Nairobi to deliver her child, it will be assumed that the woman went to Nairobi purposely for maternity services. Thus the district of birth of the child will be recorded as Ruiru.
27.1 For persons born in Kenya, code district using the list provided. For example, a person born in Kikuyu district, code "209" and for a person born in Tharaka district, code "414".
27.2 Relate the person's birthplace to the present district's frontiers as far as possible. District boundaries have been changed over the years and we want to relate a person's place of birth to the district as it is constituted now. The codes must however be based on the code list provided.
27.3 For districts that have been split, probe to find the actual district of birth and code the name by which it is currently known based on the code list provided.
27.4 For persons born outside Kenya, code the country of birth. For example, a person born in Tanzania will be coded "987", Uganda "983", Somalia "962" etc.
27.5 Code "888" if district of birth is not known and "999" for not stated.
28. Column P19: Previous residence
Ask: Where was [the respondent] living in August 2008?
28.1 If the person is aged below one year, code "000" in this column.
28.2 For persons who were living in Kenya in August 2008, indicate the district code in column P19 (district codes are the same as for P18). For example, for persons whose previous residence was Kisii Central district code "614".
28.3 For districts which have been split, probe to find the actual district of residence in August 2008 and code the name by which it is currently known based on the list provided.
28.4 A person who may have been absent from home temporarily for some reason such as visiting relatives or in hospital, or who may have been overseas on a visit of less than six months, should be shown where they normally lived in August, 2008.
28.5 It is necessary to make a separate enquiry for each member of the household because a man, for instance, does not always take his wife and children along when he goes away to work. He may only have some of his family with him leaving the others behind.
28.6 If the person was living in another country in August 2008, use the code pertaining to the specific country.
28.7 Code "888" if district of previous residence is not known and' "999" for not stated.
29. Columns P20?P21: Duration of residence
Ask: When did [the respondent] move to the current district?
29.1 Record the month in P20 (e.g. "05" for May) and year in P21 (e.g. 1997). Check to see that the person's age is consistent with duration of residence i.e. the person's age must always be greater or equal to duration of residence.
29.2 For all persons enumerated in their district of birth, write date of birth in the boxes in columns P20?P21.
29.3 If the date one moved is not known or not stated, write "99" for month in the columns P20 and "9999" for year in column P21
30. Columns P22?P23: Orphanhood
Ask: Is [the respondent]'s father/mother alive?
30.1 Enter the appropriate codes in column P?22 and P?23 in respect of the survival status of the respondent's biological father and mother respectively. Note that at times destitute children are brought up or adopted at a very young age by relatives. Such foster parents should not be considered as the biological parents of the respondent. Please always probe to establish the reality of the situation.
30.2 In some cases, a child's father/mother may not be married or living with the mother/father. In this case the mother/father might report that she/he does not know whether the father/mother of her child is alive or dead. In this case code "9" for 'don't know'. You must always probe to ensure you obtain the most satisfactory answer.
31. Section B: Information regarding females aged 12 years and above
[Questions 24 to 31 were asked of females 12 years old and over]
31.1 Columns P24 to P31: Particulars of all live births
- For all males and for girls below twelve years of age, leave columns P24 to P36 blank. Also, if a female aged 12 years and above has, for some reason, declined to respond to the questions, leave columns P24 to P36 blank. However, this will not be tolerated. For childless women, code "0" in the appropriate boxes. (Remember that for a childless woman, you must code '0' in the appropriate boxes. Do not leave the boxes blank for any woman 12 years and above even if childless.)
- Many women do not like answering questions about their children. There are various reasons for this, but it is your duty to obtain the answers. It will require firmness, politeness and tact.
31.2 Columns P24?P25: Children born alive
Ask: "Have you ever borne any children alive?" (How many children have you ever borne alive?).
A child born alive is one who shows one or more of the following signs of life immediately after birth:
- Movement of the limbs or any other parts of the body
- Any other tangible signs of life.
The census is concerned only with children born alive. Do not include stillbirths, that is, children who were born dead and therefore did not show any sign(s) of life as above at the time of birth.
If the woman has born any child alive, write the number of boys in the boxes in P24 and the number of girls in P25.
31.3 Columns P26?P27: Children Living in the Household
If the woman has born children alive, ask, "of the children you have born alive, how many usually live with you in this household?" Remember that for all childless women you must enter '0' in the appropriate boxes.
Write the number of boys and girls who usually live in the household in columns P26 and P27 respectively. If none of the boys or girls the woman has borne alive are living in the household, write "0" in the appropriate boxes. Children borne to the woman who are in boarding school should be included among the children who usually live in the household. In case of a visitor who spent the Census Night with her children in the household, these children should not be captured in P26 and P27 but in P28 and P29.
31.4 Columns P28?P29: Children living elsewhere
Next ask: "Of the children you have born alive, how many usually live elsewhere?"
Write the number of boys who usually live elsewhere in column P28 and the number of girls in column P29. If none of the boys or girls she has borne alive live elsewhere, write, "0" in the appropriate boxes.
Include in these columns (P28 and P29) all the children the woman has borne alive who usually live elsewhere. It may be that they have grown up and married, or have gone off to work, or are living with relatives etc. Make sure that none of the children she has borne alive are missed out. Ask further questions to probe ? "are any of your children away?", "at work?", "with relatives?", etc.
31.5 Columns P30?P31: Children who have died
Then ask, "of the children you have born alive, how many have died?"
Many people find it painful to talk about their dead children. It is best to ask this question in a matter of fact and without embarrassment. Please refer to section B above for the definition of a live birth.
Write the number of boys and girls who have died in columns P30 and P31 respectively. If none of the boys and girls she has borne alive has died, code "0" in the appropriate columns. If, in spite of your best efforts, you cannot obtain this information about the children who have died, leave columns P30 and P31 blank. However, this will not be encouraged.
Before proceeding to columns P32?P36, probe to confirm whether the number of children given in columns P26?P31 is correct by comparing with the entries in columns P24 and P25. If these totals differ, probe further and adjust your entries accordingly.
[Questions 32 to 36 were asked of females 12 years old and over with at least one live birth.]
31.6 Columns P32 to P36: Particulars of last live births
31.7 Columns P32?P33: Last child born
Ask, "When was your last child born?"
Record the month and year of birth in columns P32 and P33 respectively. Code the month in column P32, i.e. "01" for January, "02" for February, "12" for December and the year in column P33 i.e. "1980" (for 1980), "1989" (for 1989). This question should be asked regardless of the age of the last born child (he or she could be an adult by now).
31.8 Column P34: Birth notification
Ask, 'Was the last birth notified?'
Enter the correct code in column P?34 i.e. "1" for yes, "2" for no and "9" for DK. Notification is the process whereby a parent or guardian or officer in charge of an institution (e.g. prison) where the event (birth) has occurred reports to a government official responsible for registration of births within 6 months of occurrence. The government officials responsible for registration of birth that occur at home are assistant chiefs while the events of birth that occur in health institutions are registered by personnel in those institutions.
31.9 Column P35: Sex of the child
Ask, 'Was the child a boy or a girl?'
Write the sex of the last borne child in column P35. Code "1" for male, "2" for female, "3" for male twins, "4" for female twins, "5" for twins with one of either sex, and "6" for other multiple births and "9" for don't know.
31.10 Column P36: Survival status of last born child
In column P36, indicate whether the child is still alive. For single births, code "1" if the child is still alive and "2" if dead. For twins code "3" if one of the twins is alive and "4" if both twins are alive. For multiple births, code "5" if one of the multiples is alive, "6" if two of the multiples are alive, "7" if all multiples are alive and "8" if none of the multiples is alive. Write "9" if the survival status of the last birth is not known.
32. Section C: Information regarding disability
Columns P37 to P38 contain questions pertaining to disabilities. These questions are to be asked of the head of the household or any other responsible person.
Questions regarding disabilities have to be asked very carefully and with caution. You should not ask "Do you have a disability, or are you disabled, or are you blind, or deaf" nor "are you lame?'. This will generate very low rates of response because you will not get the correct answer. The word "disability" is regarded negatively in most communities particularly in developing countries. People may feel stigmatized or be ashamed to be identified as having a disability. In some cultures, disability is seen as punishment for sins committed in previous lives.
Also, even if people do not feel stigmatized, the word "disability" often implies a very significant condition. Persons who can walk around their homes but are unable to walk to the market may perceive their situation as not severe enough to be considered as having a disability.
Disability is interpreted relative to what is considered normal functioning (or different). This may vary across various cultures, age groups, or social class.
32.2 Definition of disability
The Disability Act 2003 defines disability as: physical, sensory, mental, or other impairment, including a visual, hearing or physical disability, which has a substantial long term adverse effect on a person's ability to carry out usual day to day activities. Disability is, therefore, viewed as a physical, mental, or psychological condition or impairment that substantially affects a person's daily activities or limits a person's ability to perform one or more basic life activities (referred to as activities of daily life? ADL) such as caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, earning a living, or working and interacting with other persons.
In this context, activities refer to a wide range of deliberate actions performed by an individual as opposed to particular body functions or structures. These are basic deliberate actions undertaken in order to accomplish a task such as dressing or feeding oneself.
In the 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census we will classify one as having a disability if they have any of the following: visual, hearing and speech impairment; physical, mental and other disabilities, and self?care difficulties.
32.3 Types of disabilities
Visual impairment describes the various degrees of vision loss. A person is considered to have an eyesight or vision disability if he/she doesn't have normal vision even if he/she wears eyeglasses or contact lenses. Visual impairments are caused by injury, disease, through accident, muscular degeneration or cataracts or are congenital. Congenital blindness could be noted at birth or within the first five years of life. Vision impairment can be treated by medicines and therapies though impairments caused by birth or accident are less likely to cure.
- Hearing impairment
Hearing impairment refers to complete deafness or partial hearing in one or both ears. Hearing impairment can be caused by birth or are due to inheritance. In some cases extremely high frequency sound waves may also cause hearing disability. Persons who are able to hear well with the aid of devices are not considered to be having this disability.
- Physical disability
Physical or mobility impairment refers to difficulties in moving (i.e. walking, climbing stairs, using hands, sitting upright or standing). This disability restricts one's physical movement, say body movement, or paralysis of legs, hands, or the whole body. Persons with this type of disability can use assistive equipment and supportive devices that assist them to move around.
- Mental disability
Mental disability affects people's ability to perform activities like other people of similar age groups. They may have difficulty in remembering things or concentrating on what he/she is performing. It includes many different functions such as our abilities to pay attention, learn and retain information, solve problems, and use language to express thoughts. This disability hampers clear thoughts in the mind. It also exhibits problems in comprehending any new ideas or opinions or finding solutions and therefore restrains a person from learning or even coordinating functions/activities.
- Self-care difficulties
This refers to difficulties in dressing, bathing, eating, grooming and hygiene, toileting or getting around the home or inside the home. The difficulties may have arisen as a result of other disabilities or impairments. These types of difficulties maybe present in most disabilities. It may be more pronounced in mental disabilities and severe physical disabilities. The question on self? care disability should be asked of all persons.
- Speech impairment
Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication or difficulties in producing oral speech sounds or problems with voice quality. They might be characterized by an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech, such as stammering. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, brain injury, learning disability, substance abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip (deformed lip) or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Persons with speech disabilities are often not able to communicate well with others.
- Other disabilities
This refers to any other disability not mentioned or covered above. These could be any of the following: albinism, epilepsy, autism, or chronic health conditions/ailments of more than six months etc. e.g. mental illnesses, cancer.
32.4 Columns P37 to P38: Information regarding persons with disability
Column P37 seeks information on the disabilities that greatly limit/restrict the household member's inclusion in the society. In circumstances where the respondent has more than one type of disability, record up to a maximum of 3, given in order of the most disabling. For instance if the respondent says he/she is mostly affected by physical disability, followed by hearing and self-care, then code '4' for physical, followed by '2' for hearing and lastly '6' for self?care.
Column P38: This question seeks to establish if [the respondent]'s economic activities are affected by his/her disability. Code "1" for "yes", "2" for "no", "3" for "N/A" and "9" for "DK". If the person is under 5 years, then code "3". If a person has one disability, code the disability and "8" in the subsequent boxes. Do not leave boxes blank.
33. Section D: Education status for persons aged 3 years and above
33.1 Columns P39, P40 and P41: Education
Questions on education are applicable to persons aged 3 years and above and refer to formal, non-formal and other education. The categories under formal education are; pre?primary, primary, secondary, middle level colleges and university. Non-formal education is any other form of education that does not follow the standard curriculum of the formal system but offers numeric and literacy skills e.g. adult education and youth/village polytechnic education. "Other" education refers to Madrassa and Duksis etc.
- Early childhood development (ECD): This is an education program offered to provide holistic integrated services that create a strong foundation for the child's cognitive (talents), psycho?social, moral, spiritual, emotional and psychomotor (physical education?PE) needs. The official target group are the children aged 3 to 5 years.
- In this level of formal education, pupils attend schooling in three levels: baby class, nursery and pre?unit. In some regions the term used is kindergarten 1, kindergarten 2 and kindergarten 3.
- Primary: This is the first 8 years of basic education in the formal system. In this level, pupils go through 8 grades: Std. 1 to Std. 8. At the end of the cycle, they sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE). However, in the previous education system (7?4?2?3) there was the Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) at the end of primary in Standard 7.
- Secondary: This is the education offered for 4 years after primary education. In this level, also referred to as Ordinary (O)?level, the students attend schooling in 4 grades: Form 1 to Form 4. At the end the cycle they sit the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). In the previous education system, students attended O?level and Advanced (A)?level for 2 years in form 5 and form 6 after which they sat the Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education (KACE).
- Non-Formal Education (NFE): This is an education program that offers flexible learning for adults and school going children who are not able to join the formal system of education. In this system, the learners are categorized into three levels: basic, post-literacy, and technical.
- Basic education involves mainly teaching numeric and literacy skills. A pupil is considered to have achieved basic level of education after sitting and passing the proficiency examination.
- Post Literacy education involves teaching of all the examinable subjects at primary education. The learner is also expected to sit for either a Proficiency examination or Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE)
- Technical education is offered to learners in NFE centers to provide life skills to the disadvantaged population.
- Non?formal schools: These are schools that are not registered with the Ministry of Education but follow the formal primary school curriculum. They are registered by the office of the Attorney General/Ministry of Social Services to offer education services to needy population.
- Youth polytechnic: This is a non-formal education program offered to primary school leavers or those with some secondary education who are interested in technical skills. They offer artisan courses lasting between 1 to 3 years such as artisan 1 and 2 followed by craft 1 and 2 such as carpentry, masonry, electrical, hair dressing and tailoring etc.
- Tertiary education (middle level colleges): This is a post-secondary education program that offers various disciplines at certificate and diploma level. The program caters for the students who have completed secondary education and did not join university education. The institutions are of specific disciplines such as primary teacher training colleges that offer primary teaching certificate; medical training colleges offer certificate and diploma in nursing/clinical medicine etc. ; agriculture training colleges; media colleges; ICT colleges; technical training institutes; national polytechnics among others.
- University: This is a formal education program that allows learners to move to the last cycle of formal education. The courses offered are varied in all the sectors leading to professionals. The students are also allowed to pursue further education in university postgraduate programs on masters for 2 years and doctorate for 3 years and above.
33.3 Column P39: School /learning institution attendance
Ask: What is the school/learning institution attendance status of [the respondent]?
Record "1" for persons attending school this year, "2" for persons who have left school, "3" for persons who have never been to school, and "9 for persons whose schooling status is not known. Leave the box blank if the respondent is below 3 years.
33.4 Column P40: Highest standard/form/level of education reached
Ask: What is the highest standard/form/level of education reached by [the respondent]?
Code in column P40 the highest level of formal education the person has reached from the provided code list: For example, if a person reached standard 4 and dropped out of school before completing, he/she should be coded "4". If a person is attending an adult education basic literacy class he/she should be coded "21". However, if the person is enrolled for standard 8 examinations in adult literacy center then he/she should be coded "8". If a person is attending a course in a youth polytechnic, he/she should be coded "23", if the person has completed the youth polytechnic code "24"etc. If a person is attending a course in a middle level college (post-secondary education), he/she should be coded "15", if the person has completed the Middle Level College code "16"etc. Code "25" if a person is attending madrassa/duksi, and "26" if the person has completed madrassa/duksi. If P39=3 or 9 then write 97. If a person completed for example form four and enrolled in four three, code level of education reached as form four and current level as four three.
33.5 Column P41: Highest standard/form/level of education completed
Ask: What is the highest standard/form/level completed by [the respondent]?
If a person was at school in standard 4 and left before completing, he/she should be coded as having completed standard 3 hence code "3". If a person is at school and is attending standard 4, he/she should be coded as having completed standard 3 hence code "3". Refer to the code list provided. If P39=3 or 9 then write 97.
- For example: record the highest class or form the person has completed in the formal primary and secondary school system e.g. a person in form one will have completed standard 8 and therefore should be coded as having completed standard 8, while those who have completed form one should be coded "9".
- If a person has not gone to a formal school but has sat for KCPE/CPE or 'O' level or 'A' level exams, through correspondence or adult and continuing education classes code his/her highest level of education according to the highest exam he/she has sat and passed e.g. code "8" for KCPE exams passed or code "12" for 'O' level exams passed etc.
- If a person has attended youth polytechnic but never completed or is currently attending the youth polytechnic studies and he finished Std. 8 then code "8" or he finished Form 3 then code '11': If the person has completed the youth polytechnic studies then code "24".
- If a person has attended university but never completed or is currently attending undergraduate studies and his/her last level completed was Form 4 then code "12" and if his/her last level was Form 6, then code ''14'': If the person has completed undergraduate, then, code "18". If the person is attending a masters or a doctorate degree then his completed level is undergraduate, and code ''19''.
34. Section E: Labor force participation
[Questions 42 to 44 are asked of all persons 5 years old and over.]
34.1 Column P42 to P44:
This section involves collection of labor statistics, mainly used for employment policies and programs and for projecting future labor force. The questions are asked to all persons aged 5 years and above and refer to the last seven days preceding the Census night. However, the reference period for those who held a job (on leave or on sick leave) falls outside the last seven days.
34.2 Column P42: Main activity
Ask: What was [the respondent] mainly doing during the last seven days preceding the Census Night?
What the respondent was mainly doing will denote the activity that occupied most of the respondent's time during the 7 days preceding the Census Night. The codes for the possible responses in column P42 are provided, and are defined here below:
This comprises persons who, during the 7 days preceding the Census Night, worked most of the time for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, contracts and paid in kind (especially in the rural areas where people who have rendered services may be paid using food or clothing).
- On leave
This group comprises all those with formal attachments to a job or business/enterprise but were not working during the reference period. This includes people on any of the following type of leave: annual, maternity, paternity, terminal, compulsory leave etc. A person who is on leave such as a teacher but worked on family holding in the past 7 days preceding Census Nightshould be indicated as on leave.
- Sick leave
These are persons who during the reference period were sick and on leave with permission.
- Worked on own/family business
This category comprises of self?employed persons who worked on own business or persons who worked on family business for family gain. It includes "jua?kali" artisans, mechanics, traders in farm produce, and family workers not on wage employment. Any member of the household working on the holding for pay will fall under code "1 ".
- Worked on own/family agricultural holding
A holding in this case is the unit of land, farm or shamba which is owned or leased by the family and is used for purposes of cultivation or rearing livestock. All the members of the household who are working on the holding without pay/profit will be coded "5" (i.e. working on own/family agricultural holding). Any member of the household working on the holding for pay will fall under code "1" (i.e. worked for pay).
NB: You are to probe to find out whether unpaid family workers consider themselves as 'seeking work', etc. and code them accordingly. For example, if a young man helps his uncle to sell goods in a kiosk without receiving pay, probe whether he is 'seeking work' and code him appropriately; if he considers himself as working code him as "4".
An apprentice is a person whose training is done on the job for an agreed period of time. This includes students on attachment. This helps the apprentices learn their trade, in exchange for their labor. An intern on the other hand is one who works in a temporary position with an emphasis on on?the?job training rather than merely employment, making it similar to an apprenticeship. In most cases, an intern will have completed a certain level of education or training. Interns or apprentices are usually college or university students, but they can also be high school students or post graduate students seeking skills for a new career. Student internships/apprenticeship provide opportunities for students to gain experience in their field, determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit. The person may be unpaid or partially paid (in the form of a stipend).
This is a person who works for free in an organization primarily because they choose to do so. Many serve through a non?profit organization ? sometimes referred to as formal volunteering, but a significant number also serve less formally, either individually or as part of a group. These people do not receive any compensation for services rendered other than reimbursement for out?of pocket expenses.
- Seeking work (action taken)
This refers to a person who, in the 7 days preceding the Census Night, was neither working nor holding a job, but was available to take up a job and was actively looking for work. It should only include persons who have no work at all and are looking for work. It includes only persons who are available full time for work and hence are actively looking for it. This category should not include the under?employed (i.e. those who have paid work but wish to leave for better opportunities). If a person is working on the family holding but is seeking work, he/she should be coded as "seeking work" and not as "working on family holding".
- Seeking work (no action taken)
This refers to a person who, in the 7 days preceding the Census Night, was neither working nor holding a job. The person should be available to take up a job but did not actively seek for work in the reference period.
- No work available
This is a person who is not working nor seeking for work because he/she is discouraged, but would usually take up a job when offered one.
This is a person who reports that, during the 7 days preceding the Census Night , he/she was not engaged in any economic activity because he/she had retired either due to age, sickness or voluntarily. If a person has retired and is doing some work/business he/she should be coded appropriately, either as "1", "4" or "5". If he/she has retired and is actively seeking work he/she should be coded as "8".
This is a person of either sex involved in household chores in his/her own home e.g. fetching water, cooking, babysitting etc., who did not work for pay or profit nor sought work. This category should not include houseboys/girls who fall under category "1". If such a person worked on family business or agricultural holding they should be coded as "4" or "5" and not as "12". Please probe.
- Full?time student
This is a person who spent most of his/her time in a regular educational institution (primary, secondary, college, university etc.) and hence not available for work. If, for instance, a student was on holiday during the 7 days preceding the Census Nightand may have been engaged in gainful employment, he/she should be given the appropriate code (i.e. worked for pay, worked on own, family business etc.).
This is a person who cannot work. Do not assume that all physically disabled persons cannot work. For example, a blind person who is in wage employment will fall under category "1" and not "14". Similarly, lame/crippled persons working on the family business or agricultural holding should fall under category "4" or "5". Please probe.
- Other (specify)
This category includes any other persons not mentioned above.
NB: For persons aged below 5 years, leave column P42 blank. For respondents aged 5 years and above whose labor force participation status is not known or not stated, write "99".
34.3 Column 43: Main employer
Each person who is working will be asked for whom they work for. This question applies to respondents whose response in column P42 is codes 1 ? 7, and code 15. The code list for the main employer will be provided. To clarify:
- Public sector covers all activities and establishments of the Central Government, its statutory corporations (wholly owned corporations or parastatals), registered companies in which the Government is a majority shareholder, and all Local Government authorities.
- State owned enterprise refers to semi?public.
- Private sector is categorized into private company or private individual (or household).
- A Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is a non?profit making body which mainly engages in charity work.
- A Faith?Based Organization (FBO) is a group that references God or Allah. It includes organizations such as schools, hospitals etc. whose leaders are affiliated to religious organizations and groups founded by missionaries or religious leaders, so long as the founders are still active in the group.
- Examples of self-employed modern sector includes doctors, lawyers in private practice etc. whose businesses are registered with the registrar of companies.
- International NGOs includes: CARE international, OXFAM, Plan International, ActionAid, Safe the Child UK, International Red Cross, GTZ etc.
- Local NGOs includes: Green Belt Movement, Family Health Options Kenya, Federation of Women Lawyers ? Kenya chapter (FIDA) etc.
- If KNBS outsourced cleaning services from a private company, the cleaner will be classified as working in Private owned enterprise (code "1").
- A person who works as a cleaning person in someone's home will be classified in Individual/Private household (code "16").
- A person working in a Parish or Mosque should be coded as working for an FBO (code "8").
- A person who buys and sells agricultural produce e.g. milk, maize cabbages, "sukuma wiki" etc. will be classified as self?employed informal if the business is not registered with the registral of companies. (Code "11").
34.4 Column P44: Hours of work
This question applies to respondents whose response in column P42 is code 1? 7 and code 15. Hours usually worked is the typical value of hours actually worked in a job per short reference period such as one week, over a long observation period of a month, quarter, season or year that comprises the short reference measurement period used. The hours usually worked provides a way to obtain regular hours worked above contractual hours. The enumerator in this case should seek to establish usual hours worked in the last seven days. If a person has worked 5 hours per day for six days in the last 7 days, then the enumerator should record 30 hours (for a 6 days worked period). Note that for those who did not work in the last seven days but held a job, the enumerator should ask "How many hours does [the respondent] usually work in a week?" The week in this case is refers to the last seven days.
35. Section F: Information regarding ICT
The following questions on information and communications technologies (ICT) are to be asked to members of households aged 3 years and above. At this age, some children are introduced to school learning activities through different programs such as the early childhood development (ECD) program. It is therefore expected that some children may be using ICT facilities either at school, home or elsewhere. Answers to the ICT questions may be provided by the head of the household or any other responsible member of the household.
The objective for including ICT questions in the census is to collect information from the users of ICT services at the household level. This will assist in compiling indicators on universal access to and use of basic ICT infrastructure in the country. The indicators are expected to provide a platform for planning, monitoring and evaluation of ICT policies and strategies in the country.
[Questions 45 to 49 are asked of all persons 3 years old and over.]
35.2 Column P45 to P49: Accessibility
This question seeks information on the ability of household members to get services from basic information and communication facilities within the past one month. The ICT facilities include radio, television (TV), mobile phone, landline telephone and a computer. Response to each of the question from eligible members of the household is either a yes =1 or no=2. Code in the appropriate box for all eligible members of the household i.e. those aged 3 years and above.
- A Radio is a device capable of receiving broadcast radio signals using common frequencies such as FM, AM, LW, and SW. Radios also include those combined with other equipment such as cassette players/recorders, portable radios such as transistor radios, and radios in motor vehicles.
- A Television is a device capable of receiving broadcast television signals, using common access means such as over?the?air or satellite. A TV set may be a stand-alone device, or it may be integrated into another device such as a computer or a mobile phone. A TV set shows pictures on a screen in addition to the voice broadcast.
- Mobile phone (also called cell phone, hand phone, cellular phone, cell, mobile telephone or cell telephone) is a long?range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites which are in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
- Landline telephone refer to fixed telephone lines connecting to a customer's terminal equipment (e.g. telephone headset, facsimile machine etc.) to the PSTN and which have a dedicated port on a telephone exchange.
- Computer includes a desktop, portable (laptop) or handheld computer (PDA). It does not include equipment with enabled computing abilities such as a mobile phone or TV sets.
[Questions 50 and 51 are asked of all persons 3 years old and over.]
35.3 Column P50: Frequency of access to the internet services
The question seeks to establish how frequently eligible members of the household access and use internet services. Frequency of access could either be daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. Record the response given by the respondent by entering the appropriate code: 1 to 4. If a member of the household has never used internet enter code 5.
[Questions 50 and 51 are asked of all persons 3 years old and over.]
35.4 Column P51: Place where internet was accessed
This question seeks to establish the location where services for internet are mainly accessed. Enter the appropriate codes for response given.
36. Section G: Annual live births
This section is about all births that occurred in the household in the last 12 months.
Ask: How many live births have occurred in this household between 24/8/2008 and 24/8/2009. Record the responses in column H10. Births will be captured in the households where they occurred i.e. if a woman gave birth to child while still staying with her parents but has since moved from the household; the birth should be captured in the parent's household and not where she has moved to. Regardless of where the birth occurred (bush or hospital), it should be captured in the household where the woman was staying at the time of birth. Women who gave birth while visiting, the births should be recorded with the household they were visiting.
37. Section H: Recent deaths in the household
- Respondent: The questions in this section (H11?H16) should be answered by the household head or any other responsible household member. If the answer to question H11 is 00, then move to the next section (i.e. information regarding livestock). Deaths will only be captured in the households where they occurred i.e. if a death occurred to somebody visiting a different household that death should be captured in the household that was being visited. If death occurred to somebody who was transferred directly from another district to a health facility in another district, that death should be captured in the household in the district of residence.
37.2 Column H11: Death of HH member
Ask the respondent: "How many deaths occurred in this household between 24/8/2008 and 24/8/2009?" If there are deaths record the number, if none record "0"and skip to Section I.
Ask the respondent the death order (starting with the last) and names of the deceased persons. Record the names of the deceased in Column H?12 starting with the most recent death.
37.4 Column H13: Death notification
Establish if the death(s) in column H12 were notified and record the response in column H13. Notification is the process whereby a head of household or officer in charge of an institution (e.g. prison) where the event (death) has occurred reports to a government official responsible for registration of births and deaths within 6 months of occurrence. The government officials responsible for registration of death that occur at home are assistant chiefs while the events of death that occur in health institutions are registered by personnel in those institutions.
37.5 Columns H14 and H15: Age and sex
Ask for the age and sex for each of the deceased persons. Record the age in completed years and code for sex of the deceased in the column H14 and H15, respectively. Use 2 digits in recording age e.g. "1", "8", "17". For babies less than 1 year old, record "0". For persons aged 95 and over, code age as "95". Note that the column on age should not be left blank. Make sure you probe for an estimate of the age and you may ask for any documents such as IDs and burial permits.
37.6 Columns H16: Cause of death
[Question 37.6 is asked of females 12 to 49 years old who died.]
This question will be asked of females who died aged 12?49 years.
For each death, ask: "Did the death occur during pregnancy, during delivery, or within two months after delivery?" Code appropriately using the codes as provided in column H16, "1" for during pregnancy, "2" for during delivery, "3" for within two months after delivery and "4" for other causes of death.
38. Section I: Information regarding livestock owned
This section will be administered to household member(s) with information on household livestock. The section collects information on the number by type of livestock being reared or managed by the household as at 24th/25th August 2009.
[Question 38 is asked of all persons.]
38.1 Column H17: Type of livestock
Establish the type and number of each type of livestock kept or managed by any member of the household. The animals listed should be within the district. Some institutions such as schools keep or rear livestock. For institutions which own livestock and where the special population is absent during enumeration, complete the identification details, write the name of the institution on top margin of the questionnaire and complete the livestock section only. The code "other" should be replaced with fish ponds.
39. Section J: Housing conditions and amenities
Columns H?18 to H?27 contain questions pertaining to housing conditions and amenities and are to be asked of the head of the household or any other responsible person
39.1 Column H18: Dwelling units
- Record the number of dwelling units available to a household in column H18.
- There are situations, especially in the rural areas, whereby the kitchen is a stand?alone structure. Such a kitchen must be counted as a dwelling unit in its own right.
39.2 Column H19: Habitable rooms
- Habitable rooms are rooms in the dwelling units that are used mainly for living and exclude stores, granaries, offices, toilets and garages.
- A kitchen, under normal circumstances, should not be counted as a habitable room. However, if the household uses the kitchen for eating and/or sleeping purposes, or even for purposes of entertaining guests, then it should be counted with the habitable rooms. The same applies to a store.
39.3 Column H20: Tenure status of main dwelling unit
Column H20 seeks information on status of tenure i.e. whether the dwelling unit is owner occupied or rented by the household. Ask the head of the household or any other responsible person whether the main residential/dwelling unit is owned or rented by him/her or any other member of the household. You are supposed to code the answers using the categories provided.
Under owner occupied are listed:
- Constructed: Means that a member of the household has built the structure they are living in.
- Inherited: Means that a member of the household has received the building by right of succession or by a will. However in this case, do not ask for proof. Accept what the respondent says.
Under rented/provided are listed dwelling units either provided by the employer of a member of the household, rented by a member of the household or donated to a member of the household. This includes:
- Local Authority: Covers all houses rented or provided by local authorities
- Parastatal: Covers organizations like Kenya Railways, Kenya Power and Lighting Co., universities, KNBS, etc.
- Private Company: Covers private firms and foreign governments
- Individual: Covers private individuals only.
- Other forms of tenure: any other form of tenure not covered above.
39.4 Columns H21: Dominant construction material of roof for main dwelling unit
Code in column H21 the construction materials used to build the roof e.g. code "1" for roof with corrugated iron sheets, "4" for asbestos sheets, etc. Tiles include clay, wooden, fiber and cement tiles, etc.
39.5 Columns H22: Dominant construction material of walls for main dwelling unit
Code in column H22 the construction materials used to build the walls e.g. code "3" for mud/wood etc. Consider the main material that bears the weight of the roof. Code "9" for mud/dung.
39.6 Columns H23: Dominant construction material of floor for main dwelling unit
Code in column H23 the construction material used to build the floor e.g. code "1" for cement, "2" for tiles, "3" for wood, "4" for earth and "5" for other. Tiles include wooden tiles. Wood means wooden planks.
39.7 Column H24: Main source of water
In column H24, ask "what is the main source of water for this household?" You are required to code the main source of water. This is the source from which, for most part of the year, the household draws its water. For example, if during the wet season the household draws water from a tank but then the longer part of the year draws from a river, code "4" as main source of water.
The main sources of water listed are:
- Dam: A reservoir formed by building a barrier across a river to hold back water and control its flow. A lot of these dams are built in dry areas of Kenya.
- Lake: Usually bigger than a pond but has water collecting in it through rain, rivers etc. It is different from a dam in that it is not man?made.
- Stream/river: This is a naturally flowing source of water.
- Spring: This is a place where water springs or wells up from earth or underground.
- Well: This is a manmade shaft dug in the ground from which water is obtained. Water is drawn using buckets.
- Borehole: Same as the well as defined above but deeper than a well and has pump for drawing the water into a tank, buckets etc.
- Piped: Means water drawn through pipes installed in a dwelling unit and originating in a central (public) source.
- Jabias/Tanks: Rainwater harnessed from any catchment into a hole/tank and used for domestic purposes.
- Vendor: Refers to water purchased by households from mobile sellers or distributors. Examples of ferrying include cart, bicycle, individuals, truck etc. The source of the water may be known or not, by the households.
- Other: Any source that is not mentioned above
39.8 Column H25: Main mode of human waste disposal
In column H25 ask, "where do members of this household dispose of human waste?" Code the answers according to the categories given e.g. code 4 for ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP), 3 for cesspool etc.
The categories of main type of sewage disposal are:
- Septic tank: This is a tank into which an individual household's sewage is conveyed and remains there until it is emptied. Examples of septic tanks are found in urban areas, where the tank is often located within the compound where you find dwelling structures.
- Bucket latrine: This is a bucket placed in a residential area used to collect human excreta. It is emptied occasionally. This type of waste disposal is now rare but can still be found in some urban residential estates and in North?Eastern towns.
- Cesspool: This is a communal pool where liquid waste is drained into from the dwelling units until it is emptied.
39.9 Column H26: Main type of cooking fuel
Ask: "What is the main cooking fuel used in this household?" In column H26, note that some households may use electricity, paraffin, gas and firewood, all at the same time. The answer required here is the fuel used most of the time. Code the appropriate answer in column H26 from the provided code list.
39.10 Column H27: Main type of lighting fuel
In column H27, code the answer according to the categories given. Tin lamps include plastic or bottle lamps, which may be known by various local names like koroboi, tamambul, tadoba, nyangile, ngwatira etc.
40. Section K: Household assets
40.1 Column H28: Ownership of household assets
Establish if any member of the household owns any of the following items and code accordingly. Household assets: Radio, TV, Mobile phone, Landline telephone, computer, bicycle, motor cycle, bus, lorry, truck, tractor, refrigerator, boat, canoe, animal drawn cart, tuk tuk.
Column H29 seeks information on any member of the household who may have migrated to another country since 1995. If there is any emigrant, detailed information should be captured in the emigrant short questionnaire.
42. Short questionnaire on emigrants
42.1 Column E?01: Name of respondent and line number
Please write the name of the respondent on the space provided and his/her line number in the two boxes. The name and line number will be retrieved from the household questionnaire. The respondent is essentially the person who answered household questions in the main questionnaire.
Make a list of all persons who were members of this household and who have immigrated to another country in the last fifteen (15) years, i.e. since 1995. Write the names in column (E?02). It is important that you give at least two names of each emigrant for proper identification. Ensure that all emigrants are listed including children, but exclude children born to the emigrant(s) since they left Kenya.
As you write?the names in column E?02, code sex in column E?03. You will save yourself trouble by doing this. This column should not be left blank. The codes are '1' for male or '2' for female.
Age is one of the most important pieces of information to be sought. You must try as much as possible to record the correct age of the respondent. Under no circumstances should this column be left blank. You must probe to make sure that you get even a rough estimate.
Ask: how old was this person?
Write the person's age in completed years ? that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write 0. Persons aged 95 years and over should be coded "95". Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday. A child who is aged four years and eleven months should, for example be entered as "4" and not "5". Make sure that your writing is always legible and within the appropriate box.
42.5 Column E?05: Highest education level reached
The question on education refers to the highest level of formal education the emigrant reached before leaving Kenya. The categories identified are: pre?primary, primary, secondary, middle level colleges and university.
Ask: what is the highest level of education this person had reached? Code in column E?05 the highest level of formal education the person had reached i.e. none, primary, secondary, university undergraduate, university post graduate or other tertiary colleges before leaving Kenya. If the level of education is unknown please code 9 for "don't know."
42.6 Column E?06: Professional training of the emigrant
This question seeks to find out whether the emigrant had acquired any professional training prior to emigration.
Ask: what professional training had this person acquired before his departure from Kenya? The options are doctor, teacher, nurse, artisan, lecturer, engineer, economist, statistician, others or none.
The question seeks to know the final destination of the emigrant upon departure from Kenya. Enter the code for the country the emigrant departed for. The codes are given.
42.8 Column E?08: Current residence
This question seeks to know the current place of residence of the emigrant.
Ask: What is the current country of residence of the emigrant?
The country of current residence can be the same as the country of destination or be different. Enter the code for the current country of residence in the boxes provided. The codes are given.
42.9 Column E?09: Year of departure
The question seeks to know the year the emigrant departed from Kenya. Remember we are looking for emigrants within the last 15 years i.e. since 1995.
42.10 Column E?10: Status/reason for staying abroad
Ask: What is the status or reason for the emigrant staying abroad?
The options include employment, education, sports, marriage, link?up with the family or other reasons not listed above. If the reason/status is unknown please code 9 for Don't Know.
42.11 Column E?11: Remittances
The question seeks to find out whether the emigrant remitted (sent) money to any member of the household in the last 12 months. If any member of the household received money from an emigrant, code 1; if no household member received money from an emigrant, code 2 and if it is not known whether any member of the household received money from emigrant, code 3.
42.12 Column E?12: How much was remitted
This question seeks to find out how much money was received by the household. The received amount should be recorded in Kenya shillings. If it was received in some other currency say USD, Sterling Pounds or Euros, the amount should be converted to estimated value in Kenya shillings. This conversion will be made using a list of average exchange rates for selected currencies that is provided.
42.13 Column E?13: How were the remittances used
This question seeks to find out how the money received from the emigrant (remittances) was used by the household. If the money received was used in investments such as setting up a business, improving a business, developing a building for rental purposes or any other income generating activity then code 1. If the money received was used to meet health expenses such as paying medical bills or buying medicine, then code 2. If the money received was used in paying school fees, purchasing textbooks and other stationery required for school or to meet any other educational expenditures, then code 3. If the remitted money was used to purchase goods for household consumption such as furniture, clothes, electronic equipment, food and any other items, then code 4. If the money was used for any other purpose not mentioned above, then code 5.
43. Other short questionnaires
This section explains the questions to be asked using the short questionnaires for:
- Travelers and persons on transit
- Vagrants and outdoor sleepers
Make a list of all persons who spent the census night in this institution. Write the names in Column SQ02. It is important that you give at least two names of each person for proper identification. Ensure that all persons are listed including children.
As you write?the names in column SQ02, code sex in column SQ03. You will save yourself trouble by doing this. This column should not be left blank. The codes are '1' for male or '2' for female.
Age is one of the most important pieces of information to be sought. You must try as much as possible to record the correct age of the respondent. Under no circumstances should this column be left blank. You must probe to make sure that you get even a rough estimate.
Ask: how old is this person?
Write the person's age in completed years ? that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write "0". Persons aged 95 years and over should be coded "95". Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday. A child who is aged four years and eleven months should, for example be entered as "4" and not "5". Make sure that your writing is always legible and within the appropriate box.
Ask: How long has [the respondent] stayed in this institution?
Record the duration of stay in months and years in SQ05 e.g. for 13 months record "1" for months and "1" for years. Check to see that the person's age is consistent with duration of stay i.e. the person's age must always be greater or equal to duration of stay.
43.6 Highest education level completed
The question on education refers to the highest level of formal education the person has completed. The categories identified are: none, primary, secondary, university undergraduate, university post graduate, and other tertiary colleges.
Ask: What is the highest level of education this person has completed? Code in the box given, the highest level of formal education the person has completed. If the level of education is unknown please code 9 for "don't know."
Ask: What is [the respondent]'s home district/country?
For persons born in Kenya, code home district using the code list provided. For example, a person who says his/her home district is Kikuyu, code "209". For non?Kenyans record the country of origin using the code list provided. Home district usually refers to the district of origin or birth. For example, if a woman who usually resides in Ruiru district moves to Nairobi to deliver her child, it will be assumed that the woman went to Nairobi purposely for maternity services. Thus the home district of the child will be recorded as Ruiru.
Ask: What is [the respondent]'s tribe or nationality?
First establish the nationality of the person, then for Kenyans code the tribe from the code list provided. For Non Kenyans, code the nationality based on the code list provided for the country of origin.
Part IV: Check to make sure that you have completed the questionnaires accurately and completely
1. Before leaving the household, check the questionnaires you have completed and make sure that you have completed them accurately and completely. It is better to check your work on the spot than to have your supervisor send you back to correct mistakes.
2. In particular, you should check that: no one has been missed out; that no column has been left blank except for those who are ineligible; others can read what you have written i.e. your handwriting is legible and that your entries agree item by item.
3. Check your work systematically. First make sure that the information identifying the household in the box at the top left?hand corner has been entered. Next, look at the household in terms of relationships and ages of the people. Make sure that children are not shown as older than their parents; that men are not shown as having borne children; that babies are not shown as having university education, etc.
4. Then look at the questions you have completed for females aged 12 years and over. Check the ages of all females and make sure that you have made necessary entries. Make sure that you have written "0" in the appropriate column(s) if the woman has no children in a particular category.
5. Make sure that all persons aged 3 years and over have been asked the question in column P39.
6. If you find that things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct your record. The questionnaires must be complete and accurate in all respects before you leave the household.
7. When you are satisfied that everything is in order, complete the summary information for the household on the front cover. Enter the household number and number of persons in the household.
8. When you have enumerated the members of the household, write the structure and household number on the door frame or any other convenient and conspicuous place. The structure and household numbers are the ones you will allocate yourself. The first structure and household you visit will be number S0001/001; second household will be 002 and so on as instructed earlier. Write the numbers neatly where they will be easily visible to your supervisor and out of reach of children. Ask the people to leave the numbers intact up until the end of November 2009 so that they may be spared the inconvenience of unnecessary enquiries by census staff. Explain that the number is used for census purposes only. Remember to thank the respondents for their cooperation before you depart.
9. When you have visited every household in your EA and have enumerated all persons who were in your area on the Census Night, confirm that you have enter the details of the province, district, division, location, sub?location and EA number on the front cover of each used book.
10. As soon as you have checked your work, report to your supervisor. You will only be paid after you have handed in all the accountable documents (used and unused questionnaires and map(s), etc.) and the Supervisor has ensured that you have done a good job.
Remember the success of this exercise depends entirely on your cooperation, hard work and commitment. Make this Census the best Census to be carried out in our country!!!
[Appendix 1 omitted, calendar of events and codes for the provinces]
[Appendix 2 omitted, codes for the provinces and countries]