1.1 What is a Population Census?
1.2 Why is a Population Census being taken?
A rapidly growing population may require a number of additional services, examples of which are: schools, water supplies, hospitals and clinics and factories. Information provided by the 2001 Population Census about the growth and movement of the population will assist those agencies which have the responsibility for planning for the provision of these services in determining size, location and other characteristics needed for decision making.
Businessmen and industrialists will also be able to use the results of the 2001 Census to aid them in their planning. The information will assist them in organizing their sales programs more effectively by way of determining suitable locations for retail outlets, for factory sites etc., so that they can operate their business more profitably and serve the communities better.
1.3 How is this Population Census being taken?
In this Census just over five thousand trained interviewers will visit every building and every household in Jamaica in order to interview members of the households and record the required information. Questions on the number of persons living in the household, their age, sex, birth place, and so on will be asked and the answers recorded in the proper places on the questionnaires. After the questionnaires have been completed in the field, they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. When all checking has been completed the questionnaires are ready for processing, the first step which involves their passage through a machine known as a document reader.
The computer takes the information from the questionnaire and writes it on to a magnetic tape for further steps in computer processing. The final step is the production of the tabulations from which the Census Reports are prepared.
1.4 The importance of your role in Population Census
As was stated, the information obtained on the Census forms will provide the basis for the final Census results. All the processes which take place after the field enumeration involve adding up and performing other tasks on the data collected. The final results will be accurate only if the information provided on the questionnaires is accurate.
Every effort must be made to obtain complete and exact answers to questions and to record these accurately according to your instructions.
The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a large extent on the interest you take in your job and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow Census Takers perform your tasks. You, therefore, hold a key position in this important undertaking.
1.5 Census information is confidential
1.6 Census information used only in totals
(b) Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any other person engaged in census work to make unauthorized disclosure of information to any individual or organization whatsoever, public or private.
(c) The information collected will be published only for groups of people so that no information given by an individual can be recognized. Information about a particular individual is essential deriving overall totals, but this information will never be used in a form which could result in any fact about this individual being identified.
2.1 Methodology for Census 2001
2.2 Principles of enumeration
The entire population will be classified for Census purposes into the following groups:
2.3 Main Population Groups
Group A -- Persons enumerated and counted at place of enumeration.
All persons, Jamaicans and non-Jamaicans whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who are temporarily away from home visiting or travelling on business in Jamaica or abroad or staying in private homes or hotels and guest houses in Jamaica.
In the course of enumeration it is possible to find that there are persons whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who spend short periods of time living and sleeping on the streets. If these persons return home regularly (at least once a week) for purposes of eating and sleeping, include them in the dwelling.
All persons, Jamaicans and non-Jamaicans whose usual place of residence is in the dwelling but who have been admitted to a public general hospital, maternity hospital or nursing home where the period of treatment is expected to be of short (less than 6 months) duration.
All deceased persons who were alive on the census date and whose usual place of residence was in the dwelling.
All persons whose usual place of residence is in a private dwelling located on the compound of an institution or group dwelling.
If in the course of enumeration it was found that a household member is at one of the following types of institutions on Census Night, usual residence is regarded to be at the institution and not in the dwelling unit:
(ii) Mental institutions
(iii) Homes for children, the aged, infirm or needy.
(iv) Boarding schools, residential schools and homes for the blind and deaf.
(v) Convents and monasteries.
(vi) University and college residences.
(vii) Hotels and residences for trainees and/or graduate teachers, nurses and ministers of religion.
(viii) Military camps, police training schools and police barracks.
(ix) Hospitals and homes providing specialized care.
(ii) Are long term (6 months or more) patients, such persons are to be regarded as usual residents of the hospital.
Group B -- Persons excluded from the Census
Visitors to Jamaica who are staying in hotels and or guest houses.
Visitors on ships in harbor on census night.
Jamaica diplomatic personnel located overseas.
Foreign diplomatic personnel located in Jamaica.
2.4. Your assignment
If you are a Special Census Taker, you will have the responsibility for taking the Census in non
private dwellings (nursing homes, college residences etc.).
As was stated before, you are in a very special way, the key person in the Census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. We have stressed that a report is only as good as the information that goes into it, so it is important that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.
2.5 Your supervisor
(b) Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed;
(c) Give you your assignment;
(d) Supply you with your enumeration materials;
(e) Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve it;
(f) See that you understand and follow the instructions in this Manual and those given at training classes;
(g) See that you complete your assignment as quickly and accurately as possible;
(h) Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment; and
(i) Help you to solve your enumeration problems.
2.6 Your enumeration kit
- 1 Census identification card
- Copies of the Census questionnaire
- Copies of the visitation record - private dwellings
- 1 box in which to keep completed questionnaires
- 2 black ink pens
- 1 eraser
- 1 folder containing a map of your enumeration district and a description of it
- 1 clipboard
- 2 pencils
- 1 bag in which to keep census materials when you are in the field.
2.7 Items to be returned at end of enumeration
- Your identification card
- The E.D. map and description
- Questionnaire box with completed questionnaires
- The visitation record(s) supplied to you
- The enumeration manual and appendices
- All unused questionnaires
- The bag for holding all materials
2.8 Your hours of work
2.9 Your E.D. map and description
There are certain features on the map which you should observe. These are identified below with colors as specified:
(ii) The starting point: this is shown by a red symbol thus and corresponds with the start of the written description.
(iii) The boundaries: the boundaries of the E.D. are marked in green
(iv) Other distinguishing features: Other distinguishing features on the map are illustrated below. Note that some features appear slightly different on maps of different scales.
- Parish boundaries
- County boundaries
- A 2 roads secondary
- Other roads
- Railway line
- Property boundary
- Sea coast
- Imaginary lines
2.10 Know your E.D.
If you find any errors in the description, write these out below the given description of the E.D. in the space provided. All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him.
Where two interviewers are assigned to one E.D., the aim is to complete the E.D. as quickly as possible. Particular care must be taken that you work only in the section of the E.D. assigned to you and that you completely cover the dwellings in this section of the E.D.
If the E.D. is blocked, that is, subdivided into two or more discrete units, you must ensure that you work in the block assigned to you. On completion of one block, you should return to your supervisor for instructions on how to proceed.
If the E.D. is not blocked, then carefully follow the instructions of your supervisor in respect of where you should start and stop and the routes you should follow.
2.11 Enumerate within boundaries
[Map not reported here]
The map above represents an urban type E.D. This E.D. is bounded the north by Second Street, to the east by North Lane, to the South First Street and to the west by East Avenue. Enumeration in this should be done in the premises shown by XXs on the map within boundaries identified as follows:
- All along the southern side of Second Street between East Avenue and North Lane (the northern boundary);
- All along the western side of North Lane between Second Street and First Street (the eastern boundary);
- All along the northern side of First Street between North Lane East Avenue (the southern boundary);
- All along the eastern side of East Avenue between First and Second Streets (the western boundary);
- Both sides of Key Lane;
- Both sides of Job Lane;
- Both sides of Core Lane from First Street passing Job Lane and Key Lane, to its junction with Second Street.
Thus, if a street, road, river, canal, lane, road junction or other features form one of the boundaries of your E.D. be sure you know which side of it is in your E.D. You will cause a great deal of trouble if you enumerate households outside of your E.D. belonging to someone else and you will not be paid for questionnaires relating to that area.
On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook or forget to enumerate any household within the area that has been assigned to you. This is particularly important in rural areas where it is easy to overlook tracks.
If a householder tells you that an interviewer has already collected information from him, make certain that the interviewer is engaged in Population Census work and not on any other survey. If the householder has, in fact, been previously enumerated by another Census Taker, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other Census Taker is working in your area, probably by mistake.
2.12 Ensure that you locate all households
It is especially important in covering your area, particularly rural districts, to ensure that all sections of your E.D. are visited. This is especially important in those areas which appear to be uninhabited, as careful examination is needed in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or appear inaccessible.
Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area, and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters at churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures.
Be careful to enumerate all households in your area. Remember, if you deliberately omit households because it is difficult to either get to them or for some other reason to contact them, and this is proved, then you will not be paid for working in the E.D.
You should also obtain information relating to households within your E.D. only. Never attempt to complete questionnaires for persons in any other household other than those located in the E.D. Do not make up fictitious questionnaires. You will be guilty of an offence under the law. If this is proved you will have to pay the penalty and you will also not receive pay for any work which you have done.
2.13 How the interview should be conducted
No interviewing pattern will fit every situation, as the reactions of people you meet will differ, and you must be able to adapt yourself to these differences. Most of all, you will need patience and tact. An approach such as the following should adequately meet most situations and gain for you a favorable reception:
"Good morning (or afternoon) Sir or Madam"
Here, present your identification card and, if necessary, your letter of appointment for scrutiny by the respondent.
"I shall be grateful if you will answer a few questions regarding yourself and other members of your household".
Sometimes you may need to put the respondent at ease with some "small talk". "Small talk" should not become gossip, however. Remember always that you are on the job. Make sure that the interview is not prolonged unnecessarily. You may, on occasions, meet a few persons in your Enumeration District who are of a suspicious or uncooperative nature. Such persons are inclined to view your visit as an intrusion upon their privacy and a waste of their time. A friendly and frank approach on your part may overcome this resistance. If, however, all your endeavors fail, as a last resort you should draw the respondent's attention to the fact that the Census Regulations make it compulsory to answer all the Census questions. When a householder absolutely refuses to cooperate, the case should be referred to your supervisor who will take the appropriate action.
2.14 Things you should do
- You must carry your I.D. card, letter of appointment and should do enumeration manual at all times while working on the Census
- You must present your I.D. card on every occasion for scrutiny by the respondent before starting your interview
- You must read and intensively study this manual to become thoroughly familiar with its content in order to do your work accurately and efficiently
- You must discuss all problems and uncertainties with your Supervisor
- You must be tolerant, patient and courteous at all times when with respondents
- Whenever possible, the acknowledged head of the household or an adult should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only after permission is granted by the parent or guardian
- You must always attempt to conduct the interview in a house. If this proves impracticable, you must avoid interviewing people before strangers or in a group unless the respondent suggests this
- You must make every effort to keep the documents you are working on clean, legible and free from damage
- At the end of each day you should review your work to make sure that all requirements of your instructions and all census procedures are met. Make sure that no call-backs were omitted, that notes in respect of problems were made and that all questionnaires are carefully filed away. Then arrange your material for the next day's work.
2.15 Things you should not do
- You must not disclose to anyone except census officials, any information you receive in the course of your duties as a Census Taker
- You must not solicit or permit any unauthorized person to assist you with your work. No matter how intelligent he is, he will not have had the training you have had, or any authority to participate in enumeration. Nor will he have taken the Oath of Secrecy
- You must not permit any unauthorized person to accompany you on your visits (remember your Oath of Secrecy)
- You must not combine with your census enumeration any canvassing for personal gain, church, political party or any other organization
- You must not permit any unauthorized person -- including members of your own family -- to see the completed questionnaires for the district you enumerate. Nor should you tell them about the information you have received
- You must never discuss politics or get involved in political arguments while engaged in census taking
- Do not smoke in people's homes without permission; it is preferable not to smoke at all at those times.
Part 3: Concepts and definitions
If during the course of enumeration there is a case which was not covered by your instructor, make a note of it in your Visitation Record and refer it to your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him/her after this has occurred, and ask for his/her advice.
A building may be a detached dwelling, apartment building, factory, shop, warehouse, repair shop, etc.
3.3 Housing unit
The key factors in defining a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence". Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance(s) without having to pass through the living quarters of another household.
(ii) If an individual sleeps in the same structure as the main household and shares at least one meal per day with the household, include him as a household member.
(iii) A domestic employee who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household if he or she sleeps there on an average of at least four nights per week and share at least one meal daily. If the helper's partner or children live on the premises, all members of this family are to be included with the main household if they share meals with the main household. If there are separate arrangements for cooking they should be considered as a separate household;
(iv) In the case of a tenement yard where there is a series of rooms rented to different persons by the landlord, each person or group of persons who live and share meals together is regarded as a separate household. A household in this special context may share external bathroom, toilet or even kitchen facilities with other similar households.
The head of household is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household.
In most cases it will be obvious who the head of the household is: usually it is the person who is the chief breadwinner.
In any event, the person recognized by the respondent as the head should be accepted as such for census purposes.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, that member of the group whom the others acknowledge as such should be taken as the head. A person running a boarding or similar establishment is considered to be the head of that household.
In a one person household, that person is the head.
Newly constructed vacant units are included in the census listing if construction has reached the point where all the windows and exterior doors are installed and the final usable floors are in place. If construction has not reached this point, the unit is not to be counted as a vacant one, that is, it should not be included in the Census Listing.
Vacant units are excluded if there is positive evidence that the units are to be demolished, or if they are condemned for reasons of health or safety, so that further occupancy is prohibited.
(ii) Fishermen away at sea are considered to have their usual place of residence in the dwelling where they live when ashore.
(iii) Seamen or crew members on a vessel which plies between Jamaica and foreign ports are considered to reside on the vessel rather than at home.
(iv) Air pilots are considered to have their usual place of residence in the household if they usually spend most of their off duty periods in Jamaica and they live in that dwelling for most of the time.
(v) Persons engaged in shift work or who work at nights, such as security workers are to be enumerated as members of the household of their usual residence.
(vi) Farm workers away for less than six months are to be included as part of the household where they usually live. If, however, they have been abroad for six months or more or intend to be away for that period then they are not to be regarded as usual residents.
(vii) It is important to note that where a person has recently moved in with a group of persons, as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them, that person is to be considered a member of the household.
Part 4: Visitation record, private dwellings
First, it will enable you to keep a close check on the number of buildings and dwellings visited, the number of questionnaires completed and will allow you to see at a glance, the dwellings at which call-backs will be made.
Second, the supervisor will use it to assess the rate at which work is being done.
Third, it will be the record of all the buildings in an enumeration district and will provide the basis for any field rechecks.
The completion of the visitation record is a very important part of your job and this form should be kept up to date at all times.
4.2 Listing buildings
You will remember that, according to the definition of a building, there are four distinct categories of buildings and, in addition, combinations of some. The four distinct categories are:
- Buildings containing private dwellings
- Buildings containing non-private dwellings in which people live collectively
- Buildings used for business purposes
- Buildings used for other purposes, mainly for community services.
4.3 Dual purpose buildings
Remember, buildings are structures which are intended for use for living, business or service purposes and must be used for the purpose of accommodating people. Thus, structures such as cattle pens, pig pens, poultry houses, etc. should not be listed.
4.4 Unoccupied buildings
Where a part of the building is completed and the other part is still in the process of construction, the criterion to be adopted is that stated above, that is, if the finished part can be safely secured, it should be listed.
Unfinished buildings in which people reside must, however, be listed regardless of the state of completion.
All finished buildings should be listed, except where they are in a state of dilapidation and are unoccupied.
4.5 Types of visitation records
- Visitation record -- private dwellings -- Form PCOID
- Visitation record -- non-private dwellings -- Form PCOIE
4.6 Form PCOID visitation record - private dwellings
The inside of the cover page summarizes for easy reference all the persons who should be included as members of the household.
Section 1 -- Census taker's daily activity record
Section 2 -- Listing record
Section 3 -- Notes and comments
Section 4 -- Record of household members living on the streets
4.7 How to use the visitation record
There are 10 lines available for use on each page of Section 2 and this section has 12 pages. Therefore, there will be a total of 120 lines which should be used for listing. Each line should be used to record information on a household, a group dwelling, or another type of building. Examples of "other buildings" are business establishments, schools, churches or health centers.
Where you need more than 120 lines for listing purposes, then you will need a second Visitation Record. Obtain the new one from your supervisor but make sure to mark "book 2" on the cover page. The numbers assigned to the building units recorded in Book 2 must follow consecutively those in Book 1. For example, if the last building was assigned the number 172, then the number assigned to the first building listed in Book 2 would be 173. Listing it as No.1 would be wrong.
4.8 Cover page
4.9 Completing the cover page before enumeration
Supervisory zone: This will be given to you by your supervisor.
Date started working: On your first day at work as a Census taker, you should enter the date at this item.
4.10 Section 1: Census taker's daily activity record
Make the entries at the end of each day's enumeration. The information required for completing Section 1 must be taken from Section 2.
There are eight columns in Section 1 and these should be completed as follows:
Date -- column 1: The date to be entered here should be the date on which the activities recorded took place. If no work was done on a particular day then this date should not appear in this record. If however, your failure to work on a particular day was connected to a census activity, as for example, meeting with census officials, write in this information on the line which corresponds to the date entered.
Serial numbers of buildings listed -- columns 2 and 3: Entries should be made in columns 2 and 3 and these entries will be used to determine the number of buildings listed each day.
The number to be entered in Column 2 should be the building number of the first unit visited on the particular day. On the first working day, this entry will be "001". From the second day's entry onwards it will be the next consecutive number entered in Column 3, representing the last listing of the day before. The number assigned to the last building listed each day should be entered in Column 3.
Please note that if a building is not a housing unit once it is identified and given a number it is listed. If it is a housing unit however, it is not listed until the dwellings and households within that unit are identified.
Number of dwellings listed -- column 4: From section 2, count the number of dwellings listed during each day.
Number of households listed -- column 5: As for dwelling units listed, the number of households listed is derived from a count of the number of households listed each day. The number may be obtained by counting the entries made in section 2.
Number of call back visits made -- column 6: Call back visits will almost invariably be part of your work so as to enumerate those persons who were not covered on the first visit. Enter in column 6 the number of call back visits made during the working day.
Number of questionnaires completed -- column 7: At the end of each day, count the number of questionnaires you completed on that day. Enter the number in Column 7.
Remember to be accurate, since this will be one of the records checked to determine your final payments.
Remarks: Record here, unusual or important factors which occurred or are related to any particular day's activity. Problems encountered during enumeration should be entered here also, since such problems as: bad weather, difficult terrain, problems with people in the area, etc. do affect the rate of enumeration.
4.11 Section 2 - The listing record
There are eight (18) Columns in this section to be completed thus:
Block -- column 1: If you are working in an E.D. which has been blocked, enter in the column the block symbol A, B, C, etc. If the E.D. has not been blocked then a diagonal line across this column this:
[Box not reported here]
This indicates that it is not applicable.
Date of first visit -- column 2: Enter here the date of first visit for purposes of listing the building, dwelling, household and/or other building.
Date enumeration completed -- column 3: This refers to the date which enumeration of the household is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons in the household have been enumerated. In the case of refusals, enumeration will be completed when the Supervisor instructs you to cease visits to that household for purposes of enumeration.
Building/housing unit number -- column 4: Assign in Column 4, a consecutive serial number starting from 001, to each building unit in the E.D. Where the building unit is a housing unit, this may contain more than one household. In these cases, the building number assigned will be repeated until all households in that housing unit have been recorded.
Where a dwelling or household is identified after the first listing had taken place, this would be listed when they are identified. The building number should be the number assigned at first listing. The dwelling or household numbers should however be the one following (consecutively) the last dwelling and/or household assigned for that building.
[Box not reported here]
In this example, housing unit 001 is first listed on 12/10 with one dwelling and one household. Housing unit 002 with two dwellings is listed on the same day. It is subsequently discovered on the following day that there is an additional household in dwelling no.1 and a second dwelling with one household - in housing unit 001.
Name and address of household head -- columns 7 and 8: When you have listed a household (as instructed above) immediately write in the full name of the head of household in column 7. The surname should be entered first. If there is another identifying name, enter this also. Next, enter the full address of the dwelling in column 8.
Remember, the listing for the Census will be used to provide a frame for Sample surveys which will be conducted after the Census. Thus, both name and address should be given in as great detail as possible so as to enable other people to locate the household after the Census is completed.
Name and address of "Other building" -- columns 7 and 8: Enter the exact name of the church, school or "Other" building. An example might be Browns Town Baptist Church, Browns Town P.O. Include here also all embassies, high commissions and consulates.
Number of persons in household -- column 9: Columns 9-13 apply to households only and will have entries in all cases where a household has been identified. In column 9 enter the total number of persons who have been identified as usual residents of the household.
Note clearly all cases of refusal in the remarks column. At all times enter an explanation in the remarks column wherever columns 9 and 10 differ.
Group dwelling number -- column 14: Assign in column 14 a consecutive serial number starting from "001" to each group dwelling in the E.D.
Other building number -- column 16: Assign in column 16 a consecutive serial number starting from "001" to each building other than a housing unit and a group dwelling.
Do not write in column 17.
Remarks -- column 18: Enter here all comments already identified and any other which are relevant.
[Box not reported here]
In the example above there are two buildings (housing units). Building no.1 has one dwelling with two households while building number has two dwellings with one household each. Each line in the example represents a line in section 2 of the Visitation Record. If a residential building is vacant, assign a building number only and make a note in the section reserved for remarks. If you have identified a closed dwelling you must assume at least one dwelling and one household.
(11) Call back: This is a revisit to a household for the purpose of collecting information which was not obtained on a previous visit. If after three visits you are still not able to enumerate a household you must refer the case to your Supervisor. Where after "Call back" it becomes necessary to add to the list because additional dwellings and/or households have been identified, these will be entered sometime after the first listing. The date to be entered in column 2 against these visits would be the date where the new listing of the dwelling/household took place. You should identify in column 18 -- remarks column, the identification of the first listing, say, for example, "Building no. 6. Listed on June 9".
4.12 Section 3: Notes and comments
4.14 Completing cover page after enumeration
The remaining items on the cover of Form PCOID are:
Date completed working: When you have completed enumeration in the E.D., enter the date on which you enumerated the last person.
Number of questionnaires: Count the number of individual questionnaires which you have completed. There should be a questionnaire for each person enumerated. This number should correspond to that entered at the item -- population enumerated.
Number of pages (section 2) completed: At the end of enumeration, enter the number of pages in Section 2 that have entries on them. If you have used a second visitation record for listing in the E.D., then you should enter the total number of pages used in books 1 and 2 combined.
This should be entered thus: 120 (books 1 and 2).
Number of private dwellings listed: The number to be entered here should be calculated by totaling column 4 of section 1, Census taker's daily activity record. Where more than one book has been used, the entry should be the total from all the books used. The entry in column 4, section 1 were of course obtained from totaling on a daily basis the number of dwellings recorded in Section 2.
Number of institutions/group dwellings listed: Count the number of group dwellings listed by you and enter this number on the cover page.
Remember to include those entered in book 2 if you have used a second book.
Number of private households enumerated: This entry should be obtained by totaling column 5 of section 1. This corresponds to the count of entries in section 2.
Number of other buildings: Enter here the total number of "Other" buildings listed.
Population enumerated: total, male, female, 18 years and over: The information required here must be taken from section 2 as it represents the sum of the population of all households in the E.D. The total population is derived from column 10, total male from column 11, total female from column 12, and total 18 years and over from column 13.
4.15 The order of enumeration
(1) Complete columns 1-9 of the visitation record.
(2) Write in the name of each person who is a usual resident of the household in Section1of the household questionnaire, form PCO1A.
The name of the head should be written first. The number of persons listed at section 1 should be the same as the number recorded in column 9 of the visitation record.
Remember we are focusing on the population at a particular point in time: Census day is Monday September 10, 2001.
You are interested in usual residents of the household on that day. Any member of the household temporarily away should be included. Do not list visitors. A member of the household then, who subsequently died should be included. Be sensitive and tactful in your approach however. If there is no resistance on the part of the household in giving the information, take it. In the same way babies born after the date should not be included. Make sure the person giving the names remembers to include himself/herself.
The order of enumeration which is to be followed among persons who were usual residents of the household on Census day is:
- Head of household
- Spouse or common law partner
- Child of head and or spouse
- Spouse or partner of child
- Grandchild of head, or spouse, or partner
- Parent of head, spouse or partner
- Brother/sister of head, spouse or partner
- Other relative of head, spouse or partner
- Domestic employee
- Other household members not related to head, spouse or partner.
Where a group of unrelated persons live together, once the head is identified (see Paragraph 3.10) the others are numbered consecutively -- no particular order is required.
4.16 Ensuring that all persons are included
In order to assist the respondent in remembering all the persons to be enumerated and to help you to get the information on relationship to the head quickly, use the following line of questioning:
"Please give me the names of all the persons who at September 10 were usual residents of this household? Please start with the person who is the head of the household then the wife or partner of the head and so on. Please give me the names of all the children. Were there any babies? Any old people?"
You will then proceed to complete one household questionnaire for each household and an individual questionnaire for each person identified as usual resident.
There are three questionnaires to be administered in the census:
Form PCO1A - Household questionnaire
Form PCO1B - Individual questionnaire for 90% coverage, also called the short form.
Form PCO1C - Individual questionnaire for 10% coverage, also called the long form.
A household questionnaire must not be done without an individual questionnaire and vice versa.
5.1 The structure of the questionnaires
Section 1 - Identification
Section 2 - Characteristics of housing unit
Section 3 - Characteristics of household
Section 4 - Crime and violence
Section 5 - Migration and mortality
Section 6 - Business activity
Form PCO1A is to be completed for every household. These questions should be directed to the head of household or in his/her absence, any responsible adult member.
Form PCO1B is 8.5" x 11" in size and contains 3 pages. There are 26 questions divided into 2 sections as follows:
Section 1 - Characteristics
Section 2 - Birthplace and residence
Form JCO1C is 8.5" x 11" in size and contains 7 pages. There are 71 questions divided into 5 sections as follows:
Section 1 - Characteristics
Section 2 - Birthplace and residence
Section 3 - Education and training
Section 4 - Economic activity
Section 5 - Fertility
The long form is essentially the short form plus an additional 4 pages.
5.2 Nature of the questionnaires
Most answers require a check in a circle. In making the tick, ensure that the bottom of the check is within the circle indicating the correct answer to the question (e.g., "?" secondary). There are, however, a number of other ways in which you will be required to record an answer. These are as follows:
(i) Questions that require a number as the answer. This number may be an age, a year, number of hours, number of months, number of persons or number of rooms. To record a year, write in the four (4) digits, for example: 1950. Examples on Forms PCO1B and PCO1C are Questions 2.4 and 2.5. Question 1.2a requires a date representing year, months, day. So September 28, 1950 will be written as . To record hours, months, or persons use 2 digits. For less than 10, the first digit will be 0. To write a number between 0 and 9, for example, record "00", "01"-"09". Examples on Form PCO1A: Question 3.3; on Form PCO1B: Question 1.2b; on Form PCO1C: Questions 3.2 and 4.5.
(ii) Questions which require a check and a number (as for Questions 5.2 and 5.4 on Form PC01A), you must check the sex and write in the age that corresponds that sex.
Do not use any pen other than the one given to you. Do not exceed the space bounded by the lines. Do not mark too lightly by not pressing enough.
Do not score more than one check box except where special instructions have been given, as in the case of Questions 4.1, 5.2, 5.4 (Form PCO1A), Questions 5.8 and 5.11 (Form PCO1C).
5.3 How to read the questions
The line (___) that appears in the question is for your guidance and indicates that in cases where you are not speaking to the person about whom the information is being given, you must write the person's name.
Under no circumstances must you write [the respondent's name] on the line.
5.4 Following the instructions
5.5 Skip instructions
5.6. The "Other" response
5.7 The "Not stated" response
Form PCO1A: Housing
[Head of household only]
The information required relates to (a) the housing unit and (b) the household. Generally, they are to be asked of the head of household but like any other information on the questionnaire, they can be asked of any responsible adult.
5.14 Question 1.1: Name of individual
Illustrations of the different types of units are included in the appendices to this manual. Examine them carefully. Pay particular attention to the attached units, which increasingly have become dominant types of units, especially in the urban areas.
Separate house - detached: This is the most common type of unit. This is the type usually constructed for occupation by a single household and which has open space on all four sides. Include here duplex houses, which are separated by garages.
Attached units: Include in this category all units that are joined to each other by at least one wall. These include apartment buildings, town-houses, urbanas, quadrominiums, etc. These latter are new types of units found mostly in the Greater Portmore area of St. Catherine.
Part of commercial building: The term "commercial" is used here to include all non-residential buildings. This includes therefore all cases where a household occupies part of a building which was intended for use mainly as a business place or other non-living unit.
Improvised housing unit: This is an independent makeshift shelter or structure built usually of wasted materials and generally considered unfit for habitation which is being used as living quarters at the time of the census, usually by one household.
Other: Include here any type of housing unit which does not fit any of the 36 categories mentioned; boats, tents, trailers, etc. are examples.
Concrete and blocks: Include here walls of concrete blocks with steel reinforcement but not nogging. Include units made of "prefabricated" material in this category.
Stone and brick: This applies where walls are made of stone or of red bricks, made by a kiln-burning process.
Nog: include here units where the walls are of concrete but without steel reinforcement (e.g., walls reinforced by wooden frames with concrete filling).
Wattle/adobe: This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure (e.g., pure wattle walls, wattle and thatch walls, and wattle daubed with earth plaster. Wattle is comprised of sticks inter-woven into a network.
Wood: This applies if the walls are made solely of wood.
Wood and concrete: This applies if both wood and concrete as described above are used.
Wood and brick: Score this for housing units where the materials used are both wood and brick (as described above).
Other: Include here all other types of wall construction material not described above.
Metal sheeting: this applies to zinc and aluminum sheeting.
Shingle, wood: Include here all types of wooden shingles.
Shingle, other: This applies to shingles other than that made from wood and includes fiberglass and asphalt.
Tile: Include here roofs made from concrete clay, aluminum and other tiles. The popular "Decramastic" roofing should be included here.
Concrete: This is usually referred to as concrete slab.
Other: Include here all other types of roofing material for example thatch.
Section 3: Characteristics of households
Owned: This applies if the dwelling is owned solely by member(s) of the household. If the dwelling is occupied by the family or close relatives of the owner, but the owner even if he sometimes sleeps there, is not a member of the household according to the census definition (for example, where wife and children of the owner live in the dwelling, but the owner perhaps because of his work, or for other reasons, does not normally sleep in the dwelling, and is then not a member of the household concerned), the dwelling should not be classified as owned but as Rent Free.
Leased: This relates to those cases where the dwelling is rented in accordance with an agreement (written or unwritten) for a stipulated period, between the owner and the occupier. In most cases, this agreement of lease will stipulate the rental payable, and length of time for which the building is rented
Rented: This is used here to relate to those cases which are the most usual where the occupier pays a monthly rental to the owner for the dwelling, on the basis of an agreement which may be written or unwritten.
Rent free: In addition to the situation described above, this relates also to those cases where occupiers are not required to pay rental. It implies also that the occupiers are occupying the dwelling with the consent of the owner. Examples of this arrangement are where the government, a business (for example a Bank) or some institution (for example a school or a church) may provide free quarters for some employees.
Squatted: This relates to those cases where occupiers are not paying rent but are occupying the dwelling without the consent of the owner. Note that we are dealing with the tenure of the dwelling, not the land.
Other: Include here any arrangement which does not fit into one of the preceding categories.
Each room must be counted only once. If some rooms are used by more than one household, count and assign such rooms to the household that is enumerated first.
Regular public collection system: Refers to a collection system where garbage is collected on a regular basis i.e. during a specified time period such as twice weekly or once monthly, by the government or a government related agency: for example, Metropolitan Parks and Markets, Central Parks and Markets, etc.
Irregular public collection system: Refers to a collection system where garbage is collected by the government or a government related agency but not on a regular basis i.e. collection is done in an unpredictable manner.
Private collection system: This is scored where a private company is authorized to collect garbage.
Burn: This applies when the household's main disposal of garbage is by burning.
Bury: This refers to the disposal of garbage by burying in a hole in the ground. This may be done in one's own yard or at some other location.
Dumping in sea/river/pond/gully: This describes the disposal of garbage into the sea, river, pond or gully.
Dumping in own yard: This refers to the disposal of garbage by throwing in the back yard. It should not be confused with burying, however which involves the digging a hole.
Dumping at a municipal site: This applies to instances where garbage is taken by the respondent to a site identified by local authorities as a dump.
Other dumping: Include here all other types of dumping not identified.
Other method of garbage disposal: Score this for all other types of disposal methods not mentioned previously.
Pit: Score this if the toilet facility is a pit latrine.
WC linked to sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet, which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system (commonly referred to as a sewer main).
WC not linked to sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet, which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soak away). This pit is not to be confused with the pit latrine.
None: Score this if the respondent indicates that the household has no toilet facilities.
Not stated: This position is to be scored if satisfactory information cannot be gathered.
Please note that the use of a public toilet indicates that the household does not have toilet facilities.
Public piped into dwelling: Public refers to a water supply established and maintained by the government or a government related agency, for example, the National Water Commission. Check this if the water supply is from this source and is carried by pipes into the dwelling. You are likely to encounter situations where pipes have been installed but because of a lack of water in the area the householders are forced to use another source. It is this other source which must be identified. Score this category only if water is received through pipes connected to the dwelling.
Public piped into yard: This applies to cases when the householder's water is from a public source and is carried by pipes into the yard only. You are likely to encounter situations where pipes have been installed but because of a lack of water in the area the householders are forced to use another source. It is this other source which must be identified. Score this category only if water is received through pipes connected into the yard only.
Private piped into dwelling: This applies when the main source of domestic water is not a public one and it is piped into the dwelling. Examples of private sources are a private well or tank from which there are pipes which carry water into the dwelling.
Private catchment, not piped: This applies if the water supply is from a non-public catchment and is not piped into the dwelling.
Public standpipe: This relates to a public standpipe, usually located along roads or other public thoroughfares.
Public catchment: This is applicable if the main source of water for domestic use is supplied from a public tank or other catchment and is not piped into the premises. In those cases the water is probably obtained by going to the tank.
Spring/ river: This is applicable if the main source of domestic water is obtained from a spring or river.
Other: Include here all other sources of water supply. Where water is trucked to the area, score "Other". Score this also if water is received from neighbors on a regular basis.
Not stated: This is to be scored if the respondent fails to give a source of water supply.
Yes, in dwelling (not cellular): This refers to the household having a regular telephone system within the dwelling.
Yes, cellular: This refers to the use of a cellular telephone, whether fixed or not.
Yes, neighbor's facility: This refers to the household's use of a telephone owned by its neighbors (which may be regular or cellular). The neighbor in this context may be another household in the same dwelling.
Section 5: Migration and mortality
If the answer to Q5.1 is "Yes", at Q5.2 write in the number of persons leaving the household to live permanently abroad during the year 2000. Then score the sex and write in the age of each individual. For babies younger than one year old, record "00", and for persons 98 years and over score "98". The age to be recorded is the age at the time of migration. Score "99" in all instances where the number of persons and age are not given.
Please note that the emphasis is on permanent residence. Persons going on vacation are not to be included if they returned. If however they went on vacation but have not returned after six (6) months, they are to be included.
If the number of persons exceeds four (4), indicate [this] in the visitation record
5.39 Questions 6.1 and 6.2
Write in the space provided a clear and concise description of the activity. Allowance is made for at least three (3) activities within each household.
Form PCOIB and PCO1C: Individual questionnaire
Section 1: Characteristics
This section provides basic characteristics about the individuals, and are to be answered by all members of the household.
Head: This is the person recognized by the respondent as the head and should be accepted as such.
Wife/husband of head: This refers to the wife (or husband) of the head. The partners should be legally married.
Common law partner of head: This refers to a woman (or man) who lives with, but is not married to, the head of the household.
Child of head and spouse/partner: This is to be scored for each child (natural or adopted) of the head of household and the spouse or partner together. "Child" in this case refers to a son or daughter of the head of household and spouse or partner together, regardless of age.
Child of head only: This is to be marked for each child (natural or adopted) of the head of household only. "Child" in this context refers to a son or daughter of the head, regardless of age.
Child of spouse/partner only: This is to be scored for each child (natural or adopted) of the spouse or partner of the head of household only. "Child" in this context refers to a son or daughter of the spouse or partner of the head of household, regardless of age.
In all cases of adoption, the adoption process must have been completed for the child to be regarded as adopted. In cases where the courts have awarded legal guardianship of a child to an adult, the child must still have been legally adopted to be regarded as "Child".
Spouse/partner of child: This is to be marked if the individual is the spouse or partner of any child of either the head or spouse.
Grandchild of head/spouse: This refers to the grandchild of the head or spouse/partner, irrespective of age of the individual.
Parent of head/spouse: This is to be scored for each parent of the head or spouse.
Brother/sister of head/spouse: This refers to the brother or sister of head of household or his/her spouse.
Other relative of head/spouse: This refers to all members of the household who are related to either the head of household or his/her spouse: for example, cousin of head, niece/nephew of spouse, etc.
Domestic employee: This is to be coded for all employees (paid or unpaid) attached to the household and who, according to the definition, are members of the household.
Other non-relative: This refers to all other members of the household who are not related to the head or spouse.
Not stated: This position is to be scored if the information on the relationship to the head of household is not given.
[Persons age 16 and older. If, however, it is clear that the individual although younger than 16 years is married (as for example among Hindus), then ask the questions and make a note in the visitation record]
(1) He or she could be legally married and living with the person to whom he or she is married.
(2) He or she could be living with a partner to whom he or she is not legally married. This is referred to as living common-law.
The remaining four categories -- "Widowed", "Divorced", "Legally separated", and "Never married" -- are self-explanatory. Please note the following:
(ii) A "Decree absolute" must be granted for the person to be considered divorced.
Sight only: Score this for persons who are blind (only) or almost blind, indicating that the impairment is at a stage where even wearing eye glasses would not help.
Physical disability: Score this if the person's only impairment is the loss of use of parts of the body: e.g., arms.
Multiple disabilities: Score this for any combination of impairments.
Slowness of learning or understanding: Score this only for persons who have been subjected to testing and found to be slow at learning or understanding simple instructions.
Mental retardation: Score this for persons who function intellectually below a level regarded as normal for their age. In most cases the motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills develop at a much slower rate than in their peers. These persons exhibit decreased learning ability and are generally unable to meet the educational demands of school.
Mental illness: This could range from depression to insanity. In many instances persons suffering from some type of mental illness are able to function normally but require medication.
Please note the following:
(2) If a person has recently registered in a program of study but has not actually started, score "Yes".
(3) Study outside of Jamaica is to be included, assessing the level of attainment.
(4) Enrollment in a Jamal program is not to be included.
Yes, at school or other institution/HEART: This covers instances where the individual is a registered student in a school or any other institution, whether private or public. Check this also if the respondent is registered in a HEART program at an institution. Do not include persons who are registered in a HEART program but not in an institution.
Yes, private study: Check this if the individual studies through correspondence courses, via the internet, or on his/her own. Some examples are cases of persons doing Association of Chartered Accountant (ACCA), Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT), or Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) examinations but attend no class.
No: Check this if the individual is not registered at a school or in any educational program (including private study). Score this also for persons who are registered in HEART program, such as Skills 2000 or the School Leavers Training Opportunities.
[Persons between the ages of 4 and 13 who are not registered in school]
[Check "None" for persons younger than 4]
None: Score this for children younger than 4, and for all persons who indicate that they never attended school.
Pre-primary: This is applicable to kindergarten, nursery school, the infant department of a primary, preparatory or all-age school, and basic school.
Primary: This applies to a preparatory school (commonly called "Prep" school), primary school, elementary, and grades 1 through 6 of all-age schools.
Secondary: Include here the traditional secondary high schools, senior schools, junior secondary, comprehensive and technical high schools, and grades 7 through 9 of all-age schools. Include persons registered in a HEART Program at a secondary level.
[The next two categories comprise tertiary level institutions. Refer to appendix iii for a complete list]
University: This refers to enrollment in courses at a university, whether as a day student, as an evening student, or by correspondence. Persons enrolled in the University of Technology (UTECH) and the Northern Caribbean University should be included here. If however they attended these institutions prior to the granting of university status, they should be scored at "Other tertiary".
Other tertiary: This applies to tertiary institutions other than university. Include here are: CAST, West Indies College, Teacher training colleges, community colleges, College of Agriculture, Cultural Training Centre, G. C. Foster College of Physical Education and Sports, etc. Include here also persons attending institutions offering post secondary training, such as the Institute of Management and Production (IMP), Jamaica Institute of Management (JIM), UWI School of Continuing Studies (formerly Extra Mural Department), as well as institutions offering training in data processing, insurance etc. Include also all persons registered in a HEART program at an institution at a tertiary level.
Other: Include here all persons attending Jamal classes and any other types of educational institutions not listed above.
These questions are very important for the main reasons that they:
(2) Are important for studying movement of the population between parishes in Jamaica. Movements apply only to those taking place between parishes. Residence abroad is not regarded as a move for the purpose of studying internal migration.
Note that a "No" at Q2.1 does not necessarily mean the person lives in another parish. The person may be living in another household in the same parish where you are working. In this case, score "Another household in this parish". If the respondent is not a usual resident of the household, end the interview after asking Q2.2.
If a child is born abroad to a woman whose usual place of residence is in Jamaica, the place of birth for that child is the parish of usual residence in Jamaica. Only if the mother was resident abroad (i.e. living abroad for 6 months or more or intending to live abroad for 6 months or more) is the birthplace to be regarded as abroad. Refer to Appendix ii for a listing of country grouping.
If the individual had previously resided in this parish and then lived outside of it for 6 months or more, record the year in which he/she last returned to reside in this parish.
If the individual has resided abroad but has not lived in any other parish in Jamaica, then he is not to be regarded as having lived outside of his parish of birth. In this case also, the year of entry will be the same as the year of birth.
[Education questions for persons age 4 and older. Training questions for persons age 14 and older]
You will need to pay close attention to the instructions for this section, which combines questions on education and training. Questions 3.1 and 3.2 relate to education and should be asked of all persons age 4 and older. Questions 3.3 through 3.13 relate to training and are applicable to persons age 14 and older. Questions 3.3 through 3.7 relate to current training, while questions 3.8 through 3.13 relate to past training.
For the Census, the examinations are ranked in the following order.
None: Mark this if the individual has not passed any of the examinations or earned any of the certificates, diplomas or degrees specified.
CXC Basic, JHSC, JSC or JSCE, 3rd JLCL, SSC, JC: Mark this if the individual obtained a certificate in Caribbean Examinations Council Basic, Junior High School Certificate, Jamaica School Certificate, Jamaica School Certificate of Education, Third Jamaica Local, Secondary School Certificate, or the Junior Cambridge.
GCE "O" 1-3, CXC General 1-3, AEB 1-3: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in 1, 2, or 3 subjects in the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level, the Caribbean Examinations Council General, and the Associated Examining Board Examinations. Note that in relation to passes in GCE "O" Level and AEB, only persons obtaining Grades A-C must be regarded as having passed that subject. In relation to the CXC, only Grades 1, 2, and 3 (since 1998) are regarded as passes.
GCE "O" 4+, CXC General 4+, AEB 4+, SC: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in 4 or more subjects in GCE, CXC General, and AEB Examinations, as well as persons who passed Senior Cambridge Examinations.
GCE "A" 1+, HSC, CAPE 1+: Mark this for persons who have obtained passes in one or more GCE "A" Level subjects, persons who have passed the Higher Schools Certificate Examination, as well as those who have obtained passes in 1 or more Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination subjects.
College certificates and diplomas: This applies to persons who have obtained a certificate or diploma from a tertiary institution.
Other certificates and diplomas: This applies to persons who have obtained a diploma or certificate from an institution other than a tertiary institution.
Associate degree: This applies to persons who have obtained an associate degree from a university or institute of higher learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award.
Degrees and professional qualifications: This applies to individuals who have obtained a degree from a university or institute of higher learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award. Include also persons engaged in professional work who have had training in specific fields: e.g., lawyers, architects, engineers, certified and chartered accountants.
Other: Mark this for individuals who have passed examinations not specified in any of the preceding responses. Include here persons who have passed the First and Second Jamaica Local Examinations, Royal Society of Arts (RSA), The Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institute (ULCI), and London City Guilds Examinations.
[You will notice that some of the questions are repeated. Questions 3.3 through 3.7 are to be asked of persons who are currently being trained, while questions 3.8 through 3.13 relate to part training only. Follow the skip instructions carefully to allow you to ask the relevant questions]
VTDI (Vocational Training Development Institute): This institution offers a three year diploma for vocational instructors.
Other H.E.A.R.T.: Include here training received through any other HEART training programs. Examples of these are Skills 2000, a community-based program for disadvantaged persons, and School Leavers Training Opportunities (SL-TOP), designed for the acquisition of skills by school leavers through on the job training.
West Indies College/N.C.U.: Mark this if training was received/is being received at West Indies College, now called Northern Caribbean University.
U.W.I.: This refers to training programs at the University of the West Indies, whether as a day or evening student.
Community college: Mark this for individuals whose response is community college. Examples are: Excelsior Community College (EXED), Montego Bay, Knox and Portmore.
Teachers colleges, CASE: Mark this if the individual has received or is receiving training at a teacher training college such as Mico, Shortwood, Church, Bethlehem, as well as College of Agriculture and Science Education.
Nursing schools: Mark this if training was/is in an institution that offers training in patient and personal assistance care. Examples are Jamaica School of Nursing and U.W.I. School of Nursing.
Police training school/Jamaica Police Academy: This applies to members of the Jamaica Constabulary Force who have been trained at the training school formerly located at Port Royal or the more recently established Academy at Twickenham Park.
Secretarial/commercial colleges: This applies to institutions that offer commercial and secretarial training only. Secondary level institutions offering subjects in addition to the regular curriculum should not be included.
Technical schools: Score this for training received at the technical high schools.
On-the-job training: This applies when the individual is receiving/has received "on-the-job" training only. On-the-job training must, however, be structured training and not just learning by experience. In such situations, the trainee is an employee.
Apprenticeship: Include here persons who learned their skill from a more experienced tradesman. In most instances, during the period of training the trainee is not regarded as employed and might be given very little to do.
Other: This covers all other types of methods of acquiring training, including training through correspondence courses or the internet. Include Jamaica Defence Soldiers in this category.
Not stated: Mark this in cases where the information is not given.
None: Score this if the person indicates that he/she did not receive or will not receive a certificate, diploma, degree etc.
Certificate: This is to be scored for persons who obtained or will obtain a certificate.
Associate degree: Refers to persons who indicate that they have received this award from a university or institute of higher learning.
Diploma: Score this for persons who obtained or will obtain a diploma.
Professional qualification: This qualification is generally acquired by professionals who have received training from a professional body, for example: architects, engineers, accountants.
Graduate degree: Refers to a degree obtained after the one received at the undergraduate level. Examples are a masters degree or a doctorate (PhD).
[Persons age 14 and older]
Section 4 is comprised of Questions 4.1 through 4.20, and should be asked to persons age 14 and older. The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals were in the working force of the country at some point in time.
This section is included in the sample coverage because it requires much more probing than should be undertaken for the short form. Economic activity in Jamaica has undergone some amount of transformation within the past two or three decades, whereby there has been a significant development of what has come to be regarded as the "Informal sector". People have in many instances moved away from the traditional jobs in the public and private sectors and have ventured into their own small scale businesses, some of which are being operated within homes.
You must pay close attention to the skip instructions at all times to ensure that you ask relevant questions. You will also need to pay close attention to the different reference periods stated. Questions 4.1 through 4.4 seek to identify the persons who worked. As we know that work means different things to different people, we try in these questions to establish clearly whether an individual worked or not within a particular week. These questions relate to the week preceding the Census date, as do Questions 4.5 through 4.13. Question 4.14 asks for a specific date. Questions 4.15 and 4.16 relate to the past twelve months, while questions 4.17 and 4.18 refer to the past 5 years. Questions 4.19 and 4.20 are relevant to persons of pensionable age and seek to determine the type of social welfare benefits or pension being received. Even if the person has never worked, he/she can be in receipt of social welfare benefits (as the beneficiary of a spouse).
It is important that the concept of work be fully understood.
(a) Work with pay, that is:
(ii) Work as trainee (such as nurses in training) or apprentice (persons at trade). This could also correspond to the same categories at is point (i).
(iii) Work for oneself in one's own business (including farm), which is run for profit or fees but does not employ paid help. This corresponds to "Self-employed without Employees" in question Q4.6. For example: odd job, hustling, buying and selling etc.
(iv) Work for oneself in one's own business (including farm), which is run for profit or fees and employs paid help. This corresponds to "Self-employed with employees" in question Q4.6.
(b) Work without pay in a business or farm which is run for profit that is:
(ii) Work as an unpaid helper in a business or other organization, in cases where the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay (see "Unpaid employee in agriculture" or any type of business in question Q4.6).
Do not include as "working" those persons who:
(ii) Work without pay assisting a relative or friend in his duties as an employee.
(iii) Work without pay either in cash or in kind as a volunteer worker for service Society for Blind, Operation Workshop.
Note also that "work" must relate to work in Jamaica. It includes, however, those persons who are residing in the territory but are on boats, ships, airplanes, etc., which may operate outside of the territory, as well as travelling salesmen, consultants, etc. Informal commercial importers who travel to the Cayman Islands buying and selling are to be included. Do not include the work done by persons going as contract workers to North America for a few months to work on farms there during the crop season. Other persons who live and work outside of the country should not be classified as having worked with respect to the time they were resident outside of the country.
Definitions of the various categories of economic activities stated in Q4.4 are:
Working in agriculture or any type of business without pay: Include here any individual who worked without pay in a business or farm run for profit in cases where: (i) the individual is either supported by the owner or obtains some benefits other than cash from the running of the business (usually in a family business); or (ii) the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay.
With job, but not working: Include here any individual who had a job or work as defined, who was temporarily away from work during the week, but had a format attachment to the job. Examples of this formal attachment are:
(b) Assurance of return to work following the end of the contingency
(c) Agreement on the date of return following the short duration of absence from the job
(2) Were on leave with or without pay, so long as their jobs were being held for them until their return.
(3) Did not work because of a strike or lockout
(4) Were on short lay-off, if not more than 30 days duration, with instructions to return to work at the end of the 30 days.
Seeking first job: This covers persons who had never worked in Jamaica and who, during the reference week, were actively engaged in trying to get work.
Seeking a job that was not the first: This covers persons who had some work experience (in Jamaica) who were not working during the week preceding the census but were actively trying to get work during the week.
Did not seek work, but wanted work and was available: This refers to those individuals who, during the week, wanted work and were available for work although not actively seeking work through the recognized channels.
Students: This applies to those persons not classified above who were full-time students in primary, secondary, technical or other schools, at the university, or were engaged in private studies. Persons on holidays from school or university are to be included here.
Home duties: This relates to those persons who were engaged during the week in looking after their own homes -- that is: cooking, washing, cleaning, etc. It does not cover domestic servants and others who were performing these duties in other people's homes for pay. These would be classified as "Worked". Ensure that you do not include here those persons who worked, were seeking work, or wanted work and it was available, all of whom could also have been engaged in home duties.
Retired, did not work: This relates to those persons who have previously worked but who, during the reference week, were in retirement from work. Do not include persons who might have retired from one job but are working in another job. These persons should have been classified as "Worked".
Disabled, unable to work: This covers those persons who were unable to work because of some physical or mental disability.
Not interested in work: This covers persons who were doing none of the activities that would have been described, but indicated a lack of interest.
Other: This group includes all persons who cannot be properly put into one of the above categories.
Not stated: This includes all persons for whom satisfactory information cannot be obtained in order to classify them according to their economic activity.
[Persons who are identified as having a job]
[Persons who are identified as having a job]
Foreign consultants resident and working in Jamaica should be scored as "Other".
You are required to write in the name of the occupation in the space provided. Be as specific as possible in recording the occupation. Do not use vague terms such as "Clerk" (which could mean a store clerk or a clerk in an office), "Foreman" (which could mean a foreman on many different types of activities), and so on. Write for example: "Office clerk", "Foreman of a road construction gang", etc. In some cases, you may need to use many words to explain the type of work actually done. This is preferable to trying to use very short descriptions that are vague or inaccurate. DO not attempt to score any codes in the four boxes to the right. If the information is not reported, score "Not stated" in the space provided for occupation.
In the case of persons engaged by local or central government, give the name of the office or department in which they are employed.
For domestic servants and other personal service workers who work as paid employees in private homes, the industry is "Private home". For persons who indicate odd jobs or hustling, you will need to identify the nature of such activity in order to accurately record the industry. For someone selling biscuits, the industry would not be the same as the person who assist travelers to the buses.
As for occupation, do not attempt to score any codes in the four boxes in the right.
In general, there are two types of income to be dealt with depending on whether the person worked for others or for himself. Persons who worked for others for pay (i.e., for wages and salaries) should give their gross income, including any overtime payments and other [fees]. That is, it should be the income before deductions.
For self-employed persons (employers and own account workers), on the other hand, what is required is their net receipts -- that is, their total gross receipts minus any wages and salaries they have to pay people working in the business, and other business expenses. It is appreciated that persons in these categories will not often be able to give their net income with absolute accuracy, but you must make every effort to help them to give as accurate a figure as possible.
In particular, many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. For example, a cane farmer who reaps his cane once per year may have to give his income for the past year, for if he gives his income for a week or month, and the period excludes the time when he received this payment, the average income will be under-stated. On the other hand if it includes this payment, the average income will be over-stated. Similarly, a wage earner who regularly receives an annual bonus would need either to give all his income for the year or else add a proportional part of his annual bonus to his monthly or weekly income.
There will, therefore, be some difficulty in ensuring that you obtain the accurate income for persons who receive income for different periods or from different sources.
Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn. Often they do not tell this even to their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must remind and reassure the respondent of the confidentially of all information given. Explain further that we are not interested in the exact income but rather in the range.
You must decide what is the most convenient pay-period with which to record the person's income. The most convenient pay-period for you to use would usually the one in which the person receives most of his income. For example, in the case of the wage-earner who is paid weekly and gets no other income, then the pay-period should be the week. Similarly, the month would be the most convenient pay-period for the person who receives only a monthly income.
This question, which is asked of all persons who worked or had a job during the reference week, requires income from employment only and excludes gifts, rents from property, interest and dividends, pensions, and other income that was not obtained directly from employment.
It is also recognized that many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. In such case, the convenient pay period will be the year.
(b) where the individual worked for short periods each day or week.
In the case of (a), the months worked should include all the time worked in all the jobs in which the individual was engaged. For the irregular work pattern (b), some estimate of the overall time worked in months must be given, as the figure must relate to average full-time work. Refer to Appendix iv for the methodology to be utilized in the conversion to months in cases of irregular work pattern.
[Persons age 60 and older]
[Females ages 14 to 49]
These questions are related to the number of live-born children a woman has had. Some women might tend to exclude children who were born alive but subsequently died. These children are not to be excluded from the count. A live birth is the product of a pregnancy that shows some sign of life after expulsion, even if [the child] dies a few minutes after.
Whereas Questions 5.1 through 5.5 relate to all live born children, the woman has had in her life, these next set of questions (5.6 through 5.11) refer to occurrences in the twelve months preceding Census day (between September 10, 2000 and September 9, 2001).
In question 5.10, write in the number of male and female deaths and then enter the total in the "Total" box. In question 5.11, check the sex of each child who died, record the age, and indicate whether the death was registered or not. The age should be recorded in months. If younger than one month, score "00". If not stated, record "99". Remember that in Q5.11 you must account for the total recorded in Q5.10.
An example of how Q5.11 is completed is shown below:
[Table not included here]
Child no. 1 - A male child died at 2 months old and was not registered
Child no. 2 - A female child died at 5 months old. The death was registered
Child no. 3 - A male child died. The age was not stated and it was not known if the death was registered
The enumeration of the population resident in non-private dwellings, as well as "Persons of no fixed abode", will in general be carried out by special census takers under the supervision of the area coordinator. In some instances the information will be obtained by direct interview, while in others the administrative records of the institution will be used to extract the relevant information.
Question 6.1: Enumeration arrangements and supervision
Question 6.4: Group A direct interviews
(ii) Housing unit no. 901: Convents and monasteries
(ii) Housing unit no. 908: Boarding schools and other residential schools, except for the blind, deaf and other handicapped.
Question 6.5: Group B administrative records
Housing unit no. 903: Mental institutions.
Housing unit no. 904: Homes for children, the aged, the infirm, and the needy
Housing unit no. 905: Hospitals and homes providing specialized care, cancer hospitals, other hospitals for chronic ailments, and homes for the incurables
Housing unit no. 910: Hospitals and homes for the blind, deaf and other handicapped (for example, Mona Rehabilitation Centre, School of Hope)
Question 6.6: Completing the questionnaire
Dwelling number: Assign number "99" to each questionnaire
Household number: Assign number "99" to each questionnaire
Individual number within household: As with private households, assign a number to each individual starting with "01" and continuing consecutively. If there are more than 99 persons in the household, assign "01" to the one-hundredth person, "02" to the next one, etc. Individual numbers will therefore run like this: "01", "02", "03", ..., "97", "98", "99", "01", "02", "03", "04", etc.
For all other questions, follow the instructions as outlined in the main manual. Refer to paragraph 6.4 and 6.5, which identify the relevant questions for each group of non-private dwellings.
The completion of this form is somewhat similar to that of Form PCO1D, discussed earlier. It is comprised of a cover page and three (3) sections.
Question 6.8: Completing the cover page before enumeration
- Parish: write in the name of the parish in which you are working and the relevant code that will be given to you by the parish coordinator
- Census taker's name
- Census taker's address
- Census taker's number
- Date started working
Question 6.9: Completing the cover page after enumeration
Date completed work: When you have completed enumeration at the group dwelling, enter the date on which you enumerated the last person.
Number of non-private dwellings listed: Count the number of dwellings listed by you in the visitation record and enter this number on the cover page. Use a two digit number, which will be 01-09 for numbers less than 10.
Number of pages (section 2) completed: At the end of the enumeration, enter the number of pages in section 2 that have entries on them.
Number of questionnaires completed: Count the number of questionnaires that you have completed. This number should correspond to that entered at the item: population enumerated.
Population enumerated, total, male, female, 18 years and over: This is a total of the population enumerated for all the non-private dwellings listed in the visitation record.
Question 6.10: Section 1 - Daily activity record
Question 6.11: Section 2 - Census listing records
Jamaica Defense Force: up park camp.
Complete Section 2 as follows:
Date of first visit: Enter here the date of the first visit for purposes of listing the dwelling.
Date enumeration completed: This refers to the date on which enumeration of the group dwelling is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons have been enumerated.
Name and address of institution/group dwelling: Enter the full name and address of institution or group dwelling, for example:
Green Acres Nursing Centre
Red Gal Ring, Stony Hill
Where as stated in Paragraph 6.10, you are enumerating a hall of residence at the University of the West Indies, for example, this should be entered as follows:
Taylor Hall, U.W.I.
Mona, Kingston 7.
Number of persons identified: This number relates to all the residents whether they are enumerated or not.
Number of persons enumerated: This number relates to the number of persons for whom you have completed a questionnaire.
Remarks: Write here any explanations which you consider important for a clearer understanding of any information recorded on the page.
Question 6.12: Enumerating persons of no fixed abode/vagrants
Question 6.13: Completing Form JCO1F for persons of no fixed abode
Identification: Record the parish code.
Location found: Write the location where the person is found. Examples are: Burger King, Half Way Tree, outside Cross Roads Market
Home address: Where it is possible to obtain this information from the person, write in whatever is given to you.
Home address: Where it is possible to obtain this information from the person, write in whatever is given to you.
Age: Try and make the best estimate in cases where this is not reported. Tick the relevant box indicating whether it was reported by the individual or estimated by you.
Observations: Relationships - In most instances, the person is likely to be alone, in which case you tick the box. There are likely to be instances, however, where you are likely to be able to establish a relationship with other persons at the same location.
In all instances, for item 10 observations, check as many categories as are applicable. For example, an individual could appear to be mentally ill, have sores and has a deformity.