Population Census 1982
[Table of contents is omitted here.]
1.1 What is a Population Census?
A modern population census may be defined as the total process of gathering, compiling and publishing information on the people of a country or a specific area, which tells about their number, their age and sex, where they live, their level of education, whether or not they attend school, at work or not and other such characteristics. In short, it relates to information on the total count of the population and its characteristics.
1.2 Why is a Population Census being taken?
Since 1970 when the last population census was taken, the population has grown; persons have moved from one place to another, changes have taken place in the educational system, and so on. The Population Census of 1982 aims at providing the information needed to assess these changes as well as to provide a base for the development of plans to improve the economic and social status of the population.
A rapidly growing population may require a number of additional services, examples of which are: schools, water supplies, hospitals and clinics and factories. Information provided by the 1982 Population Census about the growth and movement of the population will assist those agencies which have the responsibility for planning for the provision of these services in determining size, location and other characteristics needed for decision making.
Businessmen and industrialists will also be able to use the results of the 1982 Census to aid them in their planning. The information will assist them in organizing their sales programmes more effectively by way of determining suitable locations for retail outlets, for factory sites etc., so that they can operate their business more profitably and serve the communities better.
1.3 How is this Population Census being taken?
In order to take a Census, several distinct operations have to be undertaken. Firstly, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled, the next step is to organize the enumeration or the collection of the data in the field.
In this Census, almost six thousand trained enumerators will visit every building and every household in Jamaica in order to interview members of the households and record the required information. Questions on the number of persons living in the household, their age, sex, occupation, birth place and so on, will be asked and the answers recorded in the proper places on the questionnaires.
After the questionnaires have been completed in the field, they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. When all checking has been completed, another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready
for processing, the first step which involves their passage through a machine known as a Document Reader. This is a computer which is used to read the information on the questionnaires. You should all be familiar with this machine. It is the same type of machine which is used for marking examination papers.
The computer takes the information from the questionnaire and writes it on to a magnetic tape for further steps in computer processing. The final step is the production of the tabulations from which the Census Reports are prepared.
1.4 The importance of your role in the Population Census
As a Census Taker, you play a vital part in the census operations. You, along with about 6,000 other persons, have the job of taking the 1982 Census of Population.
As was just stated, the information obtained on the Census forms will provide the basis for the final Census results. All the processes which take place after the field enumeration involve adding up and performing other tasks on the data collected. They take the data collected as a base. Therefore, the final results will be accurate only if the information provided on the questionnaires is accurate.
Every effort must be made to obtain complete and exact answers to questions and to record these accurately according to your instructions.
The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the interest you take in your job and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow Census Takers perform your tasks. You, therefore, hold a key position in this important undertaking.
1.5 Census information is confidential
The census is being taken under the Statistics Act which requires that all persons in Jamaica provide information to you, the Census Taker, acting as an agent for the Census Officer. It also requires that all information collected in the census be kept confidential. When you accept the job of Census Taker, you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone other than a sworn employee of the census organization. This means that you must not show the information to anyone but your Supervisor, your Commissioner, the Census Officer or a member of the staff of the Department who is authorized to see your work. You must also not talk about it to anyone including all members of your family or you will be in breach of the law.
1.6 Census information used only in totals
Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction, because you will be asking for information they do not normally tell to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. These are:
b. Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any Census taker or any other person engaged on census work to make unauthorized disclosures of information to any individual or organization whatsoever, public or private.
c. The information collected will be published only for groups of people so that no information given by an individual can be recognized. Information about a particular individual is essential in deriving overall totals, but this information will never be used in a form which could result in facts about the individual being identified.
2.1 Your assignment
Your assignment as Census taker is to list all building units in your E.D., getting the information required on the Visitation Record. In addition, you are required to complete a questionnaire according to the instructions given in this Manual, for each individual who live in your Enumeration District (E.D.) as well as those persons who stayed overnight in the E.D. on Census night, that is, on the night of June 8.
If you are a Special Census taker you will have the responsibility for taking the Census in non-private dwellings.
As was stated before, you are, in a very special way, the key person in the Census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. We have stressed that a report is only as good as the information that goes into it, so it is important that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.
2.2 Your supervisor
You will be working under the supervision and direction of your Zone Supervisor who will:
(b) ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed;
(c) give you your assignment;
(d) supply you with your enumeration materials;
(e) observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve it;
(f) see that you understand and follow the instructions in this Manual and those given at training classes;
(g) see that you complete your assignment as quickly and as accurately as possible;
(h) receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment; and
(i) help you to solve your enumeration problems.
You must at all times keep in close touch with your Supervisor, advising him where you may be found, meeting at such times and places as he or she may direct, following carefully the instructions which he or she gives you on census matters.
2.3 Your enumeration kit
In order to carry out your assignment, you will receive from your Supervisor the following items:
(b) copies of Form C1 - the Census Questionnaire;
(c) copies of Form C3 - the Visitation Record, Private Dwellings;
(d) a container in which to keep unused Questionnaires;
(e) a box in which to keep completed Questionnaires;
(f) two No. 2 pencils;
(g) one eraser;
(h) a folder (three-ring) in which Forms C1 are to be kept when you are in the field;
(i) a file containing a map of your Enumeration District and a description of it;
(j) Certificate of Enumeration Cards;
(k) a set of Appointment Cards;
(l) a bag in which to keep Census materials when you are in the field.
In addition, you should carry around with you, your letter of appointment as a Census Taker as well as this Manual. Special Census Takers will be given, in addition:
(n) a copy of Form C4 - The Visitation Record - Group Dwellings;
(o) a flashlight.
2.4 Items to be returned at end of Enumeration
At the end of Enumeration you will be required to return to your Supervisor the following items:
(a) your Identification Card;
(b) the E.D. map and description;
(c) questionnaire box with completed Forms C1;
[Sections 2.4 - 2.7 are missing in the original enumeration manual]
If you find any errors in the description, write these out below the given description of the E.D. in the space provided. All corrections, change, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor on the first occasion that you see him.
2.8 Enumerate within boundaries
You must be careful when enumerating around the outer boundaries of your E.D. You should enumerate only those areas which are within your E.D.
[Example image and instructions given regarding boundaries of enumerator's E.D. omitted here.]
2.9 Ensure that you locate all households
The description of the E.D. will indicate the direction to be followed in covering your Enumeration District. Your Supervisor will check this with you and will advise you further where necessary.
It is especially important in covering your area, particularly in rural districts, to ensure that all sections of your E.D., especially those which appear to be uninhabited, are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or seem to appear inaccessible.
Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area, and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not
overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures.
Be careful to enumerate all households in your area. Remember, if you deliberately omit households because it is difficult to either get to them or for some other reason to contact them, and this is proved, then you will not be paid for working in the E.D.
You should also obtain information relating to households within your E.D. only. Never attempt to complete questionnaires for persons in any other household other than those located in the E.D.
Do not make up fictitious questionnaires. You will be guilty of an offence under the Law. If this is proved you will have to pay the penalty and you will also not receive pay for any work which you have done.
2.10 How the interview should be conducted
An intensive publicity program has seen arranged which should assist you greatly in your dealings with respondents. Nevertheless, much of your success as a Census Taker will depend on your approach. Most people will react favorably if you are pleasant and courteous.
No interviewing pattern will fit every situation, as the reactions of people you meet will differ, and you must be able to adapt yourself to these differences. Most of all, you will need patience and tact. An approach such as the following, should adequately meet most situations and gain for you a favorable reception:
"Good morning (or afternoon) Sir or Madam. I am the Census Taker appointed by the Census Officer to take the Population Census in this area".
Here present your identification Card and, if necessary, your Letter of Appointment, for scrutiny by the respondent.
"I shall be grateful if you will answer a few questions regarding yourself and other members of your household."
Sometimes you may need to put the respondent at ease with some "small talk". "Small talk" should not become gossip, however. Remember always that you are on the job. Make sure that the interview is not prolonged unnecessarily. You may, on occasions, meet a few persons in your Enumeration District who are of a suspicious or uncooperative nature. Such persons are inclined to view your visit as an intrusion upon their privacy and a waste of their time. A friendly and frank approach on your part may overcome this resistance. If, however, all your endeavors fail, as a last resort you should draw the respondent's attention to the fact that the Census Regulations make it compulsory to answer all the Census questions. When a householder absolutely refuses to co-operate, the case should be referred to your Supervisor who will take the appropriate action.
2.11 Things you should do
(b) You must present your I.D. Card on every occasion for scrutiny by the respondent before starting your interview.
(c) You must read and intensively study this Manual to become thoroughly familiar with its contents in order to do your work accurately and efficiently.
(d) You must discuss all problems and uncertainties with your Supervisor.
(e) You must be tolerant, patient and courteous at all times when dealing with respondents.
(f) Whenever possible, the acknowledged head of the household should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only when it is absolutely necessary, and then only from older children. In any case you should not use a child as a respondent.
(g) You must always attempt to conduct the interview in a house. If this proves impracticable, you must avoid interviewing people before strangers or in a group unless the respondent suggests this.
(h) You must make every effort to keep the documents you are working on clean, legible and free from damage.
(i) At the end of each day you should review your work to make sure that all requirements of your instructions and all census procedures are met. Make sure that no call-backs were omitted, that notes in respect of problems were made and that all questionnaires are carefully filed away. Then arrange your material for the next day's work.
(j) You must attend to "call-backs" (households or persons whom you were unable to enumerate at your first visit) as early as possible.
(k) You must be punctual in keeping all appointments made. In making such appointments, therefore, you must make sure that the date and time which you set are convenient both to yourself and to the Respondent.
2.12 Things you should not do
(b) You must not solicit or permit any unauthorized person to assist you with your work. No matter how intelligent he is, he will not have had the training you have had nor any authority to participate in enumeration. Nor will he have taken the Oath of Secrecy.
(c) You must not permit any unauthorized person to accompany you on your visits. (Remember your Oath of Secrecy).
(d) You must not combine with your census enumeration any canvassing for personal gain, church, political party or any other organization.
(e) You must not permit any unauthorized person - including members of your own family - to see the completed questionnaires for the district you enumerate. Nor should you tell them about the information you have received.
(f) You must never discuss politics or get involved in political arguments while engaged in census taking.
(g) Do not smoke in people's home without permission. It is preferable not to smoke at all at those times.
Before discussing the enumeration forms it is necessary for you to understand the basic concepts which are used in the Census and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which will be used frequently in the instructions for enumeration.
If, during the course of enumeration there is a case which was not covered by your instructor, make a note of it in your Visitation Record and refer it to your Supervisor on the first occasion that you see him after this has occurred, and ask for his advice.
A Building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent from any other, comprising one or more rooms, or other space, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof and is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings; for example, detached kitchens, toilets, helpers' quarters, garages, etc.
A Building may be a detached dwelling, apartment building, factory, shop, warehouse, repair shop, etc.
3.4 Dwelling UnitA Dwelling Unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons living at the time of the Census. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence". An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or other forms of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons for purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals. It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery; when occupants can come in and go out of it without passing through anybody else's accommodation.
The key factors in defining a dwelling unit are separateness and independence. Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance(s) without having to pass through the living quarters of another household.
3.5 HouseholdA Household consists of one person who lives alone or a group of person who, as a unit, jointly occupies the whole or part of a dwelling unit, who have common arrangements for housekeeping, and who generally share at least one meal. The Household may be composed of related persons only, of unrelated persons, or of a combination of both.
Many other arrangements will, however, be encountered and further guidance can be obtained from the following:
(ii) If an individual sleeps in the same structure as the main household and shares at least one meal per day with the household, include him as a household member.
(iii) If an individual sleeps in the same structure as the main household and shares no meals with that household, include him as a member of the main household if the access of his living quarters is through the quarters of the main household (lodger). If on the other hand the access to his living quarters is not through that of the main household do not include him with that household. He is a separate household.
(iv) A domestic employee who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household if he or she sleeps there on an average at least four nights per week and shares at least one meal daily. If the helper's partner or children live on the premises, all members of this family are to be included with the main household if they share meals with the main household. If there are separate arrangements for cooking they should be considered as a separate household.
(v) In the case of a tenement yard where there is a series or rooms rented to different persons by the landlord, each person or group of persons who live and share meals together is regarded as a separate household. A household in this special context may share external bathroom, toilet or even kitchen facilities with other similar households.
3.8 Private dwelling
Private Dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, part of commercial buildings, and boarding houses catering for less than six boarders.
3.9 Non-private dwelling/group dwelling/institutions
Non-private Dwelling or Group Dwellings are defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons. Living collectively means that they usually eat common meals and share common domestic services.
Such quarters are found most frequently in homes for the aged, orphanages, prisons and reformatories, sanatoria, religious cloisters, military barracks, convents, monasteries, school dormitories, hotels, and rooming houses (defined as dwellings catering for six or more paying boarders or lodgers).
3.10 Vacant dwelling
A Vacant Dwelling is a dwelling in which no one is living at the time of the Census. Newly constructed vacant units are included in the census listing if construction has reached the point where all the windows and exterior doors are installed and the final usable floors are in place. If construction has not reached this point, the unit is not to be counted as a vacant dwelling; that is, it should not be included in the Census Listing.
Vacant units are excluded if there is positive evidence that the units are to be demolished, or if they are condemned for reasons of health or safety, so that further occupancy is prohibited. Also excluded as dwelling units are those being used exclusively for commercial or business purposes.
3.12 The head of household - private householdsFor census purposes, every household must have a head.
The Head of the Household is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household.
In most cases it will be obvious who the head of the household is. Usually it is the person who is the chief breadwinner.
In any event, the person recognized by the respondent as the head should be accepted as such for census purposes.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, that member of the group whom the others acknowledge as such should be taken as the head.
A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters to less than six guests is considered to be the head of that household.
In a one person household, that person is the head.
3.13 Head of non-private household
In group dwellings, the officer in charge, or the most senior staff member (if he is not a household member elsewhere) is to be taken as the Head. If there is no one else who fits this definition, use as the head of the household, the first guest, inmate or patient whom you enumerate.
(ii) Fishermen - Fishermen away at sea are considered to have their usual place of residence in the dwelling where they live when ashore.
(iii) Seamen or crew members on a vessel which plies between Jamaica and some foreign port are considered to reside on the vessel rather than at their homes.
(iv) Air pilots are considered to have their usual place of residence in the household if they usually spend most of their off duty periods in Jamaica and they live in that dwelling for most of the time.
If you are told in the course of enumeration that a household member was at one of the following types of institutions on Census Night, "Usual residence" will be at the institution and not in the dwelling unit.
(ii) Mental Institutions,
(iii) Homes for children, the aged, infirm, or needy,
(iv) Residential Schools and Homes for the Blind and Deaf.
(v) Tuberculosis Sanatoria, Homes for Incurables, Lepers' Homes, Cancer Hospitals, and other Hospitals for Chronic Ailments.
(vi) Convents and Monasteries, Boarding Schools, and College and University residences.
(vii) Military Camps, Police Training Schools and Barracks.
Usual residence will be at the home of the individual, however, if he or she on Census Night was in a Public General Hospital, Maternity Hospital, Hotel or Guest House, or Nursing Home. Detailed treatment of these is given in Part 6.
3.15 Business establishment
A Business Establishment is an undertaking in which an identifiable form of economic activity is normally carried out. Examples of these are manufacturing, that is the making of things such as furniture, dresses, hats, crafts, etc., provision of services, such as washing (for others), hairdressing, barbering, etc. In every case, the activity must be performed for the purpose of receiving pay for the goods or services produced.
In cases where the Building is a Housing Unit, the area used for this activity may or may not be a separate room. For example, a dressmaker, tailor, handicraft maker may not use a separate room for this purpose. Also a hairdresser may use the living room as her parlor.
In some instances economic activity for example peddling, shoemaking, tailoring etc., is carried out in a building which is not secure. In such cases they may be operating from a permanent structure but the building is not secure. It may lack doors, windows or such features to make it secure. If the activity being carried out in this building is of long duration, that is, if the operators uses the building on average four times per week then include it as a business establishment but enter "Improvised building" in the Remarks Column.
3.16 Other buildings
Buildings which are not being utilized as Housing Units, Private or Non-private, or as Business Establishments. This category includes schools, churches, hospitals, clinics, community centers, markets, police stations, court houses, etc.
All the land owned and/or operated singly, or jointly, by a household member within a single parish. If several parcels are being operated within the same parish, this constitutes one farm, and where the operation is being done in several parishes, there are as many farms as there are parishes.
There is no size limit to the farm. For convenience however, and for distinguishing what are truly kitchen gardens from genuine farms, you should count as a farm any agricultural enterprise having at least one of the following:
(b) 12 economic trees e.g. citrus, mangoes, breadfruit, etc.;
(c) 1 head of cattle;
(d) 2 heads of pig, goat or sheep;
(e) 1 dozen poultry including ducks, turkeys etc.;
(f) 6 bee hive cultures;
These of course, form the minimum criteria for the farming operations. Note that this definition includes both landed and landless farms.
3.18 Landless farms
Agricultural activity carried out without the ownership or use of the household members land. For example keeping of goats, pigs, cows, etc. on the road side or on other people's property.
Second, your Supervisor will use it to assess the rate at which you are working.
Third, it will be used as a basis for checking your work and the totals derived from it will be used to provide preliminary population figures.
The completion of the Visitation Record is an important part of your job and this Form should be kept up to date at all times.
4.2 Listing of buildings
Every building in your E.D. as defined must be assigned a number in the Visitation Record, whether or not it is occupied. Remember, unfinished structures and old dilapidated houses in which no one resides or no business is undertaken is not considered to be a "building" for census purposes.
Remember this is not only a Census of Population but also a Building Census. You are therefore required to visit and list every Building in the E.D.
You will remember that, according to the definition of a building, there were four distinct categories of buildings and, in addition combinations of some. The four distinct categories were:
(b) buildings containing non-private (institutional) dwellings in which people live collectively;
(c) buildings used for business purposes; and
(d) buildings (institutions) used for other purposes, mainly for community services.
4.3 Dual purpose buildings
There are a number of buildings which are used partly for living and partly for business purposes. Such a combination can be a caretaker's living quarters in the building establishment. Caretaker's quarters can also be located in a building used to provide community service such as, say, a school or a police station with staff quarters. These are only a few examples of the variations which you will encounter.
Remember, buildings are structures which are intended for use for living, business or service purposes and must be used for the purpose of accommodating people. Thus, structures such as cattle pens, pig pens, poultry houses, etc. should not be listed.
4.4 Unoccupied buildings
It is important to know what to do with unoccupied buildings. If the building is in the process of construction, it should be listed if the outer walls have been completed, a roof put on and windows and doors in. This means that the building is completed up to the point where it may be secured by locking the windows and doors.
Where a part of the building is completed and the other part is still in the process of construction, the criterion to be adopted is that stated above, that is, if the finished part can be safely secured it should be listed.
Unfinished buildings in which people reside must, however, be listed regardless of the state of completion.
All finished buildings should be listed except where they are in a state of dilapidation and are unoccupied.
4.5 Types of visitation records
Two types of Visitation Records will be used in the Census. These are:
(b) Visitation Record - Non-private Dwellings - Form C4.
4.6 Form C3 - Visitation record - private dwellings
Form C3 - Visitation Record - Private Dwellings is comprised of a cover page and four sections. Section 1 consists of summary instructions for completing the Visitation Record. The Census Taker's Daily Activity Record comprises Section 2. Section 3 - The Visitation Record is the main section. The final section is Section 4 - Notes and Comments.
4.7 How to use the visitation record
There are five different units to be listed. These are:
(b) the dwelling
(c) the household
(d) the establishment
(e) the farm
Each of these units must be identified by a special number which you will assign. Instructions for assignment will be given later on.
Each line in Section 3 should be used. Each will contain information on one of the following: a household, a business establishment or a service institution.
Where there is more than one farm in a household, the second will take up a separate line. Make sure that you allocate a line and one line only to each of those to be listed. Skip no lines.
4.8 Using up the visitation record
There are 15 lines on each page of Section 3, and this Section has 12 pages. Therefore there will be a total of 180 lines which should be used for listing.
Where you need more than 180 lines for listing purposes, then you will have to start a second Form C3. Obtain the new one from your Supervisor but make sure to mark "Book 2" on the cover page. The numbers assigned to the building units recorded in Book 2 must follow consecutively those in Book 1. For example, if the last building was assigned the number 172, then the number assigned to the first building listed in Book 2 would be 173. Listing it as No. 1 would be wrong.
4.9 Cover page
The cover page is used for two purposes. The first is to provide identification, the second to provide summary results. The identification items are to be completed before you start enumeration; the rest are to be entered on completion of enumeration.
4.10 Completing cover page before enumeration
Identification No: Copy the Identification numbers denoting Parish, Constituency, Town or Special Area and E.D. in which you are working. This will be found on the front of the E.D. map folder. Enter also the Supervisory Zone Number which will be given to you by your Supervisor.
Name of Parish: Write in the name of the parish in which you are working.
Name of Constituency: Copy the name of the constituency in which you are working from the front of your E.D. map folder.
Supervisory Zone: Write in the name of the supervisory zone in which you are working. This will be given to you by your Supervisor.
Name, Address and Number of Census Taker: Print your name in block capitals, putting the surname first. Next, enter your permanent home address. Then, enter your assigned number at the appropriate space. This is the same number as the one on your Identification Card.
Date started working: On your first day at work as a Census Taker you should enter the date at this item.
4.11 Section 1 - Concepts, definitions, instructions
Summary concepts and definitions applicable to Form C3 - Visitation Record, Private Dwellings are printed on the inside cover of the Visitation Record. This will provide you with a quick reference guide. These concepts and definitions are the same as those given in this manual. They are, however, given in an abbreviated form.
Summary instructions for completing the Visitation Record have been included in Section 1. More detailed instructions are those given in this Manual.
4.12 Section 2 - Census taker's daily activity record
Section 2 is meant to provide a bird's eye view of your activities and performance on a daily basis. It is very important that you keep an up to date record of your daily activities. Your Supervisor will need this record to advise his Commissioner and the Census Office of the progress of the work. You must, therefore, complete an entry for every day that you work. Make the entries at the end of each day's enumeration.
There are eight columns in Section 2 and these should be completed as follows:
Date - Column 1: The date to be entered here should be the date on which the activities recorded took place. If no work was done on a particular day then this date should not appear in this record. If, however, your failure to work on a particular day was connected to a census activity, as, for example, meeting with census officials, then this date should be entered. The corresponding entries in Columns (2) to (7) would be dashes and the entry in Column 8 should describe the activity you were engaged in.
Serial Numbers of Buildings listed - Columns 2 and 3: Entries should be made in Columns (2) and (3) and these entries will be used to determine the number of buildings listed each day.
The number to be entered in Column (2) should be the building number of the first unit visited on the particular day. On the first working day, this entry will be "001". From the second day's entry onwards it will be the next consecutive number entered in Column 3, representing the last listing of the day before. The number assigned to the last building listed each day should be entered in Column (3).
Number of Dwellings listed - Column 4: From Section 3, count the number of dwellings (in Column 5) listed during each day.
Number of Household listed - Column 5: As for dwelling units listed, the number of households listed is derived from a count of the number of households listed each day. This number may be
obtained by counting the entries made in Column 6 of Section 3 - Census Visitation Record.
Number of Call Back Visits made - Column 6: Call back visits will almost invariably be part of your work so as to enumerate those persons who were nut covered on the first visit.
Enter in Column 6 the number of call back visits made during the working day.
Number of questionnaires completed - Column 7: At the end of each day, count the number of questionnaires you completed on that day, Enter the number in Column (7).
Remember to be accurate since this will be one of the records checked to determine your final payments.
Remarks - Column 8: An example of the use of this Remarks Column has already been given. In general, this Column should be used to record unusual or important factors which occurred or are related to the particular day's activity. Problems encountered during enumeration should be entered here also, since such problems as bad weather, difficult terrain, problems with people in the area, etc. do affect the rate of enumeration.
4.13 Section 3 - The visitation record
This is the main section of the Visitation Record and must be fully completed. As you have already been instructed, you should use each line on the page, omitting none.
There are 26 Columns in this Section to be completed thus:
Block - Column 1: If you are working in an E.D. which has been blocked, enter in the Column the Block symbol. If the E.D. has not been blocked then run a diagonal line across this column. This indicates that it is not applicable.
Date of First Visit - Column 2: Enter here the date of first visit for purposes of listing the building, dwelling, household and/or establishment.
You may have to make more than one visit to some dwellings in order to complete the enumeration of all members of the household. Only the first visit (Date) should be recorded here. Where it becomes necessary to add to the list because additional dwellings and/or households have been identified, these will be entered sometime after the first listing. The Date to be entered in Column 2 against these visits would be the date where the new listing of the dwelling/household took place. You should identify in Column 26 - The Remarks Column the identification of the first listing, say, for example, "Building No. 6 listed on 9/6".
Date enumeration completed - Column 3: This date refers to the date on which enumeration of the household is completed. Enumeration completed signifies that all persons in the household have been enumerated. In the case of refusal, then enumerating will be completed when the Supervisor instructs you to cease visits to that household for purposes of enumeration.
Building/Housing Unit No. - Column 4: Assign in Column 4, a consecutive serial number starting from 001 to each building unit in the E.D. Where the Building Unit is a Housing Unit, this may contain more than one dwelling, and some dwellings more than one household. In these cases, the building number assigned will be repeated until all households in that housing unit have been recorded.If there is a business establishment in the building in addition to a dwelling or dwellings, then the assigned building number will also be repeated when listing the Business Establishment. Where a dwelling or household is identified after the first listing has taken place, these would be listed when they are identified. The building number should be the number assigned at first listing. The dwelling or household numbers should however be the one following (consecutively) the last dwelling and/or household assigned for that building.
Dwelling No. - Column 5: The next two Columns, Column 5 - Dwelling Number and Column 6 - Household Number, are to be filled in for housing units only.
Assign a number in Column 5 to each dwelling, starting from 01 for each building and continuing consecutively within each building. Thus, if there are four dwellings in a building the numbers would be 01, 02, 03 and 04.
Household Number - Column 6: Assign a number to the household. If there is one household in the dwelling then the household number would be 1. If there are more than one, the numbers will be 1, 2, etc.
Name and Address of Household Head - Columns 7 and 8: When you have listed a household (as instructed above) immediately write in the full name of the Head of the Household in Column (7). The surname should be entered first. It there is another identifying name, enter this also. Next enter the full address of the dwelling in Column (8).
Remember, the listing for the Census will be used to provide a frame for sample surveys which will be conducted after the Census. Thus, both name and address should be given in as great detail as possible so as to enable other people to locate the household after the Census is completed.
Entries for address in urban areas could be, for example - 4 King Street, Kingston 13. In rural areas - Rock Hall District, Red Hills Post Office.
Name and Address of Group Dwelling - Columns 7 and 8: Where the Building Unit is a Group Dwelling - Enter the name and address of the group dwelling and enter Group Dwelling in the Remarks Column.
Name and Address of Business Establishment/Place - Columns 7 and 8: Enter the complete name by which the Business Establishment/Place is known and the full address. In cases where business activity is being conducted within the household, write in the name of the person operating the business. In such cases this will be written on a separate line from the name of the household head, with the appropriate building number entered, with dashes in Columns 5 and 6.
Name of Other Building - Column 7: Enter the exact name of the Church, School or "other" building not classified in any of the above.
Number of Persons in Household - Columns 9 - 11: Columns 9 - 13 apply to households only. Thus Columns 9 - 11 will have entries in all cases where a household has been identified and in no other. In column 9, enter the total number of persons who have been identified as usual residents of the household. In Column 10, enter the number of males and in column 11, the number of females. Remember, Column 9 must be the total of Columns 10 and 11.
Total Number of Persons enumerated - Column 12: Write in the total number of persons for whom you have completed a questionnaire with all the information required for those persons. This should[p.25]
include all usual residents as well as any additional persons who spent Census Night in the household. In most cases, Column 12 will be the same as Column 9. Where there is a difference it might be due to the fact that there were additional persons in the household on Census Night in which case Column 12 will be greater. A difference might also be due to a refusal by one or more persons identified. In this case Column 12 would be less than Column 9.
Number of persons 18 years and over - Column 13: Enter the total number of persons who are usual residents of the household who are 18 years and over. Check on each questionnaire to determine the usual resident and then Question 9 to determine the age.
Type of Housing Unit - Columns 14 - 17: These columns will be completed in all cases where a building has been identified as a housing unit. The codes to be used are listed on the Visitation Record.
Column 14 is for Type of Housing Unit, Column 15 for year of Construction, Column 16 for Material of Outer Walls and Column 17 for Occupancy Status of Dwellings. Each of these four columns has its own coding scheme and these are given at the bottom of Section 3.
Columns 18 - 21: These columns will be completed only in cases where a business establishment has been identified as occupying all or part of a building including business being carried out in the home.
Column 18: Assign the number 001 to the first Business Establishment identified and number consecutively thereafter.
Column 19: Find out and enter here the number of paid employees.
Column 20: Write in the exact name of the business activity being pursued by the establishment. The entries here should be precise e.g. Tailor Shop, Dry Goods Store, Shoe Manufacture, etc.
Column 21: This column is for office use only. Do not write in here.
Where this exists, assign a separate number to each farm identified. Remember that all the lands owned by an individual in one parish, comprises one farm. If therefore a person owns and/or operates land in more than one parish, assign a different number for the farm in each parish.
Column 23 - 24: For each farm identified in Column 22 write in the exact size, acreage and squares. The numbers should be written exactly in the same line as the farm number to which it relates. Acres should be written in Column 23 and squares in Column 24.
4.14 Section 4 notes and comments
You may need to make more comprehensive notes than those provided for in Sections 2 and 3. Make these in Section 4. Remember to identify the Household to which they apply. Enter the serial number of the household in Column (1) and Comments in Column (2).
The remaining items on the cover of Form C3 are:
Number of pages (Section 3) completed: At the end of enumeration enter the number of pages in Section 3 that have entries on them. If you have used a second Visitation Record for listing in the
E.D. then you should enter the total number of pages used in Books 1 and 2 combined. This should be entered thus: 19 (Books 1 and 2).
Number of Group Dwellings listed: Count the number of group dwellings listed by you and recorded in Column 26 of Section 3 and enter this number on the cover page. Remember to include those entered in Book 2 if you have used a second book.
Number of Private Dwellings listed: The number to be entered here should be calculated by totaling Column 4 of Section 2 - Census Taker's Daily Activity Record. Where more than one Book has been used the entry should be the total from all the Books used. The entries in Column 4 - Section 2 were, of course, obtained from totaling on a daily basis the numbers of dwellings recorded in Column 5 of Section 3 - Census Visitation Record.
Number of Private Households Enumerated: This entry should be obtained by totaling Column 5 of Section 2. This corresponds to the count of entries in Column 6 of Section 3.
Number of Business Establishments: Enter here the total number of business establishments listed. This should be the last number
entered in Column 18 of Section 3. If more than one Book has been used, it will be the last entry in the last Book used.
Number of Farms: Enter here the total number of farms operated by household members in the E.D. you are enumerating. This number should be the last number entered in Column 22 of Section 3 of the Visitation Record. If more than one book has been used then the number should be the last entry from the last book used.
Total Population, Male and Female: The information required here must be taken from Section 3. The total population is derived by adding up the entries in Column 9 - No. of persons identified in Column 10 for Male Population and in Column 11 for Female Population. Note that the total of the Male and the Female Population should equal the number for the Total Population.
Population enumerated: This number should be the total of all entries in Column 7 of Section 1 - Census Taker's Daily Activity Record.
Population 18 years and over: Enter here the total of the entries in Column 13 of Section 3.
Number of Questionnaires: Count the number of questionnaires which you have completed. There should be a questionnaire for each person enumerated. This number should correspond to that entered at the item - Population Enumerated.
Date finished working: At the start of enumeration you will have entered the date of your first day on the job as a Census Taker. When you have completed enumeration in the E.D., enter the date on which you enumerated the last person in the E.D. This could have been a first visit enumeration but is more likely to be an enumeration completed on a call back visit.
4.16 The importance of the visitation record
The general format of the Visitation Record has been discussed and details relating to its completion given. It is important to understand, however, the use to which the Visitation Record will be put.
Forms C1 and C2, which will be discussed later, are the forms on which information on the population and its characteristics will be obtained.
The Visitation Record - Forms C3 and C4 are the documents which serve as listing records for the Population Census. They provide information on the non-geographic units of enumeration used in the Census. These are: the building, the housing unit, the dwelling and the household. All four are identified in the Visitation Record.
The Visitation Record serves another purpose also. It is the form or questionnaire on which data on business establishments, on conditions of housing units and on farms is collected. Thus, the questionnaires on the Building Census, the Housing Unit Census, the Dwelling Unit Census, the Business Establishment Census and the Farm Census are combined in one and these are all represented in the Visitation Record.
Section 3 of the Visitation Record is accordingly divided into distinct parts according to the purposes outlined above. Columns (4), (5) and (6) provide information on the four units of enumeration identified, the Building Unit, the Housing Unit, the Dwelling Unit and the Household Unit. Information on the Housing Unit is given in Columns (14) to (17), on the Households in Columns (9) to (13), on the Business Establishment in Columns (18) to (20) and on the Farms in Columns (22) to (25). Columns (7) and (8) are common to all and are used to identify the unit being enumerated, that is household, business or farm.
The previous sections considered in a general way how the job of Census taking should be done and in a more specific way how the Building Census should be taken. Information on the taking of the Establishment and Farm Censuses were also covered. The use of the Visitation Record-Private Dwellings-Form C-3 has been explained and in order to understand what should be done, the terms and concepts used were given.
This Part deals with the main Census document, the Census Questionnaire - Form C-l.
(a) The nature of the Questionnaire
(b) How to deal with the Census Questionnaire
5.2 The nature of the Questionnaire Form C-1
The Census Questionnaire - Form C-l is a mark-sensing document on which very little writing is required. Although it covers 46 questions, writing is used in only five questions. In the other questions, the required information is recorded by making a mark in the appropriate place. This in turn is "sensed" or "read" by a special document reading machine. The use of this type of questionnaire is intended to aid in rapid collection and processing of the information. You will assist in achieving this purpose if you follow the instructions precisely.
5.3 Dimensions of the Form
The main part of the questionnaire is 8 1/2" x 11" with a folding strip on the left hand side, on which the Census questions are listed. All responses to the questions are to be recorded in the main body of the form and not on the strip. You will notice a column of black dashes at the left hand side of the main part of the form where it joins the folding strip. Under no circumstances are you to mark or write on these lines. Your scoring marks are not to touch any of these lines.
5.4 Structure of the Form
The Census Questionnaire contains 40, questions, divided into 10 sections. The name of each section is shown on the darker band on the left edge of the folding strip.
Open the strip to read questions 1-24, the response positions for which are on the left hand side of the main body of the form. Close the strip to read questions 25-46, the response positions for which are on the right hand side of the main body of the form. The correct positions are shown in the examples given here. As is indicated on the questionnaire there are four places on which the Census Taker must never mark; these are indicated by lighter brown shaded bands marked "For Office Use Only".
5.5 Handling the Form
You were told above that the Census questionnaire is a mark-sensing document which will be fed directly into a document reading machine. This is a precision instrument and will accept only questionnaires which are of good quality; that is clean, unwrinkled documents containing good marks in specified positions.
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It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that the Questionnaires be handled with the greatest care or the Document Reader will not accept them and non-acceptance by the machine means not only increases in the cost of processing the information, but a slowing down of the progress of the program. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures (although clean and light erasures are permissible), and there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earring etc.
The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary pencil or other marks must appear on them.
Keep enough questionnaires for a day's enumeration in the folder given to you and at the end of the day, transfer the completed questionnaires to the questionnaire box for safekeeping. Keep your unused questionnaires in the large envelope supplied to you and keep the folder inside your enumeration bag as much as possible on your rounds during enumeration. These procedures should help to protect the questionnaires.
5.6 How to score the Form
The term "scoring" refers to the technique of making marks in the appropriate place on the questionnaire. To produce a good questionnaire you will have to take great care to make the marks only in the way you are instructed.
At all times you should make the marks only with the No. 2 Pencil supplied to you. Do not use any other. For each pre-coded question (that is, all questions except 1, 2, 22, 28 and 29), you will see either a set of numbers at the response positions, or a series of category names identifying the response positions.
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The techniques of scoring are the same in all cases whether the category is numeric or descriptive. Use the No. 2 Pencil supplies to you to shade in all the space contained in the small box. A correctly scored answer should look like those shown at the back of your specimen questionnaire. Do not use any other pencil other than the one given to you. Do not exceed the space bounded by the lines. Do not shade too lightly by not pressing enough.
5.7 The Structure of the Coded Question
There is one further point to be explained concerning the layout of these questions.
Note that where the answer is numeric the response area is comprised of rows of figures; the number of rows in the several questions ranges from one to four. These rows represent the expression of a given number in powers of ten. We therefore have a "thousands" row, a "hundreds" row, a "tens" row and a "units" row. Each number used in the questionnaire can be expressed in terms of these components. For instance, the number 7,361 can be broken down as follows:
Seven thousands: 7000
Three hundred: 300
Six tens: 60
One unit: 1
5.8 Other Pre-coded Questions
There is of course no problem with other types of pre-coded responses. You simply score the category that relates to the answer you receive.
Do not score more than one position in any row except where special instructions have been given as in the case of questions 20, 23, 36, 42 and 43. Do not leave any row blank unless the question is inapplicable to the individual according to the instructions.
5.9 The Write-in responses
As was mentioned before, there are five items on the questionnaire which are to be answered by writing in the usual way. These are Numbers 1, 2, 22, 28, and 29. Use neat script for these responses and confine your writing to the space provided for each; otherwise the portion of the writing which exceeds the space might be interpreted by the machine as a mark intended for the next row and lead to the rejection of the Questionnaire.
5.10 How to deal with the Census Questions
It is important to note that for many of the types of information being collected at a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent.
There are cases where deliberate attempts to mislead takes place and this has to be reckoned with. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude. If there is any suspicion that deliberate attempts are being made to give incorrect information, it is the duty of the Census Taker to point out to the respondent the advantages of co-operating with the census organization, stressing the confidentiality of the Census.
Whenever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answers being intentionally given, it is the duty of the Census Taker to inform his Supervisor.
But incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. The situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment and occupational status. Where this can be detected, a call-back should be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult with the appropriate member(s) of the household and thus enabling you to secure reliable information.
Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases, the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have, therefore, the possibility of total omission of the event, as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward in the time scale. This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations.
This is especially important in questions dealing with dates of migration (15 to 18) and in information on fertility and union status (32 to 38). One method which has been used in trying to identify and if possible control the extent of these errors is that of linking up answers to associated questions and making use of the detailed classifications in some of these questions. In this way respondents may be aided in recalling accurately information about long past events.
5.11 The Order of Enumeration
Numbering of the households should be consecutive as was explained earlier (under the section dealing with the Visitation Record).
(1) Enter in the Visitation Record the name of the head of the household and the household number.
(2) Write in the name of each person who spent Census Night in the household on a separate questionnaire and insert the housing unit number at Question 1.
The order of enumeration which is to be followed among persons in household on Census Night is: whether:
(a) Head of Household
(b) Spouse or Common-law Partner
(c) Child of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner) in order of age
(d) Spouse of Child
(f) Parent of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner)
(g) Other Relative of Head and/or Spouse (or Partner)
(h) Domestic Employee or Employee's Relative
(i) Other household members, not related to Head or Spouse (or partner).
(j) Other persons spending Census Night in the dwelling.
5.12 Ensuring that all Persons are included
When you have obtained the list of persons, check to see whether:
(b) whether there were any additional persons not normally resident who spent Census Night in that dwelling.
Remember to ask particularly about babies and old people.
In order to assist the respondent in remembering all the persons to be enumerated and to help you to get the information on Relationship to Head quickly, use the following line of questioning:
"How many persons spent last night in this dwelling?" Would you give me their names please? Please start with the head of the household, then the wife or partner or of the head, and so on. "If any children of either the head or the spouse spent last night here, please give me their names;" "Were there any babies?" "Any old people?"
"Did any other persons spend last night here - say a cousin, grandfather, daughter-in-law and so on, of either the head of the household or the spouse?"
"Did any lodgers, boarders, servants or other persons spend last night here?"
While listing the members of the household, take the opportunity to complete Question 7 - Relationship to Head.
If this is done, when you are going through the questions each in turn for each individual, verify that the relationship which you have entered is the correct one.
When you are going through the questioning in order to determine who are household members, you may also complete Question 44 - Where Did Individual Spend Census Night.
Having ascertained the name of the household members, their relationship to the head of the household and, in addition visitors spending Census Night in the household, you should then proceed with the enumeration of each individual, asking the questions using the suggested wording, and in the order prescribed below. Answer Questions 1 - 11 and 44 only for Visitors to the household.
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The first ten of these digits will be identical on every questionnaire to be completed for the E.D., and will be found on the front of the map folder. You must fill in every box of the ten digits as given.
The last three digits of the identifying number relate to the housing unit number and will be identical for all members of the housing unit. Here again, in filling in the housing unit number, all three boxes must be entered. Thus, a housing unit number could be 001, 002, 003 and so on.
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The space for this entry is located at the top right hand side of the questionnaire. Print individual's name in the space, putting the surname first and the Christian name or names after. In the case of a baby who has not yet been named, enter the appropriate surname of the parent(s).
Score the numbers relating to the building number which was previously entered at Question 1 - Housing Unit Number at the top of the form; remember to "score" on each of the three rows.
Score the dwelling number entered at Section 3 - Column 5 of the Visitation Record for the head of the household which you are enumerating. The dwelling number will be the same on the questionnaires for all the persons in that particular dwelling. Remember to "score" on each row.
Score the household number entered at Section 3 - Column 6 of the Visitation Record, for the entry of the head of the household, which you are enumerating. Remember that the household number will be the same on all the questionnaires for that particular household.
You will remember that a separate questionnaire is to be completed for every member of the household.
Assign a number to each member of the household (after ordering them as set out in 5.11 above) starting at 01 for the head of the household and continuing consecutively for the rest of the household. Thus, if there are seven members in the household, each member should be allocated a number one to seven and this number determines the individual number which is to be marked in Question 6. Remember that the individual number should have two digits. Thus, in the example above the numbers to be assigned would be 01 (for the head of the household), 02, 03, 04, 05, 06 and 07.
Section 2 - Characteristics
Question 7 to 14, which comprise Section 2, provide some basic characteristics about the individual and are to be answered for all members of the population except those exempted as special cases. Special Cases are always handled by Special Census Takers and instructions for identifying and handling these Special Cases are given in Part 6.
Score the response position which relates to the individual's relationship to the head of the household.
Spouse/Partner (abbreviation for Spouse or Common-law Partner) - This refers to the wife (or husband) of the Head, if the partners are legally married, or to a "Common-law" partner if not. By "Common-Law" partner is meant a woman (or man) who lives with (as husband/wife) but is not married to Head of the Household.
Child of Hd/Sp. (abbreviation for Child of Head or of Spouse) - This is to be marked for each child (natural or adopted) of the Head of the Household and/or the Spouse or Common-Law Partner. Child, in this context, refers to a son or daughter of the Head or spouse or partner regardless of age.
Spouse of Child - This is to be marked if the individual is a spouse or partner of the child of the Head and Spouse/Partner.
Grandchild - This is to be marked for each grandchild of the Head of the Household and of the Spouse or Common-law Partner, irrespective of the age of the individual.
Parent of Hd./Sp. - (abbreviation for parent of Head or of Spouse) - Mark this position for each parent of the Head of the Household as well as for each parent of his or her Spouse or Common-law Partner.
Other Rel. (abbreviation for Other Relation of Head or Spouse) - This is to be marked for all other members of the household who are related to either the Head of the Household or his Spouse or Common-law Partner, for example, grandfather of Head, cousin of Spouse, and so on.
Other Not Rel. (abbreviation for Other Not Related) - Mark this position for all other members of the household who are not related to the Head or Spouse or Common-law Partner of Head.
Not Stated - Mark this position if the information on relationship to the Head of the Household is not given.
Make your entry on the basis of the respondent's reply and not on the basis of name only in cases where the household member being interviewed is not the respondent. In these cases, enquire as to whether the individual is male or female unless this has already been indicated by the respondent during the interview.
Ask the question this way: "When I ask you for the age of each member of the household, I would like you to give me the age at the last birthday. If any member of this household has had a birthday since June please let me know."
Mark the individual's age (in years) at his last birthday before June 8, 1982, that is, his age in completed years. For infants less than one year old at that time record "00" years. For persons over 99 years, record "99". If the individual answers this question by giving a birth date, calculate his age at the last birthday on or before June 8, 1982 and record the result.
Appendix 1 should be used to assist you in the calculation.
If the individual does not remember his age or does not know it, you should make every effort to obtain the best estimate of it, by referring him to some outstanding events which may have occurred during his lifetime and determining his approximate age at that time.
Appendix 2 gives a list of events which may be used for this purpose.
There must be an entry on age for each individual.
Married - Mark this position for all persons formally married, whether or not they are living with the partners to whom they are legally married. In those cases where East Indians have been married according to the Hindu Custom (that is, under the bamboo) or the Muslim rites, mark Married whether or not the marriage has been legally registered.
The remaining four categories, Never Married, Widowed, Divorced, Legally Separated, are self-explanatory.
This question, which is required for all persons except those enumerated as special cases, should be asked thus:
(b) If other household member or visitor: "Does (name of individual) live in this dwelling, by that I mean, does (name of individual) reside here all or most of the time?"
If the answer is "Yes" then score the answer at 11 (a) - This Household. When usual residence is not in the dwelling but elsewhere in Country, you will score against 11 (a) - "Elsewhere in Jamaica".
If the answer is "No", then you will have to apply the instructions, given to you at paragraph 3.14 concerning the definition of usual residence.
When usual residence is not in the dwelling, but elsewhere in Jamaica, you will first score against 11 (a) - Elsewhere in Country. For 11 (b) you will have to find out the parish in which the individual being enumerated usually resides. It may be the same parish in which you are working or it could be in another parish.
Score the appropriate parish.
When the usual residence is outside of Jamaica then you will score at 11 (a) - Abroad. You will not score anything against 11 (b) - Parish in Jamaica.
Ask the question this way: "In what parish was your (was his/her) mother residing when you were (he/her was) born?"
If the reply is a birthplace in Jamaica, mark the relevant parish at 12 (a); if the birthplace is abroad, then a response position at 12 (b) is to be marked. (See Appendix 3 for the classification of foreign countries).
Note that there are several places in Jamaica which bear the same name; if therefore the individual states his birthplace by name of the locality, do not assume the name of the parish; ask the respondent to tell you what parish the particular location is in.
Special attention must be paid to answers given identifying the parish as Kingston or St. Andrew particularly the urban part. Many people in Jamaica refer to these parishes interchangeably, generally as "Kingston".
When a respondent answers "Kingston", find out if he really means the parish of Kingston and not the urban and suburban area commonly referred to as "Kingston".
Ask the question this way: "To what race do you belong (would you say he/she belongs)"?
Read the alternatives on the questionnaire and mark the relevant response position, depending on the reply (Syrian/Leb. is the abbreviation for Syrian and Lebanese).
Accept the respondent's reply.
If you feel that you are obviously being misled, do not contradict. Simply make a note in your Visitation Record - Section 4 against that household entry.
Ask the question this way: "To what religion do you (does he/she) belong?" Denominations with the greater congregations are shown. If the individual being enumerated belongs to one of those specified then score in the appropriate box. Score "None" for those individuals who the respondent indicates do not belong to any denomination and "Not Stated" for individuals for whom the information cannot be obtained.
Section 3 - Migration
Questions 15 to 18 deal with the movement of persons from parish to parish and into Jamaica. Questions 15 to 17 apply to all individuals, local or foreign born, while Question 18 relates to persons born abroad only.
Mark, as described above, the number of years that the individual has been residing in the present parish. If the individual was born in this parish, and at the time of the Census is resident in the same parish, and has never resided in another parish then the number of years will be the same as the age of the individual recorded at Question 9.
If the individual had previously resided in this parish and then lived outside of it, mark the number of years since his last return to reside in this parish.
Score here the parish the person being enumerated lived in before coming to live in the parish of residence. If the person has not moved from the parish of birth, then score the parish of birth.
Mark the number of parishes in Jamaica in which the individual has resided for 6 months or more (including the parish of birth if applicable).
This question is to be addressed only to persons born outside of Jamaica (see Question 12 (b)) and relates to the time when the individual first came to live in Jamaica.
If the year stated is 1959 or some year before that, mark before 1960. If the year is 1960 or some year up to and including 1969 mark the response position 1960-69, and so on. For persons coming to live in the island after 1980, mark 1980.
Section 4 - Education
These questions are to be answered for every individual. For babies the answers to these questions will obviously be None or Not Applicable. This may also apply to very young children. Thus for children up to two years you need not ask the question at all but score in the appropriate boxes. For children over two years you should ask the question since it is possible that very young children, certainly from about three years old, are sometimes sent to school.
Score in the appropriate box the school or university being attended where the individual being enumerated is attending school at the time of enumeration. If the school is on holidays, then enter the type attended prior to the holidays. If this was the last term for the individual, however, you should score it at "None". Where the individual is not attending school, either because they have not yet started school or have left school, then enter "None".
Where an individual at Census Day is attending one type of school but intends to change schools the next term, score the type which he or she is attending at Census Day. The following are the types of school to be entered:
Primary. This applies to a preparatory school (commonly called "prep" school), or a primary school, whether junior or senior department, or an all-age school. Elementary schools, and senior schools are also to be included here.
Secondary. This includes Junior Secondary Schools, Secondary Schools, Technical High Schools, and Comprehensive Schools.
Other - Include here all other types of non-vocational schools not listed above. This category includes schools for the Blind, Deaf, Mentally Handicapped. If the Individual is attending JAMAL classes, the entry should be in this category.
This is divided into two parts:
(b) Attendance at special schools.
Note that this is the first of four two-part questions on the questionnaire. The response area for the question on Type of Attendance is to the left of the dividing bar while that of Type of Special School is to the right of the dividing line. There should be an answer to Question 20(a) for all persons. Question 20(b) should be completed only for persons attending Special Schools.
Type of Attendance: Question 20(a):
Mark the appropriate position, full time student or part time student, for those persons attending non vocational school or university on a full-time or part-time basis.
Mark Not Applicable for all persons who were marked None at Question 19.
Attendance at Special Schools - Question 20(b):
For those persons attending a 'Special School' such as a school for the handicapped or a Jamal Class, mark the appropriate position. Only persons scored 'Other' at Question 19 will have an entry in this position.
5.37 Question 21 - Highest Level of Educational AttainmentThis question is divided into three parts and relates to the whole population. It therefore includes persons who are still attending school. It relates to education already received. In cases where the individual was educated abroad, try to determine the equivalent level to those identified in the questionnaire and score. For persons attending JAMAL classes, obtain the highest level attained before JAMAL, score JAMAL only if the person has not attended school before.
For persons who are not now attending school or university, ask the question this way: "What was the last type of School you (he/she) last attended"? Depending on the reply then you may have to ask: "Did you (he/her) go on to University?"
For those persons who are still attending school, the highest level attained will be related to the School which is now being attended.
None - Mark this for individuals who have had no education (Remember to include babies here).
What is required here is the level of the educational institution attended. Thus education obtained through private study or correspondence courses would not be reflected here.
Ask the question this way:
"How many years of schooling did you (he/her) have"?
Mark the appropriate number of years. For persons who have had no formal schooling or attended school for less than one year, score "0".
Ask the question this way:
"Have you (Has he/she) passed any public examinations?"
Since you can make only one mark in the row and since the individual may have passed more than one of the examinations specified on the questionnaire, make sure that you obtain the highest examination passed before scoring.
For the purpose of the Census, examinations have been ranked in the following order:
J.S.C. 5 or 3rd JLCL. (abbreviations for Jamaica School Certificate - 5 subjects, and Third Jamaica. Local Examination) - Mark this if the individual has obtained the Jamaica School Certificate, the Jamaica Certificate of Education, Parts 1 and 2, or has passed the Third Jamaica local examination or the Junior Cambridge examination.
G.C.E. (O) 1/2 (abbreviation for General Certificate of Education - O level - one or two subjects). Mark this for individuals who have obtained passes in one or two subjects in these examinations.
G.C.E. (O) 3/4 (abbreviation for General Certificate of Education - O level - three or four subjects). Mark this whether or not the individual has passed any of the examinations discussed previously but has passed no more than three or four subjects at the O level examinations for the General Certificate of Education.
G.C.E. (O) 5 or ScC. or G.C.E. (A) 1 (abbreviation for General Certificate of Education - O level - 5 subjects; School Certificate or General Certificate of Education - A level - one subject). Mark this if the individual has passed any of these examinations, whether or not he/she has passed any of the examinations discussed previously.
G.C.E. (A) 2 or more (abbreviation for General Certificate of Education - A level - 2 subjects or more). Mark this for individuals who whether or not they have passed any examination discussed before, have passed 2 or more subjects at G.C.E. "A" levels, or have obtained the Higher School Certificate of the Universities of London or Cambridge or the Intermediate Examination of the Bachelor's degree (i.e. Int. B.A. or Int. B.Sc.). This assumes that they have not obtained a Diploma, Degree etc. as discussed below.
Diploma - Mark this for individuals who have obtained a Diploma or Certificate (and not a Degree) from a University or Institute of Higher Learning.
Degree - Mark this for individuals who have obtained a Degree from a University or Institute of Higher Learning as a result of examinations taken in connection with the award.
Other - Mark this for individuals who have passed examinations not specified for any of the preceding response positions. Include here persons who have passed the Secondary School Certificate examination (SSCE).
Note, that in relation to passes in G.C.E. "O" level, only persons obtaining Grades A - C in a subject must be regarded as having passed that subject.
The Caribbean Examinations Council Examinations (CXC) have not been specifically identified on the questionnaire but this is to be treated as follows:
C.X.C. General Proficiency should be classified as G.C.E. Exams.
Section 5 - Vocational Training
Up to this point on the questionnaire the questions related to all individuals except for Question 18 which refers to foreign born only. This Section and the one following applies to persons 14 years and over. There are three questions in this Section, Questions 22 to 24 and these cover training intended specifically to fit the individual for a given type of occupation or vocation.
This is one of the instances in which the response is to be written in. Note the dark brown area. Write always to the right and not within this area.
You are required to record here the vocation for which the individual is being trained or has received training.
(1) "Have you (Has he/she) had any special training to fit you (him/her) for employment?"
If the answer is 'No' then ask:
(2) "Are you (Is he/she) now undergoing any such special training?"
If the answer to this question is also 'No', then write 'None', and ask no more questions in this Section.
If the respondent answers 'Yes' to either Question (1) or (2) above, you will then ask:
(3) "In what field have you (has he/she) been trained or is being trained?"
If more than one field is mentioned, find out which is the field with the highest level of skill and record this.
Write in the name of the occupation/vocation as stated. You may use a descriptive phrase if the occupational name is not clear.
Be as specific as possible; e.g. enter Mechanical Engineer rather than Engineer. If the individual has not been trained for any occupation, write 'None'. In this case, skip to Question 25.
This question applies only when vocational training has been acquired. This is another two-part question and is the second of the four instances in which you are required to make two marks in the same row. The response area for the first part of the question is to the left of the bar or dividing line, and that for the second part to the right of the dividing line.
"How did you (he/she) receive this training?" (Question 22 refers). "Did you (he/she) attend an institution, receive training on the job, undertake private study or in some other way?"
On the Job - This applies when the individual received "On the Job" training only. On the Job training must, however, be structured training and not just learning by experience.
Private Study - This will include cases when the individual studied by means of correspondence courses or obtained coaching from private teachers to equip him for the vocation/profession.
Inst. Training - Mark this if the individual was prepared or is being prepared for his vocation/profession by means of training in a school, university, trade school, school of technology, hospital or some such other institution.
Other - This covers other types of methods of acquiring training.
Not Stated - Mark this in cases where the individual has not supplied the information. There will be no mark in this question if the individual is not being trained or had received training previously.
Again, for this question you are concerned only with persons who have been or are being trained for some occupation. If therefore, the individual was not being trained for an occupation, then there will be no answer. If the person has been trained or is being trained then ask the question this way: "You mentioned that you were (he/she was) trained (is receiving training) in (vocation). Have you (has he/she) already completed this training?" If the answer is 'No', mark "Being Trained', and if 'Yes', mark "Training Completed".
This refers only to persons who at Question 23(b) were scored Training Completed.
"For how long was he/she trained?"
What is required is the equivalent of full-time training. If the individual has had full-time training, then the answer is straightforward. Record the number of years (in the groups as shown on the questionnaire) which were spent in training.
Section 6 - Economic Activity
Section 6 is comprised of Questions 25 to 31 and should be asked of persons 14 years and over. The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals were in the working force of the country at some time during the week preceding Census Day. The most difficult and perhaps important of the concepts here is that of 'work.' It is essential, therefore, that Census Takers understand fully the precise definition of the term 'work' in this context and that this meaning should be made clear to respondents by the method of questioning them. The Census Taker and all persons working on the Census must, therefore, understand and remember the following carefully:
5.48 Definition of Work
(a) Work with Pay that is:
(This corresponds to Worked for Others Government or Non-Government in Question 27).
(ii) Work as trainee (such as nurses in training) or apprentice (persons at trade). (This also might be applicable at alternative 1 or 2 in Question 27).
(iii) Work for self in One's own business or farm which is run for profit or fees, but does not employ paid help. (This corresponds to Has Own Business or Farm - W/Out Paid Help at Question 27).
(iv) Running for profit or fees one's own business or farm which employs paid help. (This corresponds to Question 27 - Has Own Business or Farm - With Paid Help).
(b) Work Without Pay in a business or farm which is run for profit, that is:
(ii) Work as an unpaid helper in a business or other organization, in cases where the respondent is learning a trade or profession in this way, with a view to engaging in work for pay (See Unpaid Worker at Question 27).
Do not include in "Working", those persons who:
(ii) worked without pay assisting a relative or friend in his duties as an employee.
(iii) worked without pay either in cash or in kind as a volunteer worker for service organizations or church groups - such as the Red Cross, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Society for the Blind, Operation Workshop, etc.
Note also that 'Work' must relate to work in Jamaica. It includes, however, those persons who are residing in the territory but are working on boats, ships, airplanes etc. which may operate outside of the territory, as well as travelling salesmen, consultants, etc. Also included are persons going as contract workers to the U.S.A. for a few
months to work on farms there during the crop season. Other persons who live and work outside of the country should not be classified as having worked with respect to the time they were resident outside of the country.
You are required to record here the economic situation, i.e. the economic activity in which the individual was engaged for most of the week (one hour or more) preceding the Census.
Definitions of the various categories of economic situations are:
Worked: This covers those persons who, during the week preceding the Census, carried out one or more of the activities described as work in paragraph 5.45 within Jamaica. Include here any individual who had a job of work, as defined in the above, and was absent with pay, full or part, for all or most of the week on vacation leave, sick leave, or other leave of absence, excluding study leave. Persons absent on study leave or on leave without pay should not be included.
Seeking first job: This covers persons who had never worked before in Jamaica and who, during the week preceding the Census, were actively engaged in trying to get work.
Others seeking work: This covers persons who had some work experience (in Jamaica) who were not working during the week preceding the census but were actively trying to get work during the week.
Wanted work and available: This refers to those individuals who, during the week, wanted work and were available for work although not actively seeking work through the recognized channels.
Home Duties: This relates to those persons who were engaged during the week in looking after their own homes, that is, cooking, washing, cleaning, etc. It does not cover domestic servants and others who were performing these duties in other people's homes for pay; these would be classified as "Worked". Ensure that you do not include here those persons who were classified in the categories "Worked" "Seeking First Job", "Others Seeking Work" or "Wanted Work and Available".
Students: This applies to those persons not classified above who were full-time students in primary, secondary, technical or other school, at the University or were engaged in private studies. Persons on holidays from school or university are to be included here.
Retired/Disabled: This relates to those persons who have previously worked, but who, during the week preceding the Census, were in retirement from work. This category covers also those
persons who were unable to work because of some physical or mental disability.
Other: This group includes all persons who cannot be properly put into one of the above categories.
Not Stated: This includes all persons for whom satisfactory information cannot be obtained in order to classify them according to their economic activity.
How to ask the question:
Now that you know the meaning of the various categories in this question, you must be instructed in the methods of obtaining the required information. It is necessary to ask the questions in such a way that all respondents will understand what you want to find out.
"What did you (he/she) do during the week preceding Census Day i.e. up to June 7. Worked? Looked for Work; Wanted Work and was available for Work; Kept house? Went to School? or Something else? If you get an answer part way through the question, stop and verify the answer.
Note: you should ask the question in the order given above. If the answer permits you to classify the person immediately in one of the specified classes, do so after verifying this. If the person answers that he/she "looked for work" ask this further question: "Have you (has he/she) ever worked prior to this period when you were (he/she was) looking for work? You will then be able to classify him/her as either:
(b) 'Others Seeking Work'
"How many hours did you (he/she) work during the week between June 1 and the 7th, that is the week before Census Day." You are required to record here, the actual number of hours worked during the week preceding the Census by persons who, at Question 25, were classified as Worked.
Note that the term Work refers to actual work done or paid for. For persons on paid vacation or sick leave enter "00" Record the number of hours actually worked or paid for including overtime. For persons working in their own business, record the time they were actually engaged in working or in being at the place of work for business. For persons not classified as 'Worked' at Question 25, score "99" at Question 26.
The categories which apply in this question have all been defined at paragraph 5.45 above. For persons who gave their economic activity as 'Worked' you should determine what the type of work or occupational status was.
For those persons who during the week, had held two or more jobs (either at different times or at the same time) you should classify them according to the more important job, which in most cases would be the job that provided the greater income. You should proceed to get the required information by asking two questions. First, "As regards to the job (or the principal job) which you (he/she) had during the week before the Census, did you (he/she) work in your (his/her) own business or for someone else?"
If worked for others ask: "Did you (he/she) work for a salary or wages or were you (was he/she) working without pay in a family business or to learn an occupation?" The answer will indicate whether the individual is to be classified under Government, Non-Government or Unpaid Worker.
If For Self then ask: "'Did you (he/she) usually have paid workers working for you (him/her) in this business?"
The answer 'Yes' or 'No' will indicate whether you are to score the individual under 'Has Own Business or Farm - With Paid Help' or 'Without Paid Help'.
Persons not classified as Worked at Question 25 must be scored as Did Not Work in Question 27.
Ask the Question this way: "'What type of work did you (he/she) do in the (principal) job which you (he/she) held during the past week?" If the individual did not work during the past week, ask: "'What type of work did you (he/she) do in your (his/her) last job?"
What is required here is the exact nature of the job done by the individual. Where the person has done more than one job during the week, this question relates to the principal job which, in general, will be the one at which he spent most time. If the jobs were done at different times, or two or more jobs were held at the same time, the one which provided the greater income should be used.
Be as specific as possible in recording the occupation. Do not use vague terms such as Clerk (which could mean a store clerk or a clerk in an office), foreman (which could mean a foreman of many different types of activity), and so on. Write, for example - office clerk, foreman of a road construction gang, etc.
In some cases you may need to use many words to explain the type of work actually done. This is preferable to trying to use very short descriptions which are vague or inaccurate. Remember to limit your writing to the space provided.
If the individual has never had a job or occupation, write in Never Had Job and ignore Question 29.
If the individual did not work during the week but was classified as either 'Others Seeking Work' or 'Wanted Work and Available' at Question 25, then enter the occupation which the individual last had.
What is required here is the type of business in which the individual worked for the longest period during the week preceding the Census. It must relate to the Occupation entered at Question 28. Ask the question this way: "With reference to the occupation just mentioned, in what type of business were you (was he/she) employed or engaged?"
Write in the type of business by giving a short description of the activity. For example, Manufacturing, Cane Growing, Building Construction, Personal Services, Making of Bread and Cakes. Terms such as Shipping are inadequate. Instead state Steamship Agents or Wharf operators or Ship repairing, etc.
In instances where you cannot adequately describe the industry, you may give the name of the business or firm also.
In the case of persons engaged by local or central government, give the name of the office or department in which they are employed.
For domestic servants and other personal service workers who work as paid employees in private homes, write in Industry as Private Home.
Mark the Total Number of Months during the year for which the individual worked, according to the definition of work set out at paragraph 5.49 above, for all persons who have worked for any length of time during the past twelve months.
Ask the question this way: "How many months did you (he/she) work during the past 12 months in Jamaica?" You will need to pay particular attention to the following, however:
(b) where the individual worked for short periods each day or week.
In the case of (a) the months worked should include all the time worked in the two or more jobs in which the individual was engaged. For the irregular work pattern identified at (b) then some estimate of the overall time worked in months must be given as the figure must relate to average to full-time work. Appendix V gives the conversions to months which are to be used for cases of irregular work patterns.
The categories here are the same as in Question 25 and the definitions remain the same. The important difference is that here, the question relates to the 12 month period prior to Census Day instead of the week preceding.
You are required to record here the main activity i.e. the activity in which the individual was engaged for the longest time during the 12 months (or part thereof in the country) preceding the Census.
Section 7 - Fertility
This section is comprised of Questions 32 to 38 and the information is to be completed only for females 14 years or older who are not attending school (not including a tertiary institution full time)
Ask the question like this: "Have you (has she) ever had any live born children?" If the answer is 'Yes', ask "How many? It might help if you count first those which are now alive and add to that number the children born alive but who have since died. Do not count stillbirths in the number. I will enquire about this later." Score the number as described above.
In cases where it has not been possible after all efforts to obtain the information, score "Not Stated" on the top line relating to this question.
Record here the number of children born to the woman who were still alive at Census Day. In cases where the woman has had no live born children, score "0".
This question is obviously closely linked to the preceding Question 32. However, in the interest of reducing recall lapses, it is advisable to ask Question 34 and not assume the answer based on Question 32. You may also use the answers to this Question in arriving at a reliable estimate of a woman's age, when the answer at Question 9 appeared doubtful.
Introduce the question this way: "The next Census question is on the age of each woman at the time of her first live born child, does this apply to you (her)?" If the answer is yes then ask: "How old were you (was she) when you (she) had your (her) first live born baby?" Record the age in completed years. if the answer given is the date of birth of the child, then convert to age - Use conversion sheet in Appendix I.
In cases where the woman has had no live born children mark Not Applicable on the top line relating to this question.
In cases where it has not been possible after all efforts to obtain the information, make an estimate of her age based on the age of her first live birth and her age as recorded at Question 9.
Where it is evident that the female has had more than one live born child, ask: "How old were you (was she) when you (she) gave birth to your (her) last live born child?"
In this case also stillbirths are to be excluded and the age is to be recorded in completed years.
Here once more the possibility of recall lapse exists. Ask therefore whether this last live birth was her first, second, third, fourth, etc. live born child and the answer should correspond with the number of live born children stated at Question 32. Such checks are especially necessary in the case of women over age 45. In cases where the woman has had no live born children, mark "Not Applicable" on the top line relating to the question.
In cases where it has not been possible after all efforts to obtain the information, score "Not Stated". Where it is evident that the woman has had one live born child only, score the same age as given at Question 34.
In this question, one row has been used for two closely connected questions. One response position is to be marked on the left hand side for Live Births - Question 36a, and one, on the right hand side, Stillbirths - Question 36b.
It is possible for a woman to have more than one delivery in the same 12 month period. However, the rate of occurrence of this is very low. It is necessary, therefore, to ask about both stillbirths and live births.
It is in order to cope with recall lapses that each part of this question provides for different categories of deliveries, and these should be mentioned to the individual one by one. Attention should also be paid to obtaining accuracy in respect of the time interval during which births are to be included. Remember that the children included here must have been born between the dates 9th June, 1981 and 8th June, 1982 inclusive.
5.63 Question 36(a) - live births
Ask the question this way: "Did you (she) give birth to any live born children during the past year, that is, between 9th June 1981 and 8th June 1982?" If the answer is "No", score "0" under live births. If the answer is "Yes" follow up by asking: "How many live born children did you (she) have during that time? One, two, three, etc. (as is relevant)?" For one live born child score "1". For twins both live born, score "TW". For two children both live born but at separate births during the year, score "2".
For cases where the woman gave birth to three or more live born children during the year (including twins or otherwise) mark "3+". In cases where it has not been possible after all efforts to obtain the information, score "Not Stated" in the last response position on the left hand side.
5.64 Question 36(b) - still births
Ask the question this way: "Did you (she) have any still-born children during the past years, that is, between 9th June 1981 and 8th June 1982?"
Mark one of the response positions depending on the reply.
5.65 Question 36 - General
Remember that the left hand side of the row refers only to live-births and the right hand side to still births so that if, during the year, a woman had twins, for example, one child being live-born and one stillborn - you should record "1" under live-births and "l" under still-births.
Pay particular attention to the definitions of live-birth and still-birth given you by your instructor.
Simply, a still-birth is the product of a pregnancy of not less than 28 weeks duration in which the child shows no sign of life after expulsion. A live-birth is the product of a pregnancy which shows some form of life after expulsion even if it dies a few minutes after.
This refers to the type of family union or association in which the woman is or has been involved. In the case of a woman under 45 years of age the entry should refer to the relationship existing at Census Day. In the case of a woman over age 45, the entry refers to the relationship existing at the time when she attained age 45. In the case of a woman who has had a child during the 12 months preceding Census Day (see Question 36) the entry refers to the union status at the time of the birth or the type of union which resulted in that birth. Thus, refer to Question 36 to determine your line of questioning.
(a) If the woman has had a child during the 12 months preceding the Census ask the question like this:
"You have said that you (she) had a child/still-birth during the past year. Tell me please, were you (was she) married to the child's father when the baby was born?" If the answer is "Yes", mark Married. If the answer is "No", you must then ask: "Were you (was she) living with the child's father when it was born?" If "Yes", mark Common Law and if the answer is "No" do not ask the question but score Visiting.
If the child's father was either married to or living with the woman at the time of birth but the union ended before Census date, then you must mark Married or Common Law whichever is applicable at the time of birth not on Census Day.
(b) If the woman has had no children during the 12 months preceding the Census ask the question like this:
"Have you (has she) ever been married or lived with someone as man and wife?" If the answer is "No" mark Never had Husband or Partner. If the answer is "Yes" and the woman is under 45 years, ask:
"Are you (is she) now married and living with your (her) husband?" For women over 45 years, ask "Were you (was she) married and living with your (her) husband when you were (she was) aged 45?"
If "Yes" mark Married. If "No" and under 45 years: "Are you (is she) now living with someone as man and wife or is it that you (she) no longer lives with your (her) husband?"
For 45 years and over ask "Were you (was she) living with someone as man and wife at age 45 or is it that you were (she was) at that time no longer living with your (her) husband?"
Depending on the answer, mark Common Law or No Longer Living with Husband, whichever is applicable. If the answer is "Neither" and under 45 years ask: "Are you (is she) no longer living with any one as man and wife?" for women aged 45 years and over ask: "Were you (was she) living with someone as man and wife at age 45?"
You should now be in a position to mark "No Longer Living with C.L. Partner" unless some of the answers were incorrect.
In this question also, females are divided into the two age groups, under 45 years and 45 years and over. Information at Questions 9 and 37 should be referred to here.
For all women under 45 scored as either Married or Common Law at Question 37, score at Question 38 the number of completed years that the woman has been in either of these unions. For all women 45 years and over, who at Question 37, were scored as either Married or Common Law, score the number of completed years which had elapsed between the woman's marriage and her 45th birthday or the beginning of that common-law union and her 45th birthday. For all other women, that is women who at Question 37 were scored as Visiting, No Longer Living with Husband, No Longer Living with C.L. Partner, Never had Husband or Partner, score Not Applicable.
Section 8 - Housing
The information in this section relates to the building or part of the building used for living purposes. The information is to be recorded on the questionnaire for the Head of the Household only, and the required information must be given with respect to the entire household; no information on this topic is to be entered on the questionnaires for other members of the household.
Because the information is being sought from each household, this means that in some cases there will be different sets of replies with respect to the same building. The relevant instructions for non-private dwellings are given in Part 6.
This question refers to the type of tenure under which the dwelling, that is, the living quarters of that particular household, is occupied.
Owned: This applies if the dwelling is owned by a member(s) of the household. If the dwelling is occupied by the family or close relatives of the owner but the owner, even if he sometimes sleeps there, is not a member of the household according to the census definition (for example where the wife and children of the owner live in the dwelling, but the owner perhaps because of his work, or for other reasons, does not normally sleep in the dwelling and is then not a member of the household concerned), the dwelling should not be classified as Owned but as Rent Free.
Leased: This relates to those cases where the dwelling is rented in accordance with a signed agreement between the owner and the occupier. In most cases, this signed agreement of lease will stipulate the rental payable, and the length of time for which the building is rented.
Private Rented: This relates to arrangements for rental but not with signed agreement. This is the most common form of rental agreement.
Rent Free: This relates to those cases where the occupiers are not required to pay rental. It implies, also, that the occupiers are occupying the dwelling with the consent of the owner. Examples of the above are where the government, a business (for example a Sugar Estate, or Bank) or some institution (for example a Church or School) may provide free quarters for some or all of its employees.
Squatted: This relates to those cases where the occupiers are not paying rent, but are occupying the dwelling without the consent of the owner. Note that we are dealing with the type of tenure of the dwelling, not the land.
Government Rented: Include here all houses owned by Government and rented to householders. This includes those owned by the National Housing Trust and the Ministry of Housing and are rented out.
Other: Include here any arrangement which does not fit into one of the preceding categories.
What is required here is the total number of rooms occupied by that particular household. The term "room" is taken to include those
used for general living purposes such as bedrooms, dining rooms, drawing rooms, servants' rooms. Exclude garages, bathroom toilets, kitchens, verandas, passages, closets, foyers, and the like.
Where some rooms are used in common by more than one household, count such rooms only among those occupied by the household to which it is more accessible. Each room must be counted once only.
You are required here to mark the main source of domestic water supply for the household. This means that in those cases where the household members obtain water from more than one source, you must determine from the respondent which is the main source, and score this one only on the questionnaire.
In general, give precedence to the source for cooking and drinking over the source for bathing, washing and other uses. Where water from different sources is used for the same purposes, find out from the respondent which is the main source, that is, the one from which they get most water for this use, and record this source only.
Public in this question refers to a water supply established and maintained by the government or a government regulated agency.
Pub. Piped into Dwell: This is the abbreviation for Public Water Supply Piped into the Dwelling.
Pub. Piped into Yard: This refers to cases when the household's water is supplied from a pipe in the yard of the premises and which originates from a public source.
Priv. Piped into Dwell: This applies when the main source of domestic water supply is not a public one and is piped into the dwelling; for example, piped in from a private catchment or well.
Priv. Catchmn. Not Piped: This applies if the water supply is from a non-public catchment or well and is not piped into the dwelling.
Pub. Standpipe: This relates to a Public Standpipe, usually located along roads or other public thoroughfares.
Pub. Tank: This is applicable if the main source of water for domestic use is supplied from a public tank, dam, reservoir or well and is not piped into the premises. In those cases the water is probably obtained by going to the tank.
Other: Include here all other main sources of water supply e.g. river, pond, spring, etc.
5.72 Question 42 - Toilet Facilities[Image omitted here]
This question is divided into two parts: Question 42(a) which deals with whether or not the household has toilet facilities and if so whether they have to share with other households. The second part Question 42(b) indicates what type of toilet facility is available.
5.73 Question 42(a) - Availability of FacilitiesWhat is required here is whether the household has any toilet facilities which they are entitled to use because they occupy the dwelling.
If the household has no facilities, record None. If they have facilities, enquire whether they are shared with any other household (Shared or not Shared). Entitlement to use the facilities must be related to their occupancy of the dwelling; it must not, for example, be a public toilet.
5.74 Question 42(b) Type of FacilitiesAsk the question this way: "What type of toilet facilities does this household have?" If the household has available to it, more than one kind of toilet facility, indicate the best kind. In this context, water closets are considered to be better than pit latrines.
Mark the kind of facility available to the household whether or not it is shared with another household(s).
Pit: Mark this if the toilet facility is a pit latrine.
W.C. Linked to Sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.
W.C. Not Linked to Sewer: Mark this if the toilet facility is water borne and emptied into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soak away).
Other: Include here toilet facilities other than· Pit or W.C. (Water Closet).
This question, like Question 42, is in two parts; two marks are to be made in this row.
5.76 Question 43(a) - Type of Lighting
Ask the question this way: "How do you get your light?"
The pre-coded answers are straight-forward. Mark the response position which is applicable.
5.77 Question 43(b) - Fuel Used for CookingAsk the question this way: "What kind of fuel is used for cooking in this household?" Again the pre-coded response positions are straight-forward; mark the one applicable. If more than one type is used, mark the one used more frequently.
5.78 Question 44 - Where Did Individual Spend Census Night?This is a very sensitive question and care should be taken in asking it, you could ask it like this:
To Respondent: "Were you here on Census Night?"
Of the other members: "Was he/she here on Census Night?"
The question is divided into two parts, Questions 44a and 44b.
5.79 Question 44a - Locally or Abroad
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If the individual spent Census Night in the Household, mark This Household. In the case of a watchman, nurse, or shift worker, who would normally have slept in the household on Census Day, mark This Household.
If the individual is a usual resident in the household but slept elsewhere in Jamaica on Census Night, mark Elsewhere in Country.
Similarly, mark Abroad for those persons who are usual residents in the household and who spent Census Night outside of Jamaica.
5.80 Question 44b - Parish in Jamaica
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For those individuals scored at either of the first two positions at 44a, that is, This Household or Elsewhere in Country, mark the parish in which the individual spent Census Night.
Section 10 - Income
5.82 Meaning of Income
What is required here is income from employment for persons who worked or had a job during the week preceding the Census, that is, for all individuals included at Question 27 except those, marked "Did Not Work". The question relates to income from employment only and excludes gifts, rents from property, interest and dividends, pensions and any other income other than income obtained directly from employment.
It is intended to include all income from employment, that is, income from different jobs where a person has had more than one job at
the same time. Add together the income from the different jobs. In special cases, even a person classified in Question 27 as an "Unpaid Worker" may have an income, for the classification in Question 27 relates to his principal activity only.
In general there are two types of income to be dealt with depending on whether the person worked for others or for himself. Persons who worked for others for pay, i.e. for wages and salaries, should give their gross income, including any overtime payments, commission, bonuses, etc. Income should include any deductions which are generally made such as Income Tax, National Insurance, National Housing Trust, Health Schemes, and any other. That is, it should be income before deductions.
For self-employed persons (employers and own account workers) on the other hand, what is required is their net receipts, that is, their total gross receipts less any wages and salaries they have to pay people working in the business, and other business expenses. It is appreciated that persons in these categories will not often be able to give their net income with absolute accuracy, but you must make every effort to help them to give as accurate a figure as possible.
In particular, many self-employed persons and some wage and salary earners might not be able to give a reasonable income figure for a short period, such as a week or a month. For example, a cane farmer reaps his cane once per year may have to give his net income for the past year, for if he gives his income for a week or month, and the period excludes the time when he received this payment, the average income will be understated. On the other hand if it includes this payment, the average income will be over-stated. Similarly, a wage earner who regularly receives an annual bonus would need either to give all his income for the year or else add a proportional part of his annual bonus to his monthly or weekly income.
There will, therefore, be some difficulty in ensuring that you obtain the accurate income for persons who receive income for different periods or from different sources.
Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn; often they do not tell this even to their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly.
5.83 Question 46 - Total IncomeQuestion 46 is in two parts, and both parts must be answered. Pay-period at Question 46a indicates what length of time the amount of money scored at Question 46b refers to.
5.84 Question 46a - Pay-period
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First decide what is the most convenient pay-period in which to record this person's income and mark this at Question 46a. The most convenient pay-period for you to use would usually be the one in which the person receives most of his income. For example, in the case of the wage-earner who is paid weekly and gets no other income, then the pay-period used should be the week. Similarly, the month would be the most convenient pay-period for the person who receives only a monthly income. Record this answer as you obtain it.
5.85 Question 46b - Amount
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Having determined what the pay-period should be, ensure that you get the total income for that pay-period by adding together income from different sources and for different pay-periods. Enter the total in the usual way. Use Appendix V if you need to convert from one period to another.
6.1 Enumeration Arrangements and Supervision
The enumeration of Non-Private Dwellings, Persons with no Fixed Abode and Ships in Harbor will, in general, be carried out by "special" census takers under the supervision of the Census Commissioner. The Commissioner will contact the persons in charge of group dwellings ahead of Census Day to remind them that the census will be taken in their institution and make general arrangements for the enumeration of the individuals living in there. At that time the Commissioner will inform you if you are to enumerate the members of these households individually or obtain the information from records. He or she will also inform you whom your contact at each non-private dwelling will be. Should there be any difficulty however, inform your Commissioner at once because the population in some types of non-private dwellings changes rapidly, and delay in enumeration could result in considerable under-enumeration of the Census population.
6.2 The Questionnaires to be Used
The main questionnaire, Form Cl , is to be used for the enumeration of individuals in Group Dwellings except for tourists and persons on ships who will be enumerated on Form C2 - Questionnaire - Special Cases.
6.3 The Visitation Record
The Visitation Record which is to be used is Form C4 - Census Visitation Record - Group Dwellings.
The completion of the Visitation Record - Form C4 is quite similar to that of, Form C3 except that this is a much more simple form. Like Form C3, it is comprised of a cover page and four sections.
Cover: As with the Form C3, complete the identification section before enumeration starts. In this case the identification consists of three numbers, the Parish Code (2 digits) the Commissioner Number (2 digits) and your Number (three digits). The remaining items of identification to be filled in are (a) Name of Parish, (b) Commissioner Area, (c) Name of Census Taker, and (d) Address of Census Taker. Date started working should be entered at the start of enumeration.
The other items are to be filled in at the end of enumeration.
Section 2 - Census Taker's Daily Activity Record: For each day of enumeration, enter the Group Dwelling Number (or the first and last enumerated for the day) in Columns (2) and (3) and in Columns (4) and (5), the number of questionnaires (Form Cl and C2 separately) completed on that day. Column (6) is to be used for Remarks.
Section 3 - The Visitation Record: Enter in Columns (1) and (2) the Constituency and E.D. in which the Group Dwelling is located. This you should work out with your Commissioner. These will also be entered on Form C36 which identifies your assignment. In Column (3) assign a number to each group dwelling enumerated, starting with 001 and continuing consecutively thus, 001, 002 and 003... and so on.
Each ship or boat is to be assigned a separate number. In Column (4) enter the number indicating the type of Group Dwelling. The Group Dwelling Number for the "floating population" should be 999 in all cases.
Enter in Column (5) the name of the Group Dwelling, that is the name of the hospital, hotel, alms house, ship, etc., at which you are enumerating. In the case of the "floating population" enter in Column (5) the first individual in an E.D. whom you enumerate as such. Enter in Column (6) the address of the group dwelling, if applicable. In the case of the "floating population" enter the location where the individuals are found; in the case of Ships, enter the name of the pier or harbor. Enter in Columns 7, 8 and 9 the total number of persons who were in the Group Dwelling or in the special place on the night of June 8, that is Census Night, giving totals and the sex breakdowns for Columns (8) and (9) this information may be obtained by inspecting the entries made at Question 8 on Form C1 or at Question 4 of Form C2. Columns (10) and (11) relate to persons enumerated that is persons for whom a Form C1 or C2 has been completed. For Column (11) inspect the entries at Question 9 on Form C1 and at Question 5 on Form C2.
Columns (12) and (13) deal with year of construction of the Group Dwelling. This applies to the year of construction of the original building. In cases where additions and improvements have been made to more than fifty percent of the building this should be noted in the Remarks Column.
In Column (4) enter information on the main materials of the outer walls of the Building(s). Column (15) is to be used for Remarks.
Section 4 - Notes and Comments: Use Section 4 for Notes and Comments as indicated for Form C3 above.
6.4 Completing the Cover Page
The cover was partially completed by the start of enumeration. On the completion of enumeration, you will be required to enter the information to complete it.
Enter the last date on which you were working against "Date Finished Working". Next count all Forms C1 and Forms C2 and enter these in the boxes provided. Add together and complete the total boxes, that is, "Questionnaires completed".
Enter, next, the "Total Population", Male and Female which is derived from Columns 7, 8 and 9 of Section 3 of the Visitation Record. Entries on population enumerated are also derived from Section 3 and must be taken from Column 10. The final entry is "Number of Persons 18 years and over enumerated". This number is taken from Column (11) of Section 3.
6.5 Completion of Work
Your work should now be completed. Check through all work properly. Make sure that an entries are correct and those which should tally, do so.
Check once more to see that you have completed all the instructions and special cases. Check the questionnaire through for inaccuracies, omissions, light shading, etc.
When you are satisfied that you have completed everything satisfactorily, then hand the work over to your Commissioner.
6.6 Enumerating Members of Group Dwellings - Form C1Non-private dwellings are divided into two groups. The first group, (a), deals with those non-private dwellings. at which individuals spent Census Night but which are not to be treated as "Usual Residence" of the individual.
6.7 Group Dwelling "Usual Residence in Private Households"
The places included here are:
999 "Penny Shelters" and lodgings for transients
These are to be enumerated on Form C-l.
Complete Questions 1 to 11 and Question 44 for individuals spending Census Night in these places, unless they have no other residence elsewhere. All questions are to be answered for persons who have no other place of residence. This is particularly applicable in the case of staff-members whose residence is in the group dwelling.
Question 1 and 3 - Housing Unit Number: Assign the number given above for the particular institution which you are enumerating. These would be 901 for "Hospitals and Nursing Homes" and 999 for "floating population".
Question 5 - Household Number: Assign number 9 to each questionnaire.
Question 6 - Individual Number Within Household: As with private households, assign a number to each individual starting with 01 and continuing consecutively. If there are more than 99 persons in the household, assign 01 to the one-hundredth person, 02 to the next and so on because the two rows allocated for Question 6 on the questionnaire were designed for the numbering only up 99 individuals within the same household without duplication. If there are 103 individuals in a group therefore, Individual Numbers will run like this: 01, 02, 03, ... 97, 98, 99, 01, 02, 03, 04.
Question 7 - Relationship to Head of Household: Assign a Household Head to the Group Dwelling in accordance with the instructions at paragraph 3.12. For all other individuals in the Group Dwelling, mark Other at Question 7.
Question 11 - Usual Residence: As discussed above, this is to be taken as the individual's home address even in the case of patients spending more than six months In Public General Hospitals. Staff members may, however, have "Usual Residence" in the group dwelling.
903 - Mental Institutions: Hospitals and Sanatoria for Mental Diseases, Homes and Training Schools for Mental Defectives.
904 - Homes for Children, the Aged, Infirm or Needy: Orphan Asylums, Children's Homes, Almhouses, Poor Houses, etc., Soldiers' and Sailors. Homes, Fraternal or Religious Homes for the aged, Commercial Boarding Houses for the Aged, Orthopaedic Hospitals, Resident Schools and Homes for the Crippled.
905 - Hospitals and Homes Providing Specialized Care: Tuberculosis. Sanatoria, Lepers' Homes, Cancer Hospitals and other hospitals for chronic ailments, Homes for Incurables.
906 - Religious and Educational Institutions: Boarding Schools, Convents and Monasteries, Residential Schools and Homes for the Blind and Deaf, University and College Residences, Hotels and Residences for Trainee and/or Graduate Teachers, Nurses and Ministers of Religion.
907 - Military Camps, Police Training Schools and Police Barracks.
908 - Prison and Detention Camps
909 - Ships in Harbor
Complete Question 1 to 9 and 44 for all members of the non-private household listed at (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv). For persons in Boarding Schools and Schools for the Blind and Deaf, ask Questions 1 to 11 and 19 to 24. For the rest of the institutional population i.e. persons in Monasteries, University and College Residences, Hotels and Residences for Trainee and/or Graduate Teachers, Nurses and Ministers of Religion, Military Camps, Police Training Schools and Barracks, ask all questions. For Nuns in Convents, ask all questions with the exception of Questions 32 to 38 which deal with fertility. In all cases, however, all questions are to be asked of staff members whose residence is in the Institution. The instructions given above at paragraph 6.5 for Question 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are applicable for members of these non-private households. For Question 11 score "This Household", etc.
6.8 Persons with No Fixed Abode/Floating Population (Form C1)
Your Commissioner will indicate the places in your assigned area where it is likely that persons with no fixed address and the "floating or vagrant population" will be found sleeping. You should, however, in advance of June 8, make yourself aware of any other sidewalks, parks and places within the assigned area where stragglers and vagrants usually sleep. Start enumeration at about 9 a.m. on June 8, complete in each case Questions 1 to 11 and 44 of the Form C1.
Questions 1 and 3: Assign Housing Unit Number 999 to all persons with no fixed abode. Treat all members of the floating population in an E.D. as one household.
Question 4: Assign dwelling number 999 to all persons.
Question S: Assign household number 9 to all persons.
Question 6: Assign numbers consecutively to all such individuals in each E.D. in your assigned area. If there are more than 99 persons assign 01 to the next after 99, 02 to the next after that and so on.
Question 7: Mark "Head" on the questionnaire of the first such person whom you enumerate in each E.D. and "Other" on all other questionnaires.
Question 11(a): Mark This Household on the questionnaires for vagrants and stragglers.
Question 11(a): Mark the Parish in which you are enumerating for vagrants and stragglers.
Question 44(a): Mark This Household for all such persons.
Question 44(b): Mark the Parish in which you are enumerating. On the completion of enumeration of each such person, hand to him a Form C21 - Certificate of Enumeration. This will help to ensure that he not subsequently enumerated by another "special" Census Taker.
6.9 Enumerating Tourists (Form C2)
Starting on June 7, attend the Hotels, Guest Houses, Hostels, etc. assigned to you to complete As far as possible items 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the Special Cases Schedule for all individuals registered in the establishment. The Census Commissioner will have made the appropriate arrangements for this prior to your arrival. You will, in general, be able to obtain this information from the Establishment Register. Depending on the arrangements made by the Census Commissioner, either leave the schedule to be completed by a member of the staff of the establishment or by the guests or keep them until the morning of June 9 when you will complete them by interviewing the guests.
Make a note of the number of schedule either left at the establishment or filled in by you at the "pre enumeration" stage in Column 8, "Remarks" of the Visitation Record, on the line assigned to that for non-private dwelling. This will serve as a check of the schedule, on your return visit. Ensure that you complete questionnaires for those guests who arrive between the time of your first visit and the night of June 8.
Try to obtain completed schedules for all guests as soon after June 8 as possible and preferably on June 9. When you will collect them, check them against the Register of persons for the night of June 8 to see whether there are any guests from whom the information was not obtained. Draw a line across schedules for guests who checked out before midnight of June 8, and return these to your Census Commissioner along with the rest of your assignment. Complete the Visitation Record if enumeration is complete or else make notes in the Remarks Column showing the Number of incomplete cases etc. Report to your Census Commissioner by June 10.
6.10 Ships in Harbor (Form C2)
On June 7, contact the captains of all the ships which are expected to be in the harbors in your assigned area on the night of June 8, according to the list given to you by your Commissioner. Depending on the size of the crew and the number of passengers start on June 7 or delay until June 8, copying from the ship's register the information to complete items 2, 3, 4, and 6 Form C2. If all relevant information is contained in the ship's records, complete Question 5 also.
For crew members, enter the Name of the Vessel at Item 6 on the schedule. If necessary, make arrangements with the Captain for incomplete information to be filled in by the individuals and made available to you on the morning of June 9. On the afternoon of June 8, make similar arrangements for ships which berthed that day.
On June 9 complete Column 6, 7, and 9 of the Visitation Record and deliver to the Census Commissioner the completed schedules of all individuals who spent the night of June 8 on Ships in the harbors in your assigned area as well as the cancelled schedules for such individuals as you enumerated by midnight June 8, had already left the island or spent the night ashore.