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Republic of Kenya
Population and Housing
Census 24-25th August, 1999
Enumerator's Instructions Manual

Part I: Introduction

What is a Population Census?

1. A population census is a complete enumeration of all persons in a country at a specified time. It is the primary source of benchmark statistics on the size, distribution, composition and other social and economic characteristics of the population. Kenya has conducted five censuses since 1948. The 1999 census will be the sixth. The last census was conducted in August 1989.

Objective of 1999 Population Census

2. The 1999 Kenya Population and Housing Census is being held in order to provide information which is essential for sound development planning, making administrative and policy decisions, and research. It is, therefore, extremely important that the data collected in the census is complete and accurate.

The Census Organization

3. At the national level, the Census is headed by the National Census Officer (NCO) who is the PC, Nairobi, and the National Census Coordinator (NCC), who is the Director of Statistics. There are also two committees, namely the Census Secretariat responsible for all technical, logistical and administrative aspects of the census; and the National Census Steering Committee, which advises the Secretariat and coordinates its activities. Each district has a District Census Officer (DCO) who is in charge of the census activities in the district. In each Division and Municipality, there is an Assistant DCO who is assisted by a number of senior supervisors who are in turn assisted by supervisors. Each enumerator is answerable to a supervisor.

Legal authority to undertake the Census

4. The Statistics Act (Chapter 112) of the Laws of Kenya empowers the Director of Statistics to carry out censuses at periodic intervals. This census, therefore, will be carried out under the provision of this Act. A legal notice No. 121 of 11th September 1998 and amendment No. 25 of 22nd February 1999 have been gazetted to facilitate the carrying out of the 1999 Census.

5. As a census official, the law accords you access to any premises, compound or house for the purpose of enumerating persons. However, the law requires you to conduct yourself properly. In particular, it provides that you may only ask such questions as are necessary to complete the questionnaire or check entries already made.

6. Penalties are provided for if members of the public fail to furnish you with the required information or you fail in your duties. The law particularly stresses on confidentiality of the information collected from individuals.

Confidentiality of the Information

7. The information you obtain is confidential and will be used only to compile statistics. You are not permitted to discuss it, gossip about it, or show your records to anyone who is not an authorized officer within the Census Organization. Make all entries on the questionnaire yourself. On no account should you allow any unauthorized persons to fill in any part of the questionnaire. Do not leave your questionnaires lying around anyhow where unauthorized persons may have access to them.

8. To enforce this confidentiality, you will take an Oath of Secrecy. This oath is prescribed by the law and is normally administered to all persons engaged in the census under the Statistics Act.

Role of the enumerator

9. The enumerator's role is central to the very success of the census. It is important that all enumerators carefully follow the laid down procedures. Your job is to visit every household in the assigned area and record all particulars required of persons who will have spent the Census night in the area. You will ask all the questions and record the answers that are provided to you. You should make every effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them correctly. Since the success of the census-also depends upon public co-operation, it is your duty to achieve this by being polite, patient, presentable and tactful at all times.

Neutrality

10. Please note that most people are usually polite especially to strangers. They tend to give answers that they think will please the interviewer. It is therefore extremely important that you remain absolutely neutral towards the subject matter of interview. Do not -show any surprise, approval or disapproval of the respondent's answer by your tone of voice or facial expression.

How to approach the respondents

11. Act as though you expect friendly co-operation and behave so as to deserve it.

12. Start interviewing only when you have observed the following: exchanged proper greetings; identified yourself; explained the purpose of your visit; and have answered any questions and/or clarified issues about the census that the people may ask. However, do not spend too much time asking and/or answering unnecessary questions. You may cleverly avoid such questions by suggesting that you have limited time.

13. During the interview let people take their time to answer. Do not ask leading questions. Work steadily and make sure that the answers are clear to you before you write them down. Do not accept at once any statement you believe to be mistaken. Tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answers (i.e. probe).

14. It may happen that someone refuses to answer your questions. Almost always this is because of misunderstanding. Remain courteous. Stress the importance of the census and that it has nothing to do with taxation or similar government activities; that the information is confidential; that no one outside the census organization will be allowed access to the records; that details of individual people are never released for any purpose whatsoever and; that census results are published only as numerical tables. You should be able to clear up any misunderstanding, but if you cannot persuade the person to help, or if his/her refusal is deliberate, tell the person that he/she may be liable to prosecution. Report any such incident to your supervisor or any other responsible census official at the first opportunity.

15. When leaving a household always remember to thank the people for their co-operation.

Your equipment

16. Upon successful completion of your training, you will be issued with:

Books of main census questionnaires and/or 3 short questionnaires for enumeration of persons in hotels/lodges, travelers or persons on transit and persons of no fixed abode.
Enumeration cards for travelers or persons on transit.
Enumerator's instructions manual.
An identification badge.
Map of your assigned area.
A field note book.
Two pencils, one eraser and one sharpener.
Call-back cards for urban areas only.
Chalk
Enumerator's bag.

You will be required to return all the census books to your supervisor (both filled and unused) at the end of the enumeration in order to be paid your money.

Part II: General instructions

The enumeration area (EA)

17. Ideally, an EA should constitute about 100 households, comprising part of a village, a whole village or a group of villages. However, owing to other factors, mainly population density and geographic terrain, EAs have been conveniently demarcated to facilitate effective canvassing by an enumerator. Consequently, the EA you have been assigned may consist of more or less households.

18. Each sub-location is covered with a map or maps showing all the EAs in the sub-location. However, there are other areas which have been mapped without reference to any sub-location e.g. national parks and forest areas.

19. You will be assigned an EA or part of it. You will be responsible for visiting every household in it and recording the particulars of all persons in that enumeration area during the Census. Do not miss out any household in your EA nor count any twice.

20. The boundaries of your EA will be explained and shown to you by your supervisor. Make sure you acquaint yourself with your EA before you start work.

21. Spend two days before the census night going round your EA. Find out where the houses, huts/hamlets are and introduce yourself to the people so that when you begin the enumeration, they already know and are expecting you. Identify all the households in the EA.

(a) Make sure that you read the EA map carefully so that the boundaries are clear to you both on the ground and, on the map. In most cases, the boundaries of your EA follow easily identifiable features such as rivers, streams, roads, tracks and footpaths. In the densely populated areas and where the EA boundary is imaginary, the households/structures on each side of the EA boundary have been plotted.

(b) On each map, there is a legend showing what each symbol represents. The legend should be consulted as much as possible (see map in appendix 1).

22. Use the EA map to plan your work so that you can visit each inhabited place and each household in turn. Work in an orderly way. You will save yourself much walking time and a great deal of trouble if you do this. Tell your supervisor where you will start and which paths you will follow so that he/she can easily find you.

23. Each EA map representing a sub-location or forest or national park has been given a unique code number composed of thirteen digits. Each EA on the map has been given a unique code number composed of four digits. In the first case:
1st digit represents the province;
2nd and 3rd digits represent the district;
4th and 5th digits represent the division;
6th and 7th digits represent the location;
8th and 9th digits represent the sub-location or forest or national park,
10th, 11th and 12th digits represent the EA number, and;
13th digit represents the EA type.

24. There are 4 categories of EAs, i.e. EAs in settled agricultural areas, urban, arid and semi-arid areas, and forests and national parks or reserves.

(a) EAs in the settled agricultural areas are based on villages e.g. an EA is formed by part of a village, a whole village or by combining two or more villages. In case of difficulty or doubt about the EA boundary, it will be helpful to contact your supervisor, the assistant chief or village elder.

(b) In the urban areas, the EAs are based on the sub-location boundaries. All the structures have been numbered and are clearly shown on the maps. For example, the 9th structure is numbered KPC/CBS/99/009 on the ground and 009 on the map.

(c) In the arid and semi-arid areas, the EAs have been delineated on the basis of settlement centers. The boundaries have been fixed arbitrarily. You should trace exactly where the settlements are in your EA. You must contact your supervisor, the assistant chief or village elder to assist you to find the settlement centers.

(c) Large forests and national reserves have been treated as EAs on their own. You must, with the assistance of the forest officials or game wardens, identify where the people live in such EAs.

25. (a) The EA maps have been prepared using various scales for different areas. The following are examples of such scales:

Scale Category
1:2,500 Urban:1cm on the map represents 25m on the ground
1:5,000 Urban - Rural: 1, cm on the map represents 50m on the ground
1:10,000 Urban - Rural: 1 cm on the map represents 100m on the ground i
1:12,500 Rural: 1cm on the map represents 125m on the ground
1:20,000 Rural: 1 cm on the map represents 200m on the ground
1:25,000 Rural: 1cm on the map represents 250m on the ground
1:50,000 Rural: 1cm on the map represents 500m on the ground
1:250,000 Arid and semi-arid: 1 cm on the map represents 2500m on the ground

(b) In order to determine distances on the ground using the map, you must use your paces. For example, take your pace to be approximately 1 m. Measure the distance you want on your map in centimeters and using the map scale find the distance in meters on the ground. If you are using a map of, 1: 10,000 and you measure 2cm Ion the map, this is equivalent to 200 meters on the ground. You are therefore supposed to walk' approximately 200 paces to cover the distance measured on the map.

(c) Before you can start using your map in the field, it is important that you align the map correctly with the features on the ground. For example there may be a road on the ground where you are already standing. The map should be' aligned in the correct direction of the road so that the road on the ground and the road on the map point to the same direction.

Some key concepts

26. Given below are definitions to describe places of abode.

Homestead
Is an isolated compound with one or more structures, and usually inhabited by one or more households. In most cases homesteads will be surrounded by fences, hedges, walls etc. A homestead may contain for example, a hut or a group of huts. A manyatta will thus be considered a homestead. However, a wall/fence or hedge need not necessarily surround a homestead. For instance, boys' quarters, garage, kitchen etc. may be part of a homestead whether or not they are surrounded by a fence/wall, etc. During enumeration, you will visit homesteads and identify the structures, dwelling units and households in them.

Structure
A structure is a building used for the purposes of business or any other activity. For census purposes, a structure constitutes a building used for dwelling purposes. In rural areas, most of the structures will be found within a homestead. A structure can contain one or more dwelling units. In urban areas a structure may contain several dwelling units. For example, storied buildings, etc. contain more than one dwelling unit.

Dwelling unit
This is a place of abode or residence occupied by one or more households with a "private entrance". There can be many dwelling units within a structure.

Conventional households

27. Usually consist of a person or a group of persons who live together in the same homestead/compound but not necessarily in the same dwelling unit, have common housekeeping arrangements, and are answerable to the same household head. It is important to remember that members of a household are not necessarily related (by blood or marriage).

28. Determination of households may not be easy. However, the following examples should guide you in deciding who should form a household.

(a) A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building or part of a building or many buildings in the same compound/homestead.

(b) If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate eating and/or sleeping arrangements, treat them as separate households.

(c) A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included with the household. If the servant cooks and eats separately, he/she should be enumerated as living in a separate household.

(d) The particulars of persons who will have spent the census night with another household should be recorded on the questionnaire for that household.

(e) In a polygamous marriage, if the wives are living in separate dwelling units, and cook and eat separately, treat the wives as separate households. Each wife with her children will therefore constitute a separate household. The husband will be listed in the household where he will have spent the census night. If the wives eat together and live in the same dwelling unit, then treat them as one "household".

(f) It is the custom in many parts of Kenya for boys to live in separate quarters between circumcision and marriage, while continuing to take their meals with their parents. Enumerate them with their parent's households.

(g) For census purposes, you will list only those persons who will have spent the census night (the Night of 24/25 August 1999) with the household, whether visitors, servants, etc.

Non-conventional households

29. There are cases whereby certain rules used to decide what is a household do not apply. Here are some further guidelines to help you:

(a) Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to an "ordinary" household. Examples are hospitals, schools/colleges, barracks or prisons. These are institutional populations and will be covered separately. Write the name of the institution at the top of the census questionnaire.

(b) The district census officer or the assistant district census officer will make arrangements for enumerating persons in institutions such as hospitals, military barracks, the G.S.U camps, refugee camps and prisons. You may be instructed to help with the enumeration of these "special" population groups (or non-conventional households). You are to administer the entire questionnaire, save for part D which deals with housing conditions, to such populations. In most cases, the enumerators designated to work in such institutions will themselves be from the institutions.

(c) Persons who sleep outdoors will be counted using a short questionnaire. The questionnaire is pre-coded with household number "999" and household type "5". You will be required to record the place/street of enumeration, the location/spot of enumeration and the number of vagrants counted by sex.

The DCO or the Assistant DCO will make the necessary arrangements to have them enumerated. Such persons shall all be counted strictly on the census night.

(d) The hotels/lodges and boarding houses will also be supplied with short questionnaires. On the evening of the census night, hotel managers, with the assistance of the supervisors, will supply short questionnaires to all persons who will spend the census night in hotels/lodges or boarding houses. The questionnaires have been pre-coded with household number "997" and household type "3".

The DCO or the Assistant DCO will make the necessary arrangements to have them enumerated. Such persons shall all be counted strictly on the census night

(e) Persons working in institutions such as those listed in (a) above but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their own household members and not with the institution. Thus, a nurse on night duty should be enumerated with her household and not with patients at the hospital. Similarly, a teacher should be enumerated with his/her household and not with students or boarders at the school or training institution. The same applies to night workers of all kind such as watchmen, factory workers, policemen etc. Probe to establish whether this group of workers has households where they usually reside. If they don't have, enumerate them as outdoor sleepers.

(f) All persons who will be on transit or traveling on the census night by road, rail, or air will be enumerated at their place of boarding. You will be issued with short questionnaires for the purpose of enumerating such people. The questionnaires will be pre-coded with household number "998" and household type "4". You will also be supplied with enumeration cards to issue to such persons once you count them. Inform them that they are to keep the cards until the census is over to avoid being counted twice. The information required from such people will be restricted to sex and age only. Do not spend a lot of time trying to establish the age of such respondents. A rough estimate will do.

The DCO or the assistant DCO will make the necessary arrangements to have them enumerated. Such persons shall all be counted strictly on the census night

Who and when should you enumerate

30. You must obtain particulars of all persons who will have spent the census night in the household. However, it is not likely that you will see all members of the households, nor is it absolutely necessary that you should. It will be best if the head of the household is present. However, it will be enough if there is one responsible adult who can give the information required.

31. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept in the household on the census night but who are/were temporarily absent due to the nature of their work and are/were elsewhere within the borders of Kenya where they could not be enumerated. Examples are watchmen, nurses, police officers and shift workers on night duty, herdsmen out with livestock, night fishermen, hunters, honey harvesters and persons attending hospital outpatient departments through the night. Such persons are to be enumerated with their usual household members.

32.You should, try to cover as many households as you can on the census night as this will greatly reduce your chances of duplicating or missing out respondents.

33. You will start work as early as possible on the census night (24/25tn August 1999) and ensure that the work is completed within the shortest period possible. A provision has been made to extend the period of enumeration up to 31st August 1999 by which time you should have enumerated everyone that will have spent the census night in your EA. If, for some reason, you think it will take longer, you should inform your supervisor in good time so that he/she may be able to arrange to have someone to help you. If, for instance, you become ill or get injured so that you cannot continue with the enumeration, you must let your supervisor know at once. The best times for visiting households are early in the morning before people go to work, and in the evenings. People will often stay to meet you if you send word that you will visit.

What happens if there is no one at home?

34. It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because there is no one at home, or because all adults are away at the time, or for some other reason.

(a) If only children are at home, ask them when their parents are likely to be at home and arrange for the next visit accordingly.

(b) If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the census night. If there was, inquire whether they have any idea when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly.

(c) If you are working in an urban area, complete a call-back card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it with a neighbor or push it under the door so that the people are aware of your next visit. If you are in a rural area, leave word about the time of your next visit. Keep a record of the call -backs.

(d) If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the address and tell your supervisor about it.

(e) It may be that for some reason your call is at an inconvenient time for members of the household. Do not lightly allow yourself to be put off, but if there is some weighty reason - such as death in the household - arrange to return at a more convenient time.

(f) Callbacks will involve you in more extra work. On any enumeration day be wise; send word of your visit ahead of you so that people know when to expect you. If you have to make callbacks, clear them early. If you make an appointment to return, be punctual.

35. At times due to confusion of EA boundaries, you may find that an enumerator from a neighboring EA has been enumerating people in your area and numbering their dwelling units. If this happens make sure, first of all, that you are within your area as you understand the boundaries. If you have crossed your boundary by mistake, return to your area and go on with your work. If you are satisfied that you are right and that the households are in your area, make a note of the affected households and immediately inform your supervisor. Do not enumerate the people a second time. Continue enumerating other households in your area.

Use of chalk

36. You will be given a supply of chalk. It is to be used to mark those houses you have visited and whose occupants you have enumerated.

(a) The purpose of this is to ensure that no household is enumerated twice or missed out. It will also serve to give each household a temporary address for census purposes. This makes checking easier.

(b) When you have enumerated the members of the household, write the household number in some conspicuous place. Write the number neatly where it will be easily visible to your supervisor and out of reach of small children. Ask the household members to leave it up until the end of November, so that they may be spared the inconvenience of unnecessary visits by census staff. Explain that the number is used for census purposes only.

(c) If there is more than one household in a building or structure, write the number at the entrance to the household's living quarters.

(d) If the household occupies more than one building or structure, write the number on the most obvious of them (or the main residential/dwelling structure/unit).

(e) Do not mark a dwelling until you have enumerated the members of the household.

The main census questionnaire

37. The main census questionnaire will be used to cover persons in conventional households. The questionnaires will be issued to you bound in books of fifty forms. No forms are to be torn out or destroyed. You will have to account for all of them. You must handle these forms with care and avoid crumpling or mutilating them, as this might result in rejection during data processing.

38. The information recorded on the questionnaire should be summarized on the front cover of the books.

39. Details on how to complete the main questionnaire is provided in Part III of this manual.

The short census questionnaires

40. Three short questionnaires will also be issued to enumerators who will cover people in hotels/lodges or boarding houses, travelers or people on transit, and outdoor sleepers on the census night.

Check your work

41. Check your work before you leave the household to make sure that you have filled the questionnaire accurately and fully in order to avoid being sent back by your supervisor to correct mistakes. In particular, check that you have enumerated everybody who will have spent the Census night in the household and that all the relevant questions have been answered correctly.

Part III: How to fill in the main questionnaire

General rules

42.
(a) Complete the questionnaire yourself
(b) Keep it clean
(c) Write legibly in capitals
(d) Code strictly in the boxes provided on the questionnaire
(e) Start each household on a separate questionnaire.

43. If you make a mistake rub it out neatly with a clean eraser and correct it.

44. If, for some reason, you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the questionnaire, write along it 'spoilt' and complete a new questionnaire for the household. On no account should a spoilt questionnaire be torn out of the book.

45. If there are more than ten people in the household, continue on the next sheet. Write the serial number of the continuation form at the foot of the first sheet in the boxes provided. Continue to number the persons serially so that the first person on the second page will usually be number 11. Use as many sheets as may be necessary for the household.

Remember to enter the household's identification information on the continuation questionnaire as well.

46. It is important that each enumerator asks the questions in the same way. You must learn the form and the order in which the questions are to be put.

47. It is extremely important to note at the very outset that the 1999 Census will employ electronic (scanning method) rather than manual data capture to read the census questionnaires. Consequently you must complete the questionnaire carefully by writing legibly and clearly within the boxes provided. Make sure any writing is done within the confines of the boxes provided. Try as much as possible to avoid making mistakes as they will warrant frequent erasing, which will not augur well for accurate capture of information from the questionnaire. Whenever you pose a question to the respondent listen carefully to the response and write it down only when you are sure it is satisfactory.

Layout of the main census questionnaire

48. The main census questionnaire is divided into seven parts as outlined below:

(a) The top of the form is reserved for information identifying the household and is to be completed for each household.

(b) The top right hand corner of the form is for entering structure number only in urban areas.

(c) Columns P00 to P21 contain questions which apply to all persons. You are required to ask the questions of all persons and make written entries for the same.

(d) Columns P22 to P24 contain questions on education and are to be asked of all persons aged 5 years and over.

(e) Column P30 contains a question on labor force participation. This is to be asked of all persons aged 5 years and above.

(f) Columns P40 to P51 contain questions which apply to all females aged 12 years and above. You are required to ask the questions of all females aged 12 years and above and make appropriate entries for each.

As far as possible, obtain the information directly from the female concerned. Information should only be obtained from someone else if the respondent cannot be reached. If the information is given to you by someone other than the person concerned, and some details are not known, write "dk" in the appropriate box. It is important that you make every effort to obtain full and correct answers and avoid unnecessary use of 'dk'.

(g) Columns H10 to H19 contain questions on housing conditions and amenities. These questions are to be asked of the Head of the Household or any other responsible person.

The interview and the questions

49. Census night: All enumeration must relate to the census night. This will be the midnight of 24/25th August 1999. This night will be the reference time to which all enumeration should relate. Note that only persons alive in Kenya at this time should be enumerated.

The census night has been publicized in advance throughout the country. Remember that all the questions you ask must relate to the census night unless you have specific instructions to the contrary in this manual, e.g. the labor force participation question.

50. Note that between the census night and the time of enumeration, the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after census night, you should enumerate him as living on census night. If a baby was born after census night, you should not enumerate him/her. Visitors are enumerated if they will have spent the census night in the household.

51. When you arrive at a house greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator.

52. Ask for the head of the household. Note that the head of household is the person who is regarded by the members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. For the purpose of the census he/she must have spent the census night with the household. If the head of the household was not present on the census night, ask for the next senior and/or responsible person who will have spent the census night in the household. Make this person the household head. However, if the head of the household is present, he/she may furnish you with the details of the household, despite his/her not spending the census night with the household.

53. When you are enumerating members of an institution, you will seek assistance from the person in charge of the institution to be able to get the 1- inquired information.

54. Explain that you must record particulars of everyone who was present at the institution on the census night. However, remember to exclude people who live in their households within the institution or people who work in the institution but live with their households elsewhere.

55. Next, complete the information required in the boxes at the top of the questionnaire. Write the codes of the province, district, division, location, sub-location, EA number, household number and household type. All the above information is contained on the EA maps except the household numbers and structure numbers. Enter the household type code depending on the type of the household, i.e. "1" for ordinary/conventional households and "2" for institutional households.

Column P00: Name

56. Make a list of all persons who will have spent the census night in the household, starting with the head of the household, if he/she was present, or the person in charge of the household at the time. Respondents may not know which was the census night, in which case you should explain by referring to the midnight of 24/25th August 1999.

57. Write the names in column (P00). Some people have many names. It is not necessary to write them all as long as you record the name or names that the person is usually known by. Identifying members of the households with their correct names will help you not only in listing down all of them but will also come in handy when call-backs -on certain members are to be made. It is important that you list at least two names of the persons in a set order so that you have a clear picture of the household from the very beginning.

58. List members of the household by nuclear family; starting with the head and his wife and children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest. If the head has more than one wife living in the same household, list the first wife and her children followed by the second wife and her children, then other relatives and non-relatives in that order, including visitors.

59. Very young children are sometimes forgotten or even deliberately left out as being unimportant. all persons must be enumerated. Pay particular attention to getting all babies counted. If the infant has no name, write 'baby of..... (mother's or father's name)'.

60. Remember to ask about, and include night workers. Exclude hospital inpatients, persons staying in hotels, prisoners and the like. The above people will be covered under institutional populations as specified in paragraph 29.

61. When you have written down all the names, read over the list, and ask, "is that correct?" If not, correct the list. Then ask "was there anyone else here on the census night i.e. visitors, young children"; if so, include them.

Columns P10 and 11: Relationship and sex

62. As you write-the names in column P00, code relationship in column P10 and sex in column P11. You will save yourself trouble by doing this.

(a) For example: for head, code "1" in P10 and tick the appropriate box in P11 as far as sex is concerned. Then code the relationship of each person to the head, that is "2" for spouse, "3" for son, "4" for daughter, "5" for brother/sister, "6" for father/mother, "7" for other relatives such as nieces, nephews, grandsons, etc., ''8" for non-relatives such as visitors, friends etc., and "9" for those who cannot be categorized as above, not stated or don't know.

(b) You must probe to find out whether the children you have coded as sons and daughters are the head's biological children. If they are not, establish further whether they should fall under "7" (other-relative) or "8" (nonrelative).

(c) There are several persons who are not related by blood or marriage but constitute a household, mostly in urban areas. Without telling them code one of them as 'head', (code "1") and the rest as 'non-relative' (code "8").

(d) Sometimes it may happen that members of the household are away and cannot be reached even after three visits, and the most responsible person you meet is a house help or any other such person employed by the household. You must probe to establish the most senior member who will have spent the census night in the household. This person must be made the household head. You may then proceed to ask the house help to provide information on the household members.

(e) There are certain communities where women are culturally allowed to "marry" other women. For purposes of the census, marriage should involve only partners of opposite sex. Whenever you encounter such cases where one woman (supposedly the head of the household) claims that another woman is her "spouse" code "7" (other-relative) rather than "2" (spouse) in P10.

(f) Make sure you understand the relationship before you make any entry, and that the entry is strictly and legibly written within the boxes provided.

63. Check that the sex is compatible with relationship; do not assign "male" to persons shown as wives or daughters nor "female" for persons shown as sons or husbands. Take particular care to record the sex of very young children correctly. Often, you will not know whether a baby carried on its mother's back is a boy or a girl. In such cases, you must ask - do not guess. You should ensure that everybody's sex is recorded. Blanks and "don't know" are strictly forbidden.

Column P12: Age

64. Age is one of the most important pieces of information to be sought in a census. You must try as much as possible to record the correct age of the respondent. Under no circumstances should this column be left blank. You must probe to make sure that you get even a rough estimate.

65. How old is this person?'

(a) Always start by asking the person's age and follow up with the question on the date of birth as a consistency check on the former. Write the person's age in completed years - that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write 00. Use two digits in completing age; e.g. "01", "02" etc. Persons aged 97 years and over should be coded "97". Make sure always that your writing is legible and within the appropriate box.

(b) Be careful not to round ages up to the next birthday. A child who is aged four years and eleven months should, for example be entered as "04" and not "05".

(c) Many people do not know their ages. If a person's age is not known, you must make the best estimate possible. The use of 'dk' in this column is strictly forbidden.

(d) There are various ways in which you can estimate a person's age. Sometimes, people have documents, such as baptismal certificates, which show the year of birth, in which case it is easy to calculate age.

(e) Most people have identity cards showing when they were born. These ID cards may be grossly inaccurate for people aged above 40. Avoid using the IDs as the sole means to estimate such a person's age. However, for persons below 40 years of age the ID cards may generally give a more accurate representation of age.

(f) Generally, it is not so easy to estimate age for members of the household if all of them are ignorant of their ages. Concentrate first on establishing the age(s) of one or two persons in the household. One reliable age may help in working out the ages of others if it is known whether they are older or younger and by how many years. '

(g) It is sometimes possible to estimate a person's age by relating his or her birth to some notable historical event. With these instructions is a historical calendar of events (see Appendix 2) which lists the dates of events in the history of each district. If the person can remember how old he/she was at the time of the event, you can work out the person's age.

66. How to use the historical calendar of events to estimate the respondent's age

(a)
(i) Ask for any historical event (national or local) which occurred around the time of the birth/childhood of the respondent.

(ii) Ask how old the respondent was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.

(iii) Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent was about 15 years when Kenya attained her Independence, this person should be 15 + 35 (i.e. 12th Dec.1963 to 23rd, August 1999) = 50 years. If this method fails, you should try the following approach.

(b)
(i) Simply estimate how old he/she may be.
(ii) Then select from your list of local, or district historical events, some events which occurred about the time when according to your estimate, he/she must have been born.

(iii) Ask whether he/she has heard about any of those events.

(iv) If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he/she was born.

(v) Then, from this information, work out his/her age.

67. Some tribes have systems of 'age grades' or 'age sets' from which a person's age can be worked out. A person's age grade may only give a rough idea of his or her age since the same grade may have in it people of widely different ages, but it is better than nothing. Some tribes have grades for men but not for women, but you can often obtain an idea of a woman's age by asking which age grade of men she associated with, or which her brothers belonged to and whether they are older or younger. Some age grades are listed in the calendar of events. You can inquire about others from chiefs and elders.

68. If all else fails, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old however small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following methods:

(a) Determine the age of her oldest child.

(b) Ask her to give an estimate of her age at the birth of this child. However without further probing, you should not base your assumption on the oldest child who is presently living. There is the likelihood that in certain cases, the first child died or that the woman had miscarriages or stillbirths. Therefore, if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born, you should make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage/still-birth or live birth.

69. Note that some women do have children earlier than what generally obtains in the community. Therefore, in every case, you must find out whether she had her first child, miscarriage or stillbirth at the usual age before you estimate her age.

70. Only as a last resort should you estimate a person's age from his physical features. If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third party then rely on the information given to you to estimate the absent person's age.

71. When you have arrived at the best estimate you can make of a person's age, check that it is compatible with his or her relationship to others in the household. Obviously children cannot be older than their parents, women seldom marry before they are 12 and men before they are 18, and so on.

72. Note that any estimate of age, however rough, is better than 'dk' in this column. Do the best you can to report ages accurately.

Column P13: Tribe/nationality

73. What is this person's tribe?

(a) Code the tribe from the code list provided at the back of the front cover. If the person is not a Kenyan, ask, "what is this person's nationality?"

(b) For Kenyan tribes, code using the tribe code list, for example: 'Kikuyu, 03'; 'Nandi, 23' etc. Accept the answer as given to you without question. For Kenyans of other origins code using the codes provided. For example, persons originating from Asia should be coded "45", whereas persons originating from European countries should be coded "46" etc.

(c) For foreigners, code using country of origin. For example, a person from England/Ireland, should be coded "55". All other Europeans should be coded "56". "Others" coded "58" should include all other persons originating from other continents not listed e.g. Canada, America, Australia, Russia etc.

(d) Do not become involved in any argument on this point. The census is not concerned with the legal position. Accept what the person tells you and record the tribe or nationality to which the person considers he/she belongs.

Column P14: Religion

74. What is this person's religion?
In column P14, code the person's religious group i.e. "1" for Catholics, "2" for Protestants, "4" for Muslims, etc.

Catholics
Those who believe in Catholic faith and recognize the Pope as the head of the Church.

Protestants
Group of churches which broke away from the Roman Catholic Church e.g. Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK), Presbyterian, African Inland Church (AIC), Lutheran, Quakers, Methodists, Seventh Day Adventists (SDA) and Baptists.

Other Christians
This category caters for Christians who are not covered under code "1" and code "2" above e.g. Legion Maria, Israel, Jehovah Witnesses, etc.

Muslims
Those who profess the Moslem faith and recognize Muhammad as the prophet of God.

Traditionalists
Those who believe in divine powers, e.g. Dini ya Msambwa, Tent of the Living God, etc.

Others
Include people with religious affiliations other than the above-mentioned e.g. Buddhists, Bahais, Hindus etc.

No religion
These are people who do not believe in the existence of super natural powers neither do they follow any particular religion.

Column P15: Marital status
75. Is this person monogamously or polygamously married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married?

(a) Persons who have never been married including young children should be coded "1" (never married).

(b) People who regard themselves as husband and wife should be coded "2" or "3" regardless of whether or not they have been through any civil, religious or customary ceremonies. The census is not trying to find out who is legally married and who is not. Accept the answer as it is given to you

(c) If a person is widowed at the time of the Census, he/she should be coded as "4", i.e. widowed. If a person has been widowed but -has since remarried, he/she should be coded as married ("2" or "3" as the case may be).

(d) If people think of themselves as divorced or separated, code them as such. It does not matter whether they have been to court or gone through other formalities. Accept the answer as it is given to you.

(e) Accept what people say about their marital status. Do not embarrass yourself or the respondent by inquiring into the nature of marriage or divorce.

Column P16: Birthplace

76. Where was this person born? Birthplace is the usual place of residence of mother at the time of the respondent's birth. This question is meant to establish persons who are not enumerated in their places of birth and hence have migrated. Sometimes expectant mothers move from the rural areas to urban areas for purposes of delivery since maternity services are better at the latter. This kind of movement is short lived and must not be confused with a migratory one. For example, if a woman who usually resides in Kiambu district moves to Nairobi to deliver her child, it will be assumed that the woman went to Nairobi purposely for maternity services. Thus the district of birth of the child will be recorded as Kiambu.

(a) For persons born in Kenya, code district using the list provided on the back side of the form cover. For example, for a person born in Kiambu code "201" and for a person born in Tharaka code "412".

(b) If the district of birth is the same as the district of enumeration, mark an "X" in the smallest box in column P16, and leave the other three bigger boxes blank.

(c) Relate the person's birthplace to the present district's frontiers as far as possible. District boundaries have been changed over the years and we want to relate a person's place of birth to the district as it is constituted now.

(d) For districts that have been split, probe to find the actual district of birth and code the name by which it is currently known.

(e) For persons born outside Kenya, code the country of birth. For example, a person born in Tanzania will be coded "002", Uganda "001", Somalia "004", American countries "096" etc.

(f) Code "888" if district of birth is not known and "999" for not stated

Column P17: Previous residence

77. Where was this person living in August 1998? This question is applicable only to persons aged one year and above.

(a) If the person is aged below one year, code "000" in this column.

(b) For persons who were living in Kenya in August 1998, indicate the district code in column P17. For example persons whose previous residence is Kisii Central code "603".

(c) For districts which have been split, probe to find the actual district of residence in August 1998 and code the name by which it is currently known.

(d) Mark an "X" in the smallest box and leave the bigger three boxes blank if district of previous residence is the same as the district of enumeration.

(e) A person who may have been absent from home temporarily for some reason such as visiting relatives or in hospital, or' who may have been overseas on a visit of less than six months, should be shown where they normally lived in August, 1998.

(f) It is necessary to make a separate enquiry for each member of the household because a man, for instance, does not always take his wife and children along when he goes away to work. He may only have some of his family with him leaving the others behind.

(g) If the person was living in another country in August 1998, 'use the code pertaining to the specific country.

(h) Code "888" if district of previous residence is not known and' "999" for not stated.

Columns P18-19: Duration of residence

78. When did this person move to this district? This question is applicable to all persons enumerated outside their district of birth.

(a) Record the month in P18 (e.g."05" for May) and year in P19 (e.g. "97" for 1997). Check to see that the person's age is consistent with duration of residence i.e. the person's age must always be greater or equal to duration of residence.

(b) For all persons enumerated in their district of birth, write "00" in the boxes in columns p18-19.

(c) Write "99" in the boxes in columns P18-19 if the date one moved is not known or not stated.

Columns P20-21: Orphanhood

79. "Is this person's father/mother alive?"

(a) Tick the box under the appropriate column in respect of the survival status of the respondent's biological father and mother. Note that at times destitute children -are brought up or adopted at a very young age by relatives. Such foster parents should not be considered as the biological parents of the respondent. Please always probe to establish the reality of the situation.

(b) In some cases, a child's father/mother may not be married or living with the mother/father. In this case the mother/father might report that she/he does not know whether the father/mother of her child is alive or dead. In this case mark an "X" in the box for 'don't know'. You must always probe to ensure you obtain the most satisfactory answer.

Columns P22, 23 and 24: Education

80. The questions on education are applicable to persons aged 5 years and over. They refer to full-time education at formal educational institutions i.e. pre-primary, primary, secondary, and university.

Column P22: School attendance

81. Has this person ever attended school? Record "1" for persons attending school this year, "2" for persons who have ever been to school and have left school, "3" for persons who have never been to school, and "4" for persons whose schooling status is not known. Write "0" if the respondent is aged under five.

Column P23: Highest level of education reached

82. What is the highest level of education this person has reached? Code in column P23 the highest level of formal education the person has reached i.e. class, form, University, the person has reached. If a person reached standard 4 and dropped out of school before completing it, he/she should be coded "04", etc. Refer to the code list on the cover page of the questionnaire.

Column P24: Highest level of education completed

83. What is the highest class or form this person has completed? If a person was at school and left before completing standard 4 he/she should be coded as having completed standard 3 hence code "03". If a person is at school and is attending standard 4 he/she should be coded as having completed standard 3 hence code "03". Refer to the code list on the cover page of the questionnaire.

84. The simple rule here is that for all persons attending school this year the highest level completed should be one level lower than the highest level reached. And for persons not attending school this year the highest level completed may be the same as the Highest Level Reached or one level below it, but not greater.

85. For example: record the highest class or form the person has completed in the formal primary and secondary school system e.g. a person in form one will have completed standard 8 and therefore should be coded as having completed standard 8, while those who have completed form one should be coded "11 ".1

(a) If a person has sat for 'O' level or 'A' level exams, through correspondence courses etc., that is, the person has not gone to formal school to achieve these certificates, code his/her highest level of education according to the highest exam he/she has sat and passed e.g. code "14" for 'O' level passed exams etc.

(b) If the person has attended university but never completed or is currently attending under-graduate studies code "17": If the person has completed under-graduate and above, code "18".

Column P30: Labor force participation

86. Column P30 contains a question on labor force participation during the last seven days preceding the census night and is asked of all persons aged 5 years and above

87. Ask all persons aged 5 years and above.
What was this person mainly doing during the last seven days preceding the census night? What the respondent was mainly doing will denote the activity that occupied most of the respondent's time during the 7 days preceding the census night. The responses in column P30 are as follows:

Worked for pay
Comprises persons who during the 7 days preceding the census night worked most of the time for wages, salaries, commissions, tips, contracts and paid in kind (especially in the rural areas where people who have rendered services may be paid using food or clothing).

On leave/sick leave
This group comprises all those with formal attachments to a job or business/enterprise but were not working during the reference period because they were sick or on holiday, seasonal workers, leave without pay, bad weather, etc. However, a person who is on leave such as a teacher but worked on family holding in the past 7 days preceding census night should be indicated as on leave.

Worked on own/family business
This category comprises self-employed persons who worked on own business or persons who worked on family business for family gain. It includes "jua-kali" artisans, mechanics, traders in farm produce and family workers not on wage employment. Any member of the household working on the holding for pay will fall under code "01 ".

Worked on own/family agricultural holding
A holding in this case is the unit of land, farm or shamba which is owned or rented by the family and is used for purposes of cultivation or rearing livestock for subsistence. All the members of the household who are working on the holding without pay/profit will be coded "04" (i.e. working on own/family agricultural holding). Any member of the household working on the holding for pay will fall under code "01" (i.e. worked for pay).

Seeking work
A person who in the 7 days preceding the census night was actively looking for work. This category should not include the under-employed (i.e those who have paid work but wish to leave for better opportunities). Persons who have no work at all and are looking for work will fall under this category. If a person is working on the family holding but is seeking work, he/she should be coded as "working on family holding" and not as "seeking work". This category should include only persons who are available full time for work and hence are' actively looking for it.

No work available
This is a person who is not working nor is looking for work because he/she is discouraged, but would usually take up a job when offered one.

Full-time student
This is a person who spent most of his/her time in a regular educational institution (primary, secondary, college, university etc.) and hence not available for work. If, for instance, a student was on holiday during the 7 days preceding the census night and may have been engaged in gainful employment, he/she should be given the appropriate code "01".

Retired
This is a person who reports that during the 7 days preceding the census night, he/she was not engaged in any economic activity because he/she had retired either due to age, sickness or voluntarily. If a person has retired and is doing some work/business he/she should be coded appropriately, either as "01 ", "03" or "04". If he/she has retired and is seeking work he/she should be coded as "05".

Incapacitated
Is one who cannot work. Do not assume that all physically disabled persons cannot, work. For example, a blind person who is in wage employment will fall under category "01" and'- not' "08". Similarly lame/crippled persons working on the family holding should fall under category "03" or "04". Please probe.

Homemaker
Is a person, of either sex involved in household chores in his/her'ov4n home e.g. fetching water, cooking, babysitting' 'etc. who did not work -for pay or profit nor sought work. These categories should 'not' 'include house boys/girls who fall under category "01". If such a person worked on
family holding they should be coded as "03" or "04" and not as "10". Please probe.

Other
This category includes any other persons not mentioned above. You are to probe to find out whether unpaid family workers consider themselves as 'seeking work', etc. and code them accordingly. For example, if a young man helps his uncle to sell goods in a kiosk without receiving pay, probe whether he is 'seeking work' and code him thus; if he considers himself as working code him as "01".

For persons aged below 5 years leave column P30 blank. For respondents aged 5 years and above whose labor force participation status is not known or not stated, write "99"

Columns P40-51: Particulars of all live births

88. The questions in columns P40 to P51 apply to all females aged 12 years and over

89. Answers are required of all females in this category. It does not matter whether or not they are married, never married, divorced or separated; whether or not they are still attending school; or what their relationship to the head of the household is. You must ask the questions of all females aged twelve years and over. First thing to do is check in column P11 and P12 and then identify all those to whom these questions should be posed. Make sure you make your entries in the correct serial numbers for the eligible women.

90. For all males and for girls below twelve years of age, leave columns P40 to P51 blank. Also, if a female aged 12 years and above has, for some reason, declined to respond to the questions, leave columns P40 to P51 blank. However, this will not be tolerated. For childless women, code "0" in the appropriate bigger boxes.

91. Many women do not like answering questions about their children. There are various reasons for this, but it is your job to obtain the answers. It will require firmness, politeness and tact.

92. Ask of all females aged 12 years and over "Have you borne any children alive?"

(a, A child borne alive is one who shows one or more of the following signs of life immediately after birth:
(i) Crying or similar sounds
(ii) Movement of the limbs or any other parts of the body
(iii) Any other tangible signs of life.
The census is concerned only with children born alive. Do not include stillbirths, that is, children who were born dead and therefore did not show any sign(s) of life as above at the time of birth.

(b) If the woman has born any child alive, write the number of boys in the bigger box in P40 and the number of girls in P41 if it is a single digit. However; mark an "X" in the smaller box and then fill in the last digit for 1019. The following are examples:

93. If the woman has born children alive, ask, "of the children you have born alive, how many usually live with you in this household?" Write the number of boys who usually live in the household in column P42 and number of girls in column P43. If none of the boys or girls she has borne alive are living in the household, write "0" in the appropriate boxes. For female headed households, you should be able to verify this information from column P10 and P11. If for example the woman has only two boys and two 'girls then you should write "2" in column P42 and "2" in column P43, leaving the smaller boxes in each sub-column blank.

94. Next ask, "of the children you have born alive, how many usually live elsewhere?"

(a) Write the number of boys who usually live elsewhere in column P44 and the number of girls in column P45. Fill in a single digit in the bigger box under the appropriate column if less than ten (10); for 10 and above mark an "X" the smaller box and fill in the last single digit in the bigger box. If none of the boys or girls she has borne alive live elsewhere, write, "0" in the appropriate bigger boxes, leaving the smaller boxes blank.

(b) Include in these columns all the children she has borne alive who usually live elsewhere. It may be that they have grown up and married, or have gone off to work, or are living with relatives, or are in a boarding school etc. Make sure that none of the children she has borne alive are missed out. Ask further questions to probe the matter fully - "are any of your children away?" "at work?" "with relatives?", etc.

95. Then ask, "of the children you have born alive, how many have died?"

(a) Many people do not want to talk of the dead and many others find it painful to talk about their dead children. It is best to ask this question in a matter of fact way and without embarrassment. Please refer to paragraph 92(a) above for the definition of a live birth.

(b) Write the number of boys who have died in column P46 and number of girls in column in P47 using the same procedure as in 94 (a). If none of the boys and girls she has borne alive has died, code "0" in the appropriate columns.

(c) If, in spite of your best efforts, you cannot obtain this information about the children who have died, leave columns P46 and P47 blank. However, you should not encourage this.

96. Before proceeding to columns P48-P51, probe to know whether the number of children given in columns P42-x'47 is correct by comparing with the entry in columns P40 and P41. If these totals differ, probe further and adjust your entries accordingly.

97. Ask, "in what year and month was your last child born?" Record the month and year of birth in columns P48 and P49 respectively. Code the month in column P48 i.e. "01" for January, "02" for February, "12" for December. Code the last two digits of the year i.e. "80" for 1980, "89" for 1989 in column P49 etc.

98. Then ask, 'was it a boy or a girl?' Write the sex of the last borne child in column P50. Code "1" for male, "2" for female, "3" for male twins, "4" for female twins, "5" for twins with one of either sex, and "6" for other multiple births.

99. In column P51 indicate whether the child is still alive. If the last live birth is alive and living with the mother, check that year of birth agrees with the age of the child which is in column P12. If the dates do not agree, find out what has gone wrong and make any correction that is necessary. For single births code "1" if the child is still alive and "2" if dead. For twins code "3" if both twins are alive and "4" if only one of the twins is alive. For multiple births, code "5" if all the multiples are alive, "6" if two of the multiples are alive, "7" if only one of the multiples is alive and "8" if none of the multiples is alive. Write "9" if the survival status of the last birth is not known.

Columns H10-19: Housing conditions and amenities

100. Columns H10 to H19 contain questions pertaining to housing conditions and amenities and are to be asked of the head of the household or any other responsible person.

Column H10: Dwelling units

101. For purposes of this census, a dwelling unit is a structure, which a household uses for sleeping, eating, entertaining guests, etc. A dwelling unit may be a whole structure or part of a structure, especially in the urban setting.

(a) Record the number of dwelling units available to a household in H10.

(b)You may encounter situations whereby a dwelling unit is shared by more than one household. Make sure you probe carefully and tactfully to establish such a scenario and consequently mark an "X" in the smaller box in H 10 to indicate that the dwelling unit is shared. Do not assume that people sharing a dwelling unit belong to the same household.

(c) There are situations, especially in the rural areas whereby the kitchen is a stand-alone structure. Such a kitchen must be counted as a dwelling unit in its own right.

Column H11: Habitable rooms

102. Record the number of habitable rooms available in all the dwelling units that belong to a household in H1 1.

(a) Habitable rooms are rooms in the dwelling units that are used mainly for living and exclude stores, granaries, offices, toilets and garages.
(b) A kitchen, under normal circumstances, should not be counted as a habitable room. However, if the household uses the kitchen for eating and/or sleeping purposes, or even for purposes of entertaining guests, then it should be counted with the habitable rooms. The same applies to a store.

Columns H12-15: Main residential/dwelling unit

102. The questions in H12-15 elicit information on the status of tenure and the dominant construction materials of the main residential/dwelling unit.
For census purposes, the structure where most of the household activities e.g. sleeping, cooking and eating take place will be defined as the main residential/dwelling unit.

Column H12: Status of tenure

104. Column H12 seeks information on status of tenure i.e. whether the dwelling unit is owner occupied or rented by the household. Ask the head of the household or any other responsible person whether the main residential/dwelling unit is owned or rented by him/her or any other member of the household?" You are supposed to code the answers using the categories provided.

Owner occupied
(a) Under owner occupied are listed:

Purchased
Means that a member of the household has bought the structure or is in the process of paying for the structure and household members are living in it.

Constructed
Means that a member of the household has built the structure they are living in.

Inherited
Means that a member of the household has received the building by (legal) right of succession or by a will. However in this case, do not ask for proof. Accept what the respondent says.

Rented
(b) Under rented are listed dwelling units either provided by the employer of a member of the household or rented by a member of the household. This includes:

Government
Covers all houses rented or provided by the government of Kenya

Local Authority
Covers municipal and city councils.

Parastatal
Covers organizations like Kenya Railways, Kenya Power and Lighting Co., universities, etc.

Private Company
Covers private firms and foreign governments.

Individual rented
Covers private individuals only.

(c) Other form of tenure
Covers unauthorized dwelling units

Columns H13-15: Construction materials of the main dwelling unit.

Code in column H13 the construction materials used to build the roof e.g. code "1" for roof with corrugated iron sheets, "4" for Asbestos sheets etc. Tiles include clay, wooden tiles, fibre and cement, etc.

106.Code in column H14 the construction materials used to build the walls e.g. code "3" for mud/wood etc.

107. Code in column H15 the construction material used to build the floor e.g. code "1" for cement, "4" for earth, "3" for wood, "1" tiles. Tiles include wooden tiles. Wood means wooden planks.

Columns H16-19: Household amenities

108. Columns H16 to H19 seek information on the type of facilities that are available to the household.

Column H16: Main source of water
109. In column H16, ask "What is the main source of water for this household?" You are required to code the main source of water. This is the source from which for most part of the year the household draws its water. For example, if during the wet season the household draws water from a tank but then the longer part of the year draws from a river code "4" as main source of water.

The main sources of water listed are:

Pond
A small area of still water. Usually this water collects after rain or through an underground drainage.

Dam
A reservoir formed by building a barrier across river to hold back water and control its flow. A lot of these dams are built in dry areas of Kenya.

Lake
Usually bigger than a pond but has water collecting in it through rain, rivers etc. It is different from a dam in that it is not man-made. Stream/river

This is a naturally flowing source of water.

Spring
Place where water springs or wells up from earth or basin.

Well
A man made shaft dug in the ground from which water is obtained. Water is drawn using buckets

Borehole
Same as the well as defined above but deeper than a well and has pump for drawing the water into a tank, buckets etc.

Piped
Means water drawn through pipes installed in a dwelling unit and originating in a central (public) source.

Jabias/Tanks
Rain water harnessed from any catchment into a hole/tank and used for domestic purposes.

Other
Any source that is not mentioned above.

Column H17: Main type of human waste disposal

110. In column H17 ask, "where do members of this household dispose of human waste?" Code the answers according to the 'categories given below e.g. code 4 for pit latrine, 3 for cesspool etc. Sewage is the liquid waste matter drained away from the structure for disposal.
The categories of main type of sewage disposal are:

Main sewer
Means the sewage liquid waste from the structure is drained by pipes into a main trunk sewer line. This type of sewage disposal is common in main urban centers like Nairobi, Mombasa etc.

Septic tank
Is a tank into which an individual household's sewage is conveyed and Remains there until it is emptied. Examples of septic tanks are found in urban areas, where the tank is often located within the compound where you find dwelling structures.

Bucket latrine
This is a bucket placed in a residential area used for human excreta. It is emptied occasionally. This type of waste disposal is now rare but can still be found in urban residential estates.

Cess pool
Is a pool where liquid waste is drained into communally from the dwelling units until it is emptied.

Column H18: Main cooking fuel

111."What is the main cooking fuel used in this household?" In column H18, note that some households may use electricity, paraffin, gas and firewood, all at the same time. The answer required here is the fuel used most of the time. Code appropriate answer in column H 18.

Column of H19: Main type of lighting

112. In column H19 code the answer according to the categories given. Tin lamps include plastic and/or bottle lamps, karabai, etc.

Part IV

Check to make sure that you have completed the questionnaire accurately and completely

113. Before leaving the household, check the questionnaire you have completed and make sure that you have completed it accurately and completely. It is better to check your work on the spot than to have your supervisor send you back to correct mistakes.

114. In particular, you should check that: no one has been missed out; others can read what you have written, i.e. your handwriting is legible; that no column has been left blank except for those who have refused to respond or those who are ineligible; that your entries can be read easily; that your entries agree item by item and that you have not written anything which cannot be corrected.

115. Check your work systematically. First make sure that the information identifying the household in the box at the top left-hand corner, has been entered. Next, look at the household in terms of relationships and ages of the people. Make sure that children are not shown as older than their parents; that men are not shown as having borne children; that babies are not shown as having university education, etc.

116. Then look at the questions you have completed for females aged 12 years and over. Check the ages of all females and make sure that you have made necessary entries. Make sure that you have written "0" in the appropriate column(s) if the woman has no children in a particular category.

117. Make sure that all persons aged 5 years and over have been asked the question in column P30.

118. If you find that things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct your record. The questionnaire must be complete and accurate in all respects before you leave the household.

119. When you are satisfied that everything is in order, complete the summary information for the household on the front cover. Enter the household number and number of persons in the household.

120. When you have enumerated the members of the household, write the household number on the doorframe or any other convenient and conspicuous place. The household numbers are the ones you will allocate yourself. The first household you visit will be household number 001; second household will be 002 and so on. If there is more than one household in a structure for example, household numbers 001,002,003 etc., simply write 001-003 meaning there are three households in the structure. Write the numbers neatly where they will be easily visible to your supervisor and out of reach of children. Ask the people to leave the numbers intact up until the end of November 1999 so that they may be spared the inconvenience of unnecessary visits by census staff. Explain that the number is used for census purposes only and may be rubbed off after 3 months. Please thank the respondents for their co-operation before your departure.

121.When you have visited every household in your EA and have enumerated all persons who were in your EA on the census night, enter details of the province, district, division, location, sub-location and EA number on the front cover of each used book.

122. Record the number of days it takes to cover all the EAs assigned to you in the space provided to you at the front cover of the census book. When all is in order, sign each book in the space provided for the enumerator's signature. Your signature is your certificate that the information in the book is complete and correct.

123. As soon as you have checked your work, report to your supervisor. You will only be paid after you have handed in all the accountable documents (used and unused questionnaire and map(s), etc.) and the Supervisor has ensured that you have done a good job.

Remember the success of this exercise depends
Entirely on your co-operation, hard work and commitment make this census the best census to be carried out in our country!!!