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[Jamaica 2001]
Enumeration manual

Part 1: Introduction

1.1 What is a Population Census?

A modern population census may be defined as the total process of gathering, compiling and publishing information on the people of a country or a specific area, which tells about their number, their age and sex, where they live, their level of education, whether or not they attend school, at work or not and other such characteristics. In short, it relates to information on the total count of the population and its characteristics.

1.2 Why is a Population Census being taken?

Since 1991 when the last population census was taken, the population has grown; persons have moved from one place to another, changes have taken place in the educational system, and so on. The Population Census of 2001 aims at providing the information needed to assess these changes as well as to provide a base for the development of plans to improve the economic and social status of the population.

A rapidly growing population may require a number of additional services, examples of which are: schools, water supplies, hospitals and clinics and factories. Information provided by the 2001 Population Census about the growth and movement of the population will assist those agencies which have the responsibility for planning for the provision of these services in determining size, location and other characteristics needed for decision making.

Businessmen and industrialists will also be able to use the results of the 2001 Census to aid them in their planning. The information will assist them in organizing their sales programs more effectively by way of determining suitable locations for retail outlets, for factory sites etc., so that they can operate their business more profitably and serve the communities better.

1.3 How is this Population Census being taken?

In order to take a Census, several distinct operations have to be undertaken. Firstly, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled, the next step is to organize the enumeration or the collection of the data in the field.

In this Census just over five thousand trained interviewers will visit every building and every household in Jamaica in order to interview members of the households and record the required information. Questions on the number of persons living in the household, their age, sex, birth place, and so on will be asked and the answers recorded in the proper places on the questionnaires. After the questionnaires have been completed in the field, they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. When all checking has been completed the questionnaires are ready for processing, the first step which involves their passage through a machine known as a document reader.

The computer takes the information from the questionnaire and writes it on to a magnetic tape for further steps in computer processing. The final step is the production of the tabulations from which the Census Reports are prepared.

1.4 The importance of your role in Population Census

As a Census Taker, you play a vital part in the census operations. You, along with 5,000 other persons, have the job of taking the 2001 Census of Population.

As was stated, the information obtained on the Census forms will provide the basis for the final Census results. All the processes which take place after the field enumeration involve adding up and performing other tasks on the data collected. The final results will be accurate only if the information provided on the questionnaires is accurate.

Every effort must be made to obtain complete and exact answers to questions and to record these accurately according to your instructions.

The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a large extent on the interest you take in your job and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow Census Takers perform your tasks. You, therefore, hold a key position in this important undertaking.

1.5 Census information is confidential

The census is being taken under the Statistics Act which requires that all persons in Jamaica provide information to you, the Census Taker, acting as an agent for the Census Officer. It also requires that all information collected in the Census be kept confidential. When you accept the job of Census Taker, you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone other than a sworn employee of the census organization. This means that you must not show the information to anyone but your supervisors, the Census Officer or a member of the staff of the Institute who is authorized to see your work. You must also not talk about it to anyone, including members of your family or you will be in breach of the law.

1.6 Census information used only in totals

Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction, because you will be asking information they do not normally tell to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. These are:
(a) All Census Takers working in the Census have taken an Oath of Secrecy.

(b) Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any other person engaged in census work to make unauthorized disclosure of information to any individual or organization whatsoever, public or private.

(c) The information collected will be published only for groups of people so that no information given by an individual can be recognized. Information about a particular individual is essential deriving overall totals, but this information will never be used in a form which could result in any fact about this individual being identified.

Part 2: General instructions

2.1 Methodology for Census 2001

Until now the methodology adopted for censuses was to administer one questionnaire covering a number of topics, to the entire population. Some persons would naturally be exempted from being asked certain questions because of their age or sex while questions related to the living conditions of the household would be asked of the head only. Census 2001 will see the introduction of two (2) questionnaires. One questionnaire (referred to as the short form) contains questions which will be asked of the entire population. The other questionnaire (the long form) contains all the questions on the short form as well as questions which will be administered only to 10% of the population identified on the selection of a 10% sample of all E.Ds.

2.2 Principles of enumeration

The 2001 Census like all censuses since 1943 will be conducted on a "de jure" basis. By the "de jure" method each person is enumerated as belonging to his place of 'usual residence whether physically present or not, in that place, at the time of the Census. September 10, 2001 is to be designated Census Day. The exact hour of reference (also referred to as the census moment) is midnight on the night of September 10. Technically each person alive up to the census moment is included in the Census even if the person died after. In the same way infants born after the Census moment are not to be included even though they may be living when the other persons in their household are enumerated.

The entire population will be classified for Census purposes into the following groups:

2.3 Main Population Groups

Group A -- Persons enumerated and counted at place of enumeration.

All persons, Jamaicans and non-Jamaicans whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling and who are living at home.

All persons, Jamaicans and non-Jamaicans whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who are temporarily away from home visiting or travelling on business in Jamaica or abroad or staying in private homes or hotels and guest houses in Jamaica.

In the course of enumeration it is possible to find that there are persons whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who spend short periods of time living and sleeping on the streets. If these persons return home regularly (at least once a week) for purposes of eating and sleeping, include them in the dwelling.
All persons, Jamaicans and non-Jamaicans whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who have been admitted to a public general hospital, maternity hospital or nursing home where the period of treatment is expected to be of short (less than 6 months) duration.

All deceased persons who were alive on the census date and whose usual place of residence was in the dwelling.

All persons whose usual place of residence is in a private dwelling located on the compound of an institution or group dwelling.

If in the course of enumeration it was found that a household member is at one of the following types of institutions on Census Night, usual residence is regarded to be at the institution and not in the dwelling unit:
(i) Correctional institutions
(ii) Mental institutions
(iii) Homes for children, the aged, infirm or needy.
(iv) Boarding schools, residential schools and homes for the blind and deaf.
(v) Convents and monasteries.
(vi) University and college residences.
(vii) Hotels and residences for trainees and/or graduate teachers, nurses and ministers of religion.
(viii) Military camps, police training schools and police barracks.
(ix) Hospitals and homes providing specialized care.
If in a public general hospital persons are found who:
(i) Have no permanent home elsewhere, or
(ii) Are long term (6 months or more) patients, such persons are to be regarded as usual residents of the hospital.

Group B -- Persons excluded from the Census

Visitors to a household who are usual residents elsewhere in Jamaica or abroad.
Visitors to Jamaica who are staying in hotels and or guest houses.
Visitors on ships in harbor on census night.
Jamaica diplomatic personnel located overseas.
Foreign diplomatic personnel located in Jamaica.

2.4. Your assignment

Your assignment as Census Taker is to list all building units in your Enumeration District (E.D.) and record the information required in the Visitation Record. In addition you are required to complete a questionnaire according to the instructions given in this Manual, for each individual who lives in your E.D. You will be assigned to complete either the short form or the long form. Only under very special circumstances will a Census Taker be assigned both forms.

If you are a Special Census Taker, you will have the responsibility for taking the Census in non
private dwellings (nursing homes, college residences etc.).

As was stated before, you are in a very special way, the key person in the Census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. We have stressed that a report is only as good as the information that goes into it, so it is important that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.

2.5 Your supervisor

You will be working under the supervision and direction of your Supervisor who will:
(a) Be involved in your training;
(b) Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed;
(c) Give you your assignment;
(d) Supply you with your enumeration materials;
(e) Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve it;
(f) See that you understand and follow the instructions in this Manual and those given at training classes;
(g) See that you complete your assignment as quickly and accurately as possible;
(h) Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment; and
(i) Help you to solve your enumeration problems.
You must at all times keep in close touch with your Supervisor, advising him or her where you may be found, meeting at such times and places as he or she may direct, following carefully the instructions which he or she gives you on census matters.

2.6 Your enumeration kit

In order to carry out your assignment, you will receive from your supervisor the following items:
  • 1 Census identification card
  • Copies of the Census questionnaire
  • Copies of the visitation record - private dwellings
  • 1 box in which to keep completed questionnaires
  • 2 black ink pens
  • 1 eraser
  • 1 folder containing a map of your enumeration district and a description of it
  • 1 clipboard
  • 2 pencils
  • 1 bag in which to keep census materials when you are in the field.
In addition, you should carry around with you, your letter of appointment as a Census Taker as well as your manual and appendices
Special Census Takers will be given, in addition:
The visitation record -- non-private dwellings.

2.7 Items to be returned at end of enumeration

At the end of enumeration you will be required to return to your Supervisor, the following items:
  • Your identification card
  • The E.D. map and description
  • Questionnaire box with completed questionnaires
  • The visitation record(s) supplied to you
  • The enumeration manual and appendices
  • All unused questionnaires
  • The bag for holding all materials
Remember, all items supplied to you for the purpose of carrying out the Census are the property of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica and your claim for payment will not be honored until your Supervisor receives them from you at the end of your assignment.

2.8 Your hours of work

As an interviewer you will be required to work outside of what is often considered normal working hours. This is because you will have to adjust your working hours to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this often means making calls early in the morning and more particularly in the afternoon and early evening. Weekends, that is Saturdays and Sundays are often the best days to find people at home. You will therefore be required to work on these days also.

2.9 Your E.D. map and description

As indicated above, your materials for census taking include a map of your Enumeration District, together with a description of its boundaries. The E.D. map has been prepared on a scale map and includes the area that comprises your E.D. and the surrounding areas. "The scale of the map, which varies depending on the size of E.D., is indicated as scale 1:10,000. This means that every one inch on the map represents 10,000 inches on the ground (or 1:50,000, which is one mile as the crow flies), and is represented by approximately 1.3 inches on the map".

There are certain features on the map which you should observe. These are identified below with colors as specified:
(i) The direction: directions on the map are determined by the position of North, which is illustrated on each map by the following symbol

(ii) The starting point: this is shown by a red symbol thus and corresponds with the start of the written description.

(iii) The boundaries: the boundaries of the E.D. are marked in green

(iv) Other distinguishing features: Other distinguishing features on the map are illustrated below. Note that some features appear slightly different on maps of different scales.
  • Parish boundaries
  • County boundaries
  • Roads
- A 1 roads main
- A 2 roads secondary
- Other roads
  • Tracks
  • Rivers
  • Canals
  • Gully
  • Railway line
  • Property boundary
  • Sea coast
  • Bridges
  • Imaginary lines
The description of the E.D. accompanies the E.D. map. The description starts from the starting point and proceeds clockwise ending at the starting point. Examples of both urban and rural maps and their descriptions are given in the appendices.

2.10 Know your E.D.

Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your E.D. If he has found errors on the map which you will be given on assignment he will point these out also. This should happen in only a few cases, in particular, where changes in the area have taken place after the map was drawn. In these cases, you should correct your E.D. map. If during enumeration you identify changes in any of the features on the map, you should indicate these on your map. Such corrections could be crossing out streets etc. which do not exist, drawing in and naming streets and roads which may have been omitted from the map, and correcting road and other feature names where necessary. You must make sure that the corrections you are making are accurate and do not arise because you have not read your map properly.

If you find any errors in the description, write these out below the given description of the E.D. in the space provided. All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him.

Where two interviewers are assigned to one E.D., the aim is to complete the E.D. as quickly as possible. Particular care must be taken that you work only in the section of the E.D. assigned to you and that you completely cover the dwellings in this section of the E.D.

If the E.D. is blocked, that is, subdivided into two or more discrete units, you must ensure that you work in the block assigned to you. On completion of one block, you should return to your supervisor for instructions on how to proceed.

If the E.D. is not blocked, then carefully follow the instructions of your supervisor in respect of where you should start and stop and the routes you should follow.

2.11 Enumerate within boundaries

You must be careful when enumerating the outer boundaries of your E.D. You should enumerate only those areas which are within your E.D.

[Map not reported here]

The map above represents an urban type E.D. This E.D. is bounded the north by Second Street, to the east by North Lane, to the South First Street and to the west by East Avenue. Enumeration in this should be done in the premises shown by XXs on the map within boundaries identified as follows:
  • All along the southern side of Second Street between East Avenue and North Lane (the northern boundary);
  • All along the western side of North Lane between Second Street and First Street (the eastern boundary);
  • All along the northern side of First Street between North Lane East Avenue (the southern boundary);
  • All along the eastern side of East Avenue between First and Second Streets (the western boundary);
  • Both sides of Key Lane;
  • Both sides of Job Lane;
  • Both sides of Core Lane from First Street passing Job Lane and Key Lane, to its junction with Second Street.
If you enumerate anywhere on the northern side of Second Street, then you are enumerating outside of your boundary; and similarly on the eastern side of North Lane, or the Southern side of First Street or the western end of East Street. Also if you enumerate on, say, the eastern side of East Avenue north of Second Street, you will also be enumerating outside of your area.

Thus, if a street, road, river, canal, lane, road junction or other features form one of the boundaries of your E.D. be sure you know which side of it is in your E.D. You will cause a great deal of trouble if you enumerate households outside of your E.D. belonging to someone else and you will not be paid for questionnaires relating to that area.

On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook or forget to enumerate any household within the area that has been assigned to you. This is particularly important in rural areas where it is easy to overlook tracks.

If a householder tells you that an interviewer has already collected information from him, make certain that the interviewer is engaged in Population Census work and not on any other survey. If the householder has, in fact, been previously enumerated by another Census Taker, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other Census Taker is working in your area, probably by mistake.

2.12 Ensure that you locate all households

The description of the E.D. will indicate the direction to be followed along the boundary of your Enumeration District so you can be sure about the area enclosed by your E.D. Your supervisor will check this with you and will advise you further where necessary.

It is especially important in covering your area, particularly rural districts, to ensure that all sections of your E.D. are visited. This is especially important in those areas which appear to be uninhabited, as careful examination is needed in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or appear inaccessible.

Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area, and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters at churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures.

Be careful to enumerate all households in your area. Remember, if you deliberately omit households because it is difficult to either get to them or for some other reason to contact them, and this is proved, then you will not be paid for working in the E.D.

You should also obtain information relating to households within your E.D. only. Never attempt to complete questionnaires for persons in any other household other than those located in the E.D. Do not make up fictitious questionnaires. You will be guilty of an offence under the law. If this is proved you will have to pay the penalty and you will also not receive pay for any work which you have done.

2.13 How the interview should be conducted

An intense publicity program has been arranged which should assist you greatly in your dealings with respondents. Much of your success as a Census Taker will however depend on your approach. Most people will react favorably if you are pleasant and courteous.

No interviewing pattern will fit every situation, as the reactions of people you meet will differ, and you must be able to adapt yourself to these differences. Most of all, you will need patience and tact. An approach such as the following should adequately meet most situations and gain for you a favorable reception:

"Good morning (or afternoon) Sir or Madam"

Here, present your identification card and, if necessary, your letter of appointment for scrutiny by the respondent.

"I shall be grateful if you will answer a few questions regarding yourself and other members of your household".

Sometimes you may need to put the respondent at ease with some "small talk". "Small talk" should not become gossip, however. Remember always that you are on the job. Make sure that the interview is not prolonged unnecessarily. You may, on occasions, meet a few persons in your Enumeration District who are of a suspicious or uncooperative nature. Such persons are inclined to view your visit as an intrusion upon their privacy and a waste of their time. A friendly and frank approach on your part may overcome this resistance. If, however, all your endeavors fail, as a last resort you should draw the respondent's attention to the fact that the Census Regulations make it compulsory to answer all the Census questions. When a householder absolutely refuses to cooperate, the case should be referred to your supervisor who will take the appropriate action.

2.14 Things you should do

  • You must carry your I.D. card, letter of appointment and should do enumeration manual at all times while working on the Census
  • You must present your I.D. card on every occasion for scrutiny by the respondent before starting your interview
  • You must read and intensively study this manual to become thoroughly familiar with its content in order to do your work accurately and efficiently
  • You must discuss all problems and uncertainties with your Supervisor
  • You must be tolerant, patient and courteous at all times when with respondents
  • Whenever possible, the acknowledged head of the household or an adult should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only after permission is granted by the parent or guardian
  • You must always attempt to conduct the interview in a house. If this proves impracticable, you must avoid interviewing people before strangers or in a group unless the respondent suggests this
  • You must make every effort to keep the documents you are working on clean, legible and free from damage
  • At the end of each day you should review your work to make sure that all requirements of your instructions and all census procedures are met. Make sure that no call-backs were omitted, that notes in respect of problems were made and that all questionnaires are carefully filed away. Then arrange your material for the next day's work.

2.15 Things you should not do

  • You must not disclose to anyone except census officials, any information you receive in the course of your duties as a Census Taker
  • You must not solicit or permit any unauthorized person to assist you with your work. No matter how intelligent he is, he will not have had the training you have had, or any authority to participate in enumeration. Nor will he have taken the Oath of Secrecy
  • You must not permit any unauthorized person to accompany you on your visits (remember your Oath of Secrecy)
  • You must not combine with your census enumeration any canvassing for personal gain, church, political party or any other organization
  • You must not permit any unauthorized person -- including members of your own family -- to see the completed questionnaires for the district you enumerate. Nor should you tell them about the information you have received
  • You must never discuss politics or get involved in political arguments while engaged in census taking
  • Do not smoke in people's homes without permission; it is preferable not to smoke at all at those times.

Part 3: Concepts and definitions

3.1 Introduction

Before discussing the enumeration forms it is important for you to understand the basic concepts which are used in the Census and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which will be used frequently in the instructions for enumeration.

If during the course of enumeration there is a case which was not covered by your instructor, make a note of it in your Visitation Record and refer it to your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him/her after this has occurred, and ask for his/her advice.

3.2 Building

A building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent from any other, comprising one or more rooms, or other space, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof and is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings; for example, detached kitchens, toilets, helpers' quarters, garages, etc.

A building may be a detached dwelling, apartment building, factory, shop, warehouse, repair shop, etc.

3.3 Housing unit
A housing unit is a building or buildings used for living purposes at the time of the Census.

3.4 Dwelling unit

A dwelling unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons are living at the time of the Census. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence". An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or other forms of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons, can isolate themselves from other persons for purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals. It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery; when occupants can come in and go out of it without passing through anybody else's accommodation.

The key factors in defining a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence". Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance(s) without having to pass through the living quarters of another household.

3.5 Household

A household consists of one person who lives alone or a group of persons who, as a unit, jointly occupies the whole or part of a dwelling unit, who have common arrangements for housekeeping, and who generally share at least one meal. The household may be composed of related persons only, of unrelated persons, or of a combination of both. The following cases should be noted:

(i) All lodgers, domestic helpers, farm hands and other employees who live in the dwelling and consider it, their usual place of residence should be included as members of the household.
(ii) If an individual sleeps in the same structure as the main household and shares at least one meal per day with the household, include him as a household member.
(iii) A domestic employee who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household if he or she sleeps there on an average of at least four nights per week and share at least one meal daily. If the helper's partner or children live on the premises, all members of this family are to be included with the main household if they share meals with the main household. If there are separate arrangements for cooking they should be considered as a separate household;

(iv) In the case of a tenement yard where there is a series of rooms rented to different persons by the landlord, each person or group of persons who live and share meals together is regarded as a separate household. A household in this special context may share external bathroom, toilet or even kitchen facilities with other similar households.

3.6 Head of household

For census purposes, every household must have a head.

The head of household is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household.

In most cases it will be obvious who the head of the household is: usually it is the person who is the chief breadwinner.

In any event, the person recognized by the respondent as the head should be accepted as such for census purposes.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, that member of the group whom the others acknowledge as such should be taken as the head. A person running a boarding or similar establishment is considered to be the head of that household.

In a one person household, that person is the head.

3.7 Vacant building

A vacant building is one in which no one is living at the time of the Census.

Newly constructed vacant units are included in the census listing if construction has reached the point where all the windows and exterior doors are installed and the final usable floors are in place. If construction has not reached this point, the unit is not to be counted as a vacant one, that is, it should not be included in the Census Listing.

Vacant units are excluded if there is positive evidence that the units are to be demolished, or if they are condemned for reasons of health or safety, so that further occupancy is prohibited.

3.8 Closed dwelling

A closed dwelling is any dwelling unit which is occupied for purposes of living but at the time of the census the occupants are staying temporarily elsewhere.

3.9 Usual residence

In most cases, usual place of residence means the place the person being enumerated would name in reply to the question "Where do you live?" Note the following cases however:

(i) For persons with more than one home, usual residence will be the one at which the person spends the greater part of the year. Thus, in the case of an individual who has more than one place of residence because his work place or school is away from home, the usual residence should be that place, be it a boarding school, other residence or lodging in which at least four nights of the week on average are usually spent.
(ii) Fishermen away at sea are considered to have their usual place of residence in the dwelling where they live when ashore.
(iii) Seamen or crew members on a vessel which plies between Jamaica and foreign ports are considered to reside on the vessel rather than at home.
(iv) Air pilots are considered to have their usual place of residence in the household if they usually spend most of their off duty periods in Jamaica and they live in that dwelling for most of the time.
(v) Persons engaged in shift work or who work at nights, such as security workers are to be enumerated as members of the household of their usual residence.
(vi) Farm workers away for less than six months are to be included as part of the household where they usually live. If, however, they have been abroad for six months or more or intend to be away for that period then they are not to be regarded as usual residents.
(vii) It is important to note that where a person has recently moved in with a group of persons, as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them, that person is to be considered a member of the household.

3.10 Head of non-private household

In group dwellings the officer in charge or the most senior staff member (if he/she is not a household member elsewhere) is to be taken as the head. If there is no one who fits this definition, use as the Head of the Household, the first guest, inmate or patient whom you enumerate.

Part 4: Visitation record, private dwellings

4.1 General comments

The visitation record is the first enumeration form you will use and in the census it has three main purposes:

First, it will enable you to keep a close check on the number of buildings and dwellings visited, the number of questionnaires completed and will allow you to see at a glance, the dwellings at which call-backs will be made.

Second, the supervisor will use it to assess the rate at which work is being done.

Third, it will be the record of all the buildings in an enumeration district and will provide the basis for any field rechecks.

The completion of the visitation record is a very important part of your job and this form should be kept up to date at all times.

4.2 Listing buildings

Every building in your E.D. as defined must be assigned a number in the visitation record whether or not it is occupied. You are therefore required to visit and list every building in the E.D. Remember, however, that unfinished structures and old dilapidated houses in which no one resides or no business is undertaken is not considered to be a building for census purposes and should not be listed.

You will remember that, according to the definition of a building, there are four distinct categories of buildings and, in addition, combinations of some. The four distinct categories are:
  • Buildings containing private dwellings
  • Buildings containing non-private dwellings in which people live collectively
  • Buildings used for business purposes
  • Buildings used for other purposes, mainly for community services.

4.3 Dual purpose buildings

There are a number of buildings which are used partly for business purposes and partly as housing units. Such a combination can be a caretaker's living quarters in the building establishment. The caretaker's quarters can also be located in a building used to provide community service such as, say, a school or a police station with staff quarters. These are only a few examples of the variations which you will encounter.

Remember, buildings are structures which are intended for use for living, business or service purposes and must be used for the purpose of accommodating people. Thus, structures such as cattle pens, pig pens, poultry houses, etc. should not be listed.

4.4 Unoccupied buildings

It is important to know what to do with unoccupied buildings. If the building is in the process of construction, it should be listed if the outer walls have been completed, a roof put on and windows and doors in. This means that the building is completed up to the point where it may be secured by locking the windows and doors.

Where a part of the building is completed and the other part is still in the process of construction, the criterion to be adopted is that stated above, that is, if the finished part can be safely secured, it should be listed.

Unfinished buildings in which people reside must, however, be listed regardless of the state of completion.

All finished buildings should be listed, except where they are in a state of dilapidation and are unoccupied.

4.5 Types of visitation records

Two types of visitation records will be used in the census. These are:
  • Visitation record -- private dwellings -- Form PCOID
  • Visitation record -- non-private dwellings -- Form PCOIE

4.6 Form PCOID visitation record - private dwellings

Form PCOID -- visitation record -- private dwellings is comprised of a cover page and four sections.

The inside of the cover page summarizes for easy reference all the persons who should be included as members of the household.

Section 1 -- Census taker's daily activity record
Section 2 -- Listing record
Section 3 -- Notes and comments
Section 4 -- Record of household members living on the streets

4.7 How to use the visitation record

There are three different units to be listed. These are the:
  • Building
  • Dwelling
  • Household
Each of these units must be identified by a special number which you will assign. Instructions for assignment will be given later on.

There are 10 lines available for use on each page of Section 2 and this section has 12 pages. Therefore, there will be a total of 120 lines which should be used for listing. Each line should be used to record information on a household, a group dwelling, or another type of building. Examples of "other buildings" are business establishments, schools, churches or health centers.

Where you need more than 120 lines for listing purposes, then you will need a second Visitation Record. Obtain the new one from your supervisor but make sure to mark "book 2" on the cover page. The numbers assigned to the building units recorded in Book 2 must follow consecutively those in Book 1. For example, if the last building was assigned the number 172, then the number assigned to the first building listed in Book 2 would be 173. Listing it as No.1 would be wrong.

4.8 Cover page

The cover page is used for two purposes. The first is to provide identification, the second to provide summary results. The identification items are to be completed before you start enumeration; the rest are to be entered on completion of enumeration.

4.9 Completing the cover page before enumeration

Identification number: Copy the identification numbers denoting parish, constituency and E.D. in which you are working. This will be found on the front of the E.D. map folder. Enter also the supervisory zone number which will be given to you by your supervisor.

Name of parish: Write in the name of the parish in which you are working.

Name of constituency: Copy the name of the constituency in which you are working from the front of the E.D. map folder.

Name, address and number of census taker: Print your name in BLOCK capitals. Next, enter your permanent home address. Then, enter your assigned number at the appropriate space. This is the same number as the one on your Identification Card.

Supervisory zone: This will be given to you by your supervisor.

Date started working: On your first day at work as a Census taker, you should enter the date at this item.

4.10 Section 1: Census taker's daily activity record

Section 1 is meant to provide a bird's eye view of your activities and performance on a daily basis. It is very important that you keep an up to date record of your daily activities. Your supervisor will need this record to advise the area coordinator and census officer of the progress of the work. You must, therefore, complete an entry for every day that you work.

Make the entries at the end of each day's enumeration. The information required for completing Section 1 must be taken from Section 2.

There are eight columns in Section 1 and these should be completed as follows:

Date -- column 1: The date to be entered here should be the date on which the activities recorded took place. If no work was done on a particular day then this date should not appear in this record. If however, your failure to work on a particular day was connected to a census activity, as for example, meeting with census officials, write in this information on the line which corresponds to the date entered.

Serial numbers of buildings listed -- columns 2 and 3: Entries should be made in columns 2 and 3 and these entries will be used to determine the number of buildings listed each day.

The number to be entered in Column 2 should be the building number of the first unit visited on the particular day. On the first working day, this entry will be "001". From the second day's entry onwards it will be the next consecutive number entered in Column 3, representing the last listing of the day before. The number assigned to the last building listed each day should be entered in Column 3.

Please note that if a building is not a housing unit once it is identified and given a number it is listed. If it is a housing unit however, it is not listed until the dwellings and households within that unit are identified.

Number of dwellings listed -- column 4: From section 2, count the number of dwellings listed during each day.

Number of households listed -- column 5: As for dwelling units listed, the number of households listed is derived from a count of the number of households listed each day. The number may be obtained by counting the entries made in section 2.

Number of call back visits made -- column 6: Call back visits will almost invariably be part of your work so as to enumerate those persons who were not covered on the first visit. Enter in column 6 the number of call back visits made during the working day.

Number of questionnaires completed -- column 7: At the end of each day, count the number of questionnaires you completed on that day. Enter the number in Column 7.

Remember to be accurate, since this will be one of the records checked to determine your final payments.

Remarks: Record here, unusual or important factors which occurred or are related to any particular day's activity. Problems encountered during enumeration should be entered here also, since such problems as: bad weather, difficult terrain, problems with people in the area, etc. do affect the rate of enumeration.

4.11 Section 2 - The listing record

This is the main section of the Visitation Record and must be fully completed. As you have already been instructed, you should use each line on the page, omitting none.

There are eight (18) Columns in this section to be completed thus:

Block -- column 1: If you are working in an E.D. which has been blocked, enter in the column the block symbol A, B, C, etc. If the E.D. has not been blocked then a diagonal line across this column this:

[Box not reported here]

This indicates that it is not applicable.

Date of first visit -- column 2: Enter here the date of first visit for purposes of listing the building, dwelling, household and/or other building.

Date enumeration completed -- column 3: This refers to the date which enumeration of the household is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons in the household have been enumerated. In the case of refusals, enumeration will be completed when the Supervisor instructs you to cease visits to that household for purposes of enumeration.

Building/housing unit number -- column 4: Assign in Column 4, a consecutive serial number starting from 001, to each building unit in the E.D. Where the building unit is a housing unit, this may contain more than one household. In these cases, the building number assigned will be repeated until all households in that housing unit have been recorded.

Dwelling number -- column 5: The next two, Column 5 -- Dwelling number and column 6 -- household number, are to be filled in for housing units only. Assign a number in column 5 to each dwelling, starting from 01 for each building. Thus, if there are four dwellings in a building the numbers would be 01, 02, 03 and 04. You must begin numbering dwellings at 01 for each new housing unit listed.

Household number -- column 6: Assign a number to the household. If there is more than one, the numbers will be 01, 02, etc. You must begin numbering households at 01 for each new dwelling listed.

Where a dwelling or household is identified after the first listing had taken place, this would be listed when they are identified. The building number should be the number assigned at first listing. The dwelling or household numbers should however be the one following (consecutively) the last dwelling and/or household assigned for that building.

[Box not reported here]

In this example, housing unit 001 is first listed on 12/10 with one dwelling and one household. Housing unit 002 with two dwellings is listed on the same day. It is subsequently discovered on the following day that there is an additional household in dwelling no.1 and a second dwelling with one household - in housing unit 001.

Name and address of household head -- columns 7 and 8: When you have listed a household (as instructed above) immediately write in the full name of the head of household in column 7. The surname should be entered first. If there is another identifying name, enter this also. Next, enter the full address of the dwelling in column 8.

Remember, the listing for the Census will be used to provide a frame for Sample surveys which will be conducted after the Census. Thus, both name and address should be given in as great detail as possible so as to enable other people to locate the household after the Census is completed.

Entries for address in urban areas could be, for example, 4 King Street, Kingston 13. In rural areas: Rock Hall District, Red Hills P.0.

Name and address of institution/group dwelling -- columns 7 and 8: Where the building unit is a group dwelling -- Enter the name and address of the group dwelling, for example, St. Catherine District Prison, Spanish Town.

Name and address of "Other building" -- columns 7 and 8: Enter the exact name of the church, school or "Other" building. An example might be Browns Town Baptist Church, Browns Town P.O. Include here also all embassies, high commissions and consulates.

Number of persons in household -- column 9: Columns 9-13 apply to households only and will have entries in all cases where a household has been identified. In column 9 enter the total number of persons who have been identified as usual residents of the household.

Total number of persons enumerated -- columns 10-13: Write in the total number of persons for whom you have completed a questionnaire with all the information required for those persons. In column 10 enter the total, in column 11 enter the number of males and in column 12 the number of females.

Note clearly all cases of refusal in the remarks column. At all times enter an explanation in the remarks column wherever columns 9 and 10 differ.

Number of persons 18 years and over -- column 13: Enter the total number of persons who are 18 years and over. Check on each questionnaire at Question 1.2 to determine the ages.

Group dwelling number -- column 14: Assign in column 14 a consecutive serial number starting from "001" to each group dwelling in the E.D.

Do not write in column 15.

Other building number -- column 16: Assign in column 16 a consecutive serial number starting from "001" to each building other than a housing unit and a group dwelling.

Do not write in column 17.

Remarks -- column 18: Enter here all comments already identified and any other which are relevant.


Dwellings are numbered within buildings (housing units) and households are numbered within dwellings. You must therefore begin numbering dwellings at 01 for each new building and also for each new household within dwellings:

[Box not reported here]

In the example above there are two buildings (housing units). Building no.1 has one dwelling with two households while building number has two dwellings with one household each. Each line in the example represents a line in section 2 of the Visitation Record. If a residential building is vacant, assign a building number only and make a note in the section reserved for remarks. If you have identified a closed dwelling you must assume at least one dwelling and one household.

Important notes

(1) Housing units occupied by foreign diplomatic personnel (who are not to be included in the Census) should be listed assuming one dwelling and one household. Do not enumerate, however. Indicate in the remarks column (i.e., column 18) that the occupants are diplomatic personnel.

(11) Call back: This is a revisit to a household for the purpose of collecting information which was not obtained on a previous visit. If after three visits you are still not able to enumerate a household you must refer the case to your Supervisor. Where after "Call back" it becomes necessary to add to the list because additional dwellings and/or households have been identified, these will be entered sometime after the first listing. The date to be entered in column 2 against these visits would be the date where the new listing of the dwelling/household took place. You should identify in column 18 -- remarks column, the identification of the first listing, say, for example, "Building no. 6. Listed on June 9".

4.12 Section 3: Notes and comments

You may need to make more comprehensive notes than those provided for in sections 1 and 2. Remember to identify the household to which they apply by entering the serial numbers of the housing unit, dwelling and household.

4.14 Completing cover page after enumeration

Now that we have completed the visitation record we need to go back to the completion of the cover page.

The remaining items on the cover of Form PCOID are:

Date completed working: When you have completed enumeration in the E.D., enter the date on which you enumerated the last person.

Number of questionnaires: Count the number of individual questionnaires which you have completed. There should be a questionnaire for each person enumerated. This number should correspond to that entered at the item -- population enumerated.

Number of pages (section 2) completed: At the end of enumeration, enter the number of pages in Section 2 that have entries on them. If you have used a second visitation record for listing in the E.D., then you should enter the total number of pages used in books 1 and 2 combined.
This should be entered thus: 120 (books 1 and 2).

Number of private dwellings listed: The number to be entered here should be calculated by totaling column 4 of section 1, Census taker's daily activity record. Where more than one book has been used, the entry should be the total from all the books used. The entry in column 4, section 1 were of course obtained from totaling on a daily basis the number of dwellings recorded in Section 2.

Number of institutions/group dwellings listed: Count the number of group dwellings listed by you and enter this number on the cover page.

Remember to include those entered in book 2 if you have used a second book.

Number of private households enumerated: This entry should be obtained by totaling column 5 of section 1. This corresponds to the count of entries in section 2.

Number of other buildings: Enter here the total number of "Other" buildings listed.

Population enumerated: total, male, female, 18 years and over: The information required here must be taken from section 2 as it represents the sum of the population of all households in the E.D. The total population is derived from column 10, total male from column 11, total female from column 12, and total 18 years and over from column 13.

4.15 The order of enumeration

In enumerating a household:
(1) Complete columns 1-9 of the visitation record.

(2) Write in the name of each person who is a usual resident of the household in Section1of the household questionnaire, form PCO1A.

The name of the head should be written first. The number of persons listed at section 1 should be the same as the number recorded in column 9 of the visitation record.

Remember we are focusing on the population at a particular point in time: Census day is Monday September 10, 2001.

You are interested in usual residents of the household on that day. Any member of the household temporarily away should be included. Do not list visitors. A member of the household then, who subsequently died should be included. Be sensitive and tactful in your approach however. If there is no resistance on the part of the household in giving the information, take it. In the same way babies born after the date should not be included. Make sure the person giving the names remembers to include himself/herself.

The order of enumeration which is to be followed among persons who were usual residents of the household on Census day is:
  • Head of household
  • Spouse or common law partner
  • Child of head and or spouse
  • Spouse or partner of child
  • Grandchild of head, or spouse, or partner
  • Parent of head, spouse or partner
  • Brother/sister of head, spouse or partner
  • Other relative of head, spouse or partner
  • Domestic employee
  • Other household members not related to head, spouse or partner.
Children should be listed in order of age -- the oldest first.

Where a group of unrelated persons live together, once the head is identified (see Paragraph 3.10) the others are numbered consecutively -- no particular order is required.

4.16 Ensuring that all persons are included

When you have obtained the list of persons check to see whether there were any additional persons who are usual residents who might have been temporarily away -- in hospital, abroad, in prison? Remember to ask particularly about babies and older people.

In order to assist the respondent in remembering all the persons to be enumerated and to help you to get the information on relationship to the head quickly, use the following line of questioning:

"Please give me the names of all the persons who at September 10 were usual residents of this household? Please start with the person who is the head of the household then the wife or partner of the head and so on. Please give me the names of all the children. Were there any babies? Any old people?"

You will then proceed to complete one household questionnaire for each household and an individual questionnaire for each person identified as usual resident.

Part 5: Census questionnaires

There are three questionnaires to be administered in the census:

Form PCO1A - Household questionnaire
Form PCO1B - Individual questionnaire for 90% coverage, also called the short form.
Form PCO1C - Individual questionnaire for 10% coverage, also called the long form.

A household questionnaire must not be done without an individual questionnaire and vice versa.

5.1 The structure of the questionnaires

Form PCO1A is 8.5" x 11" in size and contains 4 pages. There are 29 questions divided into the following sections:

Section 1 - Identification
Section 2 - Characteristics of housing unit
Section 3 - Characteristics of household
Section 4 - Crime and violence
Section 5 - Migration and mortality
Section 6 - Business activity

Form PCO1A is to be completed for every household. These questions should be directed to the head of household or in his/her absence, any responsible adult member.

Form PCO1B is 8.5" x 11" in size and contains 3 pages. There are 26 questions divided into 2 sections as follows:

Section 1 - Characteristics
Section 2 - Birthplace and residence

Form JCO1C is 8.5" x 11" in size and contains 7 pages. There are 71 questions divided into 5 sections as follows:

Section 1 - Characteristics
Section 2 - Birthplace and residence
Section 3 - Education and training
Section 4 - Economic activity
Section 5 - Fertility

The long form is essentially the short form plus an additional 4 pages.

5.2 Nature of the questionnaires

On each questionnaire, questions are followed by all the possible or the most likely relevant answers. Each answer has placed beside it a circle, a box (rectangle), or both. You must always place a check [mark] in a circle or write in the box. Example: "?" or [5][2]

Most answers require a check in a circle. In making the tick, ensure that the bottom of the check is within the circle indicating the correct answer to the question (e.g., "?" secondary). There are, however, a number of other ways in which you will be required to record an answer. These are as follows:

(i) Questions that require a number as the answer. This number may be an age, a year, number of hours, number of months, number of persons or number of rooms. To record a year, write in the four (4) digits, for example: 1950. Examples on Forms PCO1B and PCO1C are Questions 2.4 and 2.5. Question 1.2a requires a date representing year, months, day. So September 28, 1950 will be written as [1][9][5][0][0][9][2][8]. To record hours, months, or persons use 2 digits. For less than 10, the first digit will be 0. To write a number between 0 and 9, for example, record "00", "01"-"09". Examples on Form PCO1A: Question 3.3; on Form PCO1B: Question 1.2b; on Form PCO1C: Questions 3.2 and 4.5.

(ii) Questions which require a check and a number (as for Questions 5.2 and 5.4 on Form PC01A), you must check the sex and write in the age that corresponds that sex.
[] M
[] F

[4] [0]
(iii) Questions which require a "write-in" response: "Write-in" responses are required in Question 6.2. only on Form PCO1A, and on Form PCO1C for the following questions: 3.9, 4.7, 4.8, In these instances, use neat script and confine your writing to the space provided for each.

Do not use any pen other than the one given to you. Do not exceed the space bounded by the lines. Do not mark too lightly by not pressing enough.

Do not score more than one check box except where special instructions have been given, as in the case of Questions 4.1, 5.2, 5.4 (Form PCO1A), Questions 5.8 and 5.11 (Form PCO1C).

5.3 How to read the questions

Please read the questions just as they are written on the questionnaire. If speaking to the respondent directly, you will of course say "you or your". If however, someone is giving information about another person you will of course phrase the question appropriately. After reading a question once in a clear voice and the respondent does not answer after a reasonable time, he has probably either: (1) Not heard the question, or (2) Not understood the question. Repeat the question if it was not heard. If it was not understood, you may have to choose the appropriate wording for a part or whole of the question. Do not depart too much from the written question, however, as in doing so you may change the meaning.

The line (___) that appears in the question is for your guidance and indicates that in cases where you are not speaking to the person about whom the information is being given, you must write the person's name.

Under no circumstances must you write [the respondent's name] on the line.

5.4 Following the instructions

In order to explain something to the interviewer or to specify any action that is to be taken at a particular time during the interview, instructions are given in bold capitals (e.g., FOR PERSONS 16 YEARS AND OVER ONLY - Question 1.6).

5.5 Skip instructions

Skip instructions direct the flow of an interview. This is given when there is to be a break in the sequential order, that is, you should skip out some questions. The instructions tell you which question to ask next, for example, (go to Q1.8). It is important that you follow the instructions carefully for if you do not, you may be asking the respondent questions which are not relevant to him or her.

5.6. The "Other" response

For a number of questions, there is a response category "Other". You will use this category only when the answer given does not exactly fit any of the other answers stated. Examples are Questions 1.4 and 1.5.

5.7 The "Not stated" response

"Not stated" been included as a response for every question on the questionnaire. This is to be scored when the respondent fails to answer the particular question. The category is to be used, however, only as a last resort. You must make every attempt to get a response. You will notice there are never any skip instructions after a "Not stated" response. You will need to be very alert in order to know where next to go so as to avoid repeating questions or asking questions which are irrelevant due to previous responses.

5.8 Parish and E.D. identification

The identification that will appear on all your documents is written on the map.

5.9 Housing unit number

The housing unit number is taken from the Visitation Record and will be identical for all members of the housing unit. In filling in the number all three boxes must be entered. Thus a housing unit number could be "001", "002", "003", etc.

5.10 Dwelling number

The dwelling number is taken from the Visitation Record, comprises two digits and will be the same for all persons in a particular dwelling (e.g., "01", "02", etc.)

5.11 Household number

The household number is taken from the Visitation Record comprises two digits and will be the same for all persons in a particular household (e.g., "01", "02", etc.)

5.12 Individual number

Assign a number to each member of the household after ordering them as set out in paragraph 4.15, starting with "01" for the head and continuing consecutively until all members have been assigned a number. The head of the household is always individual number "01" even if the questionnaire if not the first one completed. This number will appear on the individual questionnaire (Forms PCO1B and PCO1C only).

Form PCO1A: Housing
[Head of household only]

5.13 General

This section comprises Questions 2.1-6.2 and should be completed only once for each household. The answers to these questions must appear on the questionnaire [as given by] the head of household, even if they were given by someone else.

The information required relates to (a) the housing unit and (b) the household. Generally, they are to be asked of the head of household but like any other information on the questionnaire, they can be asked of any responsible adult.

Section 1: Identification

5.14 Question 1.1: Name of individual

Following the instructions outlined in paragraph 4.15, "Order of enumeration", enter the names of all the individuals who are included in the household, at section 1. If the number of persons in a household exceed ten (10), use an additional questionnaire PCO1A to list the others.
5.15 Question 1.2: Summary of enumeration
The items indicating the number of persons of both sexes enumerated in each household will be completed after enumeration of the household is complete. This information will be taken from Columns 10-13 of Section 2 of the visitation record.

Section 2: Characteristics of housing units

5.16 Question 2.1

This question can be completed from observation. If, of course, there are any doubts, ask the respondent to clarify.

Illustrations of the different types of units are included in the appendices to this manual. Examine them carefully. Pay particular attention to the attached units, which increasingly have become dominant types of units, especially in the urban areas.

Separate house - detached: This is the most common type of unit. This is the type usually constructed for occupation by a single household and which has open space on all four sides. Include here duplex houses, which are separated by garages.

Attached units: Include in this category all units that are joined to each other by at least one wall. These include apartment buildings, town-houses, urbanas, quadrominiums, etc. These latter are new types of units found mostly in the Greater Portmore area of St. Catherine.

Part of commercial building: The term "commercial" is used here to include all non-residential buildings. This includes therefore all cases where a household occupies part of a building which was intended for use mainly as a business place or other non-living unit.

Improvised housing unit: This is an independent makeshift shelter or structure built usually of wasted materials and generally considered unfit for habitation which is being used as living quarters at the time of the census, usually by one household.

Other: Include here any type of housing unit which does not fit any of the 36 categories mentioned; boats, tents, trailers, etc. are examples.

5.17 Question 2.2: Material of outer walls

This question refers to the materials of which the outer walls of the housing unit are made. Although this may be completed from your own observation, you may in some instances need to enquire from the householder whether or not the walls are reinforced.

Concrete and blocks: Include here walls of concrete blocks with steel reinforcement but not nogging. Include units made of "prefabricated" material in this category.

Stone and brick: This applies where walls are made of stone or of red bricks, made by a kiln-burning process.

Nog: include here units where the walls are of concrete but without steel reinforcement (e.g., walls reinforced by wooden frames with concrete filling).

Wattle/adobe: This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure (e.g., pure wattle walls, wattle and thatch walls, and wattle daubed with earth plaster. Wattle is comprised of sticks inter-woven into a network.

Wood: This applies if the walls are made solely of wood.

Wood and concrete: This applies if both wood and concrete as described above are used.

Wood and brick: Score this for housing units where the materials used are both wood and brick (as described above).

Other: Include here all other types of wall construction material not described above.

5.18 Question 2.3: Roofing material

This question seeks to determine the main type of material used in the construction of the roof. It is recognized that the roof of a housing unit may be made of more than one type of material. In such cases, identify the main area.

Metal sheeting: this applies to zinc and aluminum sheeting.

Shingle, wood: Include here all types of wooden shingles.

Shingle, other: This applies to shingles other than that made from wood and includes fiberglass and asphalt.

Tile: Include here roofs made from concrete clay, aluminum and other tiles. The popular "Decramastic" roofing should be included here.

Concrete: This is usually referred to as concrete slab.

Other: Include here all other types of roofing material for example thatch.

Section 3: Characteristics of households

5.19 Question 3.1: Type of tenure

This question refers to the type of tenure under which the dwelling is occupied.

Owned: This applies if the dwelling is owned solely by member(s) of the household. If the dwelling is occupied by the family or close relatives of the owner, but the owner even if he sometimes sleeps there, is not a member of the household according to the census definition (for example, where wife and children of the owner live in the dwelling, but the owner perhaps because of his work, or for other reasons, does not normally sleep in the dwelling, and is then not a member of the household concerned), the dwelling should not be classified as owned but as Rent Free.

Leased: This relates to those cases where the dwelling is rented in accordance with an agreement (written or unwritten) for a stipulated period, between the owner and the occupier. In most cases, this agreement of lease will stipulate the rental payable, and length of time for which the building is rented

Rented: This is used here to relate to those cases which are the most usual where the occupier pays a monthly rental to the owner for the dwelling, on the basis of an agreement which may be written or unwritten.

Rent free: In addition to the situation described above, this relates also to those cases where occupiers are not required to pay rental. It implies also that the occupiers are occupying the dwelling with the consent of the owner. Examples of this arrangement are where the government, a business (for example a Bank) or some institution (for example a school or a church) may provide free quarters for some employees.

Squatted: This relates to those cases where occupiers are not paying rent but are occupying the dwelling without the consent of the owner. Note that we are dealing with the tenure of the dwelling, not the land.

Other: Include here any arrangement which does not fit into one of the preceding categories.

5.20 Question 3.2: Tenure of land

This question deals with the tenure of the land, and should be asked only in cases where the housing unit is a separate house. The categories are the same as for Question 3.1.

5.21 Question 3.3: Number of rooms

What is required here is the total number of rooms occupied by that particular household. The term "room" is taken to include those used for general living purposes such as bedrooms, dining rooms, drawing rooms, family rooms, studios, helpers' rooms. Include also rooms used for professional and business services. Exclude garages, bathrooms, toilets, kitchens, verandahs, passages, closets, foyers, and the like. Where partitions of a durable nature are utilized the partitioned area is to be regarded as a room. Use of curtains to separate sections of a room is not considered however. Include in the count, all rooms as defined even if they are not all used on a regular basis.

Each room must be counted only once. If some rooms are used by more than one household, count and assign such rooms to the household that is enumerated first.

5.22 Question 3.4: Rooms used for sleeping

Include here the total number of rooms which are used for sleeping on a regular basis. These may or may not be rooms that were originally intended for this purpose. Include rooms that were intended as bedrooms, but are not being used as such at the time of the Census.

5.23 Question 3.5: Availability of kitchen or kitchenette

This question seeks to establish whether or not the household has the use of a kitchen or kitchenette. Score the relevant ("Yes") category to indicate whether it is used by the household only or whether there is sharing. If none is available, check "No".

5.24 Question 3.6: Kitchen/ kitchenette with sink permanently connected

Score the relevant answer to indicate whether any available kitchen or kitchenette has the features stated.

5.25 Question 3.7: Availability to bathroom

As for Q3.5, indicate whether there is a bathroom that is shared or not shared.

5.26 Question 3.8: Room with fixed bath or shower

As for Q3.6, indicate whether the features stated are in place for any available bathroom. It is very important to note that kitchens and bathrooms may or may not be attached to the main building.

5.27 Question 3.9: Disposal of solid waste

This question refers to method of disposal of solid waste (garbage) by the household. In cases where the household uses more than one method of disposal, determine from the respondent the main method of disposal.

Regular public collection system: Refers to a collection system where garbage is collected on a regular basis i.e. during a specified time period such as twice weekly or once monthly, by the government or a government related agency: for example, Metropolitan Parks and Markets, Central Parks and Markets, etc.

Irregular public collection system: Refers to a collection system where garbage is collected by the government or a government related agency but not on a regular basis i.e. collection is done in an unpredictable manner.

Private collection system: This is scored where a private company is authorized to collect garbage.

Burn: This applies when the household's main disposal of garbage is by burning.

Bury: This refers to the disposal of garbage by burying in a hole in the ground. This may be done in one's own yard or at some other location.

Dumping in sea/river/pond/gully: This describes the disposal of garbage into the sea, river, pond or gully.

Dumping in own yard: This refers to the disposal of garbage by throwing in the back yard. It should not be confused with burying, however which involves the digging a hole.

Dumping at a municipal site: This applies to instances where garbage is taken by the respondent to a site identified by local authorities as a dump.

Other dumping: Include here all other types of dumping not identified.

Other method of garbage disposal: Score this for all other types of disposal methods not mentioned previously.

5.28 Question 3.10: Type of toilet facilities

If the household has available more than one kind of toilet facility, indicate the more modern type. In this context, water closets are considered to be more modern than pit latrines. Indicate the kind of facility available to the household, and whether or not it is shared with another household(s).

Pit: Score this if the toilet facility is a pit latrine.

WC linked to sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet, which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system (commonly referred to as a sewer main).

WC not linked to sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet, which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soak away). This pit is not to be confused with the pit latrine.

None: Score this if the respondent indicates that the household has no toilet facilities.

Not stated: This position is to be scored if satisfactory information cannot be gathered.

5.29 Question 3.11: Availability of toilet facilities

This question is to be asked only of those who indicate in Q3.10 that they have toilet facilities. Inquire whether they are shared with any other household and score appropriately.

Please note that the use of a public toilet indicates that the household does not have toilet facilities.

5.30 Question 3.12: Type of lighting

Score the main type of lighting used by the household. The answers are straight-forward.

5.31 Question 3.13: Type of fuel

Score the type of fuel used. If more than one type is used, mark the one used most frequently. Nowadays people are using alternate sources of fuel, and the inclusion of "Solar energy" and "Biogas" is in recognition of this fact.

5.32 Question 3.14: Water supply

You are required to indicate here the main source of domestic water supply for the household. This means that, in those cases where the household members obtain water from more than one source, you must determine from the respondent which is the main source and record this one only. In general, give precedence to the source for cooking and drinking over the source for bathing, washing and other uses.

Public piped into dwelling: Public refers to a water supply established and maintained by the government or a government related agency, for example, the National Water Commission. Check this if the water supply is from this source and is carried by pipes into the dwelling. You are likely to encounter situations where pipes have been installed but because of a lack of water in the area the householders are forced to use another source. It is this other source which must be identified. Score this category only if water is received through pipes connected to the dwelling.

Public piped into yard: This applies to cases when the householder's water is from a public source and is carried by pipes into the yard only. You are likely to encounter situations where pipes have been installed but because of a lack of water in the area the householders are forced to use another source. It is this other source which must be identified. Score this category only if water is received through pipes connected into the yard only.

Private piped into dwelling: This applies when the main source of domestic water is not a public one and it is piped into the dwelling. Examples of private sources are a private well or tank from which there are pipes which carry water into the dwelling.

Private catchment, not piped: This applies if the water supply is from a non-public catchment and is not piped into the dwelling.

Public standpipe: This relates to a public standpipe, usually located along roads or other public thoroughfares.

Public catchment: This is applicable if the main source of water for domestic use is supplied from a public tank or other catchment and is not piped into the premises. In those cases the water is probably obtained by going to the tank.

Spring/ river: This is applicable if the main source of domestic water is obtained from a spring or river.

Other: Include here all other sources of water supply. Where water is trucked to the area, score "Other". Score this also if water is received from neighbors on a regular basis.

Not stated: This is to be scored if the respondent fails to give a source of water supply.

5.33 Questions 3.15-3.16

If there is a personal computer in the household that is owned by any member of the household, score "Yes" at Q3.15 and then ask if there is internet connection at Q3.16. Please note that the computer must be in working condition.

5.34 Question 3.17

This question seeks to determine the accessibility to telephone facilities. The responses are ranked in order of effectiveness. Score one answer only. For example, the household has access to all types listed, score "Yes, in dwelling" only. If access is to a cellular only, score "Yes, cellular".

Yes, in dwelling (not cellular): This refers to the household having a regular telephone system within the dwelling.

Yes, cellular: This refers to the use of a cellular telephone, whether fixed or not.

Yes, neighbor's facility: This refers to the household's use of a telephone owned by its neighbors (which may be regular or cellular). The neighbor in this context may be another household in the same dwelling.

Section 4: Crime and violence

5.35 Question 4.1: Victim of a crime

This question seeks to find out if any member of the household has been a victim of any of the crimes listed. Read the categories. More than one crime may be given for this question but make sure to indicate whether or not the person was a victim. Place a check mark to indicate the answer given for each crime. Score "No" or "Don't know" if relevant. Do not leave blank.

5.36 Questions 4.2-4.3: Reporting the crime

Indicate whether or not any of the crimes was reported to the police. Score "Yes" if any of the crimes was identified at Q4.1. Score "No" only if none of the crimes identified was indicated. Score "Don't know" in cases where the answer is relevant. Q 4.3 is asked only of persons who indicate that they were victims but did not report the crime. Check the relevant answer at Q4.3.

Section 5: Migration and mortality

5.37 Questions 5.1-5.2: Persons leaving to live abroad

These questions seek to obtain information that will allow for an accurate estimation of migration out of Jamaica during the year 2000, and the number of deaths occurring in the twelve months preceding the census (between September 10, 2000 and September 9, 2001).

If the answer to Q5.1 is "Yes", at Q5.2 write in the number of persons leaving the household to live permanently abroad during the year 2000. Then score the sex and write in the age of each individual. For babies younger than one year old, record "00", and for persons 98 years and over score "98". The age to be recorded is the age at the time of migration. Score "99" in all instances where the number of persons and age are not given.

Please note that the emphasis is on permanent residence. Persons going on vacation are not to be included if they returned. If however they went on vacation but have not returned after six (6) months, they are to be included.

If the number of persons exceeds four (4), indicate [this] in the visitation record

5.38 Questions: Number of deaths

If the individual's response is "Yes" at Q5.3, write the number of deaths at Q5.4, check the sex, and record the age of each person who died at Q5.5. For babies younger than one year, record "00", and for persons 98 years and over check "98". Score "99" for all cases where a response for number of persons and age is not reported.

Section 6: Business activity

5.39 Questions 6.1 and 6.2

Any activity other than farming from which income is being generated should be included. This includes the traditional areas such as dressmaking, hairdressing, craft-making, tailoring, etc., as well as the newer type of activities where persons operate from "home offices".

Write in the space provided a clear and concise description of the activity. Allowance is made for at least three (3) activities within each household.

Form PCOIB and PCO1C: Individual questionnaire

Section 1: Characteristics
[All persons]

This section provides basic characteristics about the individuals, and are to be answered by all members of the household.

5.40 Question 1.1: Sex

This entry should not be on the basis of the name only, especially if the person is not seen. In such cases, enquire as to whether the individual is male or female unless this has already been indicated by the respondent during the interview.

5.41 Question 1.2: Age

It is possible that some persons may not remember the exact date of birth but can tell you the age. Others may only know the year of birth, and so on. If the respondent gives you the date of birth record, the year, month and day in the relevant boxes at Q1.2a. Based on this information, calculate the age in completed years at September 10, and record in the space provided at Q1.2b. If the age is given for Q1.2b, there is no need to enter the date of birth at Q1.2a. Only when the respondent gives the date of birth as the first answer, (in which case you must calculate Q1.2b), will there be answers in both Q1.2a and Q1.2b. You must make every effort to obtain an estimate of age, as this question must be completed. For persons 98 years and over, record "98" and for babies younger than one year old record "00". Refer to the appendices and use the age table to guide you in calculating the age on Census day.

5.42 Question 1.3: Relationship to head

Score the position that relates to the individual's relationship to the head of the household. Where the word spouse is used, it refers to the legal wife or husband. Partner refers to the common law partner.

Head: This is the person recognized by the respondent as the head and should be accepted as such.

Wife/husband of head: This refers to the wife (or husband) of the head. The partners should be legally married.

Common law partner of head: This refers to a woman (or man) who lives with, but is not married to, the head of the household.

Child of head and spouse/partner: This is to be scored for each child (natural or adopted) of the head of household and the spouse or partner together. "Child" in this case refers to a son or daughter of the head of household and spouse or partner together, regardless of age.

Child of head only: This is to be marked for each child (natural or adopted) of the head of household only. "Child" in this context refers to a son or daughter of the head, regardless of age.

Child of spouse/partner only: This is to be scored for each child (natural or adopted) of the spouse or partner of the head of household only. "Child" in this context refers to a son or daughter of the spouse or partner of the head of household, regardless of age.

In all cases of adoption, the adoption process must have been completed for the child to be regarded as adopted. In cases where the courts have awarded legal guardianship of a child to an adult, the child must still have been legally adopted to be regarded as "Child".

Spouse/partner of child: This is to be marked if the individual is the spouse or partner of any child of either the head or spouse.

Grandchild of head/spouse: This refers to the grandchild of the head or spouse/partner, irrespective of age of the individual.

Parent of head/spouse: This is to be scored for each parent of the head or spouse.

Brother/sister of head/spouse: This refers to the brother or sister of head of household or his/her spouse.

Other relative of head/spouse: This refers to all members of the household who are related to either the head of household or his/her spouse: for example, cousin of head, niece/nephew of spouse, etc.

Domestic employee: This is to be coded for all employees (paid or unpaid) attached to the household and who, according to the definition, are members of the household.

Other non-relative: This refers to all other members of the household who are not related to the head or spouse.

Not stated: This position is to be scored if the information on the relationship to the head of household is not given.

5.43 Question 1.4: Race/ethnic origin

Read the alternatives on the questionnaire and score the relevant position. Some respondents might appear confused by the question, but you might want to remind them of our motto "Out of many one People". The motto was selected because our ancestors came from several parts of the world: namely, Africa, India, China, Europe and the Middle East. Accept the respondent's reply. If you feel that you are obviously being misled, do not contradict but make a note in your visitation record.

5.44 Question 1.5: Religious affiliation/denomination

This question seeks to determine association with a religion. The word affiliation could cause some amount of confusion in people's minds, but to most people it will mean the "church" they belong to or regularly attend. The question seeks to determine association with all religions, and not just Christianity. Non-Christian religions include Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Baha'i. For the Christian religion, to which the majority of Jamaicans conform, the traditional denominations are listed. Do not confuse denomination with religion. Denominations represent church groups within Christianity. The list contains both denominations (of the Christian church) and religions. If the respondent indicates that he or she belongs to one of those specified, mark the relevant position. Remember that the United Church represents a union of Presbyterians, Congregational and Disciples of Christ. Check "Other" for any denomination or religion not identified. Score "None" for those individuals who indicate that they do not belong to any religion and or denomination.

5.45 Questions 1.6-1.8: Marital and union status
[Persons age 16 and older. If, however, it is clear that the individual although younger than 16 years is married (as for example among Hindus), then ask the questions and make a note in the visitation record]

Marital status refers to the legal status of the relationship, while union status refers to the actual type of relationship in which a person may be involved. A man or woman can be involved in either of the following relationships:

(1) He or she could be legally married and living with the person to whom he or she is married.

(2) He or she could be living with a partner to whom he or she is not legally married. This is referred to as living common-law.

5.46 Question 1.6

Married: Score this for all persons [who are] formally married, whether or not they are living with the partner to whom they are legally married. In those cases where East Indians have been married according to the Hindu custom (that is, under the bamboo) or the Muslim rites, score whether or not the marriage has been legally registered.

The remaining four categories -- "Widowed", "Divorced", "Legally separated", and "Never married" -- are self-explanatory. Please note the following:

(i) Married persons who are separated but who have not been through the courts are to be scored as married

(ii) A "Decree absolute" must be granted for the person to be considered divorced.

5.47 Question 1.7

This question is to be asked only of persons who indicate at Q1.6 that are not married. If the person is currently living with his or her husband or wife, score "Yes" and Go to Q1.9.

5.48 Question 1.8.

This question is to be asked of persons who at Q1.6 indicated that they were not married and persons who are legally married but who at Q1.7 said that they were not currently living with husband or wife.

5.49 Questions l.9-1.13: General

These questions seek to determine whether the respondent suffers from any chronic illness and or has a physical or mental disability. In order to set the respondent at ease before asking these questions which might be seen as very sensitive, begin by saying: "Now I would like to ask you some questions about any difficulty that you (or other members of the household) might have in carrying out everyday activities due to illness and to mental or physical problems."

[Question 1.9 is missing from the original document]

5.50 Question 1.10: Main illness

The illnesses listed are the ones we are interested in. Read the categories and score only the main one. The illness must have been diagnosed by a doctor. You are likely to encounter persons who say they suffer from many illnesses but you must try and establish a main one. Score "None of the above" for persons who say they do suffer from an illness but it is not on the list.

Disability: Is defined as any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Such restriction or lack of ability must be as a result of an impairment. A person has an impairment if he or she has suffered any loss or abnormality of mind or body.

5.51 Question 1.13: Type of disability

The categories are self-explanatory. Note however the following:

Sight only: Score this for persons who are blind (only) or almost blind, indicating that the impairment is at a stage where even wearing eye glasses would not help.

Physical disability: Score this if the person's only impairment is the loss of use of parts of the body: e.g., arms.

Multiple disabilities: Score this for any combination of impairments.

Slowness of learning or understanding: Score this only for persons who have been subjected to testing and found to be slow at learning or understanding simple instructions.

Mental retardation: Score this for persons who function intellectually below a level regarded as normal for their age. In most cases the motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills develop at a much slower rate than in their peers. These persons exhibit decreased learning ability and are generally unable to meet the educational demands of school.

Mental illness: This could range from depression to insanity. In many instances persons suffering from some type of mental illness are able to function normally but require medication.

5.52 Education

Questions on education are designed to determine current enrollment in educational programs and highest level of attainment. The categories indicated at Q1.14 are in recognition of the fact that persons need not be studying within an institution but may be involved in private study. The level of education is generally indicated by the type of institution attended, but there are instances where this might not be so. There may be for instance within a tertiary institution (like the university or a community college) a program for preparing students for CXC or GCE "A" level examinations, in which case the level would be secondary.

Please note the following:

(1) Persons on holidays from school are to be regarded as attending school. If however the person just completed the term and is not enrolled in any other program, score "No" at Q1.14.

(2) If a person has recently registered in a program of study but has not actually started, score "Yes".

(3) Study outside of Jamaica is to be included, assessing the level of attainment.

(4) Enrollment in a Jamal program is not to be included.

5.53 Question 1.14: Attendance at school/registration program

Score "No" for all children younger than 4 years. Ask the question of all persons age 4 and older.

Yes, at school or other institution/HEART: This covers instances where the individual is a registered student in a school or any other institution, whether private or public. Check this also if the respondent is registered in a HEART program at an institution. Do not include persons who are registered in a HEART program but not in an institution.

Yes, private study: Check this if the individual studies through correspondence courses, via the internet, or on his/her own. Some examples are cases of persons doing Association of Chartered Accountant (ACCA), Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT), or Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) examinations but attend no class.

No: Check this if the individual is not registered at a school or in any educational program (including private study). Score this also for persons who are registered in HEART program, such as Skills 2000 or the School Leavers Training Opportunities.

5.54 Question 1.15: Reason for not attending school
[Persons between the ages of 4 and 13 who are not registered in school]

The categories are self-explanatory. Pay particular attention to answers suggesting that the child is working. Probe to find out if the child is actually employed and is being paid wages.

5.55 Question 1.16: Educational attainment
[Check "None" for persons younger than 4]

This question seeks to establish the highest level of educational attainment of the population. It does not refer to exams passed. Generally, this refers to the last school [grade] attended for persons not currently attending school, and the one being attended for those persons who are currently attending. Use as a reference the last grade, form, or class in which the person was placed, as certain types of schools offer two different levels of education and this is indicated by the grade. It is important to note that school attendance outside of Jamaica should be included. Score the position that identifies the highest level attained.

None: Score this for children younger than 4, and for all persons who indicate that they never attended school.

Pre-primary: This is applicable to kindergarten, nursery school, the infant department of a primary, preparatory or all-age school, and basic school.

Primary: This applies to a preparatory school (commonly called "Prep" school), primary school, elementary, and grades 1 through 6 of all-age schools.

Secondary: Include here the traditional secondary high schools, senior schools, junior secondary, comprehensive and technical high schools, and grades 7 through 9 of all-age schools. Include persons registered in a HEART Program at a secondary level.

[The next two categories comprise tertiary level institutions. Refer to appendix iii for a complete list]

University: This refers to enrollment in courses at a university, whether as a day student, as an evening student, or by correspondence. Persons enrolled in the University of Technology (UTECH) and the Northern Caribbean University should be included here. If however they attended these institutions prior to the granting of university status, they should be scored at "Other tertiary".

Other tertiary: This applies to tertiary institutions other than university. Include here are: CAST, West Indies College, Teacher training colleges, community colleges, College of Agriculture, Cultural Training Centre, G. C. Foster College of Physical Education and Sports, etc. Include here also persons attending institutions offering post secondary training, such as the Institute of Management and Production (IMP), Jamaica Institute of Management (JIM), UWI School of Continuing Studies (formerly Extra Mural Department), as well as institutions offering training in data processing, insurance etc. Include also all persons registered in a HEART program at an institution at a tertiary level.

Other: Include here all persons attending Jamal classes and any other types of educational institutions not listed above.

Section 2: Birthplace and residence
[All persons]

These questions are very important for the main reasons that they:

(1) Will establish the "de jure" population on which the final Census tabulations will be based. The "de jure" count identifies persons at their usual place of residence.

(2) Are important for studying movement of the population between parishes in Jamaica. Movements apply only to those taking place between parishes. Residence abroad is not regarded as a move for the purpose of studying internal migration.

5.56 Question 2.1

Refer to the instructions regarding the concept of usual residence. If the answer is "Yes", score and go to Q2.3.

5.57 Question 2.2: Usual residence

This question is to be asked only to persons whose usual place of residence is not the household where they are found -- i.e., where the answer at Q2.1 is "No". In that case, it may be another household in the same parish, another parish in Jamaica, or a foreign country. Score the relevant position for whichever the person indicates. If the answer is "Elsewhere in country", check the relevant parish.

Note that a "No" at Q2.1 does not necessarily mean the person lives in another parish. The person may be living in another household in the same parish where you are working. In this case, score "Another household in this parish". If the respondent is not a usual resident of the household, end the interview after asking Q2.2.

5.58 Question 2.3: Birthplace

In the study of a population, an individual's place of birth is considered to be the mother's place of residence at the time. It is common for mothers from surrounding parishes to go to Victoria Jubilee Hospital in Kingston, the Cornwall Regional Hospital in St. James, and the Spanish Town Hospital in St. Catherine to have their babies. These women then return to their own parish of residence with the children. For census purposes, the parish of birth for these children is the parish to which the mother returned. If the person was born in Jamaica, indicate the relevant parish. Note that there are several places in Jamaica that have the same name. If, therefore, the individual states his/her birthplace by name of locality, do not assume the name of the parish: ask the respondent to tell you what parish the particular address is in. Special attention must be paid to answers given, identifying the parish as Kingston or St. Andrew, particularly the urban part. Many people in Jamaica refer to these parishes interchangeably, generally as "Kingston". When a respondent answers "Kingston", find out if he really means the parish of Kingston and not the suburban area commonly referred to as "Kingston" but which in fact is in St. Andrew.

If a child is born abroad to a woman whose usual place of residence is in Jamaica, the place of birth for that child is the parish of usual residence in Jamaica. Only if the mother was resident abroad (i.e. living abroad for 6 months or more or intending to live abroad for 6 months or more) is the birthplace to be regarded as abroad. Refer to Appendix ii for a listing of country grouping.

5.59 Question 2.4: Year of immigration

This question is to be addressed only to persons born outside of Jamaica. Write in the four digits of the year in the boxes provided. If the person entered Jamaica, left to live abroad, and then returned, it is the last year of entry that is required.

5.60 Questions 2.5: Year of entry into the parish

This question is to be asked only to persons born in Jamaica (see Q2.3). Write in the four digits of the year in the boxes provided. If the respondent was not born in the parish of enumeration, record the year when he/she came to live in the parish. For persons who have moved in and out of the parish, [record] the most recent year. If the individual was born in the parish, at the time of the census is resident in the same parish, and has never resided in another parish, then the year of entry will be the same as the year of birth. If only the age is given you must calculate the year of birth. You have to remember to ask these additional questions, which do not appear on the questionnaire. If, for example, the respondent was born in St. Ann and you are enumerating in St. Ann, you should ask "Have you ever lived outside of St. Ann for six months or more?" If "No", score the year of birth. If "Yes", say "In what year did you return to St. Ann?" and score appropriately.

If the individual had previously resided in this parish and then lived outside of it for 6 months or more, record the year in which he/she last returned to reside in this parish.

If the individual has resided abroad but has not lived in any other parish in Jamaica, then he is not to be regarded as having lived outside of his parish of birth. In this case also, the year of entry will be the same as the year of birth.

5.61 Question 2.6: Parish last lived in

Score here the parish where the person lived before coming to live in the present parish of residence. If the person has not moved from the parish of birth, then score the parish of birth. If the person has only resided abroad and not in another parish in Jamaica, then score the parish of birth.

[Questions 2.7-2.10 are relevant to persons born in Jamaica who have lived abroad for five years or more continuously]

[Question 2.7 is missing from the original document.]

5.63 Question 2.8: Country last lived in

Score here the country that the respondent last lived in for five years or more continuously.

5.64 Question 2.9: Year returned

Record here the four digits of the year the respondent returned to live in Jamaica from the last country that he/she lived in for five or more years continuously.

5.65 Question 2.10: Reason for returning

Score here the relevant response from those stated. The categories stated represent what are regarded as the most common responses. In the case of "Involuntary Return", include here deportation. Care must be taken, however, not to ask the individual if he/she was deported. Remember also that deportation is not always linked to criminal activity. Check the reason "Objective abroad achieved" if the respondent indicates that he went abroad for a specific purpose and, having accomplished that objective, decided to return home.

Section 3: Education and training
[Education questions for persons age 4 and older. Training questions for persons age 14 and older]

You will need to pay close attention to the instructions for this section, which combines questions on education and training. Questions 3.1 and 3.2 relate to education and should be asked of all persons age 4 and older. Questions 3.3 through 3.13 relate to training and are applicable to persons age 14 and older. Questions 3.3 through 3.7 relate to current training, while questions 3.8 through 3.13 relate to past training.

5.66 Question 3.1: Highest examination passed

This question seeks to obtain the highest examination the person has passed. In general, only persons within a specific age range are able to sit for the examinations in which we are interested. It is important therefore that you automatically score "None" for all persons whose current level of education is Pre Primary or Primary Schools. The Common Entrance and GSAT examinations are not to be considered relevant. If these are the only exams passed score none. It is recognized that individuals may have passed more than one of the following examinations specified so you must make sure that you obtain the highest. Do not score all examinations that the person has passed. For persons who were educated abroad you must establish the equivalence with local examinations.

For the Census, the examinations are ranked in the following order.

None: Mark this if the individual has not passed any of the examinations or earned any of the certificates, diplomas or degrees specified.

CXC Basic, JHSC, JSC or JSCE, 3rd JLCL, SSC, JC: Mark this if the individual obtained a certificate in Caribbean Examinations Council Basic, Junior High School Certificate, Jamaica School Certificate, Jamaica School Certificate of Education, Third Jamaica Local, Secondary School Certificate, or the Junior Cambridge.

GCE "O" 1-3, CXC General 1-3, AEB 1-3: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in 1, 2, or 3 subjects in the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level, the Caribbean Examinations Council General, and the Associated Examining Board Examinations. Note that in relation to passes in GCE "O" Level and AEB, only persons obtaining Grades A-C must be regarded as having passed that subject. In relation to the CXC, only Grades 1, 2, and 3 (since 1998) are regarded as passes.

GCE "O" 4+, CXC General 4+, AEB 4+, SC: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in 4 or more subjects in GCE, CXC General, and AEB Examinations, as well as persons who passed Senior Cambridge Examinations.

GCE "A" 1+, HSC, CAPE 1+: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in one or more GCE "A" Level subjects, persons who have passed the Higher Schools Certificate Examination, as well as those who have obtained passes in 1 or more Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination subjects.

College certificates and diplomas: This applies to persons who have obtained a certificate or diploma from a tertiary institution.

Other certificates and diplomas: This applies to persons who have obtained a diploma or certificate from an institution other than a tertiary institution.

Associate degree: This applies to persons who have obtained an associate degree from a university or institute of higher learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award.

Degrees and professional qualifications: This applies to individuals who have obtained a degree from a university or institute of higher learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award. Include also persons engaged in professional work who have had training in specific fields: e.g., lawyers, architects, engineers, certified and chartered accountants.

Other: Mark this for individuals who have passed examinations not specified in any of the preceding responses. Include here persons who have passed the First and Second Jamaica Local Examinations, Royal Society of Arts (RSA), The Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institute (ULCI), and London City Guilds Examinations.

5.67 Question 3.2: Years of schooling

Record the total number of years of schooling that the person has had from age 4 years up to the highest level. For young children who are currently attending school for less than one year, score "01". For older persons who have never attended school or who attended for less than one year, score "00".

[Persons age 14 and older. These questions relate to training, intended specifically to fit an individual for a specific job or occupation. Training means that the person has acquired a skill or will acquire a skill which equips him/her for a particular job. Where an individual indicates that he/she has received training for more than one job, use the one that he/she regards as the main one (for whatever reason)]

[You will notice that some of the questions are repeated. Questions 3.3 through 3.7 are to be asked of persons who are currently being trained, while questions 3.8 through 3.13 relate to part training only. Follow the skip instructions carefully to allow you to ask the relevant questions]

[Questions 3.3 and 3.8 are missing from the original document.]

5.68 Questions 3.4 and 3.9

Write in the name of the occupation for which the person was trained in the space provided. Be as specific as possible. For example, write "Chemical engineer", and not "Engineer". If the information is not reported, score "Not stated". Do not write in the four boxes to the right.

5.69 Questions 3.5 and 3.10

These questions refer to the training program or institution through which the training is being received or was received.

HEART programs
Vocational Training Centre/Academy: Skills training offered at these institutions include food preparation, cabinet making skills, auto mechanics, garment construction skills, and commercial skills.

VTDI (Vocational Training Development Institute): This institution offers a three year diploma for vocational instructors.

Other H.E.A.R.T.: Include here training received through any other HEART training programs. Examples of these are Skills 2000, a community-based program for disadvantaged persons, and School Leavers Training Opportunities (SL-TOP), designed for the acquisition of skills by school leavers through on the job training.

Other programs
CAST/UTECH: College of Arts, Science and Technology now called the University of Technology.

West Indies College/N.C.U.: Mark this if training was received/is being received at West Indies College, now called Northern Caribbean University.

U.W.I.: This refers to training programs at the University of the West Indies, whether as a day or evening student.

Community college: Mark this for individuals whose response is community college. Examples are: Excelsior Community College (EXED), Montego Bay, Knox and Portmore.

Teachers colleges, CASE: Mark this if the individual has received or is receiving training at a teacher training college such as Mico, Shortwood, Church, Bethlehem, as well as College of Agriculture and Science Education.

Nursing schools: Mark this if training was/is in an institution that offers training in patient and personal assistance care. Examples are Jamaica School of Nursing and U.W.I. School of Nursing.

Police training school/Jamaica Police Academy: This applies to members of the Jamaica Constabulary Force who have been trained at the training school formerly located at Port Royal or the more recently established Academy at Twickenham Park.

Secretarial/commercial colleges: This applies to institutions that offer commercial and secretarial training only. Secondary level institutions offering subjects in addition to the regular curriculum should not be included.

Technical schools: Score this for training received at the technical high schools.

On-the-job training: This applies when the individual is receiving/has received "on-the-job" training only. On-the-job training must, however, be structured training and not just learning by experience. In such situations, the trainee is an employee.

Apprenticeship: Include here persons who learned their skill from a more experienced tradesman. In most instances, during the period of training the trainee is not regarded as employed and might be given very little to do.

Other: This covers all other types of methods of acquiring training, including training through correspondence courses or the internet. Include Jamaica Defence Soldiers in this category.

Not stated: Mark this in cases where the information is not given.

5.70 Questions 3.6 and 3.11: Period of training

Score the relevant position representing the period of training.

5.71 Questions 3.7 and 3.12: Qualifications received/will receive

Mark the relevant position indicating the qualification received for training and that to be received by the person who is still undergoing training.

None: Score this if the person indicates that he/she did not receive or will not receive a certificate, diploma, degree etc.

Certificate: This is to be scored for persons who obtained or will obtain a certificate.

Associate degree: Refers to persons who indicate that they have received this award from a university or institute of higher learning.

Diploma: Score this for persons who obtained or will obtain a diploma.

Professional qualification: This qualification is generally acquired by professionals who have received training from a professional body, for example: architects, engineers, accountants.

Graduate degree: Refers to a degree obtained after the one received at the undergraduate level. Examples are a masters degree or a doctorate (PhD).

5.72 Question 3.13: Working in the job for which one was trained

Ask this question only of persons who had past training -- that is, persons who answered "Yes" at Q3.8. This question seeks to determine if individuals are working in the occupation for which training was received. This should be the occupation that was stated at Q3.9

Section 4: Economic activity
[Persons age 14 and older]

5.73 General
Section 4 is comprised of Questions 4.1 through 4.20, and should be asked to persons age 14 and older. The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals were in the working force of the country at some point in time.

This section is included in the sample coverage because it requires much more probing than should be undertaken for the short form. Economic activity in Jamaica has undergone some amount of transformation within the past two or three decades, whereby there has been a significant development of what has come to be regarded as the "Informal sector". People have in many instances moved away from the traditional jobs in the public and private sectors and have ventured into their own small scale businesses, some of which are being operated within homes.

You must pay close attention to the skip instructions at all times to ensure that you ask relevant questions. You will also need to pay close attention to the different reference periods stated. Questions 4.1 through 4.4 seek to identify the persons who worked. As we know that work means different things to different people, we try in these questions to establish clearly whether an individual worked or not within a particular week. These questions relate to the week preceding the Census date, as do Questions 4.5 through 4.13. Question 4.14 asks for a specific date. Questions 4.15 and 4.16 relate to the past twelve months, while questions 4.17 and 4.18 refer to the past 5 years. Questions 4.19 and 4.20 are relevant to persons of pensionable age and seek to determine the type of social welfare benefits or pension being received. Even if the person has never worked, he/she can be in receipt of social welfare benefits (as the beneficiary of a spouse).

It is important that the concept of work be fully understood.

Work includes:

(a) Work with pay, that is:

(i) Work for others for a wage or salary including commission or tips. Work may be done either in the employment of the government, a business organization, some private or public organization, or an individual. These correspond to the categories "Paid employee of government", "Private enterprise", or "Private home" in question Q4.6).

(ii) Work as trainee (such as nurses in training) or apprentice (persons at trade). This could also correspond to the same categories at is point (i).

(iii) Work for oneself in one's own business (including farm), which is run for profit or fees but does not employ paid help. This corresponds to "Self-employed without Employees" in question Q4.6. For example: odd job, hustling, buying and selling etc.

(iv) Work for oneself in one's own business (including farm), which is run for profit or fees and employs paid help. This corresponds to "Self-employed with employees" in question Q4.6.

(b) Work without pay in a business or farm which is run for profit that is:
(i) Work without pay in a business or farm run for profit (usually by a relative), in cases where the individual is either supported by the owner or obtains some benefits other than cash from running of business (see "Unpaid employee in agriculture" or any type of business in question Q4.6).

(ii) Work as an unpaid helper in a business or other organization, in cases where the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay (see "Unpaid employee in agriculture" or any type of business in question Q4.6).

Do not include as "working" those persons who:
(i) Work without money or pay for a relative or other person on tasks that did not contribute to the operation of a farm or of a business: e.g., housework, gardening, odd jobs around the house or yard, such as painting the fence, etc.

(ii) Work without pay assisting a relative or friend in his duties as an employee.

(iii) Work without pay either in cash or in kind as a volunteer worker for service Society for Blind, Operation Workshop.

Note also that "work" must relate to work in Jamaica. It includes, however, those persons who are residing in the territory but are on boats, ships, airplanes, etc., which may operate outside of the territory, as well as travelling salesmen, consultants, etc. Informal commercial importers who travel to the Cayman Islands buying and selling are to be included. Do not include the work done by persons going as contract workers to North America for a few months to work on farms there during the crop season. Other persons who live and work outside of the country should not be classified as having worked with respect to the time they were resident outside of the country.

5.74 Questions 4.1 through 4.4: Economic activity during the first week of September 2001

Ask each question carefully if necessary to establish "working". A "Yes" to Question 4.1or 4.2 or 4.3 indicate "working", so go to Q4.5 once this is given. If the answer to all three questions is "No", go to Q4.4, score the relevant answer, and follow the skip instructions. You must be alert and pay close attention to the respondents' answers. Remember there are activities that people might not regard as work but that in fact are. Doing odd jobs for pay, hustling, a little selling on the sidewalk, a little farming, selling the newspaper are all to be regarded as work.

Definitions of the various categories of economic activities stated in Q4.4 are:

Working in agriculture or any type of business without pay: Include here any individual who worked without pay in a business or farm run for profit in cases where: (i) the individual is either supported by the owner or obtains some benefits other than cash from the running of the business (usually in a family business); or (ii) the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay.

With job, but not working: Include here any individual who had a job or work as defined, who was temporarily away from work during the week, but had a format attachment to the job. Examples of this formal attachment are:

(a) Continued receipt of wage/salary
(b) Assurance of return to work following the end of the contingency
(c) Agreement on the date of return following the short duration of absence from the job

Include also persons who:

(1) Did not work because of illness or temporary disability but whose jobs were being held for them until their return.
(2) Were on leave with or without pay, so long as their jobs were being held for them until their return.
(3) Did not work because of a strike or lockout
(4) Were on short lay-off, if not more than 30 days duration, with instructions to return to work at the end of the 30 days.

For persons who are on leave from a main job but who during the week were involved in any activity that could be regarded as work, this secondary activity must not be considered. Questions related to occupation, industry and location of workplace must therefore relate to the main job.

Seeking first job: This covers persons who had never worked in Jamaica and who, during the reference week, were actively engaged in trying to get work.

Seeking a job that was not the first: This covers persons who had some work experience (in Jamaica) who were not working during the week preceding the census but were actively trying to get work during the week.

Did not seek work, but wanted work and was available: This refers to those individuals who, during the week, wanted work and were available for work although not actively seeking work through the recognized channels.

Students: This applies to those persons not classified above who were full-time students in primary, secondary, technical or other schools, at the university, or were engaged in private studies. Persons on holidays from school or university are to be included here.

Home duties: This relates to those persons who were engaged during the week in looking after their own homes -- that is: cooking, washing, cleaning, etc. It does not cover domestic servants and others who were performing these duties in other people's homes for pay. These would be classified as "Worked". Ensure that you do not include here those persons who worked, were seeking work, or wanted work and it was available, all of whom could also have been engaged in home duties.

Retired, did not work: This relates to those persons who have previously worked but who, during the reference week, were in retirement from work. Do not include persons who might have retired from one job but are working in another job. These persons should have been classified as "Worked".

Disabled, unable to work: This covers those persons who were unable to work because of some physical or mental disability.

Not interested in work: This covers persons who were doing none of the activities that would have been described, but indicated a lack of interest.

Other: This group includes all persons who cannot be properly put into one of the above categories.

Not stated: This includes all persons for whom satisfactory information cannot be obtained in order to classify them according to their economic activity.

5.75 Question 4.5: Hours worked during the first week of September 2001
[Persons who are identified as having a job]

Note that the term "work" refers to actual work done or paid for, so this [question] refers to the number of hours actually worked or paid for, including overtime. For persons working in their own business, record the time they were actually engaged in working or in being at the place of work for business. Remember hours reported is for the job reported on Q4.4: i.e., main employment.

5.76 Question 4.6: Employment status during the first week of September 2001
[Persons who are identified as having a job]

The categories which apply in the question have all been defined earlier in the explanation of the concept of work. This question is relevant to persons who answered "Yes" to Q4.1 or Q4.2 or Q4.3, or [who were listed on] Q4.4 as "With job, not working". For those persons who during the week held two or more jobs (either at different times or at the same time), you should clarify the job that the individual regards as the main job (it could be the one at which more time is spent or providing the greater income).

Foreign consultants resident and working in Jamaica should be scored as "Other".

5.77 Question 4.7: Type of occupation during the first week in September 2001

This question should be asked of individuals who answered "Yes" to Q4.1 or Q4.2 or Q4.3. It is also applicable to those individuals [who were listed on] Q4.4 as "With job, not working", (in which case it relates to the present job), "Seeking a job, which was not the first", and "Did not seek work, but wanted work and was available" (if they have worked before). In the latter cases, it would relate to the last job. For someone from this group who had never worked before, score "Never worked". For persons now working and those who had worked before what is needed here is the exact nature of the job. The job stated must relate to the employment status given at Q4.6.

You are required to write in the name of the occupation in the space provided. Be as specific as possible in recording the occupation. Do not use vague terms such as "Clerk" (which could mean a store clerk or a clerk in an office), "Foreman" (which could mean a foreman on many different types of activities), and so on. Write for example: "Office clerk", "Foreman of a road construction gang", etc. In some cases, you may need to use many words to explain the type of work actually done. This is preferable to trying to use very short descriptions that are vague or inaccurate. DO not attempt to score any codes in the four boxes to the right. If the information is not reported, score "Not stated" in the space provided for occupation.

5.78 Question 4.8: Industry of type of business in present/last job

What is required here is the type of business where the individual worked. It must relate to the occupation entered on Q4.7. Write in the type of business in the space provided by giving a short description of the activity. For example: "Manufacturing", "Cane growing", "Building construction", or "Making of bread and cakes". In instances where you cannot adequately describe the industry, you may give the name of the business or firm also.

In the case of persons engaged by local or central government, give the name of the office or department in which they are employed.

For domestic servants and other personal service workers who work as paid employees in private homes, the industry is "Private home". For persons who indicate odd jobs or hustling, you will need to identify the nature of such activity in order to accurately record the industry. For someone selling biscuits, the industry would not be the same as the person who assist travelers to the buses.

As for occupation, do not attempt to score any codes in the four boxes in the right.

[Questions 4.9 through 4.12 seek to determine specific information about the workplace of persons who worked during the week]

5.79 Question 4.9: Location of workplace "In a home or yard"

Read the categories: This question tries to identify the small business that is being operated within homes. The categories are self- explanatory. Note that there is a category for working in [one's] own home or yard that is distinct from working in another [person's] home or yard. For domestic employees (gardeners, etc.) who work in a private home, score "In another home or yard". Note also that the work does not have to be actually taking place inside the house. For example: home garages and street side furniture making are some of the activities being considered. Score "On a farm" for persons who are engaged in farming, whether or not the person lives on the farm.

5.80 Question 4.10: Parish of work

The question seeks to determine the extent to which people work far from home. For persons working in the transportation industry who operate and work in taxis and buses who travel through several parishes on a daily basis, record the parish where the business is based. For example, for a bus driver travelling from Montego Bay to Kingston to return daily, record St. James. For a taxi driver who travels to Kingston from Spanish Town daily, Record St. Catherine. If, however, the taxi driver leaves Spanish Town, comes to Kingston, stays for the day, and returns to Spanish Town at the end of the day, record Kingston. For persons and in particular vendors who travel to several parishes during the week, score "More than one parish". For persons who travel in and out of Jamaica regularly as part of their job (for example, airline pilots), score the parish of usual residence.

5.81 Question 4.11: Number of employees

Ranges are given and it is hoped that respondents can give a fairly good estimate based on these ranges. Remember the question asks for "Number of persons, including yourself". For self-employed persons who have no employees, score "1 person". In most instances you will expect to score also for domestic helpers.

5.82 Meaning of income

It is intended to include all income from employment that is income from different jobs, if a person has had more than one job at the same time Add together the income from the different jobs. In special cases, even a person classified in Q4.6 as an "Unpaid worker" may have an income, since the classification in Q4.6 relates to his activity during the week preceding the Census only, and he might be receiving an income from regular a job.

In general, there are two types of income to be dealt with depending on whether the person worked for others or for himself. Persons who worked for others for pay (i.e., for wages and salaries) should give their gross income, including any overtime payments and other [fees]. That is, it should be the income before deductions.

For self-employed persons (employers and own account workers), on the other hand, what is required is their net receipts -- that is, their total gross receipts minus any wages and salaries they have to pay people working in the business, and other business expenses. It is appreciated that persons in these categories will not often be able to give their net income with absolute accuracy, but you must make every effort to help them to give as accurate a figure as possible.

In particular, many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. For example, a cane farmer who reaps his cane once per year may have to give his income for the past year, for if he gives his income for a week or month, and the period excludes the time when he received this payment, the average income will be under-stated. On the other hand if it includes this payment, the average income will be over-stated. Similarly, a wage earner who regularly receives an annual bonus would need either to give all his income for the year or else add a proportional part of his annual bonus to his monthly or weekly income.

There will, therefore, be some difficulty in ensuring that you obtain the accurate income for persons who receive income for different periods or from different sources.

Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn. Often they do not tell this even to their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must remind and reassure the respondent of the confidentially of all information given. Explain further that we are not interested in the exact income but rather in the range.

5.83 Question 4.13: Income from employment

Question 4.13 identifies three different pay periods. Pay-period indicates the length of time the amount of money scored refers to.

You must decide what is the most convenient pay-period with which to record the person's income. The most convenient pay-period for you to use would usually the one in which the person receives most of his income. For example, in the case of the wage-earner who is paid weekly and gets no other income, then the pay-period should be the week. Similarly, the month would be the most convenient pay-period for the person who receives only a monthly income.

This question, which is asked of all persons who worked or had a job during the reference week, requires income from employment only and excludes gifts, rents from property, interest and dividends, pensions, and other income that was not obtained directly from employment.

It is also recognized that many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. In such case, the convenient pay period will be the year.

5.84 Question 4.14: Last time worked

This question is to be asked of all persons who indicated that they did not work nor had a job during the first week of September. Write the year and month when the respondent last worked. If the person has never worked, (at any time in his life) check the relevant box and go to the instructions above question 4.19.

Questions 4.15 and 4.16 relate to the economic activity of individuals during the twelve-month period preceding the enumeration (between September 10, 2000 and September 9, 2001).

5.86 Question 4.15: Main activity during the past 12 months

The categories here are generally the same as in Q4.4 (with the inclusion of the category "Worked" or "Had a job") and the definitions remain the same. The important difference is that here the question relates to the twelve-month period prior to Census day instead of the preceding week. You are required to record the main activity: i.e., the activity in which the person was involved most of the time (for 6 months or more). If the person was abroad for parts of the period, it is the main activity undertaken during the time that he or she was in Jamaica.

5.87 Question 4.16: Number of months worked during the past 12 months

For persons who at Q4.15 were classified as "Worked", record the total number of months during the year when the person actually worked. You will need to pay particular attention to the following:

(a) when the individual worked at more than one job during the year
(b) where the individual worked for short periods each day or week.

In the case of (a), the months worked should include all the time worked in all the jobs in which the individual was engaged. For the irregular work pattern (b), some estimate of the overall time worked in months must be given, as the figure must relate to average full-time work. Refer to Appendix iv for the methodology to be utilized in the conversion to months in cases of irregular work pattern.

5.88 Question 4.17: Redundancy/lay off

This question is relevant to all persons who have ever worked. The question relates to permanent lay off or redundancy irrespective of whether the person received severance pay or not.

5.89 Question 4.18: Industry at redundancy

This refers to the industry in which the individual was working at the time of the termination. Follow the instructions for regarding industry as given for Q4.8.

5.90 Questions 4.19 - 4.20 Social Welfare Benefits
[Persons age 60 and older]

Ask the questions and score the relevant answers. Include any pensions received from abroad. You are not trying to find out how much money is being received. There might be some reluctance to answer, from especially persons who are in receipt of pension from a foreign country. You must reassure the respondents that we are only interested in knowing how many of our senior citizens are getting this kind of support.

Section 5: Fertility
[Females ages 14 to 49]

5.91 General

This section is comprised of question 5.1 through 5.11, and the information is to be completed only for females ages 14 to 49. The questions are of a very personal nature and you must assure the respondent that this type of information is very crucial to population/planning, since it provided very useful indicators of population growth. Be very careful when asking the questions from young women. In all instances, you must assure the parents and the youth how important these questions are to the study of and planning for issues related to reproductive health among young people. Reassure them of the confidentiality clause regarding Census data collection

These questions are related to the number of live-born children a woman has had. Some women might tend to exclude children who were born alive but subsequently died. These children are not to be excluded from the count. A live birth is the product of a pregnancy that shows some sign of life after expulsion, even if [the child] dies a few minutes after.

5.92 Questions 5.1-5.2: Number of live-born children ever had and their sex.

Using two digits score the total, as well as the number of male and female births. For numbers between 1 and 9, write 01-09.

5.93 Question 5.3: Number of children still living

Using two digits score the number of male and female children still living. Enter the total in the relevant box. The number should either be the same or smaller than that in Q5.2. It might be easier for the respondent to recall the children who have died. If this is so, then take that information and make the necessary subtractions.

5.94 Question 5.4: Age of mother at birth of first child

Score the age. Some women might have problems remembering but you must make an effort to get an estimate. This estimation could be based on the date of birth of the mother and the date of birth or age of the first child.

5.95 Question 5.5: Age of mother at the birth of her last child

Score the age and use the same strategies adopted for Q5.4. For this question and for Q5.4, there is always the possibility of recall lapses. Please note that where the woman has had only one live birth, the age at 5.5 will be the same as 5.4.

Whereas Questions 5.1 through 5.5 relate to all live born children, the woman has had in her life, these next set of questions (5.6 through 5.11) refer to occurrences in the twelve months preceding Census day (between September 10, 2000 and September 9, 2001).

5.97 Question 5.6: Live births and infant deaths in the past 12 months

You need to pay close attention to the answers given for questions 5.1 through 5.5 before asking question 5.6. If [the woman] has had live-born children, you need to be mindful in particular to the answer in Q5.5, which asks for age of mother at birth of her last child. Based on this answer, you might be able to tell if there was a birth in the past 12 months. Even so, you must ask Q5.6 as a check on Q5.5.

Question 5.7: Number of live births in past 12 months

Write the number in the total box and then indicate the type of birth. It is important to note that it is possible for a woman to have more than one delivery in the same 12 month period. The occurrence of this is, however, very low.

5.99 Question 5.8: Sex and registration of live births that occurred in the past 12 months

Check the sex of each child born and indicate whether the birth was registered or not. Remember you must account for the number of children recorded at Q5.7. If there were more than 3 occurrences of births, make a note in the visitation record.

5.100 Question 5.9 through 5.11: Sex and registration of infant deaths

These questions relate to the live births reported at Q5.7 and Q5.8, and establish if any of these babies had died. If none of the children died, score "No" at Q5.9 and end the interview. If one or more died, check "Yes" and go to

In question 5.10, write in the number of male and female deaths and then enter the total in the "Total" box. In question 5.11, check the sex of each child who died, record the age, and indicate whether the death was registered or not. The age should be recorded in months. If younger than one month, score "00". If not stated, record "99". Remember that in Q5.11 you must account for the total recorded in Q5.10.

An example of how Q5.11 is completed is shown below:

[Table not included here]

Child no. 1 - A male child died at 2 months old and was not registered
Child no. 2 - A female child died at 5 months old. The death was registered
Child no. 3 - A male child died. The age was not stated and it was not known if the death was registered

Part 6: Special enumeration

The enumeration of the population resident in non-private dwellings, as well as "Persons of no fixed abode", will in general be carried out by special census takers under the supervision of the area coordinator. In some instances the information will be obtained by direct interview, while in others the administrative records of the institution will be used to extract the relevant information.

Question 6.1: Enumeration arrangements and supervision

The area coordinator will contact the persons in charge of group dwellings ahead of Census day to remind them that the Census will be taken in their institution and make general arrangements for the enumeration of the individuals living in there. At that time, the coordinator will inform you if you are to enumerate the members of these households individually or obtain the information from records. He or she will also inform you who your contact at each place should be.

Question 6.2: Form to be used

The individual questionnaire Form PCO1B is to be used for the enumeration of persons in most group dwellings. A special questionnaire will be utilized for the enumeration of persons who spent Census night on the street.

Question 6.3: Groups of non-private dwellings

Non-private dwellings are divided into two groups based on whether the information for residents will be obtained by direct interview or from administrative records. In all instances, the dwelling is to be regarded as the usual residence. Where direct interviews are conducted, all relevant questions will be asked. Where only records are utilized, specific questions will be completed. You must refer to the instructions given previously in the manual, as they relate to the questions.

Question 6.4: Group A direct interviews
All residents of the following non-private dwellings should be directly interviewed using Form PCO1B (all relevant questions). Each is identified by a code that will be utilized as the housing unit number:

(i) Housing unit no. 907: Military camps, police training schools, and police barracks
(ii) Housing unit no. 901: Convents and monasteries

All residents of the following non-private dwellings should be interviewed directly using Form PCOIC (Questions 1.1 through 3.13 only):

(i) Housing unit no. 906: University and college residences, hostels and residences for trainee and/or graduate teachers, nurses and ministers of religion.
(ii) Housing unit no. 908: Boarding schools and other residential schools, except for the blind, deaf and other handicapped.

Question 6.5: Group B administrative records
All residents of the following non-private dwellings should be enumerated using Form PCO1C on the basis of information taken from administrative records. Complete Questions 1.1 through 1.3 only:

Housing unit no. 902: Correctional institutions, penitentiaries, prisons, rehabilitation centers, juvenile institutions
Housing unit no. 903: Mental institutions.
Housing unit no. 904: Homes for children, the aged, the infirm, and the needy
Housing unit no. 905: Hospitals and homes providing specialized care, cancer hospitals, other hospitals for chronic ailments, and homes for the incurables

For residents of homes for handicapped persons (for example: Mona Rehabilitation Center, School of Hope) complete questions 1.1 through 1.3, and if possible question 1.13.

Housing unit no. 909: Public general hospitals (persons identified as having no permanent home elsewhere)
Housing unit no. 910: Hospitals and homes for the blind, deaf and other handicapped (for example, Mona Rehabilitation Centre, School of Hope)

Question 6.6: Completing the questionnaire

Housing unit no.: Assign the number given above for the particular institution that you are enumerating (for example: 905, 904)

Dwelling number: Assign number "99" to each questionnaire

Household number: Assign number "99" to each questionnaire

Individual number within household: As with private households, assign a number to each individual starting with "01" and continuing consecutively. If there are more than 99 persons in the household, assign "01" to the one-hundredth person, "02" to the next one, etc. Individual numbers will therefore run like this: "01", "02", "03", ..., "97", "98", "99", "01", "02", "03", "04", etc.
Question 1.3: Relationship to head of household: Assign a household head to the group dwelling in accordance with instructions at Paragraph 3.10. For all other individuals in the group dwelling, score "Other non-relative" in Question 1.3

Question 2.1: Check "Yes".

For all other questions, follow the instructions as outlined in the main manual. Refer to paragraph 6.4 and 6.5, which identify the relevant questions for each group of non-private dwellings.
Question 6.7: Visitation record for non-private dwellings, Form PCOIE

The visitation record to be used is Form PCO1E, census visitation record -- non-private dwellings.

The completion of this form is somewhat similar to that of Form PCO1D, discussed earlier. It is comprised of a cover page and three (3) sections.

Question 6.8: Completing the cover page before enumeration

Before enumeration complete the following items on the cover:
  • Parish: write in the name of the parish in which you are working and the relevant code that will be given to you by the parish coordinator
  • Census taker's name
  • Census taker's address
  • Census taker's number
  • Date started working

Question 6.9: Completing the cover page after enumeration

The remaining items on the cover are:

Date completed work: When you have completed enumeration at the group dwelling, enter the date on which you enumerated the last person.

Number of non-private dwellings listed: Count the number of dwellings listed by you in the visitation record and enter this number on the cover page. Use a two digit number, which will be 01-09 for numbers less than 10.

Number of pages (section 2) completed: At the end of the enumeration, enter the number of pages in section 2 that have entries on them.

Number of questionnaires completed: Count the number of questionnaires that you have completed. This number should correspond to that entered at the item: population enumerated.

Population enumerated, total, male, female, 18 years and over: This is a total of the population enumerated for all the non-private dwellings listed in the visitation record.

Question 6.10: Section 1 - Daily activity record

Section 1 - census taker's daily activity record: For each day of enumeration, enter the number of non-private dwellings listed in column 2, the number of call back visits made in column 3, and the number of questionnaires completed in column 4.

Question 6.11: Section 2 - Census listing records

Section 2 - listing record: This is the main section of the visitation record and must be fully completed. For small non-private dwellings where all the inhabitants are located in one building, it will be possible to utilize one page for the entire dwelling. In large institutions, however, where persons live in separate buildings identified by different names you are advised to list on separate pages. Examples of these larger institutions are:
University of the West Indies: halls of residence
Jamaica Defense Force: up park camp.

Complete Section 2 as follows:

Identification: Write in the parish code (taken from the cover) and the housing unit no. only. Remember the housing unit no. for each type of non-private dwelling is identified at paragraphs 6.4 and 6.5. You will notice that the dwelling number and the household number are pre-coded as "9". These numbers must be repeated on all the questionnaires relevant to group dwellings.

Date of first visit: Enter here the date of the first visit for purposes of listing the dwelling.

Date enumeration completed: This refers to the date on which enumeration of the group dwelling is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons have been enumerated.

Name and address of institution/group dwelling: Enter the full name and address of institution or group dwelling, for example:
Green Acres Nursing Centre
Red Gal Ring, Stony Hill
St. Andrew

Where as stated in Paragraph 6.10, you are enumerating a hall of residence at the University of the West Indies, for example, this should be entered as follows:
Taylor Hall, U.W.I.
Mona, Kingston 7.

Number of persons identified: This number relates to all the residents whether they are enumerated or not.

Number of persons enumerated: This number relates to the number of persons for whom you have completed a questionnaire.

Remarks: Write here any explanations which you consider important for a clearer understanding of any information recorded on the page.

Question 6.12: Enumerating persons of no fixed abode/vagrants

Persons of no fixed abode are commonly referred to as "street people". Some of these persons are homeless while others might be part of a household but because of their mental state wander away from home and sleep on the streets. Special arrangements will be made for the enumeration of these persons, who are very mobile and who have to be found at night while preparing for sleep.

Question 6.13: Completing Form JCO1F for persons of no fixed abode

The form to be used for these persons is JCO1F. It is recognized that in many cases direct interviewing will not be possible. In such cases, complete as much information as is possible from observation. Form JCOIF contains ten (10) items for completion, six (6) of which require a response from the individual.

Identification: Record the parish code.

Location found: Write the location where the person is found. Examples are: Burger King, Half Way Tree, outside Cross Roads Market

Home address: Where it is possible to obtain this information from the person, write in whatever is given to you.

Home address: Where it is possible to obtain this information from the person, write in whatever is given to you.

Age: Try and make the best estimate in cases where this is not reported. Tick the relevant box indicating whether it was reported by the individual or estimated by you.

Observations: Relationships - In most instances, the person is likely to be alone, in which case you tick the box. There are likely to be instances, however, where you are likely to be able to establish a relationship with other persons at the same location.

In all instances, for item 10 observations, check as many categories as are applicable. For example, an individual could appear to be mentally ill, have sores and has a deformity.