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1.1 What is a Population Census?
A modem population census may be defined as the total process of gathering, com piling and publishing information on the people of a country or a specific area, which tells about their number, their age and sex, where they live, their level of education, whether or not they are at school, at work or not and other such characteristics. In short, it relates to information on the total count of the population and its characteristics.
1.2 Why is a Population Census being taken?
Since 1982 when the last population census was taken, the population has grown; persons have moved from one place to another; changes have taken place in the educational system, and so on. The Population Census of 1991 aims at providing the information needed to assess these changes as well as to provide a base for the development of plans to improve the economic and social status of the population.
A rapidly growing population may require a number of additional services, examples of which are: schools, water supplies, hospitals and clinics and factories. Information provided by the 1991 Population Census about the growth and movement of the population will assist those agencies which have the responsibility for planning for the provision of these services in determining size, location and other characteristics needed for decision making.
Businessmen and industrialists will also be able to use the results of the 1991 Census to aid them in their planning. The information will assist them in organizing their sales program more effectively by way of determining suitable locations for retail outlets, for factory sites etc., so that they can operate their business more profitably and serve the communities better.
1.3 How is this Population Census being taken?
In order to take a census, several distinct preparations have to be undertaken. Firstly plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled, the next step is to organize the enumeration or the collection of the data in the field.
In this Census, almost six thousand trained interviewers will visit every building and every household in Jamaica in order to interview members of the households and record the required information. Questions on the number of persons living in the household, their age, sex, occupation, birth place and so on, will be asked and the answers recorded in the proper places on the questionnaires.
After the questionnaires have been completed in the field, they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. When all checking has been completed, another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for processing, the first step which involves their passage through a machine known as a Document Reader.
This is a computer which is used to read the information on the questionnaires. You may be familiar with this machine. It is the same type of machine which is used for marking the Common Entrance examination papers. The computer takes the information from the questionnaire and writes it on to a magnetic tape for further steps in computer processing. The final step is the production of the tabulations from which the Census Reports are prepared.
1.4 The Importance of Your Role in the Population Census
As a Census Taker, you play a vital part in the census operations. You, along with about 6,000 other persons, have the job of taking the 1991 Census of Population.
As was just stated, the information obtained on the Census forms will provide the basis for the final Census results. All the processes which take place after the field enumeration involve adding up and performing other tasks on the data collected. They take the data collected as a base. Therefore, the final results will be accurate only if the information provided on the questionnaires is accurate.
Every effort must be made to obtain complete and exact answers to questions and to record these accurately according to your instructions.
The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a large extent on the interest you take in your job and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow Census Takers perform your tasks. You, therefore, hold a key position in this important undertaking.
1.5 Census Information is Confidential
The census is being taken under the Statistics Act which requires that all persons in Jamaica provide information to you, the Census Taker, acting as an agent for the Census Officer. It also requires that all information collected in the census be kept confidential. When you accept the job of Census Taker, you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone other than a sworn employee of the census organization. This means that you must not show the information to anyone but your Supervisor, your Commissioner, the Census Officer or a member of the staff of the Institute who is authorized to see your work. You must also not talk about it to anyone, including all members of your family or you will be in breach of the law.
1.6 Census Information used only in Totals
Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction, because you will be asking for information they do not normally tell to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. These are:
(a) All Census Takers working in the Census have taken an oath of secrecy.
(b) Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any other person engaged on census work to make unauthorized disclosure of information to any individual or organization whatsoever, public or private.
(c) The information collected will be published only for groups of people so that no information given by an individual can be recognized. Information about a particular individual is essential in deriving overall totals, but this information will never be used in a form which could result in any fact about this individual being identified.
2.1 Your Assignment
Your assignment as Census Taker is to list all building units in your E.D. and getting the information required on the Visitation Record. In addition, you are required to complete a questionnaire according to the instructions given in this Manual, for each individual who lives in your Enumeration District (E.D.), as well as those who stayed overnight in the E.D. on Census night, that is, on the night of April 7.
If you are a Special Census Taker, you will have the responsibility for taking the Census in non-private dwellings.
As was stated before, you are, in a very special way, the key person in the Census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. We have stressed that a report is only as good as the information that goes into it, so it is important that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.
2.2 Your Supervisor
You will be working under the supervision and direction of your Zone Supervisor who will:
(a) be involved in your training;
(b) ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed;
(c) give you your assignment;
(d) supply you with your enumeration materials;
(e) observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve it;
(f) see that you understand and follow the instructions in this Manual and those given at training classes;
(g) see that you complete your assignment as quickly and accurately as possible;
(h) receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment; and
(i) help you to solve your enumeration problems.
You must at all times keep in close touch with your Supervisor, advising him where you may be found, meeting at such times and places as he or she may direct, following carefully the instructions which he or she gives you on census matters.
2.3 Your Enumeration Kit
In order to carry out your assignment, you will receive from your supervisor the following items:
(a) a Census Identification Card;
(b) copies of Form Cl - the Census Questionnaire;
(c) copies of Form C3 - the Visitation Record, Private Dwellings;
(d) a box in which to keep completed Questionnaires;
(e) two no.2 pencils;
(f) one eraser;
(g) a file containing a map of your Enumeration District and a description of it;
(h) Certificate of Enumeration Cards;
(i) a set of Appointment Cards;
(j) a bag in which to keep Census materials when you are in the field.
In addition, you should carry around with you, your letter of appointment as a Census Taker as well as your Manual.
Special Census Takers will be given, in addition:
(k) a supply of Form C2 - Special Cases Schedule;
(1) a copy of Form C4 - The Visitation Record - Group Dwellings;
(m) a flashlight
2.4 Items to be returned at end of Enumeration
At the end of Enumeration you will be required to return to your Supervisor the following items:
(a) your Identification Card;
(b) the E.D map and description;
(c) questionnaire box with completed Forms Cl.
(d) the Visitation Record, or Records supplied to you;
(e) all unused cards;
(f) all unused questionnaires;
(h) the Bag for holding all materials;
(i) the Flashlight (in the case of Special Census Taker).
Remember, all items supplied to you for the purpose of carrying out the Census are the property of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica and your claim for payment will not be honored until your Supervisor receives them from you at the end of your enumeration.
2.5 Your Hours of Work
As a Census Taker you will be required to work outside of what is often considered normal working hours. This is because you will have to adjust your working hours? to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this often means making calls early in the morning and more particularly in the afternoon and early evening. Weekends, that is Saturdays and Sundays are often the best days to find people at home. You will therefore be required to work on these days also.
2.6 Your E.D. Map and description
As indicated above, your materials for census taking include a map of your Enumeration District, together with a description of its boundaries.
The E.D. map has been prepared on a scale map and includes the area which comprises your E.D. and the surrounding areas. "The scale of the map, which vary depending on the size of E.D., is indicated above thus: Scale 1: 10,000. Thus means that, in this example everyone Inch on the map represents 10,000 inches on the ground or 1 :50,000 in which one mile as the crow flies is represented by approximately 1 1/3 inches on the map".
There are certain features on the map which you should observe. These are identified below with colors as specified:
(i)The direction: The direction of the map determined by the symbol [northern compass symbol] points in the direction of north.
(ii)The starting point: This is shown by a brown symbol [symbol not included here]
(iii)The boundaries: The boundaries of the E.D. are marked in green thus: [map with a hash symbol not included here]
(iv) Other distinguishing features: Other distinguishing features on the map are shown thus:
(a) Parish boundaries
(b) County boundaries
- A 1 Roads
- A 2 Roads
- Other roads
(g) Gully or
(h) Railway line or
(i) Property boundary
(j) Sea Coast
(1) Imaginary lines
The description of the E.D. accompanies the E.D. map. The description starts from the starting point and proceeds clockwise ending at the starting point.
Examples of both urban and rural maps and their descriptions are given in the Appendices.
2.7 Know Your E.D.
Before enumeration begins, your Supervisor will show you the boundaries of your E.D. If he has found errors on the map which you will be given on assignment he will point this out also. This should happen in only a few cases, in particular, where changes in the area have taken place after the map was drawn. In these cases, you should correct your E.D map. If during enumeration you identify changes in any of the features on the map,
you should indicate these on your map. Such corrections could be crossing out streets, etc. which do not exist, drawing in and naming streets and roads which may have been omitted from the map, and correcting street and road names where necessary. You must make sure that the corrections you are making are accurate and do not arise because you have not read your map properly.
If you find any errors in the description, write these out below the given description of the E.D. in the space provided. All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him.
2.8 Enumerate within boundaries
You must be careful when enumerating the outer boundaries of your E.D. You should enumerate only those areas which are within your E.D.
[map not included here]
The map above represents an urban type E.D. map. This E.D. is bounded to the north by Second Street, to the east by North Lane, to the south by First Street and to the west by East Avenue.
Enumeration in this E.D. should be done in the premises shown by XXs on the map within the boundaries identified as follows:
(a) All along the southern side of Second Street between East Avenue and North Lane (the northern boundary);
(b) All along the western side of North Lane between Second Street and First Street (the eastern boundary);
(c) All along the northern side of First Street between North Lane and East Avenue (the southern boundary);
(d) All along the eastern side of East A venue between First and Second Streets (the western boundary);
(e) Both sides of Key Lane;
(f) Both sides of Job Lane;
(g) Both sides of Core Lane from First Street passing Job Lane and Key Lane, to its junction with Second Street.
If you enumerate anywhere on the northern side of Second Street, then you are enumerating outside of your boundary; and similarly on the eastern side of North Lane, or the southern side of First Street or the western end of East Street. Also if you enumerate on, say, the western side of East Avenue north of Second Street, you will also be enumerating outside of your area.
Thus, if a street, road, river, canal, lane, road j unction or other feature forms one of the boundaries of your E.D. be sure you know which side of it is in your E.D. You will cause a great deal of trouble if you enumerate households outside of your E.D. belonging to someone else and you will not be paid for questionnaire relating to that area.
On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook or forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you. This is particularly important in rural areas where it is easy to overlook tracks.
If a householder tells you that a Census Taker has already collected information from him, make certain that the Census Taker is engaged in Population Census work and not on any other survey. If the holder has, in fact, been previously enumerated by another Census Taker, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your Supervisor. It may be that some other Census Taker is working in your area, probably by mistake.
2.9 Ensure that you locate all Households
The description of the E.D. will indicate the direction to be followed in covering your Enumeration District. Your Supervisor will check this with you and will advise you further where necessary.
It is especially important in covering your area, particularly in rural districts, to ensure that all sections of your E.D., especially those which appear to be uninhabited, are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or seem to appear inaccessible.
Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area, and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures.
Be careful to enumerate all households in your area. Remember, if you deliberately omit households because it is difficult to either get to them or for some other reason to contact them, and this is proved, then you will not be paid for working in the E.D.
You should also obtain information relating to households within your E.D. only. Never attempt to complete questionnaires for persons in any other household other than those located in the E.D. Do not make up fictitious questionnaires. You will be guilty of an offence under the Law. If this is proved you will have to pay the penalty and you will also not receive pay for any work which you have done.
2.10 How the Interview should be conducted
An intense publicity program has been arranged which should assist you greatly in your dealings with respondents. Never-the-less, much of your success as a Census Taker will depend on your approach. Most people will react favorably if you are pleasant and courteous.
No interviewing pattern will fit every situation, as the reactions of people you meet will differ, and you must be able to adapt yourself to these differences. Most of all, you will need patience and tact. An approach such as the following, should adequately meet most situations and gain for you a favorable reception:
"Good morning (or afternoon) Sir or Madam. I am the Census Taker appointed by the Census Officer to take the Population Census in this area".
Here, present your Identification Card and if necessary, your Letter of Appointment, for scrutiny by the respondent.
"I shall be grateful if you will answer a few questions regarding yourself and other members of your household".
Sometimes you may need to put the respondent at ease with some' 'small talk". "Small talk" should not become gossip, however. Remember always that you are on the job. Make sure that the interview is not prolonged unnecessarily. You may, on occasions, meet a few persons in your Enumeration District who are of a suspicious or uncooperative nature. Such persons are inclined to view your visit as an intrusion upon their privacy and a waste of their time. A friendly and frank approach on your part may overcome this resistance. If, however, all your endeavors fail, as a last resort you should draw the respondent's attention to' the fact that the Census Regulations make it compulsory to answer all the Census questions. When a householder absolutely refuses to cooperate, the case should be referred to your supervisor who will take the appropriate action.
2.11 Things you should do
(a) You must carry your I.D. Card, Letter of Appointment and Enumeration Manual at all times while working on the Census.
(b) You must present your I.D. Card on every occasion for scrutiny by the respondent before starting your interview.
(c) You must read and intensively study this manual to become thoroughly familiar with its content in order to do your work accurately and efficiently.
(d) You must discuss all problems and .uncertainties with your supervisor.
(e) You must be tolerant, patient and courteous at all times when dealing with respondents.
(f) Whenever possible, the acknowledged head of the household should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only when it is absolutely necessary, and then only from older children. In any case, you should not use a child as a respondent.
(g) You must always attempt to conduct the interview in a house. If this proves impracticable, you must avoid interviewing people before strangers or in a group unless the respondent suggests this.
(h) You must make every effort to keep the documents you are working on clean, legible and free from damage.
(i) At the end of each day you should review your work to make sure that all requirements of your instructions and all census procedures are met. Make sure that no call-backs were omitted, that notes in respect of problems were made and that all questionnaires are
carefully filed away. Then arrange your materials for the next day's work.
(j) You must attend to "call-backs" (households or persons whom you were unable to enumerate at your first visit) as early as possible.
(k) You must be punctual in keeping all appointments, therefore, you must make sure that the date and time which you set are convenient both to yourself and to the respondent.
2.12 Things you should not do
(a) You must not disclose to anyone except census officials, any information you receive in the course of your duties as a Census Taker.
(b) You must not solicit or permit any unauthorized person to assist you with your work. No matter how intelligent he is, he will not have had the training you have had nor any authority to participate
in enumeration. Nor will he have taken the Oath of Secrecy.
(c) You must not permit any unauthorized person to accompany you on your visits. (Remember your Oath of Secrecy).
(d) You must not combine with your census enumeration any canvassing for personal gain, church, political party or any other organization.
(e) You must not permit any unauthorized person - including members of your own family - to see the completed questionnaires for the district you enumerate. Nor should you tell them about the information you have received.
(f) You must never discuss politics or get involved in political arguments while engaged in census taking.
(g) Do not smoke in peoples' homes without permission. It is preferable not to smoke at all at those times.
Before discussing the enumeration forms it is important for you to understand the basic concepts which are used in the Census and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which will be used frequently in the instructions for enumeration.
If, during the course of enumeration there is a case which was not covered by your instructor, make a note of it in your Visitation Record and refer it to your Supervisor on the first occasion that you see him after this has occurred, and ask for his' advice.
A Building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent from any other, comprising one or more rooms, or other space, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof and is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings; for example, detached kitchens, toilets, helpers' quarters, garages, etc.
A Building may be a detached dwelling, apartment building, factory, shop, warehouse, repair shop, etc.
3.4 Dwelling UnitA Dwelling Unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons are living at the time of the Census. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness" and independence". An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or other forms of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons, can isolate themselves from other persons for purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals. It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery; when occupants
can come in and go out of it without passing through anybody else's accommodation.
The key factors in defining a dwelling unit are separateness and independence. Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance(s) without having to pass through the living quarters of another household.
A Household consists of one person who lives alone or a group of persons who, as a unit, jointly occupies the whole or part of a dwelling unit, who have common arrangements for housekeeping, and who generally share at least one meal. The Household may be composed of related persons only, of unrelated persons, or of a combination of both.
guidance can be obtained from the following:
(i) All lodgers, domestic helpers, farm hands and other employees who live in the dwelling and consider it their usual place of residence should be included as members of the household.
(ii) If an individual sleeps in the same structure as the main household and shares at least one meal per day with the household, include him as a household member.
(iii) A domestic employee who sleeps in the house or in an outbuilding on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household if he or she sleeps there on an average of at least four nights per week and shares at least one meal daily. If the helper's partner or children live on the premises, all members of this family are to be included with the main household if they share meals with the main household. If there are separate arrangements for cooking they should be considered as a separate household.
(iv) In the case of a tenement yard where there is a series of rooms rented to different persons by the landlord, each person or group of persons who live and share meals together is regarded as a separate household. A household in this special context may share external bathroom, toilet or even kitchen facilities with other similar households.
3.7 Non-Private Household
Non-private Households are comprised of persons who live collectively in institutions or other such organizations.
3.8 Private Dwelling
Private Dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, part of commercial buildings, and boarding houses catering for less than six boarders.
3.9 Non-private Dwelling/Group Dwelling/Institutions
Non-private Dwelling or Group Dwellings are defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons. Living collectively means that they usually eat common meals and share common domestic services.
Such quarters are found most frequently in home for the military, orphanages, prisons and reformatories, sanatoria, religious cloisters, convent, monasteries, school dormitories, hotels and guests houses.
establishments/office buildings, health centers. Where several buildings on one compound relate to the same activity it should be listed as one building.
3.11 Vacant Building
A Vacant Building is one in which no one is living at the time of the Census.
Newly constructed vacant units are included in the census listing if construction has reached the point where all the windows and exterior doors are installed and the final usable floors are in place. If construction has not reached this point, the unit is not to be counted as a vacant one, that is, it should not be included in the Census Listing.
Vacant units are excluded if there is positive evidence that the units are to be demolished, or if they are condemned for reasons of health or safety, so that further occupancy is prohibited.
3.12 Closed Dwelling
A Closed Dwelling is any dwelling unit which is occupied for purposes of living but at the time of the census the occupants are staying temporarily elsewhere. In such a case you may find out from the neighbor, if possible, the surnames of the persons who usually occupy the dwelling unit and the number of persons who usually live there.
The Head of the Household is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household.
In most cases it will be obvious who the head of the household is. Usually it is the person who is the chief breadwinner.
In any event, the person recognized by the respondent as the head should be accepted as such for census purposes.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, that member of the group whom the others acknowledge as such should be taken as the head.
A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters to less than six guests is considered to be the head of that household.
In a one person household, that person is the head.
3.14 Head of Non-Private Household
In group dwellings, the officer in charge, or the most senior staff member (if he is not a household member elsewhere) is to be taken as the Head. If there is no else who fits this definition, use as the head of the household, the first guest, inmate or patient whom you enumerate.
(i) For persons with more than one home, usual residence will be the one at which the person spends the greater part of the year. Thus, in the case of an individual who has more than one place of residence because his workplace or school is away from home, the usual residence should be that place, be it a boarding school, other residence or lodging in which at least four nights of the week on average are usually spent.
(ii) Fishermen - Fishermen away at sea are considered to have their usual place of residence in the dwelling where they live when ashore.
(iii) Seamen or crew members on a vessel which plies between Jamaica and some foreign port are considered to reside on the vessel rather than at their homes.
(iv) Air pilots are considered to have their usual place of residence in the household if they usually spend most of their off duty periods in Jamaica and they live in that dwelling for most of the time.
(v) Persons engaged in shift work or who work at nights, such as security workers are to be enumerated as members of the household of usual residence.
(vi) Farm workers away for less than six months are to be included as part of the household where they usually live. If, however, they have been abroad for six months or more or intend to be away for that period then they are not to be regarded as usual residents.
(vii) It is important to note that where a person has recently moved in with a group of persons, as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them, that person is to be considered a member of the household.
First, it will enable you to keep a close check on the number of buildings and dwellings visited, the number of questionnaires completed and will allow you to see, at a glance' the dwellings at which call-backs should be made.
Second, your Supervisor will use it to assess the rate at which you are working.
Third, it will be used as a basis for checking your work and the totals derived from it will be used to provide preliminary population figures.
The completion of the Visitation Record is an important part of your job and this Form should be kept up to date at all times.
4.2 Listing Buildings
Every building in your E.D. as defined must be assigned a number in the Visitation Record, whether or not it is occupied. Remember, the unfinished structures and old dilapidated houses in which no one resides or no business is undertaken is not considered to be a "building" for census purposes.
Remember, this is not only a Census of Population but also a Building Census. You are therefore required to visit and list every building in the E.D.
You will remember that, according to the definition of a building, there were four distinct categories of buildings and, in addition, combinations of some. The four distinct categories were:
(a) buildings containing private dwellings;
(b) buildings containing non-private (institutional) dwellings in which people live collectively.
(c) buildings used for business purposes; and
(d) buildings (institutions) used for other purposes, mainly for community services.
4.3 Dual purpose buildings
There are a number of buildings which are used partly for living and partly for business purposes. Such a combination can be a caretaker's living quarters in the building establishment. Caretaker's quarters can also be located in a building used to provide community service such as, say, a school or a police station with staff quarters. These are only a few examples of the variations which you will encounter.
Remember, buildings are structures which are intended for use for living, business or service purposes and must be used for the purpose of accommodating people. Thus, structures such a cattle pens, pig pens, poultry houses, etc. should not be listed.
4.4 Unoccupied buildings
It is important to know what to do with unoccupied buildings. If the building is in the process of construction, it should be listed if the outer walls have been completed, a roof put on and windows and doors in. This means that the building is completed up to the point where it may be secured by locking the windows and doors.
Where a part of the building is completed and the other part is still in the process of construction, the criterion to be adopted is that stated above, that is, if the finished part can be safely secured, it should be listed.
Unfinished buildings in which people reside must, however, be listed regardless of the state of completion.
All finished buildings should be listed, except where they are in a state of dilapidation and are unoccupied.
4.5 Types of Visitation Record
Two types of Visitation Records will be used in the Census. These are:
(a) Visitation Record - Private Dwellings - Form C3;
(b) Visitation Record - Non-private Dwellings - Form C4.
4.6 Form C3-Visitation Record - Private Dwellings
Form C3 - Visitation Record - Private Dwellings is comprised of a cover page and four sections.
Section 1 consists of summary instructions for completing the Visitation Record. The Census Taker's Daily Activity Record comprises Section 2.
Section 3 - The Visitation Record is the main section. The final section is
Section 4 - Notes and Comments.
4.7 How to use the Visitation Record
There are three different units to be listed These are:
(a) the building
(b) the dwelling
(c) the household
Each of these units must be identified by a special number which you will assign. Instructions for assignment will be given later on. Each line in Section 3 should be used. Each will contain information on either a household, a group dwelling or another type of building. Example of "other buildings" are business establishments, schools, churches or health centers.
4.8 Using up the Visitation Record
There are 20 lines on each page of Section 3, and this Section has 8 pages. Therefore there will be a total of 160 lines which should be used for listing.
Where you need more than 160 lines for listing purposes, then you will have to start a second Form C3. Obtain the new one from your supervisor but make sure to mark "BOOK 2" on the cover page. The numbers assigned to the building units recorded in Book 2 must follow consecutively those in Book 1. For example, if the last building was assigned the number 172, then the number assigned to the first building listed in Book 2 would be 173. Listing it as No.1 would be wrong.
4.9 Cover Page
The cover page is used for two purposes. The first is to provide identification, the second to provide summary results. The identification items are to be completed before you start enumeration; the rest are to be entered on completion of enumeration.
4.10 Completing Cover Page before enumeration
Identification No: Copy the identification numbers denoting Parish, Constituency, Town or Special Area and E.D. in which you are working. This will be found on the front of the E.D. map folder. Enter also the Supervisory Zone Number which will be given to you by your supervisor.
Name of Parish: Write In the name of the parish In which you are working.
Name of Constituency: Copy the name of the constituency in which you
are working from the front of your E.D. map folder.
Supervisory Zone: Write in the name of the supervisory zone in which you are working. This will be given to you by your supervisor.
Name, Address and Number of Census Taker: Print your name in BLOCK capitals, putting the surname first. Next, enter your permanent home address. Then, enter your assigned number at the appropriate space. This is the same number as the one on you Identification Card.
Date started working: On your first day at work as a Census Taker, you should enter the date at this item.
4.11 Section 1 - Concepts, Definitions, Instructions
Summary concepts and definitions applicable to Form C3 - Visitation Record, Private Dwellings are printed on the inside cover of the Visitation Record. This will provide you with a quick reference guide. These concepts and definitions are the same as those given in this manual. They are, however, given in an abbreviated form.
Summary instructions for completing the Visitation Record have been included in Section 1. More detailed instructions are those given in this Manual.
4.12 Section 2 - Census Taker's Daily Activity Record
Section 2 is meant to provide a bird's eye view of your activities and performance on a daily basis. It is very important that you keep an up to date record of your daily activities. Your supervisor will need this record to advise his Commissioner and Census Officer of the progress of the You must, therefore, complete an entry for every day that you work. Make the entries at the end of each day's enumeration.
There are eight columns in Section 2 and these should be completed as follows:
Date - Column 1: The date to be entered here should be the date on which the activities recorded took place. If, no work was done on a particular day then this date should not appear in this record. If however, your failure to work on a particular day was connected to a census activity, as, for example, meeting with census officials, then this date should be entered. The corresponding entries in Column (2) to (7) would be dashes and the entry in Column 8 should describe the activity you were engaged in.
Serial Numbers of Buildings listed - Columns 2 and 3: Entries should be made in Columns (2) and (3) and these entries will be used to determine the number of buildings listed each day.
The number to be entered in Column (2) should be the building number of the first unit visited on the particular day. On the first working day, this entry will be "001". From the second day's entry onwards it will be the next consecutive number entered in Column 3, representing the last listing of the day before. The number assigned to the fast building listed each day should be entered in Column (3).
Number of Dwellings listed - Column 4: From Section 3, count the number of dwellings (in column 5) listed during each day.
Number of Household listed - Column 5: As for dwelling units listed, the number of households listed is derived from a count of the number of households listed each day. This number may be obtained by counting the entries made in Column 6 of Section 3 - Census Visitation Record.
Number of Call Back Visits made - Column 6: Call back visits will almost invariably be part of your work so as to enumerate those persons who were not covered on the first visit.
Enter in Column 6, the number of call back visits made during the working day.
Number of questionnaires completed - Column 7: At the end of each day, count the number of questionnaires you completed on that day. Enter the number in Column (7).
Remember to be accurate, since this will be one of the records checked to determine your final payments.
Remarks - Column 8: An example of the use of this Remarks Column has already been given. In general, this Column should be used to record unusual or important factors which occurred or are related to the particular day's activity. Problems encountered during enumeration should be entered here also, since such problems as bad weather, difficult terrain, problems with people in the area, etc. do affect the rate of enumeration.
4.13 Section 3 - The Visitation Record
This is the main section of the Visitation Record and must be fully completed. As you have already been instructed, you should use each line on the page, omitting none.
There are 18 columns in this section to be completed thus:
Block - Column 1: If you are working in an E.D. which has been blocked,
enter in the Column the Block symbol. If the E.D. has not been blocked then run a diagonal line across this column thus:
[Table and its explanation are omitted here]
Date of First Visit - Column 2: Enter here the date of first visit for purposes of listing the building, dwelling, household and/or other building.
You may have to make more than one visit to some dwellings in order to complete the enumeration of all members of the household. Only the first visit (Date) should be recorded here. Where it becomes necessary to add to the list because additional dwellings and/or households have been identified, these will be entered sometime after the first listing. The date to be entered in Column 2 against these visits would be the date where the new listing of the dwelling/household took place. You should identify in Column 18 - The Remarks Column, the identification of the first listing, say, for example, "Building No. 6 listed on 9/6".
Date enumeration completed - Column 3: This refers to the date which enumeration of the household is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons in the household have been enumerated. In the case of refusal, then enumerating will be completed when the Supervisor instructs you to cease visits to that household for purposes of enumeration.
Building/Housing Unit No. - Column 4: Assign in Column 4, a consecutive serial number starting from 001 to each building unit in the E.D. Where the Building Unit is a Housing Unit, this may contain more than one dwelling, and some dwellings more than one household. In these cases, the building number assigned will be repeated until all households in that housing unit have been recorded.
Where a dwelling or household is identified after the first listing had taken place, these would be listed when they are identified. The building number should be the number assigned at first listing. The dwelling or household numbers should however be the one following (consecutively) the last
dwelling and/or household assigned for that building.
Dwelling No. - Column 5: The next two column, 5 - Dwelling Number and Column 6 - Household Number, are to be filled in for housing units only.
Assign a number in Column 5 to each dwelling, starting from 01 for each building and continuing consecutively within each building. Thus, if there are four dwellings in a building the numbers would be 01, 02, 03 and 04.
Household Number - Column 6: Assign a number to the household. If there is one household in the dwelling then the household number would be 01. If there is more than one, the numbers will be 01, 02, etc.
Name and Address of Household Head - Columns 7 and 8: When you have listed a household (as instructed above) immediately write in the full name of the Head of the Household in Column (7). The surname should be entered first. If there is another identifying name, enter this also. Next, enter the full address of the dwelling in Column (8).
Remember, the listing for the Census will be used to provide a frame for sample surveys which will be conducted after the Census. Thus, both name and address should? be given in as great detail as possible so as to enable other people to locate the household after the Census is completed
Entries for address in urban areas could be, for example - 4 King Street, Kingston 13. In rural areas - Rock Hall District, Red Hills P.O.
Name and Address of Institution/Group Dwelling Columns 7 and 8: Where the Building Unit is a Group Dwelling - Enter the name and address of the group dwelling, for example, St. Catherine District Prison, Spanish Town.
Number of Persons in Household - Columns 9-11: Columns 9-13 apply to households only. Thus Columns 9-11 will have entries in all cases where a household has been identified and in no other. In Column 9, enter the total number of persons who have been identified as usual residents of the household. In Column 10, enter the number of males and in Column 11, the number of females. Remember Column 9 must be the total of Columns 10 and 11.
Total Number of Persons Enumerated -Column 12: Write in the total number of persons for whom you have completed a questionnaire with all the information required for those persons. This should include all usual residents as well as any additional persons who spent Census Night in the household. In most cases, Column 12 will be the same as Column 9. Where there is a difference it might be due to the fact that there were additional persons in the household on Census Night, in which case Column 12 will be greater. A difference might also be due to a refusal by one or more persons identified. In this case Column 12 would be less than Column 9.
Note clearly all cases of refusals in the Remarks Column. At all times enter an explanation in the Remarks Column wherever columns 9 and 12 differ.
Number of persons 18 years and over - Column 13: Enter the total number of persons who are usual residents of the household who are 18 years and over. Check on each questionnaire to determine the usual resident and then Question 3.3b to determine the ages.
Column 15: This column is for office use only. Do not write in here.
Other Building No - Column 16: Assign in Column 16 a consecutive serial number starting from 001 to each building other than a Housing Unit and a Group Dwelling.
Column 17: This column is for office use only. Do not write in here.
Remarks -Column 18: Enter here all comments already identified and any other which are relevant.
The first page of Section 3 contains an example of how to complete this section
4.14 Section 4 Notes and Comments
You may need to make more comprehensive notes than those provided for in Sections 2 and 3. Make these in Section 4. Remember to identify the -household to which they apply. Enter the serial number of the household in Column (1) and comments in Column (2).
4.15 Completing Cover Page after Enumeration
Now that we have completed the Visitation Record we need to go back to the completion of the cover page.
The remaining items on the cover of Form C3 are:
Number of pages (Section 3) completed: At the end of enumeration, enter the number of pages in Section 3 that have entries on them. If you have used a second Visitation Record for listing in the E.D., then you should enter the total number of pages used in Books 1 and 2 combined. This should be entered thus: 19 (Books 1 and 2).
Number Group Dwellings Listed: Count the number of group dwellings listed by you and recorded in Column 14 of Section 3 and enter this number on the cover page. Remember to include those entered in Book 2 if you have used a second book.
Number of Private Dwellings Listed: The number to be entered here should be calculated by totaling Column 4 of Section 2. Census Taker's Daily Activity Record. Where more than one book has used, the entry should be the total from all the books used. The entries in Column 4- Section 2 were, of course, obtained from totaling, on a daily basis the number of dwellings recorded in Column 5 of Section 3 - Census Visitation Record.
Number of Private Households Enumerated: This entry should be obtained by totaling Column 5 of Section 2. This corresponds to the count of entries in Column 6 of Section 3.
Number of Other Buildings: Enter here the total number of "other" buildings listed. This should be the last number entered in Column 16 of Section 3. If more than one book has been used, it will be the last entry in the last book used.
Total Population, Male and Female: The information required here must be taken from Section 3. The population is derived by adding up the entries in Column 9 - No. of persons identified in Column 10 for Male Population and in Column 11 for Female Population. Note that the total of the Male and the Female Population should equal the number for Total Population.
Population Enumerated: This number should be the total of all entries in Column 7 of Section 1 Census Taker's Daily Activity Record.
Population 18 years and over: Enter here the total of the entries in Column 12 of Section 3.
Number of Questionnaires: Count the number of questionnaires which you have completed. There should be a questionnaire for each person enumerated. This number should correspond to that entered at the item - Population Enumerated.
Date finished working: At the start of enumeration you will have entered the date of your first day on the job as a Census Taker. When you have completed enumeration in the E.D, enter the date on which you enumerated the last person in the E.D. This could have been a first visit enumeration but is more likely to be an enumeration completed on a call back visit.
4.16 The Importance of the Visitation Record.
The general format of the Visitation Record has been discussed and details relating to its completion given. It is important to understand, however, the use to which the Visitation Record will be put
Forms Cl and C2, which will be discussed later, are the forms on which information on the population and its characteristics will be obtained.
The Visitation Record - Forms C3 and C4 are the documents which serve as listing records for the Population Census. They provide information on the non-geographic units of enumeration used in the Census. These are: the building, the housing units, the dwelling and the household. All four are identified in the Visitation Record.
The Visitation Record serves another purpose also. It is the form or questionnaire on which data on group dwellings and other buildings are collected. Thus, the questionnaires on the Building Census, the Housing Census and the Dwelling Unit Census, are combined in one and these are all represented in the Visitation Record.
Section 3 of the Visitation Record is accordingly divided into distinct parts according to the purposes outlined above. Columns (4), (5) and (6) provide information on the four units of enumeration identified, the Building Unit, the Housing Unit, the Dwelling Unit and the Household Unit. Information on the Households is given in Columns (9) to (13), on the Group Dwellings in Columns (14) and (15) and on 'Other' Buildings in Columns (16) and (17). Columns (7) and (8) are common to all and are used to identify the unit being enumerated, that is, household, group dwelling or other building.
The previous sections considered in a general way how the job of census taking should be done and in a more specific way how the Building Census should be taken. The use of the Visitation Record - Private Dwellings - Form C3 has been explained and in order to understand what should be done, the terms and concepts used were given. This part deals with the main Census document, the Census Questionnaire Form C1.
The Questionnaire will be dealt with in two parts:
(a) The nature of the Questionnaire;
(b) How to deal with the Census Questionnaire.
5.2 The nature of the Questionnaire Form C1
The Census Questionnaire - Form Cl is a mark-sensing document on which very little writing is required. Although it covers 67 questions, writing is used in only 5 questions. In the other questions, the required information is recorded by making a mark in the appropriate place. This in turn is "sensed' 'or read" by a special document reading machine. The use of this type of questionnaire is intended to aid in rapid collection and processing of the information. You will assist in achieving this purpose if you follow the instruction precisely.
5.3 Structure of the Form
The main census questionnaire is 8-1/2" x 11" in size and contains 4 pages. Four (4) of these questionnaires are bound together in a booklet containing a total of 17 pages. The 17 pages comprise 4 questionnaires of 4 pages each and an additional page for household information. The information for all the members of a household will be scored in each booklet. (use a booklet even when there is only one person in a household). Where the number of persons in a household exceeds 4, you will use additional single questionnaires.
The main questionnaire contains 67 questions divided into 8 sections. The name of each section is shown on the darker band at the top of each page and the 8 sections are as follows:
Section 1 - Identification
Section 2 - Housing
Section 3 - Characteristics
Section 4 - Birthplace and Residence
Section 5 - Education
Section 6 - Economic Activity
Section 7 - Union Status and Fertility
Section 8 - Where Individual Spent Census Night
5.4 Handling the Form
You were told above that the Census Questionnaire is a mark -sensing document which will be fed directly into a document reading machine. This is a precision instrument and will accept only questionnaires which are of
good quality; that is clean, unwrinkled documents containing good marks in specified positions.
It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that the questionnaires be handled with the greatest care or the document reader will not accept them and non-acceptance by the machine means not only increases in the cost of processing the information, but a slowing down of the progress of the program. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures (although clean and light erasures are permissible), and there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earring etc.
The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary pencil or other marks must appear on them.
Keep enough questionnaires for a day's enumeration in the bag given to you and at the end of the day, transfer the completed questionnaires to the questionnaire box for safekeeping. Keep your unused questionnaires in the box supplied to you and keep inside your enumeration bag as much as possible on your rounds during enumeration. These procedures should help to protect the questionnaires.
5.5 How to read the questions
You must always read the questions just as they are written in the questionnaire. If you are speaking to the respondent you will say' 'you or your". If however someone is giving information about another person, call the name of the other person where a line (_) appears in the question. In other instances you may need to say him or he or she. You need to concentrate so that your questions will be fluent. After reading a question once in a clear and comprehensible manner, you must wait for the answer. If the respondent does not answer after a reasonable time, he has probably either: (1) not heard the question, or (2) not understood the question. Repeat the question if it was not heard. If it was not understood, you may have to choose the appropriate wording for a part or whole of the question. Do not depart too much from the written question, however, as in doing so you may change the meaning of the question.
5.6 Following the Instructions
In order to explain something to the interviewer or to specify exactly any action which is to be taken at a particular time during the interview, instructions are given in Capital Letters e.g., "For year before 1900 record 00." (Question 4.4).
5.7 Skip Instructions
Skip instructions direct the flow of an interview. This is given when there is to be a break in the sequential order, that is, you should skip out some questions. The instructions tell you which question to ask next, for example, (go to Q4.6). It is important that you follow the instructions carefully for if you do not, you may be asking the respondent questions which are not relevant to him or her.
5.8 How to score the form
The term "scoring'" refers to the technique of making marks (shading) ill the appropriate place on the questionnaire. To produce a good questionnaire you will have to take great care to make the marks only in the way you are instructed.
At all times you should make the marks only with the No.2 Pencil supplied to you. Do not use any other. There are three (3) possible types of answers:
(i) the most common relates to answers for which several categories are given. In these cases you are required to score the box which indicates the correct response to the answers you receive. For example Q3.2 - Sex -you will notice two ovals representing male and female, thus:
[open circle] Male [open circle] Female
If the answer is male score as follows:
[filled circle] Male [open circle] Female
(ii) Is the answer in which ovals containing the codes appear to the right hand side of the question. For example, Q4.4 - Year or Q. 5.5- Years of Schooling.
[Image illustrating column 19 is not included here]
Write in the number of years in the two boxes and then score the appropriate codes.
For example, if the answer is the year 1956 (Q4.4) or 10 years (Q5.5).
[Image 19 illustrating how to fill in column 19 is not included here]
You must score a digit in each row, so for persons under 10 years score '0' in row 1, for example 9 years would be 09.
(iii) Is the answer in which a code is scored and an answer written in. This applies in cases where you are asked to specify an answer. For example, Q3.6 - Religion.
To complete, you score the box and write in the answer, for example:
Other Church of the Latter Day Saints
The technique of scoring is the same in all cases. Use the No.2 pencil supplied to you to fill in all the space contained in the small oval. A correctly scored answer should look like those shown on the front of the questionnaire.
Do not use any other pencil other than the one given to you. Do not exceed the space bounded by the lines. Do not shade too lightly by not pressing enough.
Do not score more than one position except where
special instructions have been given as in the case of Q3.10.
Do not leave any questions blank unless the question is inapplicable to the individual according to the instructions:
5.9 The Write-in Responses
As was mentioned before, there are 5 items in the questionnaire which are to be answered by writing in the usual way. These are Section 1 - Name of Individual, Questions 2.14 and 2.15 - age and Sex, Question 6.4 - Occupation, and Question 6.5 - Industry. Use neat script for these responses and confine your writing to the space provided for each, otherwise the portion of the writing which exceeds the space might be interpreted by the machine as a mark intended for the next row and lead to the rejection of the questionnaire.
5.10 How to deal with the Census Questions
It is important to note that for many of the types of information being collected at a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent.
There are cases where deliberate attempts to mislead takes place and this has to be reckoned with. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude. If there is any suspicion that deliberate attempts are being made to give incorrect information, it is the duty of the Census Taker to point out to the respondent the advantages of co-operating with the census organization, stressing the confidentiality of the Census.
Whenever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answers being intentionally given, it is the duty of the Census Taker to inform the Supervisor.
Incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. The situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment and occupational status. Where this can be detected, a call-back should be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult with the appropriate member(s) of the household and thus enabling you to secure reliable information.
Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases, the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have, therefore, the possibility of the total omission of the event, as well as a possibility of the
event being moved forward or backward in the time scale. This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations.
This is especially important in questions dealing with dates of migration Q4.4 and Q4.5 and in information on fertility and union status Q7.1 to Q7.9. One method which has been used in trying to identify and if possible control the extent of these errors is that of linking up answers to associated questions and making use of the detailed classifications in some of these questions. In this way respondents may be aided in recalling accurately information about long past events.
5.11 The "Not Stated" Response
"Not Stated" been included as a response for every question on the questionnaire. This is to be scored when the respondent fails to answer the particular question. This category is to be used, however, only as a last resort. You must make every attempt to get a response.
5.12 The Order of Enumeration
Numbering of the households should be consecutive as was explained earlier (under the section dealing with the Visitation Record).
In enumerating a household:
(1) Enter in the Visitation Record the name of the Head of the household and the household number.
(2) Write in the name of each person who spent Census Night in the household on a questionnaire.
The order of enumeration which is to be followed among persons in household on Census Night is:
(a) Head of Household
(b) Spouse of Common-law Partner
(c) Child of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner) in order of age.
(d) Spouse of Child
(f) Parent of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner)
(g) Other Relative of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner).
(h) Domestic Employee or Employee's Relative.
(i) Other household members not related to Head or Spouse (or Partner).
g) Other persons spending Census Night in the dwelling.
5.13 Ensuring that all Persons are included
When you have obtained the list of persons, check to see whether:
(a) any of the usual residents in the household did not spend Census Night in the household.
(b) whether there were any additional persons and not normally residents who spent Census Night in that household.
Remember to ask particularly about babies and older people.
In order to assist the respondent in remembering all the persons to be enumerated and to help you to get the information on Relationship to Head quickly, use the following line of questioning:-
"Please give me the names of all the persons who usually live in this household?" Please give me also the names of all other persons who spent the night of April 7 here. Please start with the head of the household, then the wife or partner of the head, and so on. "If any children of either the head or the spouse spent last night here, please give me their names; "were there any babies?" "Any old people?" "Did any other persons spend last night here - say a cousin, grandfather, daughter-in-law and so on, of either the head of the household or the spouse?"
"Did any lodgers, boarders, servants or other persons spend that night here?"
Having ascertained the names of the household members, and, in addition visitors spending Census Night in the household, you should then proceed with the enumeration of each individual, asking the questions using the suggested wording, and in the order prescribed below. Answer questions 3.1-3.3, 4.1-4.2, and 8.1 only for visitors to the household.
5.14 Identifying NumberAn identification number appears on each booklet as well as at the top of alternate pages in the booklet. This number comprises codes representing parish, constituency, special area, E.D. number, housing unit number, dwelling number, household number, individual number. Additionally there is a book number.
The first nine digits of the identification number, representing parish, constituency, special area, E.D. number will be identical on every questionnaire to be completed for the E.D. and will be found on the map folder. You must fill in every box of the nine digits as given, while also scoring the relevant codes.
5.15 Housing Unit NumberThe housing unit number is taken from the Visitation Record and will be identical for all members of the housing unit. In filling in the number all three boxes must be entered. Thus a housing unit number could be 001, 002, 003, and so on.
5.16 Dwelling NumberThe dwelling number is taken from the Visitation Record and will be the same on the questionnaire(s) for all persons in that particular dwelling. This number should be two digits and could be 01, 02, etc.
5.18 Individual NumberThis number appears on the inside pages and is used to separate the information for each person in the household. Assign a number to each member of the household, after ordering them as set out in Paragraph 5.12, starting at 01 for the head of the household and continuing consecutively until all members have been assigned a number.
5.20 Name of Individual
Following the instructions outlined in paragraph 5.12 'Order of Enumeration' enter the names of all the individuals who are to be included in the household, surnames first at Section I. If the number of individuals exceeds 10, use the additional sheet provided. You must remember to complete the identifying number.
This section comprises Questions 2.1-2.17 and should be completed only once for each household. The information in this section relates in the main to the building or part of the building used for living purposes.
The information required relates to (a) the housing unit and (b) the household.
Generally, they are to be asked of the Head of the Household but like any other information on the questionnaire can be given by any responsible adult.
Illustrations of the different types of Units are included in the Appendices to this manual. Examine them carefully. Pay particular attention to apartment buildings and townhouses which increasingly have become dominant types of units especially in the urban areas.
Separate House - Detached - This is the most common type of unit. This is the type usually constructed for occupation by a single household and which has open space on all four sides. Include here duplex houses which are separated by garages.
Semi-Detached - This is a unit joined to only one other unit separated by a wall extending from ground to roof, with the other three or more sides open. There may be one or more floors in this type of housing unit. Duplex houses separated by a wall and not a garage should be included here.
Apartment Building - This is a building containing a large number of private flats or apartments. Each such flat or apartment is then a dwelling unit within the larger housing unit.
Townhouse - This is a type of semi-detached building, but whereas the semi-detached is joined to only one other unit, the Townhouse is one of a set of houses joined together in a row.
Improvised Housing Unit - This is an independent makeshift shelter or structure built usually of waste materials and generally considered unfit for habitation which is being used as living quarters at the time of the census, usually by one household.
Part of Commercial Building - The term "Commercial" is used here to include all non-residential buildings. This includes therefore all cases where a household occupies part of a building which is used mainly as a business place or other non-living unit.
Other - include here any type of housing unit which does not fit any of the categories mentioned; boats, tents, trailers, etc., are examples.
5.23 Question 2.2 Material of Outer WallsThis question refers to the material of which the outer walls of the housing unit are made. Although this may be completed from your own observation, you may in some instances need to enquire from the householder whether or not the walls are reinforced.
Concrete and Blocks - include here walls of concrete blocks with steel reinforcement but not nogging. Include units made of 'prefabricated' material in this category.
Stone - this applies where walls are made of stone.
Brick - this is when walls are made of red bricks, made by a kiln burning process.
Nog - this applies where the walls are of concrete but without steel reinforcement e.g. walls reinforced by wooden frames with concrete filling.
Wattle/Adobe - this applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure, i.e. pure wattle walls, wattle and thatch walls and wattle daubed with earth plaster; (wattle is comprised of sticks interwoven into a network).
Wood - this applies if the walls are made solely of wood.
Wood and Concrete - this applies if both wood and concrete as described above are used.
Wood and Brick - this applies for housing units where the materials used are both wood and bricks (as described above).
Other - include here all other types of wall construction material not described above.
5.24 Question 2.3 Roofing MaterialThis question seeks to determine the main type of material used in the construction of the roof. It is recognized that the roof of a housing unit may be made of more than one type of material. In such cases, identify the main area.
Metal Sheeting - this applies to zinc and aluminum sheeting.
Shingle - Wood - include here all types of wooden shingles.
Shingle - Other - this applies to shingles other than that made from wood and includes fiber-glass and asphalt.
Tile - include here roofs made from concrete clay, aluminum and other tiles. The popular "Decramastic" roofing should be included here.
Concrete - this is usually referred to as concrete slab.
Other - include here all other types of roofing material, for example thatch, paroid.
5.25 Question 2.4 Year when Housing Unit was BuiltWhere the building is fully completed, what is required is the year in which the housing unit was completed. There might be cases, however, where the building may not be fully completed in that certain aspects of the construction may still remain to be done. For example, the walls may not have been plastered, the building may not have been painted and even cases where all windows and doors may not have been fitted. In such situations, what would be required would be the year in which the building was first occupied.
Where extensive additions have been made record the year when these additions were completed. In cases of minor additions however, it is the year when the original structure was completed that is required.
The occupier is likely to be surer of the most recent completion dates. For earlier years only an approximate completion date is necessary since a number of years are grouped together for each answer.
Owned - This applies if the dwelling is owned by a member(s) of the household. If the dwelling is occupied by the family or close relatives of the owner but the owner, even if he sometimes sleeps there, is not a member of the household according to the census definition (for example, where wife and children of the owner live in the dwelling, but the owner perhaps because of his work, or for other reasons, does not normally sleep in the dwelling, and is then not a member
of the household concerned), the dwelling should not be classified as owned but as Rent Free.
Leased - This relates to those cases where the dwelling is rented in accordance with a signed agreement for a stipulated period between the owner and the occupier. In most cases, this signed agreement of lease will stipulate the rental payable, and length of time for which the building is rented.
Private Rented - This is used here to relate to those cases which are the most usual, where the occupier pays a rental to the owner for the dwelling, but no signed agreement is involved.
Government Rented - Include here all dwellings owned by government and rented to householders.
Rent Free - This relates to those cases where occupiers are not required to pay rental. It implies also that the occupiers are occupying the dwelling with the consent of the owner. Examples of this arrangement are where the government, a business (for example a Sugar Estate or Bank) or some institution (for example a church or school) may provide free quarters for some employees.
Squatted - This relates to those cases where the occupiers are not paying rent but are occupying the dwelling without the consent of the owner. Note that we are dealing with the tenure of the dwelling, not the land.
Other - Include here any arrangement which does not fit into one of the preceding categories.
5.28 Question 2.7 Number of RoomsWhat is required here is the total number of rooms occupied by that particular household. The term "room" is taken to include those used for general living purposes such as bedrooms, dining rooms, drawing rooms, helpers' rooms. Exclude garages, bathroom, toilets, kitchens, verandahs, passages, closets, foyers, and the like.
Where some rooms are used by more than one household count such rooms
only among those occupied by the household to which it is more accessible. Each room must be counted once only.
5.29 Question 2.8 Water SupplyYou are required to indicate here the main source of domestic water supply for the household. This means that in those cases where the household members obtain water from more than one source you must determine from the respondent which is the main source and record this one only.
In general, give precedence to the source for cooking and drinking over the source for bathing, washing and other uses.
Public - refers to a water supply established and maintained by the government or a government related agency.
Public, Piped into Dwelling: - This refers to water from a public source which is carried by pipes into the dwelling.
Public, Piped into Yard - This applies to cases when the householder's water is from a public source and is piped into the yard only.
Private, Piped into Dwelling: - This applies when the main source of domestic water is not a public one and it is piped into dwelling. Examples of private sources are a private well or tank.
Private Catchment, Not Piped - This applies if the water supply is from a non-public catchment and is not piped into the dwelling.
Public Standpipe - This relates to a public standpipe, usually located along roads or other public thoroughfares.
Public Catchment - This is applicable if the main sources of water for domestic use is supplied from a public tank or other catchment and is not piped into the premises. In those cases the water is probably obtained by going to the tank.
Other - Include here all other main sources of water supply, e.g. river, pond spring, etc.
5.30 Question 2.9 (a) Type of Toilet FacilitiesIf the household has available to it more than one kind of toilet facility, indicate the best kind. In this context, water closets are considered to be better than pit latrines.
Indicate the kind of facility available to the household whether or not it is shared with another household(s).
Pit - Score this if the toilet facility is a pit latrine.
WC Linked to Sewer - Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.
WC Not Linked to Sewer - Mark this if the toilet facility is water borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soak away).
Other - Include here toilet facilities other than Pit or WC (Water Closet).
None - Score this if the respondent indicates that the household has no toilet facilities.
Enquire whether they are shared with any other household. Please note that the entitlement to use the facilities must be related to their occupancy of the dwelling; it must not for example, be a public toilet.
5.34 Questions 2.12-2.17These questions are not related to the characteristics of either the housing unit or the household but have been included in Section 2 because the information is required for the household only. These questions seek to obtain information which will allow for an accurate estimation of migration into and out of Jamaica.
Allowance is made for up to six persons leaving or entering a household. Where the number exceeds six (6) record the additional information in your Visitation Record.
5.35 Questions 2.12-2.14 Persons Leaving to Live AbroadWrite in the sex and age of each person leaving the household to reside permanently abroad DURING 1990 in the space on the left and then score the relevant codes to the right. For babies less than one year old record '00', persons 98 years and over, record '98'. The age to be recorded is the age at the time of migration. For example for a male 14 years write "male 14 years" and then score.
5.36 Questions 2.15-2.17 Persons Entering to Reside in JamaicaRecord the Age and Sex of each person joining the household from abroad to reside in Jamaica, DURING 1990. For babies less than one year old, record "'00" and for persons 98 years and over record "98". The age to be recorded is the age at the time of migration.
Please note that the emphasis is on Permanent residence. Persons visiting on vacation are not to be included.
Head - This is the person recognized by the respondent as the head and should be accepted as such.
Spouse/Partner of Head - This refers to the wife (or husband) of the head, if the partners are legally married, or to a "common-law partner" if not. By "common-law partner" is meant a woman (or man) who lives with but is not married to the Head of the Household.
Child of Head/Spouse - This is to be scored for each child (natural or adopted) of the Head of the Household and/or the Spouse.
Spouse/Partner of Child - This is to be marked if individual is spouse or partner of the child of the head or his/her spouse.
Grandchild of Head/Spouse - This refers to the grandchild of the Head and/or the Spouse irrespective of age of the individual.
Parent of Head/Spouse - This is to be scored for each parent of the Head of the Household as well as for each parent of his/her Spouse.
Other Relative of Head/Spouse - This refers to all members of the household who are related to either the Head of Household or his/her Spouse, for example, sister of head, cousin of spouse, etc.
Domestic Employee - This is to be coded for all employees (paid or unpaid) attached to the household and who according to the definition are members of the household.
Other Non-Relative - This refers to all other members of the household who are not related to the Head or Spouse.
Not Stated - This position is to be scored if the information on relationship to the Head of the Household is not given.
5.38 Question 3.2 SexThe entry here should not be on the basis of the name only especially if the person is not seen. In such cases enquire as to whether the individual is male or female unless this has already been indicated by the respondent during the interview.
5.39 Question 3.3 AgeRecord the Month, Day and Year of Birth of the Individual in the relevant boxes at Q3.3a. Based on this information, calculate the age at last birthday and record in the space provided at Q3.3b. Use Appendix I as a guide. There must be an entry at age for each individual. It is possible that some persons may not remember the exact date of birth but can tell you the age". Others may only know the year of birth and so on. You must however make every effort to obtain an estimate. For persons 100 years and over, record "99".
5.40 Question 3.4 Race/Ethnic OriginRead the alternatives on the questionnaire and score the relevant position. Accept the respondent's reply. If you feel that you are obviously being misled, do not contradict, but make a note in your Visitation Record.
5.41 Question 3.5 Religious GroupDenominations with the greater congregations are listed. If the individual belongs to one of those specified, mark the relevant position. Score 'None' for those individuals who indicate that they do not belong to any denomination and 'Not Stated' for those for whom the information cannot be obtained. Where a religious group given is not one of those listed, score 'Other' and write the name on the line.
5.42 Question 3.6 Marital StatusIf the person is less than 16 years, do not ask the question but score never married. For persons 16 years old and over ask the question. Marital status refers to the legal status of the relationship.
Married - Score this for all persons formally married whether or not they are living with the partners to whom they are legally married. In those cases where East Indians have been married according to the Hindu Custom (that is, under the bamboo) or the Muslim rites, score married whether or not the marriage has been legally registered.
The remaining four categories, never married, widowed, divorced, legally separated are self-explanatory.
5.43 Question 3.7-3.10 GeneralThese questions seek to determine whether the respondent has a physical or mental disability. In order to set the respondent at ease before asking these questions which might be seen as sensitive, begin by saying: "Now I would like to ask you some questions about any difficulty which you (or other members of the household) might have in carrying out every day activities due to mental or physical problems."
Disability - is defined as any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Such restriction or lack of ability must be as a result of an impairment. A person has an impairment if he or she has suffered any loss or abnormality of mind or body.
Physical Disability only - score this if the person's only impairment is the loss of use of parts of the body e.g. arms, legs.
Multiple Disability - score this for any combination of impairments.
Slowness at Learning or Understanding - score this only for persons who have been medically tested and found to be 'slow'.
Mental Retardation - it is very important to distinguish between mental retardation and mental illness. Mental Retardation exists where the person is born with a mental problem. Score this where it has been determined that the disease is one with which the person was born.
Mental Illness - is an illness acquired after birth.
5.45 Question 3.10 HandicapThis question is intended to determine the particular area in which the person is handicapped as a result of the disability. Once the person has any difficulty at all in the area identified he must be included. It is important to note that a person can be handicapped in several areas. In such cases you must indicate for each area in which the handicap exists.
Self-Care - Score this if the person is not able to take care of himself/herself but is dependent on assistance from other people. Such care includes, for e.g. feeding and bathing oneself, and other personal care.
Mobility - This is applicable where the person is not able to move about effectively in his surroundings.
Communication - This refers to cases where the individual is not able to communicate with other persons i.e. he/she is unable to generate and emit messages or to receive and understand messages.
Schooling - This is applicable in cases where the person is not within the normal school system but has to attend a special school.
Employment - This refers to cases where because of his/her handicap, the individual is restricted to certain kinds of work.
None - Score this if the individual indicates that he/she is not handicapped in any area.
These questions are intended to study internal migration or the movement of people between the parishes in Jamaica. Movements apply only to those taking place between parishes and residence abroad is not regarded as a move for the purpose of studying internal migration.
In that case it may be either a parish in Jamaica or a foreign country. Score the relevant position for whichever the person indicates. (See Appendix III for the classification of foreign countries).
Note that it is possible for the person to live in another household in the same parish in which you are working.
Note that there are several places in Jamaica which have the same name; if, therefore, the individual states his/her birth-place by name of locality, do not assume the name of the parish, ask the respondent to tell you what parish the particular address is in. Special attention must be paid to answers given, identifying the parish as Kingston or St. Andrew, particularly the urban part. Many people in Jamaica refer to these parishes interchangeably, generally as "Kingston".
When a respondent answers "Kingston" find out if he really means the parish of Kingston and not the suburban area commonly referred to as "Kingston" but which is in fact St. Andrew.
Increasingly, persons resident in Jamaica are going abroad to have their babies. Where a child is born abroad to a woman whose usual place of residence is in Jamaica the place of birth for that child is the parish of usual residence in Jamaica. Only if the mother was resident abroad (i.e. living abroad for 6 months or more or intending to live abroad for 6 months or more) is the birthplace to be regarded as abroad.
5.49 Question 4.4 Year of ImmigrationThis question is to addressed only to persons born outside of Jamaica (See Q4.3). Write in the last two digits of the year in the boxes provided. For persons entering Jamaica before 1900, record "00". If the person entered Jamaica then left to live abroad and then returned, it is the last year of entry which is required.
5.50 Question 4.5 Year of entry into ParishThis question is to be asked only of persons born in Jamaica (See Q4.3). Write in the last two digits of the year in the boxes provided, for persons entering the parish before 1900, record "00".
If the individual was born in the parish and at the end of the census is resident in the same parish and has never resided in another parish then the year of entry will be the same as the year of birth recorded at Q3.3a.
If the individual had previously resided in this parish and then lived outside of it for 6 months or more, record the year in which he/she last returned to reside in this parish.
If the individual has resided abroad but has not lived in any other parish in Jamaica then he is not regarded as having lived outside of his parish of birth. In this case the year of entry will be the same as the year of birth.
5.51 Question 4.6 Parish Last Lived inScore here, the parish in which the person lived before coming to live in the present parish of residence. If the person has not moved from the parish of birth, then score the parish of birth. If the person has only resided abroad and not in another parish in Jamaica, then score the parish of birth.
Section 5 - Education
The aim of the section is to obtain information on the highest level of educational attainment among the entire population. Questions relate not just to current attendance but also to past attendance. As such, this section is relevant not only to school children but also to adults who may be furthering their education full-time or part-time.
You must pay close attention to the instruction on the questionnaire which precede the questions in this section.
5.53 For babies and young children not of school age, the question will obviously not be applicable. You should also be careful in the case of older persons who are not likely to be currently attending an educational institution, but for whom the questions on past attendance are applicable. It is recognized however, that adults do continue their education and the questions are therefore relevant.
5.54 The instructions on the questionnaire are as follows:(i) For persons under 4 years old Score "No" at Q5.1 and go to Q8.1.
(ii) For persons over 50 years old Score "No" at Q5.1 and proceed to Q5.2, asking the question
in relation to the last institution attended, i.e. "what type of educational institution did you last attend?"
(iii) For persons 30-50 years old you must introduce the questions by explaining that it is known that some people try to further their education as they get older before asking Q5.1.
(iv) For all other persons, that is, those between age 4 and 29 years, proceed directly to Q5.1.
5.55 You must remember to word Q5.2 accurately to distinguish between current attendance and past attendance. If the answer to Q5.1 is "Yes" then Q5.2 should be "what type of institution are you/is __ attending?" If the answer to Q5.1 is "No" then Q5.2 should be "what type of institution did you/did last attend?"
Persons on holidays from school are to be regarded as attending school. If however, the person just completed the last term score, "No" at Q5.1.
5.56 It is important for you to be aware of the fact that school attendance outside of Jamaica is also to be included. The Section seeks to obtain information on the educational attainment of the population whether they were educated in Jamaica or not.
5.57 Question 5.2 The emphasis here is on attendance at an institution. Thus, education obtained through private study or correspondence courses would not be reflected here.
Score the position which identifies the school or university being attended or last attended. If the school is on holidays then enter the type attended prior to the holidays.
Nursery/Kindergarten - This is applicable to kindergarten, nursery school, the infant department of a primary or all-age school, a basic school.
Primary/Preparatory - This applies to a preparatory school (commonly called "prep" school), primary school whether junior or senior department
All Age - This applies not only to the All Age School as recognized but also to Elementary and Senior Schools.
Secondary High - Include here with the traditional secondary high school, comprehensive and technical high schools.
Vocational - This applies to secondary level institutions where the emphasis is on skills training. Examples of this type of institution are Knockalva and Elim Agricultural schools and Carron Hall. Include here also trainees registered in the H.E.A.R.T. program.
Commercial and Secretarial - This applies to institutions which offer commercial and secretarial training only. Secondary level institutions offering subjects in addition to the regular curriculum should NOT be included here.
University - This refers to enrollment in degree courses at university whether as a day student or as an evening student
Other Tertiary - This applies to tertiary institutions other than university. Include here Teacher Training Colleges, Community Colleges, CAST, College of Agriculture, Cultural Training Centre, G.C. Fostet: College of Physical Education and Sports, West Indies College.
Special Schools - This category includes schools for the Blind, Deaf, Mentally Handicapped
Other - Include here all persons attending Jamal classes and any other type of educational institution not listed above.
5.58 Question 5.3 Last type of Institution AttendedThis question is to be asked only of those persons who at Q5.2 indicated that they are attending an institution which is regarded as vocational, i.e. Vocational, Commercial and Secretarial and Other Tertiary. As our interest is in non-vocational education, this question is intended to obtain information related to non-vocational education received prior to this. You must read the categories to the respondent so that he or she will be aware of the types you are interested in.
These categories are similar to those appearing in Q5.2 and are described in paragraph 5.57.
5.59 Question 5.4 Highest Class, Standard, Grade or FormPay particular attention to the recording of this answer 'Class and Standard' are applicable to Elementary School, 'Grade' is applicable to Primary, All Age, certain types of secondary schools and some Secondary High Schools, while 'Form' is applicable to secondary high schools only.
5.60 Question 5.5 Years of SchoolingRecord the total number of years of schooling that the person has had from infant school up to the highest level attained for persons who are attending school. For less than one year, score "01".
5.62 Question 5.7 Highest Examination PassedThis question seeks to obtain the highest examination the person has passed. In general, only persons within a specific age range are eligible to sit for the examinations in which we are interested. It is important therefore that you follow the instruction on the questionnaire which states that you must
automatically score "None" for all persons who currently attend or last attended either Nursery/Kindergarten or Primary schools. It is recognized that individuals may have passed more than one of the examinations specified so you must make sure that you obtain the highest.
For the Census, the examinations have been ranked in the following order.
None - mark this if the individual has not passed any of the examinations or earned any of the certificates, diplomas or degrees specified.
CXC Basic, JSC, JSCE, 3rd JLCL, SSC, JC - mark this if the individual obtained a certificate in Caribbean Examinations Council Basic, Jamaica School Certificate, Jamaica Certificate of Education, Third Jamaica Local, Secondary School Certificate or the Junior Cambridge Examination.
GCE '0' 1-3, CXC General 1-3, AEB 1-3 - score this for persons who have obtained passes in 1, 2, or 3 subjects in the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level, the Caribbean Examinations Council General and the Associated Examining Board Examinations. Note that in relation to passes in GCE '0' Level and AEB, only persons obtaining Grades A-C must be regarded as having passed that subject. In relation to the CXC, only Grades 1 and 2 are regarded as passes.
GCE '0' 4+, CXC General 4+, AEB 4+, SC - score this for persons who have obtained passes in 4 or more subjects in the GCE, CXC General and AEB Examinations as well as persons who passed the Senior Cambridge Examinations.
GCE' A' 1+, HSC - mark this for persons who. have obtained passes in 1 or more GCE 'A' Level subjects as well as persons who have passed the Higher Schools Certificate Examination.
College Certificates and Diplomas - this applies to persons who have obtained a Certificate or Diploma from a tertiary institution as listed in Appendix IV.
Other Certificates and Diplomas - this applies to persons who have obtained a Diploma or Certificate from an institution other than a tertiary institution.
Degrees and Professional Qualifications - this applies to individuals who have obtained a Degree from a University or Institution of Higher Learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award. Include also persons engaged in professional work who have had training
in specific fields, e.g. lawyers, architects, engineers, certified and chartered accountants.
Other - Score this for individuals who have passed examinations not specified in any of the preceding responses. Include here persons who have passed the First and Second Jamaica Local Examinations, Royal Society of Arts (RSA), The Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institute (ULCI) and London City Guilds Examinations.
Section 6 - Economic Activity
Section 6 is comprised of Questions 6.1 - 6.9 and should be asked of persons 14 years and over. The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals were in the WORKING FORCE of the country at some point in time. Questions 6.1 - 6.6 and Question 6.9 relate to the week preceding the census while Questions 6.7 - 6.8 relate to the preceding twelve months. The most difficult and perhaps important of the concepts here is that of WORK. It is essential therefore that you understand fully the precise definition of the term WORK in this context and that this meaning should be made clear to respondents by the method of questioning them.
5.64 Definition of Work
(a) Work includes:
Work with pay, that is:
(ii) Work as trainee (such as nurses in training) or apprentice (persons at trade)
(iii) Work for self in one's own business (including farm) which is run for profit or fees but does not employ paid help.
(This corresponds to Own Business Without Paid Employee - Q6.3)
(iv) Work for self in one's own business (including farm) which is run for profit or fees and employs paid help.
(This corresponds to Own Business With paid Employees - Q6.3).
(b) Work without pay in a business or farm which is run for profit, that is:
(ii) Work as an unpaid helper in a business or other organization, in cases where the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay (see Unpaid Worker at Q.6.3).
Do not include in "working" those persons who:
(ii) Work without pay assisting a relative or friend in his duties as an employee.
(iii) Work without pay either in cash or in kind as a volunteer worker for service organizations or church groups - such as the Red Cross, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Society for the Blind, Operation Workshop, etc.
Note also that WORK must relate to work in Jamaica. It includes, however, those persons who are residing in the territory but are on boats, ships, airplanes, etc., which may operate outside of the territory, as well as travelling salesmen, consultants, etc. Also included are persons going as contract workers to the U.S.A. for a few months to work on farms there during the crop season. Other persons who live and work outside of the country should not be classified as having worked with respect to the time they were resident outside of the country.
5.65 Question 6.1 Economic Situation During Past WeekYou are required to record here the economic activity in which the individual was engaged for most of the week (one hour or more) during the week preceding the Census, that is the first week of April, 1991.
It is important to note that "working" takes precedence over all other activities. Thus if according to the definitions of 'Work' outlined, a person had been working for one hour or more during the week, he should be classified as 'working' regardless of
what he was doing for the rest of the week.
Similarly "With Job Not Working", takes precedence over "Looking For Work" which takes priority over all the other categories.
Definitions of the various categories of economic activities are:
Worked: This covers those persons who, during the week preceding the Census, carried out one or more of the activities described as work in paragraph 5.47 within Jamaica.
With job not working: Include here any individual who had a job or work, as defined and was absent with pay, full or part for all or most of the week on vacation leave, sick leave or other leave of absence, not including study leave. Persons absent on study leave or on leave without pay should NOT be included.
Seeking first job: This covers persons who had never worked before in Jamaica and who, during the week preceding the Census, were actively engaged in trying to get work.
Other seeking work: This covers persons who had some work experience (in Jamaica) who were not working during the week preceding the census but were actively trying to get work during the week.
Did not seek work but wanted work and available: This refers to those individuals who, during the week, wanted work and were available for work although not actively seeking work through, the recognized channels.
Students: This applies to those persons not classified above who were full-time students in primary, secondary, technical or other schools, at the University or were engaged in private studies. Persons on holidays from school or university are to be included here.
Home duties: This relates to those persons who were engaged during the week in looking after their own homes, that is, cooking, washing, cleaning, etc. It does not cover domestic servants and others who were performing these duties in other people's homes for pay; these would be classified as "Worked". Ensure that you do not include here those persons who were classified in the categories "Worked", "Seeking First Job", "Others Seeking Work" or "Wanted Work and Available".
Retired: This relates to those persons who have previously worked, but who, during the week preceding the Census, were in retirement from work.
Disabled, unable to work: This covers those persons who were unable to work because of some physical or mental disability.
Other: This group includes all persons who cannot be properly put into one of the above categories.
Not stated: This includes all persons for whom satisfactory information cannot be obtained in order to classify them according to their economic activity.
5.66 Question 6.2 Hours Worked During First Week of AprilThis question is applicable only to those persons who at Q6.1 were classified as "Worked". Note that the term work refers to actual work done or paid for, so this refers to the number of hours actually worked or paid for including overtime. For persons working in their own business, record the time they were actually engaged in working or in being at the place of work for business.
5.67 Question 6.3 Work or Occupational Status During Past WeekThe categories which apply in the question have all been defined in paragraph 5.64 in the discussion of work. For persons who gave their economic activity as 'Worked' you should determine what was the type of work or occupational status. For those 'With Job Not Working' determine the status of their present job. For those persons who during the week had held two or more jobs (either at different times or at the same time) you should classify the job that provided the greater income.
5.68 Question 6.4 Type of Occupation During past Week/in last JobThis question should be asked of individuals who were classified at Q6.1 as worked, with job not working (in which case it relates to the present job) other seeking work, did not seek work but wanted work and available (in which case it relates to the last job held). What is required here is the exact nature of the job done by the individual. Where the person has done more than one job during the week, the question relates to the principal job which, in general will be the one at which he spends most of his time. If the jobs were at different times, or two or more jobs were held at the same time, the one which provided the greater income should be used.
Be as specific as possible in recording the occupation. Do not use vague terms such as clerk (which could mean a store clerk or a clerk in an office), foreman (which could mean a foreman on many different types of activities) and so on. Write for example - office clerk, foreman of a road construction gang, etc.
In some cases you may need to use lay words to explain the type of work actually done. This is preferable to trying to use very short descriptions which are vague or inaccurate.
If the individual has never had a job or occupation, write in never had a job and do not ask any more questions in this section.
5.69 Question 6.5 Industry or Type of Business During First Week of April/In Last JobWhat is required here is the type of business in which the individual worked for the longest period during the week preceding the Census. It must relate to the occupation entered at Q6.4.
Write in the type of business by giving a short description of the activity. For example, Manufacturing, Cane Growing, Building Construction, Making of Bread and Cakes.
In instances where you cannot adequately describe the industry, you may give the name of the business or firm also.
In the case of persons engaged by local or central government, give the name of the office or department in which they are employed.
For domestic servants and other personal service workers who work as paid employees in private homes, write in Industry as 'Private home'.
5.71 Economic Activity During Past Twelve MonthsQuestions 6.7 and 6.8 relate to the economic activity of individuals during the twelve month period preceding the census enumeration, i.e. April 1991 inclusive.
5.72 Question 6.7 Main Activity During Past 12 MonthsThe categories here are the same as in Q6.l and the definitions remain the same. The important difference is that here, the question relates to the 12 month period prior to census day instead of the week preceding.
You are required to record the main activity, i.e. the activity which took place in the country. If the person was abroad for parts of the period, it is the main activity undertaken during the time that he or she was in Jamaica. You must be aware of the fact that unlike Q6.1 work does not take precedence over the other activities. Instead it is the activity in which the person was involved MOST of the time.
5.73 Question 6.8 Number of Months Worked During Past 12 MonthsFor persons who at Q6.7 were classified as 'worked' record the total number of months during the year that the person worked.
You will need to pay particular attention to the following however:
(a) where the individual has worked at more than two jobs during the year;
(b) where the individual worked for short periods each day or week.
In the case of (a) the months worked should include all the time worked in the two or more jobs in which the individual was engaged.
For the irregular work pattern (b) then, some estimate of the overall time worked in months must be given as the figure must relate to average ful1-time work. Appendix V gives the conversions to months which are to be used for cases of irregular work patterns.
5.74 The meaning of IncomeWhat is required here is income from employment for persons who worked or had a job during the week preceding the Census. The question relates to income from employment only and excludes gifts, rents from property, interest and dividends, pensions and any other income other than income obtained directly from employment.
It is intended to include all income from employment, that is, income from different jobs where a person has had more than one job at the same time. Add together the income from the different jobs. In special cases, even a person classified in Q6.3 as an "Unpaid Worker" may have an income, for the classification in Q6.3 relates to his activity during the first week of April only, and he might be receiving an income from regular job.
In general there are two types of income to be dealt with depending on whether the person worked for others or for himself. Persons who worked for others for pay, i.e. for wages and salaries, should give their gross income, including any overtime payments, commission, bonuses, etc. Income should include any deductions which are generally made such as Income Tax, National Insurance, National Housing-Trust, Health Schemes, and any other. That is, it should be income before deductions.
For self-employed persons (employers and own account workers) on the other hand, what is required is their net receipts, that is, their total gross receipts less any wages and salaries they have to pay people working in the business, and other business expenses. It is appreciated that persons in these categories will not often be able to give their net income with absolute
accuracy, but you must make every effort to help them to give as accurate a figure as possible.
In particular, many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. For example, a cane farmer who reaps his cane once per year may have to give his income for the past year, for if he gives his income for a week or month, and the period excludes the time when he received this payment, the average income will be under-stated. On the other hand if it includes this payment, the average income will be overstated. Similarly, a wage earner who regularly receives an annual bonus would need either to give all his income for the year or else add a proportional part of his annual bonus to his monthly or weekly income.
There will, therefore, be some difficulty in ensuring that you obtain the accurate income for persons who receive income for different periods or from different sources.
Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn; often they do not tell this even to their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly.
5.75 Question 6.9 Income from EmploymentQuestion 6.9 identifies three different pay periods. Pay-period indicates the length of time the amount of money scored refers to.
You must decide what is the most convenient pay-period in which to record the person's income, and mark this. The most convenient pay-period for you to use would usually be the one in which the person receives most of his income. For example, in the case of the wage-earner who is paid weekly and gets no other income, then the pay-period should be the week. Similarly, the month would be the most convenient pay-period for the person who receives only a monthly income.
It is also recognized that many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. In such case the most convenient pay-period will be the year.
Section 7 - Union Status and Fertility
This section is comprised of Question 7.1 - 7.14 and the information is to be completed only for females 14 years or older who are not attending primary or secondary school full-time. Part-time students at these schools as well as students of tertiary institutions are eligible for
answering these questions.
The questions in this section can be seen to be of a very personal nature and you must assure the respondent that this type of information is very crucial to population planning as they provide very useful indicators of family formation and population growth.
Questions on Union Status indicate the type of family associations or relationships in which women are involved. Union Status is not to be confused with Legal Marital Status (Question 3.6), union status refers to the actual relationship in which a woman is involved. A woman can be involved in either of the following:(i) She could be married and living with her husband.
(ii) She could be living together with a partner to whom she is not legally married. This is referred to as living common-law. It is important to note that because we are interested in union status and not legal marital status, we have to find out from women who are married whether they are currently living with their husbands.
5.77 Question 7.2 Living with HusbandThis question is to be asked of women who are legally married and seeks to determine if they are currently living with their husbands. If a woman's husband is temporarily away then she should be regarded as living with her husband.
5.78 Question 7.3 Lived with Common-law PartnerThis question is asked of women who indicated at Q3.6 that they had never married and seeks to find out if they had ever lived with a common-law partner. If the answer is 'No' score 'Never had a Husband or Common Law Partner'.
5.79 Question 7.4 Currently Living with Common-law PartnerWomen who indicate that they are married but are not living with their husbands, women who were married but are widowed, divorced or separated as well as never married women who indicate that they had lived with a common-law partner are asked if they are currently living with a common-law partner.
5.80 Question 7.5 Duration of UnionThis question applies to all women currently living with their husbands as well as those currently living with a common-law partner. For persons living together for less than one year, record '01'.
years old. Some women might tend to exclude children who were born alive but subsequently died. These children are not to be excluded from the count. A live birth is the product of a pregnancy which shows some form of life after expulsion even if it dies a few minutes after.
5.83 Question 7.8 Age of Mother at Birth of First ChildScore the age. Older women might have problems remembering but you must make an effort to get an estimate based either on the date of birth of the mother or the age of the first child and mother's age.
5.84 Question 7.9 Age of Mother at birth of Last ChildScore the age and use the same strategies adopted for Q7.8 as, for this question as well as Q7.8 there is always the possibility of recall lapses, especially for older women.
Please note that where the woman has had only one live birth, the age at Q7.9 will be the same as for Q7.8.
5.85 Question 7.10 Live births in Past 12 MonthsYou need to pay close attention to this question. In the first place it relates to the 12 month period preceding Census Day, that is 8th April, 1990 - 7th April, 1991. In asking this question you must be mindful of the answers to questions on age at birth of last child (Q7.9). Based on the answer to Q7.9 you might be able to tell if the woman had a live birth in the past 12 months. you should ask this question however, as a check on Q7.9.
Be especially careful in asking this question of the older women.
5.86 Question 7.11 Number of live births in Past Twelve MonthsIt is important to note that it is possible for a woman to have more than one delivery in the same 12 month period. The occurrence of this is however, very low.
5.88 Questions 7.13- 7.14, Number of Infant DeathsThese questions relate to the live births occurring in the past twelve months and seek to determine if any and how many of these have died. If none of the children have died, score '00'.
Section 8 - Where individual spent census night5.89 Question 8.1- 8.2, Where Individual Spent Census Night
This can be a very sensitive question and care should be taken in asking it. You can get the information at the very outset in completing the list of persons in Section I. If however, you have to ask the question at this stage, you could say:
To Respondent: "Were you here on Census Night?" (i.e., the night of April 7).
Of the other members: "Was_____ here on Census Night?"
If the individual spent Census Night in the household, mark "This Household". In the case of a watchman, nurse or shift worker who would normally have spent the night in the household mark "This Household".
If the individual is a usual resident in the household but spent Census Night elsewhere in Jamaica, mark "Another Household in Jamaica," and score the relevant parish at Question 8.2.
Similarly mark "Abroad" for those persons in the household who spent Census Night outside of Jamaica.
6.1 Enumeration Arrangements and Supervision
The enumeration of Non-Private Dwellings, Persons with no Fixed Abode and Ships in Harbor will, in general, be carried out by "special" census takers under the supervision of the Census Commissioner. The Commissioner will contact the persons in charge of group dwellings ahead of Census Day to remind them that the census will be taken in their institution and make general arrangements for the enumeration of the individuals living in there. At that time the Commissioner will inform you if you are to enumerate the members of these households individually or obtain the information from records. He or she will also inform you whom your contact at each non-private dwelling will be. Should there be any difficulty however, inform your Commissioner at once because the population in some types of non-private dwellings changes rapidly, and delay in enumeration could result in considerable under-enumeration of the Census population.
6.2 The Questionnaires to be used
The main questionnaire, Form C 1, is to be used for the enumeration of individuals in group dwellings except for persons in hotels, guest houses and on ships who will be enumerated on Form C2 - Questionnaire - Special Cases.
6.3 The Visitation Record
The Visitation Record which is to be used is Form C4 - Census Visitation Record - Group Dwellings and Special Cases.
The completion of the Visitation Record - Form C4 is quite similar to that of Form C3 except that this is a much more simple form. Like Form C3, it is comprised of a cover page and four sections.
Cover: As with the Form C3, complete the identification section before enumeration starts. In this case the identification consists of three numbers, the Parish Code (2 digits), the Commissioner Number (2 digits) and your Number (3 digits). The remaining items of identification to be filled in are (a) Name of Parish, (b) Commissioner Area, (c) Name of Census Taker, and (d) Address of Census Taker. Date started working should be entered at the start of enumeration.
The other items are to be filled in at the end of enumeration.
Section 2 - Census Taker's Daily Activity Record: For each day of enumeration, enter the Group Dwelling Number (or the first and last enumerated for the day) in Columns (2) and (3) and in Columns (4) and (5), the number of questionnaires (Form C1 and Form C2 separately) completed on that day. Column (6) is to be used for Remarks.
Section 3 - The Visitation Record: Enter in Columns (1), (2) and (3) the Constituency, Special Area and E.D. in which the Group Dwelling is located. This you should work out with your Commissioner. These will also be entered on Form C52 which identifies your assignment. In Column (4) assign a number to each group dwelling enumerated, starting with 001 and continuing consecutively thus, 001 and 003..., and so on.
Each ship or boat is to be assigned a separate number. In Column (5) enter the number indicating the type of Group Dwelling. The Group Dwelling Number for the' 'floating population" should be 999 in all cases.
Enter In Column (6) the name of the Group Dwelling that is the name of the hospital, hotel, alms house, ship, etc., at which you are enumerating. In the case of the "floating population" enter in Column (6) the first individual in an E.D. whom you enumerate as such. Enter in Column (7) the address of the group dwelling, if applicable. In the case of the "floating population" enter the location where the individuals are found; in the case of ships, enter the name of the pier or harbor. Enter in Columns 8, 9 and 10 the total number of persons who were in the Group Dwelling or in the special place on the night of April 7, that is Census Night, giving totals and the sex breakdowns for Columns (9) and (10). This information may be obtained by inspecting the entries made at Question 3.3 on Form C1 or at
Question 4 of Form C2 Columns (11) and (12) relate to persons enumerated, that is persons for whom a Form C1 or C2 has been completed. For Column (12) inspect the entries at Question 3.3b on Form C1 and at Question 5 on Form C2.
Section 4 - Notes and Comments: Use Section 4 for Notes and Comments as indicated for Form C3 above.
6.4 Completing the Cover
The cover was partially completed by the start of enumeration. On the completion of enumeration, you will be required to enter the information to complete it.
Enter the last date on which you were working against' 'Date Finished Working". Next count all Forms C1 and Forms C2 and enter these in the boxes provided. Add together and complete the total boxes, that is, "Questionnaires completed".
Enter, next, the "Total Population" Male and Female which is derived from Columns 8, 9 and 10 of Section 3 of the Visitation Record. Entries on population enumerated are also derived from Section 3 and must be taken from Column 11. The final entry is "Number of Persons 18 years and over enumerated". This number is taken from Column (12) of Section 3.
6.5 Completion of Work
Your work should now be completed. Check through all work properly. Make sure that all entries are correct and those which should tally, do so.
Check once more to see that you have completed all the instructions and special cases. Check the questionnaires through for inaccuracies, omissions, light shading, etc.
When you are satisfied that you have completed everything satisfactorily, then hand the work over to your Commissioner.
6.6 Enumerating Members of Group Dwellings - Form C1
Non-private dwellings are divided into two groups. The first group, (a), deals with those non-private dwellings at which individuals spent Census Night but which are not to be treated as "Usual Residences" of the individuals.
6.7 Group Dwelling Usual "Residence" in Private Households
The places included here are:
901 (Public General Hospitals)
(Maternity Hospitals and Nursing Homes)
999 "Penny Shelters" and lodgings for transients.
These are to be enumerated on Form C1.
Complete Questions 3.1 to 3.3; Questions 4.1 to 4.2 and Question 8.1 for individuals spending Census Night in these places, unless they have no other residence elsewhere. All questions are to be answered for persons who have no other place of residence. This is particularly applicable in the case of staff-members whose residence is in the group dwelling.
Individual Number within Household: As with private households, assign a number to each individual starting with 01 and continuing consecutively. If there are more than 99 persons in the household, assign 01 to the one-hundredth person, 02 to the next and so on because the two digits allocated on the questionnaire were designed for numbering only up to 99 individuals within the same household without duplication. If there are 103 individuals in a group therefore, Individual Numbers will run like this: 01, 02, 03........ 97, 98, 99, 01, 02, 03, 04,..
Question 3.1 - Relationship to Head of Household: Assign a Household Head to the Group Dwelling in accordance with instructions at paragraph 3.14. For all other individuals in the Group Dwelling, mark "Other" at Question 3.1.
Questions 4.1-4.2 - Usual Residence: As discussed above, this is to be taken as the individual's home address even in the case of patients spending more than six months in Public General Hospitals. Staff members may, however, have "Usual Residence in the group dwelling."
6.8 Group Dwelling "Usual Residence" at InstitutionThe second group of non-private dwellings referred to at 6.5 above is:
(i) 902 - Correctional Institutions:
Penitentiaries, Prisons, Reformatories, Jails, Workhouses, Prison Farms or Camps, Training or Industrial Schools
(ii) 903 - Mental Institutions:
Hospitals and Sanatoria for Mental Diseases, Homes and Training Schools for Mental Defectives.
(iii) 904 - Homes for Children, the Aged, Infirm or Needy:
Orphan Asylums, Children's Homes, Almshouses, Poor Houses, etc. Soldiers' and Sailors' Homes, Fraternal or Religious Homes for the aged, Commercial Boarding Houses for the Aged, Orthopedic Hospitals, Resident Schools and Homes for the Crippled.
(iv) 905 - Hospitals and Homes Providing Specialized Care:
Tuberculosis Sanatoria, Lepers' Home, Cancer Hospitals and other hospitals for chronic ailments, Homes for incurables.
(v) 906 - Religious and Educational Institutions:
Convents and Monasteries, University and College Residences, Hotels and Residences for Trainee and/or Graduate Teachers, Nurses and Ministers of Religion.
(vi) 907 - Military Camps, Police Training Schools and Police Barracks.
(vii) 908 - Hotels and Guest Houses.
(viii) 909 - Ships in Harbor
(ix) 910 - Other Religious and Educational Institutions:
Boarding Schools and Residential Schools and Homes for the Blind and Deaf.
All of the above with the exception of 908 and 909 are to be enumerated on form Cl.
Complete Questions 3.1-3.3 and 8.1 for all members of the non-private households listed at (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv). For persons in households listed
at (v) and (vi) i.e. persons in Monasteries, University and College Residence, Hotels and Residences for trainee and/or graduate Teachers, Nurses, and Ministers of Religion, Military Camps, Police Training Schools and Barracks, ask all questions. For Nuns in Convents however do not ask section 7 which deals with fertility. For persons listed at (ix) Boarding Schools and Schools for the Blind and Deaf ask Questions 3.1 - 3.3, 5.1-5.7 and Q8.1. The instructions given in paragraph 6.7 for completing the identification are applicable for members of these non-private households.
6.9 Persons with No Fixed Abode/Floating Population (Form C1)
Your Commissioner will indicate the places in your assigned area where it is likely that persons with no fixed address and the "floating or vagrant population" will be found sleeping. You should, however, in advance of April 7, make yourself aware of any other sidewalks, parks and places within the assigned area where stragglers and vagrants usually sleep. Start enumeration at about 9 a.m. on April 7, complete in each case Questions 3.1-3.3, 4.1-4.2 and Question 8.1.
Housing Unit Number: Assign Housing Unit Number 999 to all persons with no fixed abode. Treat all members of the floating population in an E.D. as one household
Dwelling Number: Assign dwelling number 99 to all persons.
Household Number: Assign household number 99 to all persons.
Individual Number: Assign numbers consecutively to all such individuals in each E.D. in your assigned area. If there are more than 99 persons assign 01 to the next after 99, 02 to the next after that and so on.
Question 3.1: Mark "Head" on the questionnaire of the first such person whom you enumerate in each E.D. and "Other" on all other questionnaires. Your Commissioner will indicate the places in your assigned area where it is likely that persons with no fixed address and the "floating or vagrant population" will be found sleeping. You should, however, in advance of April 7, make yourself aware of any other sidewalks, parks and places within the assigned area where stragglers and vagrants usually sleep. Start enumeration at about 9 a.m. on April 7, complete in each case Questions 3.1-3.4, 4.1-4.2 and Question 8.1.
Question 4.1: Score "No" on the questionnaires for vagrants and stragglers.
Question 8.1: Mark this Household for all such persons.
Question 8.2: Mark the parish in which you are enumerating.
On the completion of enumeration of each such person, hand to him a Form C6 - Certificate of Enumeration. This will help to ensure that he is not subsequently enumerated by another" Special" Census Taker.
6.10 Enumerating Tourists and other Persons in Hotels and Guest Houses (Form C2)
Starting on April 6, attend the Hotels, Guest Houses, Hostels, etc. assigned to you to complete as far as possible items 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the Special Cases Schedule for individuals registered in the establishment. The Census Commissioner will have made the appropriate arrangements for this prior to your arrival. You will, in general, be able to obtain this information from the Establishment Register. Depending on the arrangements made by the Census Commissioner, either leave the schedule to be completed by a member of the staff of the establishment or by the guests or keep them until the morning of April 8, when you will complete them by interviewing the guests.
Make a note of the number of schedules either left at the establishment or filled in by you at the "pre-enumeration" stage in Column 8, "Remarks"- of the Visitation Record, on the line assigned to that for non-private dwelling. This will serve as a check of the schedule, on your return visit. Ensure that you complete questionnaires for those guests who arrive between the time of your visit and the night of April 7.
Try to obtain completed schedules for all guests as soon after April 7 as possible and preferably on April 8. When you will collect them, check them against the Register of persons for the night of April 7 to see whether there are guest from whom the information was not obtained. Draw a line across schedules for guests who checked out before midnight of April 7, and return these to your Census Commissioner along with the rest of your assignment. Complete the Visitation Record if enumeration is complete or else make notes in the Remarks Column showing the number of incomplete cases etc. Report to your Census Commissioner by April 9.
6.11 Ships in Harbor (Form C2)
On April 6, contact the captains of all the ships which are expected to be in the harbors in your assigned area on the night of April 7, according to the list given to you by your Commissioner. Depending on the size of the crew and the number of passengers, start on April 6 or delay until April 7, copying from the ship's register the information to complete items 2, 3, 4, and 6 - Form C2. If all relevant information is contained in the ship's records, complete Question 5 also.
For crew members, enter the Name of the Vessel at Item on the schedule. If necessary, make arrangements with the Captain for incomplete information to be filled in by the individuals and made available to you on the morning of April 8. On the afternoon of April 7 make similar arrangements for ships which berthed that day.
On April 8, complete Columns 8-11, of the Visitation Record and deliver to the Census Commissioner the completed schedules of all individuals who spent the night of April 7 on ships in the harbors in your assigned area as well as the cancelled schedules for such individuals as you enumerated by midnight April 7, had already left the island or spent the night ashore.