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The Republic of Kenya
Kenyan Population Census, 1989
Enumerator's Instruction Manual

Introduction

What is a Population Census?

1. The population census is a complete count of the country's population which is combined with the collection of certain other information about the people. It is the primary source of benchmark statistics on the size, distribution, composition and other social and economic characteristics of the population.

Objective of 1989 Population Census

2. The 1989 Population Census is being held in order to provide information which is essential both for sound development planning and for making administrative decisions. The information will help the Government in planning for better services and for a better way of life for the people of Kenya. It is therefore extremely important for everyone living in the country that the Census be complete and accurate.

The Census organization

3. The census organization is based on the 41 districts in the country. Each district has a district census officer who is in charge of the Census work in the district. In each division and municipality there is an assistant district census officer who is assisted by a number of supervisors. Each sub-location in a division is in turn divided into enumeration areas (EAs). You will be assigned an EA and your responsibility will be to visit every household in your assigned area and record all particulars required of every person.

Legal Authority to undertake the Census

4. The Statistics Act (Chapter 112) of the laws of Kenya empowers the director of statistics to carryout censuses at periodic intervals. This Census therefore, will be taken under the provision of this Act. A Legal Notice No. 466 of 4th November 1988 has been gazetted to facilitate the carrying out of the Census.

5. As a census official, this law accords you access to any premises, compound or house for the purpose of enumerating persons. The law requires you to conduct yourself properly and in particular it provides that you may only ask such questions as are necessary to complete the questionnaire or check entries already made.

6. Penalties are provided for if members of the public or you fail in your duties. The law particularly stresses on confidentiality of the information collected.

Confidentiality of the information

7. The information you obtain is confidential and will be used only to compile statistics. You are not permitted to discuss it, gossip about it or to show your records to anyone who is not an authorized officer within the census organization. Make all entries on the questionnaire yourself. On no account should you allow any unauthorized persons to fill in any part of the questionnaire. Do not leave your questionnaires lying around where unauthorized persons may have access to them.

8. To enforce this confidentiality you will be required to take an oath of secrecy. This oath is prescribed by the law and is normally administered to all the staff of the Central Bureau of Statistics and on all others employed to carryout surveys under the Statistics Act

Role of the enumerator

9. The enumerator's role is central to the whole success of the census. It is therefore important that all the enumerators carefully follow the laid down procedures. Your job as an enumerator is to enumerate every person in your area. You will ask all the questions and record the answers that are required. Every effort should be made by you to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them correctly. Since the success of the census depends upon the public's willing cooperation, it is your job to achieve this by being polite, patient and tactful at all times.

How to approach the public

10. Act as though you expect friendly cooperation and behave so as to deserve it.

11. Start interviewing only when you have identified yourself, have exchanged the proper greetings, have explained what the interview is all about, and have answered any questions about the Census that the people may ask.

12. During the interview let people take their time to answer, never put answers in their mouths, work steadily and make sure that the answers are clear to you before you write anything down. Do not accept at once any statement you believe to be mistaken but tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answers. (i.e. probe)

13. It may happen that someone refuses to answer your questions. Almost always this is because of misunderstanding. Remain courteous. Stress the importance of the Census and that it has nothing to do with taxation or similar Government activities; that the information is confidential; that no one outside the census organization will be allowed access to the records; that details of individual people are never released for any purpose whatever and that Census results are published only as numerical tables. You should be able to clear up any misunderstanding, but if you cannot persuade the person to help, or if his/her refusal is deliberate, tell the person that you will report the matter to your supervisor and that he/she may be liable to prosecution. Report any such incident to your supervisor at the first opportunity.

14. When leaving a household, remember to thank the people for their cooperation.

Part II

Preliminary operations

Your equipment

15. When you have completed your training successfully, you will be issued with:

(a) Books of census questionnaires; (b) enumerator's manual; (c) an identification badge; (d) map of your enumeration areas (E. A. s); (e) form III which is enumeration area description form ; (f) a field note nook; (g) two pencils, one eraser and one sharpener; (h) call-back cards (urban E.As only); (i) chalk; (j) enumerator's bag; (k) form KPC 1 (for listing of homesteads/structures)

Training program for all enumerators

16. All enumerators will attend a training course at the division/location headquarters. During this course, lectures will be given covering field exercise. In the exercise you will fill out actual census questionnaire. You should treat both the lectures and the exercises seriously. Class attendance during training will be compulsory and if your performance does not measure up to the required standards you may not be taken on as an enumerator.

The enumeration area

17. You will be allocated an enumeration area or part of an enumeration area and you will be responsible for visiting every household or dwelling units in it and for recording the particulars of all persons in that enumeration area during the Census. Miss no household in your area and do not count any household twice (complete coverage).

18. The boundaries of your enumeration area (EA) will be explained to you by your supervisor. Make sure you understand exactly what they are before you start work. You will also be provided with a map of your EA.

19. Get to know your area as thoroughly as possible before you start work. Spend two days before Census Night going round it, finding out where the houses or huts are and introducing yourself to the people so that when you begin the enumeration they will know you and be expecting you. Identify all the homesteads and complete Form KPC 1 by listing down names of the heads of the homesteads. Form KPC 1 will give you an indication of the minimum number of households you expect to cover in your assigned EA.

20. You will be provided with a map showing the boundaries of your E.A.

(a.) The map will guide you to identify your E.A. nobody must be omitted and nobody must be counted more than once.

(b.) Make sure that you read the E.A. map carefully so that the E,A boundaries are clear to you both on the ground and on the map. In most cases the boundaries of your E.A. follow easily identifiable features such as rivers, streams, roads, tracks, and footpaths. In the densely populated areas and where the E.A. boundary is imaginary, the Households on each side of the E.As have been plotted. In addition to the E.A. map, you have been provided with form 3 which describes your E.A. boundaries clearly.

(c.) On each E.A. map, there is a legend showing what each symbol represents. The legend should be consulted as much as possible (see map page 3)

21. Use the E.A. map to plan your work so that you can visit each inhabited place and each household in turn. Work in an orderly way and you will save yourself much walking and great deal of trouble. Tell your supervisor where you will start and which paths you will follow so that he can find you.

22. Each enumeration area map representing a sub-location or forest or national park has been given a unique code number composed of eight digits and each enumeration area on the map has been given a unique code number composed of four digits. In the first case, the 1st. and 2nd digits represent District, the 3rd and 4th digits represent division, 5th and 6th digits represent location and 7th and 8th digits represent sub-location or forest or national park.

23. Each sub-location is covered with a map or maps showing all the enumeration areas in the sub-location but there are other areas which have been mapped without reference to any sub-location e.g national parks and forest areas.

24. There are 4 categories of enumeration areas, i.e. E.As in settled agricultural areas, urban, acid and semi-arid areas, forests and national parks or reserves.

(i) E.As in the settled agricultural areas are based on villages e.g. an E.A is formed by a whole village or by combining two or more villages. In case of difficult or doubt about the E.A boundary, it will be often helpful to contact your supervisor and the assistant chief.

(ii) In the urban areas the E.As are based on the sub-location boundaries. All the structures have been numbered and the numbers are clearly shown on the maps. On the ground the 9th structure is numbered KPC/89/009 and on the map it is numbered 009.

(iii) In the arid and semi-arid areas the E.As have been delineated on the basis of settlement centers and the boundaries have been fixed arbitrarily. You should trace exactly where the settlement or settlements are in your E.A. You must contact your supervisor and the assistant chief to assist you to find the settlement centers.

(iv) Large forests and national reserves have been treated as E.As on their own. You must, with the assistance of the forest officials identify where the people live in these E.As.

25. (a) The E.A maps have been prepared using various scales for different areas as shown below.

Scale Category Interpretation
1:2,500 Urban 1cm on the map represents 25m on the ground
1:5,000 Urban, rural 1cm on the map represents 50m on the ground
1:10,000 Urban, rural 1cm on the map represents 100m on the ground
1:12,500 Rural 1cm on the map represents 125m on the ground
1:20,000 Rural 1cm on the map represents 200m on the ground
1:25,000 Rural 1cm on the map represents 250m on the ground
1:50,000 Rural 1cm on the map represents 500m on the ground
1:250,000 Arid and semi-arid 1cm on the map represents 2500m on the ground

(b) In order to determine distances on the ground using the map, you must use your paces. Take your pace to be equivalent to 1 m. Measure the distance you want on your map in cm and using the map scale find the distance in meters on the ground. If you are using a map of 1:10,000 and you measure 2cm on the map, this is equivalent to 200 meters on the ground. You are therefore supposed to walk 200 paces to cover the distance measured on the map.

(c) Before you can start using your map in the field, it is important that you align the map correctly with the features on the ground. For example, there may be a road on the ground where you are already standing. The map should be aligned in the correct direction of the road so that the road on the ground and the road on the map point in the same direction.

[Original contains a map.]

Part III

General Instructions

26. Given below are definitions to describe places of abode

(a) Homestead - is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. In most cases homesteads will be surrounded by fences, walls, etc. so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking their meals. A homestead may contain for example, a hut or a group of huts. A manyatta will be considered as a homestead. A homestead need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or hedge, for example a house, boy's quarters, garage, kitchen etc. may constitute one homestead whether or not they are surrounded by a wall, etc. During enumeration you will visit all places of abode and identify the structures, dwelling units and households in them.

(b) Structure - For Census purposes, a structure will constitute a building, which is used for dwelling purposes. In rural areas most of the structures will be found within a homestead. A structure can contain one or more dwelling units.

(c) Dwelling-Unit - the abode occupied by the respondents and constitutes one or more households. There can be many dwelling units within a structure.

(d) Household - consists of a person or a group of persons who live together in the same dwelling unit or homestead, and eat together. It is important to remember that members of a household are not necessarily related (by blood or marriage). The household is the most convenient small group of persons for census purposes. You will enumerate the population in dwelling units and homesteads by households.

27. Dividing a structure or a homestead into households may not be easy. However the following examples should guide you in deciding who should form a household.

28. For Census purposes, you will list only those who spent the Census Night i.e. the Night of 24/25 August in the household, whether visitors, servants, etc

29. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building or part of a building or many buildings in the same compound/homestead.

30. If two or more groups of persons live in the same dwelling unit and have separate living and eating arrangements, treat them as separate households.

31. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included with the household. If the servant cooks and eats separately he/she should be enumerated as living in a separate household. The particulars of persons (visitors) who spent the reference night with another household should be recorded on the questionnaire for that household.

32.In a polygamous marriage if the wives are living in separate dwelling unit and cook and eat separately, treat the wives as separate 'households'. Each wife with her children will therefore constitute a separate household. The husband will be listed in the household where he spent the reference night. If the wives eat together and live in the same dwelling unit then treat them as one 'household'.

33. It is the custom in many parts of Kenya for boys to live in separate quarters between circumcision and marriage, while continuing to take their meals with their parents. Such boys' quarters do not fall precisely within the definition of a household for they normally eat but do not sleep in their parents' household. Enumerate them with their parent's households.

Institutions/hotels

34. There are cases where certain rules used to decide what a household is do not apply, and here are some further guidelines to help you:

(a) Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to an "ordinary" household. Examples are hospitals, colleges, barracks or prisons. These institutions will be covered separately by the supervisor/yourself. A shorter questionnaire will be used to cover each institution. Write the name of the institution at the top of the Census questionnaire.

(b) The district census officers will make arrangements for enumerating persons in hospitals, the armed forces, the G.S.U. and prisons. They will also arrange to enumerate persons who sleep out of doors in urban areas. You may be instructed to help with the enumeration of these special groups.

(c) Hotels will be supplied with a stock of the shorter questionnaires and envelopes. On the evening of Census Night, managers will give each guest a questionnaire and an envelope. All persons staying in the hotel on Census Night will be required to complete a questionnaire with the assistance of a supervisor and hand the filled questionnaire to the Reception desk the following morning. The envelopes with completed questionnaires will be collected from the manager. Enumeration of persons in hotels is the responsibility of the supervisor, but he may instruct you to do the work.

(d) Persons working in institutions listed in (a) above but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their own households and not with the institution. Thus a nurse on night duty should be enumerated with her household and not with patients at the hospital. Similarly a teacher should be enumerated with his/her household and not with students or boarders at the school or training institution. The same applies to night workers of all kind.

Who should you interview?

35. You must interview as many persons as may be necessary to enable you to obtain the particulars required of all persons who were in the household on the Census Night. It is not likely that you will see all members of the households, nor is it absolutely necessary that you should.

It will be best if the head of the household is present, but it will be enough if there is one responsible adult who can give the information required.

36. You will start work early in the morning after Census Night (24/25 August) and will continue for as long as it takes to enumerate everyone who was in your area on the Census Night. The best times for visiting households are early in the morning before people go to work, and in the evenings. People will often stay to meet you if you send word that you are coming. You are allowed to work in the evening until about 10 p.m. But you are not allowed to enumerate throughout the night.

37. It is unlikely that you will enumerate everyone in one day. In most cases it is expected that the enumeration will take place between three and seven days. If, for any reason, you think it will take longer, you should inform your supervisor in good time so that he may be able to arrange for someone to help you. If you become ill or get injured so that you cannot continue, you must let your supervisor know at once.

Who should you enumerate?

38. You should enumerate all persons who were in the household at midnight on Census Night (24/25 August.) Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept with the household on Census Night, but who were temporarily absent and were somewhere else in Kenya where they could not have been enumerated. Examples are watchmen, nurses, police officers and shift workers on night duty; persons in transit by road, rail or air; herdsmen out with cattle and livestock; night fishermen; hunters; honey-harvesters and persons attending hospital out-patients departments through the night. Such persons are to be enumerated with their usual household.

39. Persons staying in hotels, hospitals as in-patients, persons in observation wards, prisoners and the like will be enumerated in their institutions. They should not be included on the questionnaires of their respective households.

What happens if there is no one at home?

40. It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because there is no one at home, or because all the adults are away at the time, or for some other reason.

41. If only children are at home, ask them when their parents are likely to be at home and arrange the next visit accordingly.

42. If there is no one at home ask the neighbors if anyone was there on Census Night. If there was, inquire whether they have an idea when members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit accordingly.

43. If you are working in an urban area, complete a call back card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it with a neighbor or push it under the door so that the people may know when you will be returning. If you are in a rural area, leave word about the time of your next visit as indicated in paragraphs 41 and 42. Keep a record of the call backs.

44. If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the address and tell your supervisor about it when you see him.

45. It may be that for some reason your call is at an inconvenient time for members of the household. Do not lightly allow yourself to be put off, but if there is some weighty reason, such as death in the family, arrange to return at a more suitable time.

46. Call backs involve much extra work. On any enumeration day be wise - send word ahead of time so that people know when to expect you. If you have to make call backs, clear them early. If you make an appointment to return, be punctual.

47. Though it is rare, sometimes confusion over EA boundaries causes an enumerator from a neighboring EA to enumerate people in your area. If this happens, make sure that you are within your area as you understand the boundaries. If you have crossed your boundary by mistake, return to your area and go on with your work. If you are satisfied that you are right and that the households are in your area, make a note of the affected households and immediately inform your supervisor. Do not enumerate the people a second time. Continue enumerating other households in your area.

Types of census questionnaires

48. All the information required at the Census is to be recorded on the questionnaire which will be issued to you bound in books of fifty forms. No forms are to be torn out or destroyed. You will have to account for all of them. The other questionnaire will be shorter and will not be bound in books (loose). This questionnaire will be used to cover persons in hospitals, hotels and ships on dock.

Layout of the questionnaire

49. The questionnaire is divided into several parts as outlined below:

(a) The top of the form is for information identifying the household and is to be completed for each household.

(b) The top right hand comer of the form is for entering structure number.

(c) Columns P00 to P18 contain questions which apply to all persons. You are required to ask the questions of all persons and make written entries for all persons.

(d) Columns P19 to P21 contain questions on literacy and education to be asked of all persons age 6 years and over. If a person is age 5 or less, code 0 in column P20. Also code 0 for not applicable in column P19 and 00 in column 21.

(e) Columns P30 to P32 contain questions on economic activities to be asked of all persons age 10 and above. For a person age 9 years or less, code 0 in all the columns.

(f) Columns P40 to P51, contain questions which apply to all females age 12 and up. You are required to ask the questions of all females age 12 and up and make appropriate entries for each. This section must be completed for all women and girls age 12 years and over. If the person is male or a girl age 11 or less, write zeros in all of the columns.

As far as possible, it is also important that you obtain the information directly from the female concerned. If the information is given to you by someone other than the person concerned and some details are not known, you may write 'NK' in the appropriate box. Make every effort to obtain full and correct answers and avoid unnecessary use of 'NK'.

g) Columns H10 to H17 contain questions on Housing conditions and amenities. These questions are to be asked of the head of the household or any other responsible person.

Part IV

How to fill in the questionnaire

General rules

50. (a) Complete the questionnaire yourself; (b) keep it clean; (c) write legibly, preferably in capitals; (d) code in the boxes provided on the questionnaire; (e) start each household on a separate questionnaire.

51. If you make a mistake cross it out neatly with a single line and correct it. If there is no room to make a correction, draw a line through the entire record for that person. Write 'mistake alongside it and begin a new line for the person.

52. If, for some reason, you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the questionnaire, write 'spoiled' alongside it and complete a new questionnaire for the household. On no account should such a questionnaire be torn out of the book.

53. If there are more than ten people in the household continue on the next page. Write 'continued' at the foot of the first page and at the top of the second page. Continue to number the persons serially, so that the first person on the second page will usually be number 11. Use as many pages as may be necessary for the household. .

Remember to enter household's identification information on the continuation questionnaire.

54. It is important that each enumerator asks the questions in the same way. You must learn the form and the order in which the questions are to be put.

The interview and the questions

55. Census Night: All enumeration must relate to the Census Night. This will be the night of August 24/25, 1989. This night will be the reference time to which all enumeration should relate. Note that only persons alive in Kenya at midnight of this day should be enumerated. Census Night has been publicized in advance throughout the country so that it can be easily remembered by everyone. Remember that all the questions you ask must relate to Census Night unless you have specific instructions to the contrary in this manual, e.g. the economic questions.

56. Note that between the Census Night and the time of enumeration the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after Census Night, you should enumerate him as living on Census Night. If a baby was born after Census Night, you should not enumerate him/her. Visitors are enumerated if they spent Census Night in the household.

57. When you arrive at a house, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a Census enumerator.

58. Ask for the head of the household. Note that the head of the household is the person who is regarded by the members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. He/she must have spent the census Night with the household. If the head of the household was not present on the Census Night, ask for the next senior person who spent the Census Night in the household. Make this person the household head.

59. If you are enumerating members of an institution, you will ask for information from the person in charge of the institution.

60. Explain that you must record particulars of everyone who was present in the household at midnight on Census Night.

61. Next, complete the information required in the box at the top of the questionnaire. Write the province name and code the district, division, location, sub-location/E.A. number and the household number. All the above information is contained on the EA maps except the household number which you will assign sequentially.

62. E.A. number will be the enumeration area number as marked on the map. .

63. When you have enumerated the members of the household write the structure number followed by the household number on the door frame or any other convenient or conspicuous place. The structure/household numbers are the ones you will allocate yourself. The first structure you visit will be S001 and the household also will be 001 (this will be written as S001/001), second will be S002 and the household 002 and will be written as S002/002, and so on. If there are more than one household in a structure - for example, structure number S001, and household numbers 001, 002, 003, etc. - simply write S001/001-008, meaning there are eight households in structure 001. Write the number neatly where it will be easily visible to your supervisor and out of reach of children. Ask the people to leave it up until the end of November, so that they may be spared the inconvenience of unnecessary visits by census staff. Explain that the number is used for census purposes only and may be rubbed off after 3 months. You are also required to record the household number in the space provided for Household number in the Identification box.

64. If you are enumerating in an urban area, where there are several dwelling units in a structure which are occupied by unique households, write on each dwelling unit the same structure number and the household number assigned to those residing in the dwelling unit.

65. Your next job is to make a list of all persons who were in the household on the census night, starting with the head of the household, if he or she was present, or the person in charge of the household at the time. Respondents may not remember which night was the census night, in which case you should explain by saying the night of 24/25 August 1989.

66. Write the names in column (P00). Some people have many names and it is not necessary to write them all as long as you record the name or names by which the person is usually known.

Columns P00 to P11 - Name, relationship, and sex

Column P00 - Name

67. It is important that you list at least two names of the persons in a set order so that you have a clear picture of the household from the very beginning.

68. List members of the household by nuclear family, starting with the head and his wife and children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest.

69. If the head has more than one wife, living in the same house list the first wife and her children followed by the second wife and her children.

70. Very young children are sometimes forgotten or even deliberately left out as being unimportant. All persons must be enumerated. Pay particular attention to newborns. If the infant has no name, write 'Baby of ______ (mother's or father's name)'.

71. Remember to ask about, and to include, night workers and persons in transit from one place to another within Kenya by road, rail or air. Exclude hospital in-patients, persons staying in hotels, prisoners and the like. The above people will be covered under institution population as specified in paragraph 34.

72. When you have written down all the names, read over the list and ask, 'Is that correct?' If not, correct the list. Then ask, 'was there anyone else here on Census Night?' such as visitors, young children, etc. If so, include them.

Column P10- Relationship

73. At the same time as you write the names in column P00, code relationships in column P10 and sex in column P11. You will save yourself trouble by doing so.

74. For example, head: code as 1 in the appropriate boxes. Then code the relationship of each person to the head. That is, 2 for spouse, 3 for son, and so on.

75. All the other relatives, like nieces, nephews, grandsons, etc., will be coded 7 for 'other relatives'.

76. You must probe to find out whether the children you have coded as sons and daughters are the head's biological children. If they are not, establish whether they should fall under code 8, (non-relative) or code 7 (other-relative)

77. Code 8 is reserved for members of the household who are not related to the head. Children of such people, if present, should receive code 8 as well.

78. Where several persons who are not related by blood or marriage constitute a household, as in the case of urban areas, code one of them as 'head' (code 1) and the rest as 'non-relatives' (code 8).

79. Make sure you understand the relationship before you make any entry.

Column P11- Sex
80. Record the person's sex by coding 1 for males and 2 for females. Check that the sex is compatible with relationship. You should not write 1 for persons shown as wives or daughters, nor should you give a 2 to persons shown as sons or husbands.

81. Take particular care to record the sex of very-young children correctly. Often you will not know whether a baby carried on its mother's back is a boy or a girl. In such cases you must ask - do not guess.

Column P12 - Age

82. 'How old is this person?'

83. Write the person's age in completed years - that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write 00. Use two digits in completing age; e.g. 01, 02, etc. Persons ages 97 and older should be coded as 97.

84. Be careful not to round ages up to next birthday. A child who is aged four years and eleven months should, for example be entered as 04 and not 05.

85. Many people do not know their ages. If a person's age is not known, you must make the best estimate possible. The use of' NK' in this column is forbidden.

86. There are various ways in which you can estimate a person's age. Sometimes people have documents, such as baptismal certificates, which show the year of birth, in which case it is easy to calculate age.

87. Most people have Identity cards showing when they were born. Avoid using the IDs as a means of estimating a person's age. More often than not if a person does not know when he/she was born, then the age in the ID is also wrong.

88. Generally it is not so easy. Concentrate first on establishing the ages of one or two persons in the household. One reliable age may help in working out the ages of others if it is known whether they are older or younger and by how many years.

89. It is sometimes possible to estimate a person's age by relating his or her birth to some notable event. With these instructions is a calendar of events, which lists the dates of events in the history of each district. If the person can remember how old he or she was at the time of the event, you can work out the person's age. .

90. How to use the calendar of events to estimate the respondent's age.

(i)

(a) Ask him/her to name any historical event (in their district) which he/she has been told occurred around the time of his/her birth/childhood.

(b) Ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.

(c) Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he was about 15-years old when Kenya attained her Independence, this person should be 15 + 25 (i.e. 12th Dec. 1963 to 23 August 1989) = 40 years. If this method fails, you should try the following approach:

(ii)

(a) Simply estimate how old he/she may be.
(b) Then select from your list of local, or district historical events, some events which occurred around the time when, according to your estimate, he must have been born.

(c) Ask whether he/she has heard about any of these events.

(d) If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he was born.

(e) From this information you can work out his/her age.

91. Some tribes have systems of 'age grades' or 'age sets' from which a person's age can be worked out. A person's age grade may only give a rough idea of his or her age since the same grade may include people of widely different ages, but it is better than nothing. Some tribes have age grades for men but not for women, in which case you can often obtain an idea of a woman's age by asking which age grade of men she is associated with. Some age grades are listed in the event calendar, you can inquire about others from chiefs and elders.

92. If all else fails, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old however small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following methods:

(a) Determine the age of her oldest child.

(b) Then assume that the average woman in Kenya gives birth to her first child at about 18 years. However without further probing, you should not base your assumption on the oldest child who is at present living. There is the likelihood that in certain cases the first child died or that the woman had miscarriages or stillborn. Therefore if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born you should make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage/still-birth or live birth.

93. Note that some women do have children early in life. Therefore in every case you must find out whether she had her first child, miscarriage or still-birth at the usual age before you assume she was aged 18 years at her first pregnancy.

94. Only as a last resort should you estimate a person's age from his/her physical features. If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person then rely on the information he/she gives you to estimate the absent person's age.

95. When you have arrived at the best estimate you can make of a person's age, check that it is compatible with his or her relationship to others in the household. Obviously children cannot be older than their parents, women seldom marry before they are 12, and men before they are 18, and so on.

96. Any estimate of age, however rough, is better than 'NK' in this column. Do the best you can to report ages accurately.

Column P13 - Marital status

97. Is this person single, married, windowed, divorced or separated?'

98. Persons who have never been married and children under 12 years of age should be code 1 (single).

99. People living together as man and wife and who so regard themselves should be coded 2 or 3 depending on status of marriage; that is, whether or not they have been through any civil, religious or customary ceremonies. The census is not trying to find out who is legally married and who is not. Accept the answer as it is given to you. The married persons category is divided into two (code 2 for monogamous marriage and code 3 for polygamous marriage). Probe and ascertain whether the respondent is in a monogamous or polygamous union before coding.

100. If a person is widowed at the time of Census, he or she should be coded as 'widowed' (code 4). If a person has been widowed but has since remarried, he or she should be coded as 'married'. (2 or 3 as the case may be)

101. If people think of themselves as divorced or separated, code them as such. It does not matter whether they have been to court or gone through other formalities. Accept the answer as it is given to you.

102. Accept what people say about their marital status. Do not embarrass yourself or the person by inquiring into the nature of marriage or divorce.

Column P14 - Tribe or nationality

'What is this person's tribe ethnic group?'

103. Write and code the tribe or ethnic group using the tribe/code list provided at the back of the front cover. If the person is not a Kenyan ask, 'what is this person's nationality'?

104. For Kenyan ethnic groups write the name of the tribe and code, using the tribe list as a reference; on the space provided, write the tribe, 'kikuyu' and code 03, 'kalenjin' and code 21, etc. Accept the answer as given to you without question. For Kenyans of other origins, use the codes that are provided. For example, persons originating from Asia should be coded as 'Kenyan Asian, code 39'. Persons originating from European countries should be coded 40, those of Arab origin should be coded 41, and other Kenyans should be coded 42.

105. Foreigners should be coded according to their country of origin. For example, a person from England/Ireland should be coded 49 (British). All other Europeans should be coded 50 (other Europeans). 'Other,' which is code 52, should include all persons originating from countries that are not listed, e.g. Canada, America, Australia, Russia, and so on.

106. Do not become involved in any argument on this point. The census is not concerned with the legal position. Accept what the person tells you.

107. Record the children of mixed marriages - that is, of marriages between persons of different tribes, races or nationalities - as being of the father's tribe or nationality. For the purpose of the census, children will take the tribe or nationality of their father. In the case where, due to divorce or separation, the children are with the mother, accept the tribe and nationality that the mother provides.

Column P15

108 Birthplace. Where was this person born? Birthplace is the usual place or residence of mother at the time of child's birth.

109. For persons born in Kenya, write the name of the district and code using the list provided on the backside of the front cover (e.g., write 'Kericho' and code 72, 'Kirinyaga' and code 22, and so on). Do not write the name of the location or town. If the district of birth is not known, write the province (e.g., 'Rift Valley' and code 70, 'Coast province' and code 30, etc).

110. Relate the person's birthplace to the present districts as far as possible. District boundaries have been changed over the years and we want to relate a person's place of birth to the districts, as they are constituted now.

111. For persons born outside Kenya, write and code the country of birth. For example, a person born in Tanzania will be recorded 'Tanzania' and coded 02, 'Uganda' coded 01, 'Somali' coded 04, 'American countries' coded 96, etc.

Column P16 - Previous residence

This question is applicable to people age one and older.

112. If the person is under one year of age, code '00' in this column.

113.'Where was this person living in August 1988?'

114. For persons who were living in Kenya in August 1988, write and code the name of the district (e.g., 'Kiambu' code 21,'Siaya' code 63, 'Kisii' code 61, etc). For persons who were living outside Kenya, write and code the name of the continent (e.g., 'European countries' code 94, 'Asian countries' code 95). Be sure to write the name of the continent, and not of the country or towns.

115. A person who may have been absent from home temporarily for some reason, such as visiting relatives or hospitalization, or who may have been overseas on a visit of less than six months, should be recorded as living where they normally lived in August, 1988.

116. It is necessary to make a separate enquiry for each member of the household because a man does not always take his wife and children with him when he goes away to work, or he may only have some of his family with him and others may have been living elsewhere.

Columns P17 and P18 - Orphanhood

117. 'Is this person's father/mother alive?'

118. Use code 1 and 2 for the person's biological father and mother. Foster parents or other relatives who may have adopted the person should not be considered as the father or mother of the person.

119. In some cases, a child's father may not be married or living with the mother. The mother might report that she does not know whether the father of her child is alive or dead, in which case you should use code 3 for 'not-known'.

Column P19 - Literacy

120. The questions in column P19 apply to persons age 6 and older. Use code 0 for persons age 5 and younger. It is necessary to note that some people have never been to school, yet they have taught themselves how to read and write in some language. Others learned how to read and write through adult education. Some people have also attended school but do not know how to read and write. No test will be given and you have to accept the respondent's answer.

121. Ask, 'Can the respondent read and write a simple statement in any language?' Code 1 if the respondent can read and write in any language, and 2 if he/she cannot read and write in any language. lf he/she can only write or can only read, use code 2.

Column P20 - Whether attended school

122.
(a) The questions on education are limited to persons age six and older. They refer to full-time education in an educational institution like primary, secondary, technical schools and university. This definition excludes madrasas and Arabic schools where nothing but the reading and writing of the Koran is taught, as well as all post-school training colleges.

(b) Ask, 'has this person ever attended school?' Use code 1 for persons attending school this year, 2 for persons who have ever been to school or have left school, and 3 for persons who have never been to school. Use code 0 if the respondent is age 5 or younger

Column P21- Level of education attained.

123. If the person has been to school or is at school, ask, 'what was or is the highest class or form he/she has completed?'

124. In column P21, code the highest class or form the person has completed in the formal primary and secondary school system (e.g., a person in form one will have completed std 8 and therefore should be coded as having completed std 8). Use the categories provided at the back of the front cover. Use code 03 if the person has completed 'standard' 3, code 11 for those who have completed 'form' one, etc.

125. If a person has sat for 'O' level or 'A' level Exams through correspondence courses - that is, the person has not gone to school to achieve these certificates - code his/her highest level of education according to the highest exam he/she has taken and passed (e.g., code 14 for 'O' level passed exams, etc.).

126. If the person has attended university but never completed or is currently attending under-graduate studies, use code 17. Use code 198 if the person has completed under-graduate studies and above.

127. Columns P30 to P33 contain questions pertaining to economic activities during the week preceding the census night. These questions should be asked of all persons age 10 and above.

Column P30 - Activity

128. Activity status is defined here as the participation in the production of economic goods and services in the week preceding the Census Night.

129. Ask all persons age 10 years and above, 'What was ________ (name) mainly doing during the last seven days preceding the Census Night?'

130. Probe and establish whether the respondent worked for most of the period during the seven days preceding the Census Night.

131. What the respondent was mainly doing will denote the time factor spent on the work. The activity, which occupied most of the person's working time during the last week.

132. The responses in column P30 are, worked for pay or profit, on leave/ sick leave, work on family holding etc. They are coded 01 to 10. If the respondent reports, no work, seeking work, student, retired, disabled, homemaker, (i.e code 04 to 09) then the interview should terminate at this column unless they are females aged 12 years and over. For all males and for females aged less than 10 years, code 00 in column P31 and in column P32 for the above individuals. Below are given definitions to help you code persons correctly.

133. The employed group comprises all persons who during the seven days before the census night worked most of the time for wages, salary commission, tips, contract and those paid in kind. Self-employed persons who worked for profit are also included e.g. Jua Kali mechanics, traders in farm produce, paid family workers. All those who are paid for their services are employed persons.

134. On leave/sick leave
This group comprises all those with formal attachment to job or business/enterprise but were not at work during the reference period because they were sick or on holiday, season workers, leave without pay, bad weather etc. However a person who is on leave, such as teachers but worked on the family holding in the past seven days, preceding census Night, should be indicated as 'on leave'.

135. Family holding
Is the unit of land, farm or shamba which is owned or rented by the family/household and is used for purposes of cultivation of crops or for herding cattle mainly for subsistence purposes. All the members of the household who are working on the family holding without pay/profit will be coded 03. Any member of the household working on the holding for pay and profit or is paid in kind will fall under category 01, (worked for pay or profit). Hired workers for the family holding will also be coded 01. Note that 'family holding' does not limit itself to production of crops, but also includes livestock rearing as is the case in the nomadic areas.

136. Work for pay or profit denotes wages, salary, commissions, tips and payment in kind.

137. No work
A person who was available for work in the past seven days before the Census Night but had not been on paid employment, or was not self-employed will be coded 04.

138. Seeking work
A person who in the last one week before Census Night was looking for work. This category should not include the under employed (i.e. those who have paid work but wish to leave for better opportunities) Persons who have no work at all and are looking for work are the ones who will fall under this category. If a person is working on the family holding, but is seeking work, he should be coded as 'working on family holding and not as 'seeking work'.

139. Students
Are persons of either sex who spent most of their time in regular educational institutions (Primary, Secondary, College and University). If for some reason the student was on holiday during the week preceding the census night and may have been engaged in gainful employment he/she should be given the appropriate code 01 or 03

140. Retired person
Is one who reports that for the past one week before census night he was not engaged in any economic activity because he had retired either due to age, sickness or voluntarily. If a person has retired and is doing some work/business then he should be coded 01. If he/she has retired but is seeking work then he/she will be coded as 'seeking' work.

141. Disabled persons
Are those who can not work. Do not assume that physically disabled persons can not work. For example a blind man who is employed will fall under category 01 and not 08. Same as cripple/lame persons working on the holding. They should fall under 03. Probe and find out about physically disabled persons.

142.
(a) Homemaker
A person of either sex involved in household chores in their own homes e.g. fetching water, cooking, babysitting etc who do not work for pay and profit. This category should not include house boys/house girls who fall under category 01. If such persons worked on family holding they should be coded 03 and not 09. Please probe.

(b) Others include
Any other person not mentioned above. You are to probe to find out whether unpaid family workers consider themselves, 'seeking work', 'have no work' and code them as such. For example, if a young man helps his uncle to sell things in the shop without receiving pay, probe. If he is 'seeking work,' code him accordingly; if he considers himself to have no work, code him '04' ('no work'); and if he considers himself as working, code him as '01'.

143. Column P31-Occupation

(a) In column P31, Ask all persons who are employed, or on leave or working on family holding: What is --- main occupation? Write a detailed description of the type of work the person mainly did during the seven days preceding the census night. The type of work should be recorded as fully as possible, for example; 'shorthand-typist'; 'grade l 1 carpenter'; 'key-punch operator'; 'motor vehicle mechanic'; 'panel beating foreman', etc. Avoid ambiguous titles such as 'operator'; 'foreman'; 'driver,' etc. which do not identify the duties of the workers. Note that all those who work on a holding are not necessarily 'agricultural workers' by occupation. A holding can contain all sorts of occupations, like 'tractor drivers', 'machine operators', 'carpenters', etc.

b) Note that the occupation of a teacher on leave, who worked "on the family holding" during the week preceding Census Night, should be entered as per his or her usual occupation, i.e. "primary school teacher," etc.

Column P32 - Work status

144. In column P32, you are required to find out the work status of the respondent. It is important to probe and ascertain the respondent's actual status; that is, whether he/she is an employer, employee etc. Then code using the given codes.

Ask, 'what was --- working as?' If they answer 'employer', enter code 1; if 'self employed', enter code 2, etc.

145 Concepts to help you identify the above group.

(a) Employer
A person who engages the services of another person for the production of goods/services.

(b) Employee
A person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer. All apprentices should be considered as Employees.

(c) Self employed
A person who operates his or her own enterprise (e.g. farmer, petty trader, carpenter) or a person who operates his or her own enterprise directly without employing private people except family members as helpers.

(d) Family employee
A person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member or members of his/her family without an agreed mode of payment.

(e) Others will include categories not listed above.

The questions in columns P40 to P51 apply to all women and girls aged 12 years and over

146. Answers are required of all women in this category. It does not matter whether or not they are married, single, divorced or separated; whether or not they are still attending school; or their relationship to the head of the household: you must ask the questions of all women and girls aged twelve years and over. The first thing to do is check column P00 to identify all those to whom these questions should be addressed.

147. For males and for girls under twelve years of age, leave columns P40 to P51 blank.

148. Many women do not like answering questions about their children. There are various reasons for this, but it is your job to obtain the answers. It will require firmness, politeness and tact.

149. Ask of all females age 12 and over whether they have borne any live children.

150. A child borne alive is one who cries after birth. The census is concerned only with children borne alive. Do not include stillbirths; that is, children who were born dead and therefore did not cry at the time of birth.

151. If the woman has never borne any live children, write '00' in each of columns P40 to P51.

152. If the woman has borne live children, ask, 'of the children she has borne alive, how many are living in this household?'

153. Write the number of boys who are living in the household in column P40 and the number of girls in column P41. If none of the boys or girls are living in the household, write '00' in the appropriate columns. You should be able to verify this information from column P00. If, for example, the woman has only two boys and two girls, you should write '02' in column P40 and '02' in column P41.

154. Next, of the children borne alive, ask her how many are living elsewhere?'

155. Write the number of boys who are living elsewhere in column P42 and the number of girls in column P43. If none of the boys or girls she has borne alive are living elsewhere, write '00' in the appropriate columns.

156. Include in these columns all the children she has borne alive who are living elsewhere. It may be that they have grown up and married, or have gone off to work, or are living with relatives, or are in a boarding school, and so on. Make sure that none of the children she has borne alive are missed and ask further questions to probe the matter fully, such as, 'are any of your children away, at work, or with relatives?'

157. Then ask, 'of the children you have borne alive, how many have died?'

158. Many people do not talk of the dead and many others find it painful. It is best to ask this question in a matter of fact way and without embarrassment. Please refer to item 150 above for the definition of a live birth.

159. Write the number of boys who have died in column P44 and number of girls in column P45. If none of the boys and girls she has borne have died, write '00' in the appropriate columns.

160. If, in-spite of your best efforts, you cannot obtain this information about the children who have died, code '99' in column P44 and P45. Do not leave any of these columns blank.

161. Before proceeding to columns P46 through P51, probe to know whether the number of children given in columns P40 through P 45 is correct by asking the woman again how many children she has given birth to. If this number differs from the total number in columns P40 through P 45, adjust your entries accordingly.

162. Ask, 'in what year was her last child born?'

163. Record the year of birth in column P47. For the years 1970 to 1989 state the year, but if the child was born before 1970 and the year is not known you may write '1969'. Code the last two digits of the year (e.g., 70 for 1970, 79 for 1979, and so forth).

164. If the child was born in 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 or 1989, ask, 'in what month of the year was the child born?'

165. Code the month in column P46. Use '01' for January, '02' for February, etc. If the child was born in 1984 or before, you need not code the month of birth. However if the month is known, even for years before 1984, you may code them.

166. Then ask, 'was it a boy or a girl?'

167. Code the sex of the last borne child in column P48. Code '1' for males and '2' for females. If they were male twins, code '3', if female twins code '4', it twins with one of each sex, code '5', code '6' for other multiple births.

168. In column P49 indicate whether the child is still alive. If in column P48 it was indicated that they were twins or multiple births, preference will be given to dead children. If all the children of the above birth categories have died, preference will be given to the one who died latest. If the last born child is alive, and is living with the mother in the household, check that the year of birth agrees with the age of the child given is in column P12. If the dates do not agree, find out what has gone wrong and make the necessary corrections. If the child has died (see column P49), code the month and year of death in columns P50 and P51, respectively.

Columns H10 to H17 contain questions pertaining to housing conditions and amenities and are to be asked of the head of the household or any other responsible person.

169. Main residential structure

(a). For census purpose, the structure where most of the household activities (e.g., sleeping, cooking and eating) take place will be defined as the main residential structure.

(b). All the main structures occupied by wives in a polygamous marriage will be listed.

(c). In urban areas all structures occupied on Census Night will be listed.

170. Column H10 seeks information on status of tenure; that is, whether the dwelling unit is owner occupied or rented by the respondent. Ask the question, 'Is this dwelling unit owned or rented by you?' You are supposed to code the answers using the list given (e.g., code '4' will mean that the dwelling unit has been rented to the respondent by government, code '6' will mean a Parastatal body has provided the structure for dwelling purposes to the respondent).

171. 'Owner occupied' includes all of the following:

(a) Purchased
The respondent bought the structure or is in the process of buying the structure and is living in it.

(b) Constructed
The respondent built the structure he/she is living in

(c) Inherited
The respondent received the building by (legal) right of succession or by a will. However, in this case, do not ask for proof. Accept what the respondent says.

172.Under rented are listed:

(a) Government rented
The respondent's employer, the government, is renting the dwelling unit to the respondent.

(b) Local authority
Covers all dwelling units rented by municipal council, city commission, etc.

(c) Parastatal
Covers all dwelling units rented by organizations like Kenya Railways, Kenya Airways, Kenya Power and Lighting Company, University, etc.

(d) Private company
The respondent rents the dwelling unit from a private firm.

(e)Individual rented
The respondent rents the dwelling unit from a landlord.

173. Other form of tenure - include unauthorized dwelling units.

Columns H11 - H13 - Construction materials of the main residential structure

174. Code in column H11 the construction materials used to build the roof. Use code '1' for roofs with iron sheets, '4' for asbestos sheets, etc.

175. Code in column H12 the construction materials used to build the wall. Use code '3' for mud/wood, etc.

176. Code in column H13 the construction material used to build the floor. Use code '3' for wood, '1' for cement, '2' for earth, etc.

177. Columns H14 through H17 seek information on the type of facilities that are available to the household.

178. In column H14, ask 'what is the main source of water?' You are required to code the main source of water. This is the source from which the household draws most of its water. For example, if during the wet season the household draws water from a tank, but then the longer part of the year draws from a river, code '4' (river) as the main source of water.

179. The main sources of water listed are:

(a) Pond - a small area of still water. Usually this water collects after rain or through an underground drainage.

(b) Dam - a reservoir formed by building a barrier across a river to hold backwater and control its flow. Such dams are typically built in dry areas of Kenya.

(c) Lake - usually bigger than a pond but has water collecting in it through, rain, rivers, etc. It is different from a dam in that it is not man-made.

(d) Well - a man-made shaft dug in the ground from which water is obtained. Water is drawn using buckets.

(e) Borehole - similar to a well, only deeper. Generally a pump draws the water into a tank or bucket.

(f) Jabias - rainwater harvested from any catchment into a hole/tank and used for domestic purposes.

180. In column H15 ask, 'where do members of this household go for toilet?'

Code the answers according to the categories given below (e.g., code '3' for pit latrine, '5' for cesspool, etc).

Sewage is the liquid waste matter drained away from the structure for disposal.

The main types of sewage disposal are:

(a) Main sewer means the sewage liquid waste from the structure is drained by pipes into a main tank of the estate. This type of sewage disposal is common in main urban centers like Nairobi, Mombasa, etc.

(b) A septic tank is a tank into which sewage is conveyed and remains until bacteria make it liquid enough to drain away. Examples of septic tanks are found in urban areas, where the tank is often located within the dwelling structure's compound. Ask the respondent if they have this tank in the compound or whether sewage drains into some main sewer.

(c) A bucket latrine is a bucket designed for human excrement. It is emptied occasionally. This type of waste disposal is rare, but can still be found in urban residential estates.

(d) A cesspool drains and collects liquid waste from dwelling units.

181. For the question concerning the household's use of cooking fuel, in column H16, note that some households may use electricity, paraffin, gas, and firewood, all at the same time. The answer required here is the fuel used most of the time.

182. In column H17, note that paraffin lamps includes pressure lamps, filly lamps, and Karabai (one made out of tin). Code the answer according to the categories given.

You have completed the questionnaire

183. Before leaving the household, check the questionnaire you have completed and make sure that you have completed it accurately and completely. It is better to check your work on the spot than to have your supervisor send you back to correct mistakes.

184. In particular, you should check that no one has been missed; that others can read what you have written; that no column has been left blank if it should have been completed; that your entries are legible; that your entries agree with one another; and that you have not written anything which cannot be corrected.

185. Check your work systematically. First, make sure that the information identifying the household, in the box at the top left-hand corner, has been entered. Next, look at the household in terms of relationships and ages of the people. Make sure that children are not shown as older than their parents, that men are not shown as having borne children, and that babies are not shown as having university education, etc.

186. Then look at the questions you have completed for women and girls age 12 and over. Check the ages of all females and make sure that you have made entries where necessary. Make sure that, if the woman has no children in a particular category, you have written '00' in appropriate column. Make sure that you have not left one of these columns blank if the woman is age 12 or over.

187. Make sure that all persons age 10 and over have been asked questions in columns P30 through P32.

188. If you find that things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct your record. It must be complete and accurate in all respects before you leave the household.

189. When you are satisfied that everything is in order, complete the summary information for the household on the front cover. Enter the household number and number of persons in the household.

190. Finally, write in chalk the structure number and household number in a place that is easily seen on the main structure and where it is convenient to the householders, and take your leave, moving on to the next household. Please thank the respondents for their cooperation and willingness.

191. When you have visited every household in your area and have enumerated all persons who were in your area on Census Night, enter the details for the province, district, location, sub-location and enumeration area number, on the front cover of each used book.

192. When all is in order, sign each book in the space provided for the enumerator's signature. Your signature is your certificate that the information in the book is complete and correct.

193. As soon as you have checked your work, report to your supervisor with all your equipment. Only when everything is present and accounted for will you be paid.