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Instruction to field staff
Design, concepts, definitions, and procedures
Socio-economic survey

NSS 66th Round
(July 2009 - June 2010)
National Sample Survey Organization
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Government of India
May 2009

Chapter 1 - Introduction: Concepts, definitions, and procedures

1.0 Introduction
1.0.1 The National Sample Survey (NSS), set up by the Government of India in 1950 to collect socio-economic data employing scientific sampling methods, will start its sixty-sixth round from 1st July 2009. The survey will continue up to 30th June 2010.

1.1 Outline of Survey Programme

1.1.1 Subject Coverage: The 66th round (July 2009-June 2010) of NSS is earmarked for survey on "Household Consumer Expenditure" and "Employment and Unemployment". The survey on "household consumer expenditure" and "employment and unemployment" is going to be the eighth quinquennial survey in the series, the last one being conducted in the 61st round (2004-2005) of NSS.

1.1.2 Geographical coverage: The survey will cover the whole of the Indian Union except (i) interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (ii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year.
For Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir there will be no separate sample first-stage units (FSUs) for 'central sample'. For these two districts, sample FSUs drawn as 'state sample' will also be treated as central sample. The state directorate of economics and statistics (DES) will provide a copy of the filled-in schedules to Data Processing Division of NSSO for processing.

1.1.3 Period of survey and work programme: The period of survey will be of one year duration starting on 1st July 2009 and ending on 30th June 2010. The survey period of this round will be divided into four sub-rounds of three months' duration each as follows:
Sub-round 1: July - September 2009
Sub-round 2: October - December 2009
Sub-round 3: January - March 2010
Sub-round 4: April - June 2010

In each of these four sub-rounds equal number of sample villages/ blocks (FSUs) will be allotted for survey with a view to ensuring uniform spread of sample FSUs over the entire survey period. Attempt should be made to survey each of the FSUs during the sub-round to which it is allotted. Because of the arduous field conditions, this restriction need not be strictly enforced in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep and rural areas of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

1.1.4 Schedules of enquiry: During this round, the following schedules of enquiry will be canvassed:
Schedule 0.0: list of households
Schedule 1.0: consumer expenditure
Schedule 10: employment and unemployment
It has been decided that two types of Schedule 1.0 viz. Schedule Type 1 and Schedule Type 2 will be canvassed in this round. Schedule Type 1 is similar to Schedule 1.0 of NSS 61st round. Schedule Type 2 has different reference period (7 days) for some items of food, pan, tobacco and intoxicants as compared to 30 days' reference period for these items in Schedule Type 1. For details, reference may be made to Chapter Three.

1.1.5 Participation of States: In this round all the States and Union Territories except Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep are participating. The following is the matching pattern of the participating States/ UTs.
Nagaland (U): triple
J and K, Manipur and Delhi: double
Maharashtra (U): one and half
Gujarat: less than equal
Remaining States
/ UTs: equal

1.2 Contents of Volume I
1.2.0 The present volume contains four chapters. Chapter one, besides giving an overview of the whole survey operation, discusses the concepts and definitions of certain important technical terms to be used in the survey. It also describes in detail the sample design and the procedure of selection of households adopted for this round. Instructions for filling in Schedule 0.0, Schedule 1.0 and Schedule 10 are given in Chapters Two to Four respectively.

1.3 Sample design

1.3.1 Outline of sample design: A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for the 66th round survey. The first stage units (FSU) will be the 2001 census villages (Panchayat wards in case of Kerala) in the rural sector and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban sector. The ultimate stage units (USU) will be households in both the sectors. In case of large FSUs, one intermediate stage of sampling will be the selection of two hamlet-groups (hgs)/ sub-blocks (sbs) from each rural/ urban FSU.

1.3.2 Sampling Frame for First Stage Units: For the rural sector, the list of 2001 census villages (henceforth the term 'village' would mean Panchayat wards for Kerala) will constitute the sampling frame. For the urban sector, the list of latest available UFS blocks will be considered as the sampling frame.

1.3.3 Stratification: Within each district of a State/ UT, generally speaking, two basic strata will be formed: i) rural stratum comprising of all rural areas of the district and (ii) urban stratum comprising of all the urban areas of the district. However, within the urban areas of a district, if there are one or more towns with population 10 lakhs or more as per population census 2001 in a district, each of them will form a separate basic stratum and the remaining urban areas of the district will be considered as another basic stratum.

1.3.4 Sub-stratification: There will be no sub-stratification in the urban sector. However, to net adequate number of child workers, for all rural strata, each stratum will be divided into 2 sub-strata as follows:

Sub-stratum 1: all villages with proportion of child workers (p) >2P (where P is the average proportion of child workers for the sate/ UT as per Census 2001)
Sub-stratum 2: remaining villages

1.3.5 Total sample size (FSUs): 12784 FSUs for central sample and 13724 FSUs for state sample have been allocated at all-India level.

1.3.6 Allocation of total sample to States and UTs: The total number of sample FSUs is allocated to the States and UTs in proportion to population as per census 2001 subject to a minimum sample allocation to each State/ UT. While doing so, the resource availability in terms of number of field investigators has been kept in view.

1.3.7 Allocation of State/ UT level sample to rural and urban sectors: State/ UT level sample size is allocated between two sectors in proportion to population as per census 2001 with double weightage to urban sector subject to the restriction that urban sample size for bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu etc. should not exceed the rural sample size. A minimum of 16 FSUs (to the extent possible) is allocated to each state/ UT separately for rural and urban areas. Further the State level allocations for both rural and urban have been adjusted marginally in a few cases to ensure that each stratum/ sub-stratum gets a minimum allocation of 4 FSUs.

1.3.8 Allocation to strata/ sub-strata: Within each sector of a State/ UT, the respective sample size is allocated to the different strata/ sub-strata in proportion to the population as per census 2001. Allocations at stratum/ sub-stratum level are adjusted to multiples of 4 with a minimum sample size of 4.

1.3.9 Selection of FSUs: For the rural sector, from each stratum/ sub-stratum, required number of sample villages will be selected by probability proportional to size with replacement (PPSWR), size being the population of the village as per Census 2001. For urban sector, from each stratum FSUs will be selected by using simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR). Both rural and urban samples will be drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples and equal number of samples will be allocated among the four sub rounds.

1.3.10 Selection of hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks - important steps

1.3.10.1 Proper identification of the FSU boundaries: The first task of the field investigators is to ascertain the exact boundaries of the sample FSU as per its identification particulars given in the sample list. For urban samples, the boundaries of each FSU may be identified by referring to the map corresponding to the frame code specified in the sample list (even though map of the block for a latter period of the UFS might be available).

1.3.10.2 Criterion for hamlet-group/ sub-block formation: After identification of the boundaries of the FSU, it is to be determined whether listing will be done in the whole sample FSU or not. In case the population of the selected FSU is found to be 1200 or more, it will be divided into a suitable number (say, D) of 'hamlet-groups' in the rural sector and 'sub-blocks' in the urban sector as stated below.
[Table omitted]

For rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand (except four districts Dehradun (P), Nainital (P), Hardwar and Udham Singh Nagar), Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Doda, Leh (Ladakh), Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir and Idukki district of Kerala, the number of hamlet-groups will be formed as follows:
[Table omitted]

1.3.10.3 Formation and selection of hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks: In case hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks are to be formed in the sample FSU, the same should be done by more or less equalizing population (details are in Chapter Two). Note that while doing so, it is to be ensured that the hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks formed are clearly identifiable in terms of physical landmarks.

Two hamlet-groups (hg)/ sub-blocks (sb) will be selected from a large FSU wherever hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks have been formed in the following manner -- one hg/ sb with maximum percentage share of population will always be selected and termed as hg/ sb 1; one more hg/ sb will be selected from the remaining hg's/ sb's by simple random sampling (SRS) and termed as hg/ sb 2. Listing and selection of the households will be done independently in the two selected hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks. The FSUs without hg/ sb formation will be treated as sample hg/ sb number 1. It is to be noted that if more than one hg/ sb have same maximum percentage share of population, the one among them which is listed first in block 4.2 of schedule 0.0 will be treated as hg/ sb 1.

1.4 Listing of households: Having determined the hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks, i.e. area(s) to be considered for listing, the next step is to list all the households (including those found to be temporarily locked after ascertaining the temporariness of locking of households through local enquiry). The hamlet-group/ sub-block with sample hg/ sb number 1 will be considered for listing first, to be followed by the listing of households within the sample hg/ sb number 2.

1.5 Formation of second stage strata and allocation of households

1.5.1 Two cut-off points 'A' and 'B' (in Rs.) are determined from NSS 61st round data for each NSS region for urban areas in such a way that top 10% of the population have MPCE more than 'B' and bottom 30% of the population have MPCE less than A. The values of A and B for each NSS Region are given in Table 2 of Chapter Two (see page B-10).

1.5.2: For both Schedule 1.0 and Schedule 10, households listed in the selected FSU/ hamlet-group/ sub-block will be stratified into three second stage strata (SSS). Composition of the SSS and number of households to be surveyed from different SSS for each of the three schedules of enquiry namely, Schedule 1.0 (Type 1), Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) and Schedule 10 will be as follows:
[Table omitted]

1.7 Selection of households: From each SSS the sample households for each of the schedules will be selected by SRSWOR. If a household is selected for more than one schedule, only one schedule will be canvassed in that household in the priority order of Schedule 1.0 (Type 1), Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) and Schedule 10 and in that case the household will be replaced for the other schedule. If a household is selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 1) it will not be selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) or Schedule 10. Similarly, if a household is not selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 1) but selected for Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) it will not be selected for Schedule 10.

1.8 Shortfall of households to be compensated: For any schedule, shortfall in required number of households in the frame of any second-stage stratum (SSS) will be compensated from other SSS. While making such compensation, the general principle will be to give top priority to the SSS 1 and then to the SSS 2. To clarify further, shortfall of households in the frame of any particular SSS will be compensated from the same SSS of the other hg/ sb or from the other SSS of the same or other hg/ sb where additional household(s) are available. The procedure is as follows:

Step 1: Allocate the required number of households to each SSS wherever possible and identify the SSS having shortfall.
Step 2: In case of hg/ sb formation, compensate from the same SSS of the other hg/ sb if available for all the SSS having shortfall. If the shortfall still remains identify the SSS having shortfall and go to Step 3.
Step 3: Find the SSS where additional households are available following the priority order of SSS 1, SSS 2 and SSS 3 and compensate.

The table given below will be useful for deciding the SSS from which the compensation is to be made.
[Table omitted]

To illustrate further, if there is hg/ sb formation, for each SSS as per priority order, compensation may be made from the hg/ sb where shortfall occurs, failing which from other hg/ sb and so on.
For example, if shortfall in SSS 2 of hg/ sb 2 exists details of step 2 and step 3 are given below.

Step 2: Try to compensate the shortfall of SSS 2 of hg/ sb 2 from SSS 2 of hg/ sb 1.
If the shortfall still remains in SSS 2 of hg/ sb 2
Step 3: try to compensate from SSS 1 of hg/ sb 2, failing which try from SSS 1 of hg/ sb 1. If the shortfall still remains then try from SSS 3 of hg/ sb 2, failing which try from SSS 3 of hg/sb 1.

The resulting number of households (h) for each SSS will be entered at the top of relevant column(s) of block 4 and also in col.(6) against the relevant SSS × hg/ sb number of block 6 of schedule 0.0.

(a) FSU without hg/ sb formation
[Table omitted]

(b) FSU with hg/ sb formation
[Table omitted]

1.9 Concepts and Definitions:
1.9.0 Important concepts and definitions used in different schedules of this survey are explained below.

1.9.1 Population coverage: The following rules regarding the population to be covered are to be remembered in listing of households and persons:

1. Under-trial prisoners in jails and indoor patients of hospitals, nursing homes etc., are to be excluded, but residential staff therein will be listed while listing is done in such institutions. The persons of the first category will be considered as normal members of their parent households and will be counted there. Convicted prisoners undergoing sentence will be outside the coverage of the survey.
2. Floating population, i.e., persons without any normal residence will not be listed. But households residing in open space, roadside shelter, under a bridge, etc., more or less regularly in the same place, will be listed.
3. Foreign nationals will not be listed, or their domestic servants, if by definition the latter belong to the foreign national's household. If, however, a foreign national becomes an Indian citizen for all practical purposes, he or she will be covered.
4. Persons residing in barracks of military and paramilitary forces (like police, BSF, etc.) will be kept outside the survey coverage due to difficulty in conduct of survey therein. However, civilian population residing in their neighbourhood, including the family quarters of service personnel, are to be covered. Permission for this may have to be obtained from appropriate authorities.
5. Orphanages, rescue homes, ashrams and vagrant houses are outside the survey coverage. However, persons staying in old age homes, students staying in ashrams/ hostels and the residential staff (other than monks/ nuns) of these ashrams may be listed. For orphanages, although orphans are not to be listed, the persons looking after them and staying there may be considered for listing.

1.9.2 House: Every structure, tent, shelter, etc. is a house irrespective of its use. It may be used for residential or non-residential purpose or both or even may be vacant.

1.9.3 Household: A group of persons normally living together and taking food from a common kitchen will constitute a household. It will include temporary stay-away (those whose total period of absence from the household is expected to be less than 6 months) but exclude temporary visitors and guests (expected total period of stay less than 6 months). Even though the determination of the actual composition of a household will be left to the judgment of the head of the household, the following procedures will be adopted as guidelines.

(i) Each inmate (including residential staff) of a hostel, mess, hotel, boarding and lodging house, etc., will constitute a single-member household. If, however, a group of persons among them normally pool their income for spending, they will together be treated as forming a single household. For example, a family living in a hotel will be treated as a single household.
(ii) In deciding the composition of a household, more emphasis is to be placed on 'normally living together' than on 'ordinarily taking food from a common kitchen'. In case the place of residence of a person is different from the place of boarding, he or she will be treated as a member of the household with whom he or she resides.
(iii) A resident employee, or domestic servant, or a paying guest (but not just a tenant in the household) will be considered as a member of the household with whom he or she resides even though he or she is not a member of the same family.
(iv) When a person sleeps in one place (say, in a shop or in a room in another house because of space shortage) but usually takes food with his or her family, he or she should be treated not as a single member household but as a member of the household in which other members of his or her family stay.
(v) If a member of a family (say, a son or a daughter of the head of the family) stays elsewhere (say, in hostel for studies or for any other reason), he/ she will not be considered as a member of his/ her parent's household. However, he/ she will be listed as a single member household if the hostel is listed.

Household size: The number of members of a household is its size.

1.9.5 Household type: The household type, based on the means of livelihood of a household, is decided on the basis of the sources of the household's income during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. For this purpose, only the household's income (net income and not gross income) from economic activities is to be considered; but the incomes of servants and paying guests are not to be taken into account.

In rural areas, a household will belong to any one of the following five household types:

[] Self-employed in non-agriculture (SENA)
[] Agricultural labour (AL)
[] Other labour (OL)
[] Self-employed in agriculture (SEA)
[] Others (OTH).
[] For urban areas, the household types are:
[] Self-employed (SE)
[] Regular wage/salary earning (RWS)
[] Casual labour (CL)
[] Others (OTH).

1.9.5.1 Procedure for determining household type in rural sector: For a rural household, if a single source (among the five sources of income listed above) contributes 50% or more of the household's income from economic activities during the last 365 days, it will be assigned the type corresponding to that source.

1.9.5.2 For a household to be classified as 'agricultural labour' (AL) or 'self-employed in agriculture' (SEA) its income from that source must be 50% or more of its total income. If there is no such source yielding 50% or more of the household's total income, it will be assigned one of the remaining types (SENA, OL or OTH) according to the following procedure.

1.9.5.3 To be classified as self-employed in non-agriculture (SENA), the household's income from that source must be greater than its income from rural labour (all wage-paid manual labour) as well as that from all other economic activities put together (a three-way division is to be considered here).

1.9.5.4 A household not assigned one of the types SENA, AL or SEA will be classified as other labour (OL) if its income from rural labour (all wage-paid manual labour) is greater than that from self-employment as well as that from other economic activities (again a three-way division). All other households will be classified under "others" (OTH).

1.9.5.5 For urban areas the different urban types correspond to four sources of household income, unlike the rural sector where five sources are considered. An urban household will be assigned the type SE, RWS, CL or OTH corresponding to the major source of its income from economic activities during the last 365 days. A household which does not have any income from economic activities will be classified under "others" (OTH).

1.9.6 Dwelling unit: It is the accommodation availed of by a household for its residential purpose. It may be an entire structure or a part thereof or consisting of more than one structure. There may be cases of more than one household occupying a single structure such as those living in independent flats or sharing a single housing unit, in which case, there will be as many dwelling units as the number of households sharing the structure. There may also be cases of one household occupying more than one structure (i.e. detached structures for sitting, sleeping, cooking, bathing etc) for its housing accommodation. In this case, all the structures together constitute a single dwelling unit. In general, a dwelling unit consists of living room, kitchen, store, bath, latrine, garage, open and closed veranda etc. A structure or a portion thereof used exclusively for non-residential purposes or let out to other households does not form part of the dwelling unit of the household under consideration. However, a portion of a structure used for both residential and non-residential purposes is treated as part of the dwelling unit except when the use of such portion for residential purpose is very nominal. The dwelling unit covers all pucca, semi-pucca and katcha structures used by a household. Households living more or less regularly under bridges, in pipes, under staircase, in purely temporary flimsy improvisations built by the roadside (which are liable to be removed at any moment) etc., are considered to have no dwelling.

1.9.7 Land owned: A piece of land is considered 'owned by the household' if permanent heritable possession with or without the right to transfer the title is vested in a member or members of the household. Land held in owner-like possession under long-term lease or assignment is also considered as land owned. Thus, in determining the ownership of a plot of land, the following basic concepts are involved:

1. Land owned by the household i.e., land on which the household has the right of permanent heritable possession with or without the right to transfer the title e.g., Pattadars, Bhumi¬dars, Jenmons, Bhumiswamis, Rayat, Sithibans etc. A plot of land may be leased out to others by the owner without losing the right of permanent heritable possession.

2. Land held under special conditions such as the holder does not possess the title of ownership but the right for long-term possession of the land (for example, land possessed under perpetual lease, hereditary tenure and long-term lease for 30 years or more) will be considered as being held under owner-like possession. In the states where land reform legislation has provided for full proprietorship to erstwhile tenants, they are to be considered as having owner-like possession, even if they have not paid the full compensation.

3. Sometimes a plot may be possessed by a tribal in accordance with traditional tribal rights from local chieftains or village/district council. Again a plot may be occupied by a tenant for which the right of ownership vests in the community. In both the cases the tribal or other individual (tenant) will be taken as owner; for in all such cases, the holder has owner-like possession of the land in question.

4. Frequently, the land possessed by the household is owned by the head of the family, who stays in a different town or village and therefore is not a member of the household. In such cases the land should be regarded as not owned but leased in by the household.

1.9.8 Land possessed: The area of land possessed will include land 'owned', 'leased in' and 'land neither owned nor leased in' (i.e. encroached) by the household but exclude land 'leased out'. Note that:

- As regards lease, land given to others on rent or free by owner of the land without surrendering the right of permanent heritable title is defined as land leased out. Land leased in is defined as land taken by a household on rent or free without any right of permanent or heritable possession. The lease contract may be written or oral.
- For a piece of public/institutional land under the possession of the household, if the household lacks title of ownership and also does not have lease agreement for the use of land transacted, either verbally or in writing, such land will be considered as 'neither owned nor leased in'. Private land (i.e. land owned by the household sector) possessed by the household without title of ownership and occupancy right will not be considered in the 'otherwise possessed' category. All private land encroached upon by the household will be treated as leased-in land.
- Land possessed by the household members by virtue of family ties with the owner who stays elsewhere (forms a different household), is also to be treated as a case of land leased in. For such owners (those found to be living away from their family members who are in possession of the land), the land is to be recorded as owned and leased out.
- It may be noted that land owned, leased in, etc., by a particular household does not include the area of land owned, leased in, etc., by the servants/paying guests who are considered as normal members of the household. However, land owned/cultivated jointly by two or more households may be apportioned to determine the land owned/cultivated by any one of them.
- Land possessed by the households living in a block of flats is to be calculated by apportioning the total area occupied by the building among the households in proportion to the size of the flats.

1.9.9 Land cultivated: Land cultivated is defined as the net sown area (area sown with field crops and area under orchards and plantations counting an area only once in an agricultural year) during the agricultural year. Land cultivated may be from the land 'owned', 'land leased in' or from 'land otherwise possessed (neither owned nor leased in)'.

1.9.10 Household monthly per capita expenditure: Household consumer expenditure is measured as the expenditure incurred by a household on domestic account during a specified period, called reference period. It also includes the imputed values of goods and services, which are not purchased but procured otherwise for consumption. In other words, it is the sum total of monetary values of all the items (i.e. goods and services) consumed by the household on domestic account during the reference period. The imputed rent of owner-occupied houses is excluded from consumption expenditure. Any expenditure incurred towards the productive enterprises of the households is also excluded from the household consumer expenditure. Monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) is the household consumer expenditure over a period of 30 days divided by household size.

1.9.11 Economic activity: The entire spectrum of human activity falls into two categories: economic activity and non-economic activity. Any activity that results in production of goods and services that adds value to national product is considered as an economic activity. The economic activities have two parts - market activities and non-market activities. Market activities are those that involve remuneration to those who perform it, i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. Such activities include production of all goods and services for market including those of government services, etc. Non-market activities are those involving the production of primary commodities for own consumption and own account production of fixed assets.

1.9.11.1 The full spectrum of economic activities as defined in the UN System of National Accounts is not covered in the definition adopted for the Employment and Unemployment surveys of NSSO. Production of any good for own consumption is considered as economic activity by UN System of National Accounts but production of only primary goods for own consumption is considered as economic activity by NSSO. While the former includes activities like own account processing of primary products among other things, in the NSS surveys, processing of primary products for own consumption is not considered as economic activity. However, it may be noted that 'production of agricultural goods for own consumption' covering all activities up to and including stages of thrashing and storing of produce for own consumption, comes under the coverage of the economic activities of NSSO.

1.9.11.2 The term 'economic activity' in the Employment and Unemployment survey of NSSO in this round will include:
(i) all the market activities described above, i.e., the activities performed for pay or profit which result in production of goods and services for exchange,
(ii) of the non-market activities,
(a) all the activities relating to the primary sector (i.e., industry Divisions 01 to 14 of NIC-2004) which result in production (including free collection of uncultivated crops, forestry, firewood, hunting, fishing, mining, quarrying, etc.) of primary goods, including thrashing and storing of grains for own consumption.
(b) the activities relating to the own-account production of fixed assets. Own account production of fixed assets include construction of own houses, roads, wells, etc., and of machinery, tools, etc., for household enterprise and also construction of any private or community facilities free of charge. A person may be engaged in own account construction in the capacity of either a labourer or a supervisor.
1.9.11.3 Determination of economic activities described above will be done irrespective of the situation whether such activity is carried out illegally in the form of smuggling or not. However, by convention, as in earlier rounds, the activities like prostitution, begging, etc., which may result in earnings, will not be considered as economic activities.

1.9.12 Activity status: It is the activity situation in which a person is found during a reference period, which concerns the person's participation in economic and non-economic activities. According to this, a person will be in one or a combination of the following three statuses during a reference period:

(i) Working or being engaged in economic activity (work),
(ii) Being not engaged in economic activity (work) and either making tangible efforts to seek 'work' or being available for 'work' if the 'work' is available and
(iii) Being not engaged in any economic activity (work) and also not available for 'work'.

Activity statuses, as mentioned in (i) and (ii) above, are associated with 'being in labour force' and the last with 'not being in the labour force'. Within the labour force, activity status (i) above is associated with 'employment' and that of (ii) above with 'unemployment'. The three broad activity statuses have been further sub-divided into several detailed activity categories. These are stated below:

(i) working or being engaged in economic activity (employed):
(a) worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as an own-account worker
(b) worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as an employer
(c) worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as 'helper'
(d) worked as regular wage/ salaried employee
(e) worked as casual wage labour in public works other than National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) works
(f) worked as casual wage labour in National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) works
(g) worked as casual wage labour in other types of works
(h) did not work due to sickness though there was work in household enterprise
(i) did not work due to other reasons though there was work in household enterprise
(j) did not work due to sickness but had regular wage/ salaried employment
(k) did not work due to other reasons but had regular wage/ salaried employment
(ii) not working but seeking or available for work (unemployed) :
(a) sought work
(b) did not seek but was available for work
(iii) not working and also not available for work (not in labour force) :
(a) attended educational institution
(b) attended domestic duties only
(c) attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods, tailoring, weaving, etc., for household use
(d) recipients of rent, pension, remittance, etc.
(e) not able to work due to disability
(f) others
(g) did not work due to sickness (for casual workers only).

1.9.13 The various constituents of 'employed, 'unemployed', 'labour force', 'out of labour force' are as explained below:

(a) Workers (or employed): Persons who, during the reference period, are engaged in any economic activity or who, despite their attachment to economic activity, have temporarily abstained from work for reasons of illness, injury or other physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions or other contingencies constitute workers. Unpaid helpers who assist in the operation of an economic activity in the household farm or non-farm activities are also considered as workers. All the workers are assigned one of the detailed activity status under the broad activity category 'working or being engaged in economic activity'.

(b) Seeking or available for work (or unemployed): Persons, who, during the reference period, owing to lack of work, had not worked but either sought work through employment exchanges, intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or expressed their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing condition of work and remuneration are considered as those who are 'seeking or available for work' (or unemployed).

(c) Labour force: Persons who are either 'working' (or employed) or 'seeking or available for work' (or unemployed) during the reference period together constitute the labour force.

(d) Out of labour force: Persons who are neither 'working' and at the same time nor 'seeking or available for work' for various reasons during the reference period are considered to be 'out of labour force'. The persons under this category are students, those engaged in domestic duties, rentiers, pensioners, recipients of remittances, those living on alms, infirm or disabled persons, too young or too old persons, prostitutes, etc. and casual labourers not working due to sickness.

1.9.14 It may be noted that workers have been further categorized as self-employed, regular wage/ salaried employee and casual wage labourer. These categories are defined in the following paragraphs.

1.9.15 Self-employed: Persons who operate their own farm or non-farm enterprises or are engaged independently in a profession or trade on own-account or with one or a few partners are deemed to be self-employed in household enterprises. The essential feature of the self-employed is that they have autonomy (i.e., how, where and when to produce) and economic independence (i.e., market, scale of operation and money) for carrying out their operation. The remuneration of the self-employed consists of a non-separable combination of two parts: a reward for their labour and profit of their enterprise. The combined remuneration is given by the revenue from sale of output produced by self-employed persons minus the cost of purchased inputs in production.

The self-employed persons may again be categorized into the following three groups:

(i) own-account workers: They are the self-employed who operate their enterprises on their own account or with one or a few partners and who during the reference period by and large, run their enterprise without hiring any labour. They may, however, have unpaid helpers to assist them in the activity of the enterprise.

(ii) employers: The self-employed persons who work on their own account or with one or a few partners and by and large run their enterprise by hiring labour are the employers, and
(iii) helpers in household enterprise: The helpers are a category of self-employed persons mostly family members who keep themselves engaged in their household enterprises, working full or part time and do not receive any regular salary or wages in return for the work performed. They do not run the household enterprise on their own but assist the related person living in the same household in running the household enterprise.

1.9.16 There is a category of workers who work at a place of their choice which is outside the establishment that employs them or buys their product. Different expressions like 'home workers', 'home based workers' and 'out workers' are generally used synonymously for such workers. For the purpose of this survey, all such workers will be categorized as 'self-employed'. The 'home workers' have some degree of autonomy and economic independence in carrying out the work, and their work is not directly supervised, as is the case for the employees. Like the other self-employed, these workers have to meet certain costs, like actual or imputed rent on the buildings in which they work, costs incurred for heating, lighting and power, storage or transportation, etc., thereby indicating that they have some tangible or intangible means of production. It may be noted that employees are not required to provide such inputs for production.

1.9.17 It may further be elaborated that the 'putting out' system prevalent in the production process in which a part of production which is 'put out' is performed in different household enterprises (and not at the employers establishment). For example, bidi rollers obtaining orders from a bidi manufacturer will be considered as home workers irrespective of whether or not they were supplied raw material (leaves, masala, etc.), equipment (scissors) and other means of production. The fee or remuneration received consists of two parts - the share of their labour and profit of the enterprise. In some cases, the payment may be based on piece rate. Similarly, a woman engaged in tailoring or embroidery work on order from a wholesaler, or making pappad on order from some particular unit/ contractor/ trader at her home will be treated as 'home worker'. On the other hand, if she does the work in the employers premises, she will be treated as employee. Again, if she is not undertaking these activities on orders from outside, but markets the products by herself/ other household members for profit, she will be considered as an own account worker, if of course, she does not employ any hired help more or less on a regular basis.

1.9.18 Regular wage/ salaried employee: Persons working in other's farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return salary or wages on a regular basis (and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract) are the regular wage/ salaried employees. This category not only includes persons getting time wage but also persons receiving piece wage or salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part-time.

1.9.19 Casual wage labour: A person casually engaged in other's farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return wage according to the terms of the daily or periodic work contract is a casual wage labour. Usually, in the rural areas, one category of casual labourers can be seen who normally engage themselves in 'public works' activities. The concepts related to 'public works' are discussed later in this chapter.

1.9.20 Different approaches for determining activity status: The persons surveyed are to be classified into various activity categories on the basis of activities pursued by them during certain specified reference periods. There are three reference periods for this survey viz. (i) one year, (ii) one week and (iii) each day of the reference week. Based on these three periods, three different measures of activity status are arrived at. These are termed respectively as usual status, current weekly status and current daily status. The activity status determined on the basis of the reference period of 1 year is known as the usual activity status of a person, that determined on the basis of a reference period of 1 week is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person and the activity status determined on the basis of each day of the reference week is known as the current daily status (CDS) of the person.

1.9.21 Identification of each individual into a unique situation poses a problem when more than one of three types of broad activity status viz. 'employed', 'unemployed' and 'not in labor force' is concurrently obtained for a person. In such an eventuality, unique identification under any one of the three broad activity statuses is done by adopting either the major time criterion or priority criterion. The former is used for classification of persons under 'usual activity status' and, the latter, for classification of persons under 'current activity status'. If, by adopting one of these two criteria, a person categorized as engaged in economic activity is found to be pursuing more than one economic activity during the reference period, the appropriate detailed activity status category will relate to the activity in which relatively more time has been spent. Similar approach is adopted for non-economic activities also.

1.9.22 Usual activity status: The usual activity status relates to the activity status of a person during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The activity status on which a person spent relatively longer time (major time criterion) during the 365 days preceding the date of survey is considered the usual principal activity status of the person. To decide the usual principal activity of a person, he/ she is first categorized as belonging to the labour force or not, during the reference period on the basis of major time criterion. Persons, thus, adjudged as not belonging to the labour force are assigned the broad activity status 'neither working nor available for work'. For the persons belonging to the labour force, the broad activity status of either 'working' or 'not working but seeking and/ or available for work' is then ascertained again on the basis of the relatively longer time spent in the labour force during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. Within the broad activity status so determined, the detailed activity status category of a person pursuing more than one such activity will be determined again on the basis of the relatively longer time spent.

1.9.23 Subsidiary economic activity status: A person whose principal usual status is determined on the basis of the major time criterion may have pursued some economic activity for 30 days or more during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The status in which such economic activity is pursued during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey is the subsidiary economic activity status of the person. In case of multiple subsidiary economic activities, the major activity and status based on the relatively longer time spent criterion will be considered. It may be noted that engagement in work in subsidiary capacity may arise out of the two following situations:

i) a person may be engaged in a relatively longer period during the 365 days in economic (non-economic activity) and for a relatively minor period, which is not less than 30 days, in another economic activity (any economic activity).
(ii) a person may be pursuing an economic activity (non-economic activity) almost throughout the year in the principal status and also simultaneously pursuing another economic activity (any economic activity) for relatively shorter time in a subsidiary capacity. In such cases, since both the activities are being pursued throughout the year and hence the duration of both the activities are more than 30 days, the activity which is being pursued for a relatively shorter time will be considered as his/ her subsidiary activity.

1.9.24 Current weekly activity status: The current weekly activity status of a person is the activity status obtaining for a person during a reference period of 7 days preceding the date of survey. It is decided on the basis of a certain priority cum major time criterion. According to the priority criterion, the status of 'working' gets priority over the status of 'not working but seeking or available for work', which in turn gets priority over the status of 'neither working nor available for work'. A person is considered working (or employed)) if he/ she, while pursuing any economic activity, had worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the 7 days preceding the date of survey. A person is considered 'seeking or available for work (or unemployed)' if during the reference week no economic activity was pursued by the person but he/ she made efforts to get work or had been available for work any time during the reference week though not actively seeking work in the belief that no work was available. A person who had neither worked nor was available for work any time during the reference week, is considered to be engaged in non-economic activities (or not in labour force). Having decided the broad current weekly activity status of a person on the basis of 'priority' criterion, the detailed current weekly activity status is again decided on the basis of 'major time' criterion if a person is pursuing multiple economic activities.

1.9.25 Current daily activity status: The activity pattern of the population, particularly in the unorganized sector, is such that during a week, and sometimes, even during a day, a person can pursue more than one activity. Moreover, many people can even undertake both economic and non-economic activities on the same day of a reference week. The current daily activity status for a person is determined on the basis of his/ her activity status on each day of the reference week using a priority-cum-major time criterion (day to day labour time disposition). The following points may be noted for determining the current daily status of a person:

i) Each day of the reference week is looked upon as comprising of either two 'half days' or a 'full day' for assigning the activity status.
ii) A person is considered 'working' (employed) for the entire day if he/ she had worked for 4 hours or more during the day.
iii) If a person was engaged in more than one of the economic activities for 4 hours or more on a day, he/ she would be assigned two economic activities out of the different economic activities on which he/ she devoted relatively longer time on the reference day. In such cases, one 'half day' work will be considered for each of those two economic activities (i.e., 0.5 intensity will be given for each of these two economic activities).
iv) If the person had worked for 1 hour or more but less than 4 hours, he/ she is considered 'working' (employed) for half-day and 'seeking or available for work' (unemployed) or 'neither seeking nor available for work' (not in labour force) for the other half of the day depending on whether he was seeking/ available for work or not.
v) If a person was not engaged in 'work' even for 1 hour on a day but was seeking/ available for work even for 4 hours or more, he/ she is considered 'unemployed' for the entire day. But if he/ she was 'seeking/ available for work' for more than 1 hour and less than 4 hours only, he/ she is considered 'unemployed' for half day and 'not in labour force' for the other half of the day.
vi) A person who neither had any 'work' to do nor was available for 'work' even for half a day was considered 'not in labour force' for the entire day and is assigned one or two of the detailed non-economic activity status depending upon the activities pursued by him/ her during the reference day.

It may be noted that while assigning intensity, an intensity of 1.0 will be given against an activity which is done for 'full day' and 0.5, if it is done for 'half day'.

1.9.26 Nominal work: Work done by a person for 1 - 2 hours in a day during the reference week is said to be a day with nominal work for the person. In the day-to-day labour time disposition of the reference week, such a day's work is considered to be 'half-days' work (and it gets half intensity while accounting).

1.9.27 Operation: It is the type of work performed by a person during a reference period such as manual, non-manual, agricultural, non-agricultural, etc. Operation has been combined with activity status and industry corresponding to the work performed. Information regarding the type of operation is collected only for rural areas and relating to current status only. The different types of operations are - ploughing, sowing, transplanting, weed¬ing, harvesting, others (manual) and others (non-manual). In the last two cases, the sector in which the work is performed is indicated by the industry. It may be noted, that for 'regular wage/ salaried employees' on leave or on holiday, the 'operation' relates to their respective function in the work or job from which he/ she is temporarily off. Similarly, for persons categorised as 'self-employed' but not working on a particular day in spite of having work on that day, the operation will relate to the work that he/ she would have done if he/ she had not enjoyed leisure on that day.

1.9.28 Manual work: A job essentially involving physical labour is considered as manual work. However, jobs essentially involving physical labour but also requiring a certain level of general, professional, scientific or technical education are not to be termed as 'manual work'. On the other hand, jobs not involving much of physical labour and at the same time not requiring much educational (general, scientific, technical or otherwise) background are to be treated as 'manual work'. Thus, engineers, doctors, dentists, midwives, etc., are not considered manual workers even though their jobs involve some amount of physical labour. But, peons, chowkidars, watchman, etc. are considered manual workers even though their work might not involve much physical labour. A few examples of manual workers are cooks, waiters, building caretakers, sweepers, cleaners and related workers, launderers, dry cleaners and pressers, hair dressers, barbers, beauticians, watchmen, gate keepers, agricultural labourers, plantation laborers and related workers

1.9.29 Rural Labour: Manual labour working in agricultural and/ or non-agricultural occupations in return for wages paid either in cash or in kind (excluding exchange labour) and living in rural areas, will be taken as rural labour.

1.9.30 Agricultural labour: A person will be considered to be engaged as agricultural labour, if he/ she follows one or more of the following agricultural occupations in the capacity of a wage paid manual labour, whether paid in cash or kind or both:

(i) farming
(ii) dairy farming
(iii) production of any horticultural commodity
(iv) raising of livestock, bees or poultry
(v) any practice performed on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm operations (including forestry and timbering) and the preparation for market and delivery to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm produce. Further, 'carriage for transportation' refers only to the first stage of the transport from farm to the first place of disposal.

Working in fisheries is excluded from agricultural labour.

1.9.31 Wage-paid manual labour: A person who does manual work in return for wages in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind (excluding exchange labour) is a wage paid manual labour. Salaries are also to be counted as wages. A person who is self-employed in manual work is not treated as a wage paid manual labour.

1.9.32 Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops and related ancillary activities are considered as cultivation. Growing of trees, plants or crops as plantation or orchards (such as rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, tea etc.) are not considered as cultivation activities for the purpose of this survey. In general, the activities covered under NIC-2004 sub-classes 01111, 01112, 01113, 01115, 01119, 01121, 01122 and 01135 (excepting plantation of pepper and cardamom) are to be considered as cultivation.

1.9.33 Homestead land:
(i) Homestead of a household is defined as the dwelling house of the household together with the courtyard, compound, garden, out-house, place of worship, family graveyard, guest house, shop, workshop and offices for running household enterprises, tanks, wells, latrines, drains and boundary walls annexed to the dwelling house. All land coming under homestead is defined as homestead land.

(ii) Homestead may constitute only a part of a plot. Sometimes, gardens, orchards or plantations, though adjacent to the homestead and lying within the boundary walls, may be located on a clearly distinct piece of land. In such cases, land under garden, orchard or plantation will not be considered as homestead land.

1.9.34 Earnings: Earnings refer to the wage/ salary income (and not total earnings from other sources) receivable for the wage/ salaried work done during the reference week by the wage/ salaried employees and casual labourers. The wage/ salary already received or receivable may be in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. For recording the wages and salaries:

i) The kind wages are evaluated at the respective current retail price.
ii) Bonus (expected or paid) and perquisites evaluated at respective retail prices and duly apportioned for the reference week are also included in earnings.
iii) For any economic activity, amount received or receivable as 'over-time' for the additional work done beyond normal working time is excluded.

1.9.35 Procedure for determining Household principal industry and occupation: To determine the household principal industry and occupation, the general procedure to be followed is to list all the occupations pertaining to economic activities pursued by the members of the household excluding those employed by the household and paying guests (who in view of their staying and taking food in the household are considered as its normal members) during the one year period preceding the date of survey, no matter whether such occupations are pursued by the members in their principal or subsidiary (on the basis of earnings) capacity. Out of the occupations listed that one which fetched the maximum earnings to the household during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey would be considered as the principal household occupation. It is quite possible that one or more members of the household may pursue the household occupation in different industries. In such cases, the particular industry out of all the different industries corresponding to the principal occupation, which fetched the maximum earnings, should be considered as the principal industry of the household. In extreme cases, the earnings may be equal in two different occupations or industry-occupation combinations. By convention, in such cases, priority will be given to the occupation or industry-occupation combination of the senior-most member.

1.9.36 Public works: 'Public works' are those activities which are sponsored by Government or Local Bodies, and which cover local area development works like construction of roads, dams, bunds, digging of ponds, etc., as relief measures, or as an outcome of employment generation schemes under the poverty alleviation programme such as National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) works, Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP), etc.

The coverage of schemes under 'public works' is restricted to those schemes under poverty alleviation programme, or relief measures through which the Government generates wage employment. It may be noted that the names of these schemes signify the Budget Heads under Plan from which funds are released for carrying out various 'types of works'. The types of works that are generally undertaken through these schemes, are watershed development, drought proofing, land levelling, flood control, laying pipes or cables, sanitation, water harvesting, irrigation canal, development of orchard, road construction, building construction / repair, running crèche, etc.

There may be some schemes sponsored by the Government and in operation, which are conceived as self-employment generation schemes. Some such schemes of the Government are Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (schemes under erstwhile IRDP merged with this), Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP), Prime Minister's Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY), etc. Employment generated through these schemes is not to be considered within the purview of 'public works'.

Sometimes, the Government may undertake various programmes, viz., Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP), Rural Sanitation Programme (RSP), Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), etc. The main objective of such programmes is on infrastructure development rather than poverty alleviation and generation of employment. Moreover, these programmes are executed as projects through contractors. Employment generated through these programmes, which are executed through contractors, is also kept outside the domain of 'public works'. However, if similar activities relating to rural water supply, rural sanitation, desert development, wastelands development, etc. are undertaken by the State Government or Local Bodies to provide wage employment and without employing any contractor for its execution, those are to be considered under 'public works'.

Classification of individuals as 'casual labour in public works' requires that the work in which they participate is 'public works' as defined above. To distinguish between 'public works' and works not classifiable as 'public works', some broad characteristics of 'public work' have been identified, viz. the primary objective is generation of wage employment and poverty alleviation, and creation of community asset as an outcome in achieving those main objectives. These features of public works along with the description of some wage employment generation schemes given above will be helpful in identification of 'public works'.

A short description of the three schemes sponsored by the Central Government, which are in operation either in rural areas or in urban areas, and are covered under 'public works' is given below:

1.9.37 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (NREGA) is an important step towards the realization of the right to work and to enhance the livelihood security of the households in the rural areas of the country. It extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. According to this Act, Rural Employment Guarantee Schemes (REGS) are formed by the State Governments. The Scheme provides at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Adult means a person who has completed his/ her eighteen years of age. Unskilled manual work means any physical work which any adult person is capable of doing without any special skill/ training. The implementing agency of the scheme may be any Department of the Central Government or a State Government, a Zila Parishad, Panchayat/ Gram Panchayat or any local authority or Government undertaking or non-governmental organization authorized by the Central Government or the State Government. If an applicant for employment under the scheme is not provided employment within 15 days of receipt of his application seeking employment or from the date on which employment has been sought, the applicant will be entitled for getting daily unemployment allowances.

1.9.38 Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY): The primary objective of the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) is to provide additional wage employment in all rural areas and thereby ensure food security and improve nutritional levels. The secondary objective is the creation of durable assets and infrastructural development in rural areas. This scheme was announced by the Prime Minister on 15.8.2001 and launched in September 2001. The schemes of Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY), Employment Asurance Scheme (EAS) have been merged under this programme w.e.f. 1.4.2002. The SGRY is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual and unskilled work in and around the village/ habitat. The programme is self-targeting in nature. While providing wage employment preference is given to agricultural wage earners, non-agricultural unskilled wage earners, marginal farmers, women, members of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes, parents of child labour withdrawn from hazardous occupations, parents of handicapped children or adults with handicapped parents. The programme is implemented through the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs). Thirty percent of employment opportunities are reserved for women under the programme.

The programme is implemented on cost sharing basis in the ratio of 75:25 between the Centre and the States for the cash component of the programme. However, foodgrains under the programme are provided to the States free of cost.

Five per cent of the funds and foodgrains under SGRY are retained in the Ministry of Rural Development for utilization in areas of acute distress arising out of natural calamities or by taking up preventive measures in the chronically drought or flood affected areas. In addition, a certain percentage of the allotted foodgrains under the SGRY is reserved for the Special Component to be used in any Central or State Government scheme with wage employment potential to meet exigencies arising out of any natural calamity. The remaining funds and foodgrains under SGRY are distributed among the Zila Parishad, Intermediate Panchayats and Village Panchayat in the ratio of 20:30:50.

Wages under the programme are paid partly in the form of foodgrains and partly in cash. The States and UTs are free to calculate the cost of foodgrains paid as part of wages, at a uniform rate, which may be either BPL rate or APL rate, or anywhere between the two rates. The workers are paid the balance of wages in cash so that they are assured of the notified minimum wages.
Under the programme, priority is given to works of soil and moisture conservation, minor irrigation, rejuvenation of drinking water resources and augmentation of ground water, traditional water harvesting structures, desiltation of village tanks/ ponds, durable assets such as schools, kitchen sheds for schools, dispensaries, community centers, and Panchayat Ghars. Development of Haats, which are labour intensive, is also to be given priority. The size, cost and nature of the work should be such that they may be completed within a period of one year and in exceptional situations within a maximum period of two years.

1.9.39 National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP): The National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP) is being implemented in 150 most backward districts of the country from November, 2004. The objective of the programme is to provide additional resources to 150 most backward districts of the country so that generation of supplementary wage employment and provision of food security through creation of need based economic, social and community assets in these districts is further intensified. Foodgrains are provided to the States free of cost. Works are taken up under the programme in accordance with the Five Year Perspective Plan. The Collector is responsible for preparation of the Perspective Plan and for programme implementation.
The above three schemes are sponsored by the Central Government for generation of wage employment. These apart, there may be similar schemes sponsored by the State Government or Local Bodies to provide wage employment, which are also to be considered under 'public works'.

1.9.40 Vocational Training: A vocational training may broadly be defined as a training, which prepares an individual for a specific vocation or occupation. The main objective of vocational education and training is to prepare persons, especially the youth, for the world of work and make them employable for a broad range of occupations in various industries and other economic sectors. It aims at imparting training to persons in very specific fields through providing significant 'hands on' experience in acquiring necessary skill, which will make them employable or create for them opportunities of self-employment. Thus, the essential feature of the vocational training is that it lays more emphasis on development of skill in a specific vocation or trade rather than building knowledge. Mere possession of a skill, which neither creates opportunities for self-employment nor makes a person employable, will not be considered as having vocational training.

1.9.41 Formal Vocational Training: The vocational training that takes place in education and training institutions which follow a structured training programme and lead to recognised certificates, diplomas or degrees, will be treated as formal one. But when the vocational training neither follows a structured programme nor the training lead to recognised certificates, diplomas or degrees, those training programmes will be treated as non-formal vocational training. For the purpose of survey, formal vocational training will have the following characteristics:

i) Structured training programme toward a particular skill,
ii) Certificate/diploma/degree received should have recognition by State/Central Government, Public Sector and other reputed concerns. By structured training programme, it is meant that:
(a) The training programme should have a definite title with prescribed syllabus and curriculum and a specified duration of the training, and
(b) The training should have some entry level eligibility in terms of education and age.

1.9.42 Non-formal Vocational Training:

(a) Hereditary: The expertise in a vocation or trade is sometimes acquired by the succeeding generations from the other members of the households, generally the ancestors, through gradual exposures to such works as are involved in carrying out the profession by their ancestors. The expertise gained through significant 'hands-on' experience enables the individual to take up activities in self-employment capacity or makes him employable. Acquiring such marketable expertise by one, which enables him/her to carry out the trade or occupation of their ancestors over generations, may also be considered, for the purpose of survey, to have received 'non-formal' vocational training and that through 'hereditary' sources.
(b) Self-learning: The expertise in a vocation or trade when acquired by a person through his/her own effort, without any training under any person or organisation, may be considered to have acquired the non-formal vocational training through 'self-learning'. For example, a person who has learnt photography on his own effort will be considered to have acquired the non-formal vocational training through 'self-learning'.
(c) Learning on the job: The expertise acquired by a person while in employment (current and/or past), either through informal training by the employer or organisation or through the exposure to the type of job that he/she is/was performing, may be considered to have acquired the non-formal vocational training through 'learning on the job'. Note that if a person is provided with formal training in a vocation or trade even by the employer or organisation, while in employment, he will be considered to have received 'formal' vocational training.
(d) Other: The 'other' sources may also include the cases where the expertise for a vocation or trade has been developed even from the household members or ancestors, provided the said vocation or trade is different from the one relating to their ancestors. Thus a person may learn tailoring work from a master tailor or a person may learn book-binding work from a printing press. All such expertise will be considered to have received non-formal vocational training through 'other' sources.

1.9.43 Definitions of various types of enterprises:

(i) Proprietary: When an individual is the sole owner of an enterprise it is a proprietary enterprise. Own account production of fixed assets for own use, when produced by a single member, will be classified as proprietary enterprise.
(ii) Partnership: Partnership is defined as the 'relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all'. There may be two or more owners, belonging to the same or different households, on a partnership basis, with or without formal registration (where there is a tacit understanding about the distribution of profit among the so-called partners). Own account production of fixed assets, when produced by two or more members belonging to the same or different households will be classified as partnership enterprises. Thus, own account production of fixed assets by a group of households for community use will be classified as partnership enterprise.
(iii) Government/public Sector Enterprise: An enterprise, which is wholly owned/ run/managed by Central or State governments, quasi-government, institutions, local bodies like universities, education boards, municipalities, etc. An enterprise should not be treated as a public sector enterprise if it is run on a loan granted by government, local body, etc.
(iv) Private Limited Company: Private company means a company which by its articles:
(a) restricts the right to transfer its shares, if any,
(b) limits the number of its members to fifty not including-
(i) persons who are in the employment of the company, and
(ii) persons who, having been formerly in the employment of the company, were members of the company while in that employment and have continued to be members after the employment ceased; and
(c) prohibits any initiation to the public to subscribe for any share in, or debentures of, the company.
[Where two or more persons hold jointly one or more shares in a company, they shall, for the purpose of this definition, be treated as a single member.]
(v) Public Limited Company: A public limited company is defined as a company that is not a private company. As such public companies can have an unlimited number of members and can invite the public to subscribe to its shares and debentures. The minimum number of members required to form a public company is seven.
(vi) Co-operative Societies: Co-operative society is one that is formed through the co-operation of a number of persons, recognised as members of the society, to benefit themselves. In the process, the funds are raised by member's contributions/investments and the profits generated out of the society's activities are shared by the members. The government itself in a government agency can also be a member or shareholder of a registered co-operative society but this fact cannot render the society into a public sector enterprise for the purpose of this survey.
(vii) Trust: An arrangement through which one set of people, the trustees, are the legal owners of property which is administered in the interest of another set, the beneficiaries. Trusts may be set up to provide support for individuals or families, to provide pensions, to run charities, to liquidate the property of the bankrupts for the benefit of their creditors, or for the safe keeping of securities bought by trusts with their investor's money. The assets, which trusts hold are regulated by law, must be administered in the interests of the beneficiaries, and not for the profit of the trustees.
(viii) Non-Profit Institutions (NPI): NPIs are legal or social entities created for the purpose of producing goods and services whose status does not permit them to be a source of income, profit or other financial gain for the units that establish, control or finance them. In practice, their productive activities are bound to generate either surpluses or deficits but any surpluses they happen to make cannot be appropriated by other institutional units. The articles of association by which they are established are drawn up in such a way that the institutional units which control or manage them are not entitled to a share in any profits or other income which they receive.
(ix) Employer Households (i.e., private households employing maid servant, watchman, cook, etc.): The households which are employing maid servant, watchmen, cook, private tutor, etc. will be considered notionally as enterprise for the purpose of this survey and will be classified as 'Employer households'.
[Table omitted]

Chapter 2 - Schedule 0.0: List of households

2.0.0 Introduction: Schedule 0.0 is meant for listing all the houses and households residing in the sample first stage unit (FSU) or sample hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks in case of large FSUs. Some household information like household size, relative affluence, if principal earning from non-agricultural activity, MPCE etc. will also be collected in this schedule. These auxiliary information will be used for grouping the households into different second-stage-strata (SSS). The sampling frames for selection of households will be prepared and details of the selection of sample households will be recorded in this schedule. Whenever hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks (hg's/sb's) are required to be formed, particulars relating to the formation and selection of hg's/ sb's are also to be recorded in this schedule. Concepts and definitions of various terms are given in Chapter One.

2.0.1 Structure of the schedule: The schedule 0.0 contains the following blocks:
Block 0: descriptive identification of sample FSU
Block 1: identification of sample FSU
Block 2: particulars of field operations
Block 3: sketch map of hamlet-group (hg)/ sub-block (sb) formation
Block 4.1: list of hamlets (only for rural samples with hg formation)
Block 4.2: list and selection of hamlet-groups (hg's)/ sub-blocks (sb's)
Block 5: list of households and record of selection for households (hg/ sb 1/ 2)
Block 5.1: working sheet for identifying relatively affluent households (hg 1 / 2 )
(rural only)
Block 6: particulars of sampling of households
Block 7: distance of the village to the nearest facility, availability of some amenities and participation in NREG work (for inhabited villages only)
Block 8: remarks by investigator
Block 9: comments by supervisory officer(s)

2.0.2 Unit of survey and sampling frame: The first stage unit (FSU) is the 2001 census village in the rural sector. FSU in the urban sector is the Urban Frame Survey (UFS) block. Latest list of UFS blocks, to the extent possible, will be used for selection of urban samples. Towns may, therefore, belong to different phases of UFS. It is indicated in the sample list under the head "frame code" as to which particular UFS phase has been used as the sampling frame for selection of FSUs belonging to a town. The investigator, on arrival at a sample FSU will ascertain the exact boundaries of it. This may be done with the help of the village officials like patwari, panchayat authorities etc. for rural areas and with the help of UFS maps/ ward maps/ town maps in the urban areas.

2.0.3 Formation of hamlet-groups (hg's) and selection of hamlet-groups 1 and 2: With a view to controlling the workload mainly at the stage of listing of households, hamlet-group formation will be resorted to in the large villages. A large village will be divided into a certain number (D) of sub-divisions called hamlet-groups (hg's). The number of hg's to be formed (i.e. the value of D) will depend on the approximate present population of the sample village. The criterion for deciding the number of hg's to be formed in a large village has been discussed in detail in Chapter One.

For large sample village, two hg's will be selected. Out of all hg's formed in the village, the one with the highest percentage population will be selected with probability 1. In case there is more than one hg with same highest percentage of population, the one among them which is listed first in block 4.2 will be selected with probability 1. This hg selected with certainty will be designated as hg 1. Another hg will be selected randomly (Simple Random Sampling) from the rest of hg's of the village and designated as hg 2. Listing and selection of households will be done separately and independently for each selected hamlet-group. For the sample village without hg formation, entire village will be treated as hamlet-group 1.
The procedure for listing hamlets and forming hamlet-groups is outlined below.

2.0.3.1 Procedure: In a large village, there exist usually a few localities or pockets where the houses of the village tend to cluster together. These are called 'hamlets'. In case there are no such recognized hamlets in the village, the census sub-divisions of the village (e.g. enumeration blocks or groups of census house numbers or geographically distinct blocks of houses) may be treated as 'hamlets'. Large hamlets may be divided artificially to achieve more or less equal population content for the purpose of hamlet-group formation. The procedure for formation of hamlet-groups is best described, perhaps, by listing sequentially the steps involved:

(i) Identify the hamlets as described above.
(ii) Ascertain approximate present population of each hamlet.
(iii) Draw a notional map in block 3 showing the approximate location of the hamlets and number them in a serpentine order starting from the northwest corner and proceeding southwards. While drawing this map, uninhabited area (non-abadi area) of the village will be included as part of nearby hamlet, so that no area of the village is left out. The boundaries of the hamlets may be defined with the help of some landmarks like canals, footpaths, railway lines, roads, cadastral survey plot numbers etc., so that it would be possible to identify and locate the geographical boundaries of the hamlet-groups to be formed in the village.
(iv) List the hamlets in block 4.1 in the order of their numbering. Indicate the present population content in terms of percentages.
(v) Group the hamlets into D hamlet-groups. The criteria to be adopted for hamlet-group formation are equality of population content and geographical contiguity (numbering of hamlets is not to be adopted as a guideline for grouping). In case there is a conflict between the two aspects, geographical contiguity is to be given priority. However, there should not be substantial difference between the population of the smallest and the largest hamlet-group formed. Indicate the grouping in the map.
(vi) Number the hamlet-groups serially in column (1) of block 4.2. The hamlet-group containing hamlet number 1 will be numbered as 1, the hamlet-group with next higher hamlet number not included in hg 1 will be numbered as 2 and so on. Indicate the numbers also in the notional map. It is quite possible that a hamlet-group may not be constituted of hamlets with consecutive serial numbers.

2.0.4 Formation of sub-blocks (sb's): In case urban sample FSUs are found to be large in terms of population, they are subjected to sub-block formation. Procedure for formation of sub-blocks is the same as that for the formation of hamlet-groups in the case of large villages. Here the sub-blocks are to be formed artificially by dividing the FSU into a certain number (say, D) of divisions by more or less equalizing the population giving priority to geographical compactness within each sub-block as per the criterion specified in Chapter One. The number of sb's to be formed (i.e. the value of D) will be determined according to the same criteria as adopted in the case of rural FSUs. Sub-blocks will be numbered serially in column (1) of block 4.2.

As in the case of villages, for large sample FSUs, two sub-blocks will be selected. The procedure of selection will be same as that given for villages with hg formation -- one with probability 1 and the other with SRS. Listing and selection of households will be done separately and independently for each selected sub-block. For the urban sample FSUs without sub-block formation entire FSU will be treated as sub-block 1.

2.0.5 Starting point for listing: Having determined the area unit to be surveyed, the investigator will proceed to list the houses and households in this area unit. The listing may be done in the same order as that of the 2001 Census order of house listing. If the census order of house listing is not available, the listing may be started from the northwest corner of the FSU and proceeding southwards in serpentine order. While listing the households, some essential minimum particulars about the households will be collected for the purpose of second stage stratification.

2.0.6 Use of additional sheets of blocks 4.1, 4.2, 5, 5.1: Whenever one schedule booklet is not adequate to list all the hamlets and hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks (blocks 4.1, 4.2) or the working sheet for identifying affluent households (5.1) or all the households (block 5) of the sample FSU or hg/sb, additional sheets containing the relevant block(s) shall be used and tagged firmly to the main schedule.

The procedures to be followed for filling up the various blocks of the schedule 0.0 are described in the following paragraphs.

Before filling in blocks, it is necessary to put tick-marks in the appropriate boxes at left hand and right hand top corners of the first page of the schedule.

Block 0: Descriptive identification of sample FSU
2.0.7 General: This block is meant for recording descriptive identification particulars of the sample FSU. State/ UT, district, tehsil/ town name (to be tick-marked appropriately), village name, ward no./ investigator (IV) unit no., block no. are to be copied properly from the sample list in the appropriate places.

Block 1: Identification of sample FSU

2.1.0 General: This block is meant for recording the identification particulars of the sample FSU in terms of codes or numbers. The particulars relating to all the items will be recorded in box spaces provided in the block against each item (except for items 2 and 3, the codes of which are already printed). For multiple cells, the rightmost cell shall be used for recording the digit of the unit place, the next left cell for the tenth place digit and so on. Items 1, 4 to 11, 13 and 14 shall be copied from the sample list.

2.1.1 Item 12: FOD sub-region: The four-digit code corresponding to the FOD sub-region to which the sample FSU belongs will be recorded against item 12. A '--' will be put against this item for the state samples and also for the central samples in respect of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu and Kashmir for which field work is carried out by the respective States.

2.1.2 Item 13: frame code: The different types of frames used for selection of FSUs are indicated by 'frame code' in the sample list. Entry against item 13 shall be copied from the sample list. The frame codes to be used are:
Rural: 2001 census -- 13.
Urban: 1982--87 UFS -- 06, 1987--92 UFS -- 07, 1992--97 UFS -- 09, 1997--2002 UFS -- 11,
2002--2007 UFS -- 14.

2.1.3 Item 14: frame population: The population of the sample FSU as given in the sample list will be copied here. For villages, it will be the census 2001 population and for UFS blocks, it will be the UFS block population of the block as per UFS frame.

2.1.4 Item 15: approximate present population: The investigator will first ascertain the approximate present population of the entire sample FSU taking into consideration the normal growth of population along with any abnormal influx of population into or exodus of population from the sample FSU. This may be ascertained mainly from the knowledgeable persons by putting certain probing questions. The starting point can be 2001 census population. In the case of large difference with census population, it may be asked whether there has been any abnormal influx into or exodus from the FSU after the census or the village has been split or partly merged with other village/ urban area. If so, the approximate increase or decrease of population due to such events or any new settlements that have come up in the FSU after the census is to be ascertained. In case it is difficult to explain the large difference between frame population and approximate present population in terms of likely growth/decline of population during the intervening period, adequate remarks for such differences should be given in block 8/ 9.

2.1.5 Item 16: total number of hg's/ sb's formed (D): The total number of hg's/ sb's formed in the sample FSU will be the value of 'D' as recorded in block 4.2. If the sample FSU does not require any hg/ sb formation, the entry against this item will be '1'.

2.1.6 Item 17: Survey code: The different survey codes are:

Selected FSU has been surveyed:
[] 1 Inhabited
[] 2 Uninhabited
[] 3 Zero case

Selected FSU is casualty but a substitute FSU has been surveyed:
[] 4 Inhabited
[] 5 Uninhabited
[] 6 Zero case
Selected FSU is casualty and no substitute has been surveyed: 7.

Some examples of zero cases are: FSUs comprising wholly the barracks of military and paramilitary forces (like CRPF, BSF etc.), rural areas declared as urban areas and now forming part of UFS frame used for urban sampling, FSUs wholly submerged under water in a dam or FSUs with the whole population evicted because of acquisition of land to construct a new factory or other project work etc. with no chance of habitation in future. As against this, the FSU whose entire population has shifted elsewhere due to some natural calamities like fire, cyclone etc., but is likely to return in the future, will be considered as uninhabited FSU and will be given code 2 or 5 as the case might be. If the substitute FSU cannot be surveyed, survey code will be 7.

2.1.7 Item 18: Reason code for substitution of original sample (for codes 4 -- 7 in item 17): In all the cases where the originally selected sample FSU is a casualty irrespective of whether it has been substituted and subsequently surveyed or not surveyed (i.e. for codes 4 to 7 against item 17), the reason for its becoming a casualty will be recorded in terms of code against item 18. The codes are:

[] Original sample FSU:
[] 1 Not identifiable/ traceable: 1
[] 2 Not accessible
[] 3 Restricted area, survey of which is not permitted
[] 9 Others (specify)

A '--' may be put against this item if the entry against item 17 is 1 or 2 or 3. Cases of FSUs comprising wholly the barracks of military and paramilitary forces will not be considered as restricted area for providing code 3 against item 18. As stated earlier, such cases will be considered as surveyed and will be treated as zero cases.

2.2 Block 2: Particulars of field operations: The details of field operations will be recorded in this block. While recording the total time taken to canvass the schedule 0.0 (i.e. column 3, srl. no. 4 of this block), it may be noted that the time taken to reach the sample village and come back should not be considered for filling in this item. In other words, total time spent in identification of the boundaries of the sample FSU, hamlet-group/ sub-block formation, listing of households, formation of second-stage strata, selection of households and filling in all other blocks of this schedule may be recorded in hours. All other items are self-explanatory.

2.3 Block 3: Sketch map of hamlet-group (hg)/ sub-block (sb) formation

2.3.0 For large FSUs requiring hg/ sb formation, the space provided for in the block shall be used to draw a free hand sketch-map of the FSU showing the boundaries of the hamlets and hg's/ sb's formed so that they may be identifiable in the field afterwards with the help of this map. It need not be drawn to scale. The serial numbers of the hamlets as given in column (1) of block 4.1 will be written down on the map against each hamlet. The hamlet-group number given in column (1) of block 4.2 to which the hamlet belongs will also be shown against each hamlet within brackets on the right side of the hamlet number. Similarly, sub-blocks will also be numbered in the map. The areas for the selected hg's/ sb's shall be shaded in the map.

2.4.1 Block 4.1: List of hamlets (only for rural samples with hg formation)

2.4.1.0 This block is to be filled in only for the rural samples requiring formation of hamlet-groups (i.e. for D>1). All the hamlets located in the village will be listed in the specified order.

2.4.1.1 Columns (1) to (3): A running serial number for the hamlets will be given in column (1). Name of the hamlets will be written in column (2). Present population of each hamlet expressed as percentage of the total village population will be given in column (3) in whole numbers. Entries in column (3) should add up to 100.

2.4.2 Block 4.2: List and selection of hamlet-groups (hg's)/ sub-blocks (sb's)

2.4.2.0 General: This block is meant for recording the details of the hg/ sb formation and their selection for FSUs requiring hg/ sb forma¬tion (i.e. with D>1). Reference may be made to paragraphs 2.0.3, 2.0.3.1 and 2.0.4 for the procedures of formation and numbering of hg's/ sb's.

2.4.2.1 Column (1): serial no. of hg/ sb: The hg's/ sb's formed will be given a running serial number (starting from 1) in column (1) as per the guidelines given in paragraphs 2.0.3, 2.0.3.1 and 2.0.4. The last serial number in this column will be the value of 'D' which is to be recorded against 'D' below the block heading.

2.4.2.2 Column (2): serial no. of hamlets in the hg (rural only): This column is to be filled up only for rural FSUs. The serial numbers of the hamlets recorded in column (1) of block 4.1 constituting each hamlet-group are to be recorded in column (2) separated by commas.

2.4.2.3 Column (3): percentage (%) population in the hg/ sb: Approximate present population of the hg/ sb in terms of percentage to total FSU population will be recorded in column (3) in whole number. Entries in this column should always add up to 100.

2.4.2.4 Column (4): sampling serial number of hg/ sb: First locate the hg/ sb with maximum percentage of population in column (3) and enter '0' against this hg/ sb in column (4). If this percentage population in column (3) is same for more than one hg/ sb, the one among them listed first in this block may be assigned '0' in this column. Then, other listed hg's/ sb's may be serially numbered from 1 to (D -- 1) in this column starting from the top. These will be the sampling serial numbers for selecting another hg/ sb.

2.4.2.5 Column (5): sample hg/ sb number: Two hg's/ sb's will be selected from the large FSU for the purpose of survey. Enter '1' in this column against the sampling serial number '0' in column (4). This will be sample hg/ sb 1. The procedure for selecting sample hg/ sb 2 is as follows:

Draw a random number, say R, between 1 and (D -- 1) using random number table. Enter 2 in column (5) against the sampling serial number in column (4) which equals R.
The selected serial numbers may be encircled in column (4). For all other hg's/ sb's (except the two selected), column (5) may be left blank.

2.5 Block 5: List of households and record of selection of households (hg/ sb 1/ 2)

2.5.0.1 In this block, various information are to be recorded separately for each selected hg/ sb. When there is no hg/ sb formation in the FSU, the hg/ sb number will be '1'.

2.5.0.2 This is the main block of the schedule. Listing of all houses and households along with collection of a few particulars for identification, preparation of sampling frame, formation of second stage strata and selection of sample households for the schedules 1.0 (Type 1 and Type 2) and 10 are to be carried out in this block.

2.5.0.3 It is essential to ensure that there is no omission or duplication of any house or household. A house to house enquiry will be made to list all the houses and households. Households, which are found to be locked (including such households which are absent in the present place for a period of less than six months during last one year) at the time of listing, are also to be listed and included in the frame of households before sample selection. After obtaining from the neighbours as much details as possible about the absentee households, attempt should be made to contact the households at the appropriate hours (even outside the normal working hours of the investigators) and if need be by revisiting the households during the survey period in the sample FSU. While listing a house the investigator shall find out how many households (including locked households) reside there and list all of them. After this, the investigator will proceed to list the next house. In order to ensure complete listing of houses/ households, it is better to follow some definite order for listing. The order followed in 2001 Population Census may be adopted, wherever possible, taking care that any house that has come up later is not omitted; otherwise, listing may be done in serpentine manner starting from the north-west corner and moving southwards. The names of any natural grouping of the houses like hamlet, street, mohalla, etc. and date of listing may be written at the top before the listing of houses starts. This will help in checking completeness.

2.5.0.4 If there is hg/ sb formation in the FSU, listing of houses and households will be done for sample hg/ sb no. 1 first. The serial number of sample hg/ sb and the names of hamlets will be written before the listing of households starts. After completing the listing of houses/ households of each hamlet of the sample hg, one line will be left blank. On completion of the job for sample hg/ sb 1, listing for sample hg/ sb 2, if formed in the FSU, will be taken up in a separate page of block 5.

First tick-mark the appropriate hg/ sb number (1 or 2) in the heading of the block 5 correctly and cross the one not applicable.

Various columns of block 5 are described below:
2.5.1 Column (1): house number: All houses including vacant ones shall be listed by giving a house number. The 2001 Population Census house number or the number given by the local panchayat, municipality or other local bodies, may be used if available. The houses without such numbers will be given a separate running serial number starting from 1 within brackets. Wherever house numbers are available, even if not for all the houses, the actual house numbers shall be recorded without any brackets. After listing all the households associated with a house, the next house shall be listed. If the house is used solely for non-residential purposes or is vacant, the purpose to which it is put will be written across the line, e.g. temple, vacant structure, etc. For family living under a tree or bridge etc. (i.e. without any house), a '--' may be put in this column.

2.5.2 Column (2): household serial number: The household(s) normally residing in the house or in a fixed location (e.g. under a tree/ bridge/ open space etc.) listed in column (1) will be numbered in column (2). All households (including those found temporarily absent) will be given a running serial number in this column starting from 1. In case of persons stay¬ing, say, in hostels and forming single member households, each of them will be listed in separate lines giving a household serial number. Continuous serial number starting from 1 will be given in column (2) for each of the sample hg's/ sb's 1 and 2 separately. This column will be left blank for the lines meant for vacant houses, non-residential buildings, etc.

2.5.3 Column (3): name of head of household: For a household having serial number in column (2), the name of the head shall be recorded here.

2.5.4 Column (4): household size: The size of each household as defined in Chapter One will be recorded in this column. Two small box spaces are provided against this column at the end of each page to record the current page total for this column and the cumulative total for the pages.

2.5.5 Columns (5) -- (6): no. of children in age-group 5 -- 14 years: Particulars of children of age 5 years or more but less than or equal to 14 years will be recorded in these columns. Total number of such children in the household will be entered in column (5). Among the children recorded in column (5) for the household, the number of children who were engaged in economic activities for at least one hour during the last week will be ascertained and recorded in column (6). The term 'economic activity' has been defined in Chapter One. Two small box spaces are provided against these columns at the end of each page to record the current page total for these columns and the cumulative totals for the pages.

2.5.6 Columns (7) -- (8): These two columns are to be filled-in for rural samples only.

2.5.6.1 Column (7): relatively affluent household (yes -- 1, no -- 2): This column prepares the frame for the second-stage stratum (SSS) 1 which consists of the households identified as relatively affluent as per particulars in block 5.1. This column will be filled-in after completion of listing of all affluent households in block 5.1.

A household will be classified as affluent in block 5.1 if (i) it owns any of the items such as motor car/ jeep/ tractor/ combine-harvester/ truck/ bus etc., consumer durables like DVD/ VCP/ refrigerator/ washing machine/ spacious pucca house in good condition etc. or (ii) a household member is a professional such as doctor/ advocate or has a high salaried job or (iii) the household owns 7 hectares or more cultivable land or 3.5 hectares or more irrigated land or (iv) owns at least 10 heads of cattle, buffaloes and camels. If no affluent household could be identified, SSS 1 will be void. But in case the number of affluent households as per block 5.1 exceeds 10 for a hamlet-group, the top ten among them in order of their relative affluence (as per the judgment of investigator) will form the frame for SSS1.

At the listing stage, if a household is observed to satisfy at least one of the criteria for affluent household, block 5.1 will be filled-in for the household. After completion of the listing of all households, 10 most affluent households will be identified in block 5.1 for each hamlet-group and code '1' will be entered in column (7) of block 5 against the corresponding households. If the number of households listed in block 5.1 does not exceed 10, code '1' will be entered in column (7) of block 5 against all the households listed in block 5.1. Code '2' will be entered in column (7) of block 5 against all other households.

For locked households, efforts must be made to get the information from the neighbours. If no information is available even from the neighbours, code 2 will be entered in this column.

2.5.6.2 Column (8): principal earning from non-agricultural activity (yes -- 1, no -- 2): This column prepares the frame for the second-stage stratum 2. If principal earning of the household is from non-agricultural activities (i.e. activities other than those under Sections A and B of NIC 2004), code 1 will be entered in this column. Otherwise, code 2 will be entered. For ascertaining the source of principal earning, incomes of all the household members may be taken into account.

For locked households, efforts must be made to get the information from the neighbours. If no information is available even from the neighbours, code 2 will be entered in this column.

2.5.7 Columns (9) -- (11): These columns are relevant for urban samples only.

2.5.7.1 Column (9): average monthly total consumer expenditure for the entire household (Rs): The household consumer expenditure has been explained in Chapter One. The average of total monthly consumer expenditure incurred by the household during last 12 months may be recorded in this column in whole number of rupees.

For locked household, a '-- ' may be recorded in this column.

2.5.7.2 Column (10): MPCE (Rs. in whole numbers): Monthly per capital expenditure of the household will be recorded in this column. The figure will be derived by dividing the average monthly expenditure (column 9) by the household size (column 4) and rounding it off to the nearest whole number.

For locked household, a '-- ' may be recorded in this column.

2.5.7.3 Column (11): MPCE code: Two cut-off points 'A' and 'B' (in Rs.) have been determined from NSS 61st round data for each NSS region for urban areas in such a way that top 10% of the population have monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) more than 'B' and bottom 30% of the population have MPCE less than 'A'. The values of 'A' and 'B' are given in Table 2.
[Table omitted]

For entry in column (11), MPCE of the household in column (10) may be compared with the values of 'A' and 'B'. The criteria for MPCE codes to be entered in this column are as follows:
[Table omitted]

For locked household, MPCE code 2 may be given.

2.5.8 Columns (12) -- (14): sampling serial number: SSS: It may be recalled that for each of the schedules 1.0 (Type I), 1.0 (Type II) and 10, there will be three SSS. Column (12), (13) and (14) will provide the sampling frames for SSS 1, 2 and 3 pertaining to all the three schedules. Each household will be tick-marked ( v ) in one and only one of these three columns.

For rural samples, if col. (7) has code 1, a tick-mark ( v ) will be given in column (12). Households with code 2 in col. (7) will not be tick-marked in column (12). For these households col. (8) will be considered. If entry in col. (8) is 1, a tick-mark ( v ) will be given in column (13). Otherwise, tick-mark ( v ) will be given in column (14).

In case of urban samples, col. (11) will be considered. If the entry in col. (11) is 1, tick-mark ( v ) will be given in column (12). For code 2 in col. (11), tick-mark ( v ) will be given in column (13) and column (14) will be tick-marked for code 3 in col. (11).

Then all the tick-marks will be given running serial numbers from the top starting from 1 in each column independently. These will be the sampling serial numbers for SSS 1, 2 and 3 respectively. For SSS 1 of a rural FSU/hg, highest serial number will be less than or equal to 10.
The highest serial numbers in each of these columns will be the value of 'H' for the respective SSS for both the schedules. This value will be recorded against 'H' in the space provided in the column headings.

2.5.9 Columns (15) -- (17): schedule 1.0 (Type 1): sample household number: SSS: The number of households to be selected (h) for each combination of hg/sb × SSS has been given in Chapter One. The value of 'h' may be recorded in the space provided in the column headings.

For selecting the sample households of any particular (hg/sb) × SSS by SRSWOR, the following procedure will be followed. Suppose 'H' denotes the total number of households in the frame [i.e. the highest entry in column (12)/ (13)/ (14)] and 'h' the number of households to be selected. If H = h, all the households will be selected and no random number need to be drawn. Otherwise, first draw a random number, say R1, between 1 and H. Next, draw another random number, say, R2, also between 1 and H. If R2 = R1, then reject R2 and draw a fresh R2. Continue this way till requisite number of distinct R's [i.e. R1, R2, .… , R(h)] have been drawn. Then the households with sampling serial numbers R1, R2, ..… , R(h) [in column (12)/(13)/(14)] will be the selected households and be given sample household numbers as 1, 2,..…...., h respectively in columns (15)/ (16)/ (17). Encircle the corresponding sampling serial numbers in columns (12)/ (13)/ (14).

2.5.10 Columns (18) -- (20): schedule 1.0 (Type 2): sample household number: SSS: Required number of sample households (h) will be drawn from each (hg/sb) × SSS. The values are to be recorded in the space under the column headings. The sample households will be selected with SRSWOR in each hg/sb × SSS. The procedure is similar to that described for schedule 1.0 (Type 1) in para 2.5.9 with the modification that if the sample household is found to have been already selected for schedule 1.0 (Type 1), it will be replaced by the next non-selected household in the frame. The household selected after replacement will be treated as an originally selected household. The sampling serial number of this household will be encircled twice. This modification has been done with a view to select separate households for the two schedule types. However, if the number of households in frame is small, one or more sample households may be common for both the schedule types. In such cases both schedules will be canvassed in the same household.

2.5.11 Columns (21) -- (23): schedule 10: sample household number: SSS: Required number of sample households (h) will be drawn from each (hg/sb) × SSS by SRSWOR. The values of 'h' are to be recorded in the space under the column headings. The procedure for selecting the sample households is similar to that described for schedule 1.0 (Type 2) in para 2.5.10. If the sample household is found to have been already selected for schedule 1.0 (Type 1) or 1.0 (Type 2), it will be replaced by the next non-selected household in the frame. The household selected after replacement will be treated as an originally selected household. The sampling serial number of this household will be encircled twice and also a '*' may be given to indicate that it has been replaced for Schedule 10. However, if the number of households in frame is small, one or more sample households may be common for different schedule types. In such cases more than one schedule will be canvassed in the same household.

2.6 Block 5.1: working sheet for identifying relatively affluent households (hg 1 / 2) (rural only):
This block will be used for identifying the relatively affluent households in the FSU/ selected hg. This will be done by taking into account the factors generally associated with affluent households such as: ownership of motor car/ jeep/ tractor/ combine-harvester/ truck/ bus/ etc.; consumer durables like DVD/ VCP/ refrigerator/ washing machine etc.; ownership of large business/ highly remunerative profession/ high salaried income etc.; ownership of spacious pucca house in good condition; ownership of 7 hectares or more of cultivable land; ownership of 3.5 hectares or more of irrigated land; ownership of a good number of cattle, buffaloes and camels (10 or more in number). A household will qualify for classification as affluent if it owns any one of the items listed in cols. (4) to (9) of this block or the household has a member as doctor/ advocate etc. or a household member has a high salaried job or the household owns cultivable land / irrigated land / cattle, buffaloes and camels equal to or more than the limits specified above. However, in case majority of the households in the selected village/ hg satisfy some specific criterion, then it need not be considered for identification of the relatively affluent household.

At the time of listing of households in block 5, if is found that a household satisfies at least one of the criteria, it will be considered as an affluent household and will be listed in bock 5.1. In other words, the investigator will record the particulars in block 5.1 only for those households that fulfill the criteria for affluent households as described above. If the number of such households exceeds 10, the investigator will have to rank them in descending order of their affluence. The ranks may be assigned by the investigator on the basis of his judgment of the relative affluence. The top ranking 10 households will constitute the frame for SSS 1. The rank assigned to the household may be indicated on the left margin of the block against the household. If the number of such households is less than or equal to 10, all of them will be included in the frame of SSS 1. Code '1' will be given against these households in col. (7) of block 5 for each hg.

For columns (4) to (10), the entry will be either 1 or 2. For columns (11)/ (12), the entries will be either blank or more than or equal to 7 hectares/ 3.5 hectares and these will be recorded in one place of decimal. Similarly, column (13) will have entry blank or more than or equal to 10.

2.7 Block 6: particulars of sampling of households: Particulars of sampling of households, separately for schedules 1.0 (Type 1 and Type 2) and 10 for each of the hg/sb 1 and 2 will be recorded in this block. If there is no hg/sb formation, entry will be made against hg/sb 1.
2.7.1 Column (3): population: Population as obtained by summing up the page totals of household sizes in column (4) of block 5 over all the listed households may be recorded in this column separately for hg/sb 1 and 2 against the rows for schedule 1.0 (Type 1).

2.7.2 Column (4): no. of children in age-group 5 -- 14 years: total: Total number of children in the age-group 5 -- 14 years as obtained by summing up the page totals of column (5) of block 5 over all the listed households may be recorded in this column separately for hg/sb 1 and 2 against the rows for schedule 1.0 (Type 1).

2.7.3 Column (5): no. of children in age-group 5 -- 14 years: engaged in eco. activity during last week: Out of the children recorded in column (4), number of children engaged in economic activity during last week as obtained by summing up the page totals of column (6) of block 5 over all the listed households may be recorded in this column separately for hg/sb 1 and 2 against the rows for schedule 1.0 (Type 1).

2.7.4 Columns (7) to (12): number of households: Total number of households in the frame of all the SSS of schedule 1.0 (Type 1) will be recorded in the corresponding cells of column (7) for each hg/sb. Value of 'H' for each SSS will be same for Schedules 1.0 (Type 1), 1.0 (Type 2) and 10. Number of selected households will be copied in column (8). These are to be copied from the relevant columns of block 5. References are as below:

Schedule 1.0 (Type 1): Column (7) entries for SSS are same as the value of 'H' recorded in heading spaces of columns (12), (13) and (14) of block 5 for each hg/sb. Column (8) entries will be equal to the value of 'h' recorded in heading spaces of columns (15), (16) and (17) for Schedule type 1 of block 5.

Schedule 1.0 (Type 2): Column (8) entries will be the value of 'h' recorded in heading spaces of columns (18), (19) and (20) of block 5.
Schedule 10: Column (8) entries will be the value of 'h' recorded in heading spaces of columns (21), (22) and (23) of block 5.

Columns (9), (10) and (12) of block 6 may be filled up on the basis of survey codes given in item 18, block 1 of the respective schedules. The entries in columns (9), (10) and (12) will be the number of filled-in schedules with the survey codes 1, 2 and 3 in the corresponding schedules respectively. Total number households surveyed will be entered in column (11). It may be seen that (i) column (11) = column (9) + column (10) and (ii) column (12) = column (8) - column (11).

2.7.5 Column(13): number of households replaced: Total number of households for schedule 1.0 (Type 2) replaced (being already selected for schedule 1.0, Type 1) will be reported for all SSS separately for hg/sb 1 and 2 against the rows for schedule 1.0, Type 2. Entries will be the number of double circles in columns (12), (13) and (14) of block 5 for each hg/sb. Entry against 'all' will be sum of all SSS for hg/sb 1 and 2. Similarly, total number of households replaced for Schedule 10 (being already selected either for Schedule 1.0, Type 1 or Schedule 1.0, Type 2) may be recorded against the different rows for Schedule 10. Entries will be the number of double circles along with '*' in columns (12), (13) and (14) of block 5 for each hg/sb. Entry against 'all' will be sum of SSS 1 -- 3 for hg/ sb 1 and 2 for each schedule type.

2.8 Block 7: Distance of the village to the nearest facility, availability of some amenities and participation in NREG work: In this block, it is aimed to collect information on the availability of some specific facilities like communication, educational institutions, health institutions, banks, credit societies, drainage, participation in NREG works etc. in rural FSUs. In case of hamlet-group formation, information are to be collected in respect of the entire sample FSU.

If a facility is available in general to the residents of an FSU, it will be considered as a facility. The required information has to be obtained by contacting the village officials and/ or other knowledgeable person(s). In case they are not aware of the existence of a particular facility, the nearest Block Development Officer or other related agencies may be contacted for collection of the relevant information.

The block will be filled-in for rural inhabited FSUs and will be kept blank for FSUs that are uninhabited or are zero cases.

This block may be filled in after completion of listing of households.

2.8.1 Items 1- 22: Column (3): distance code:
Distance in terms of code will be entered in this column against items 1 to 22. Distance from the nearest facility available to the villagers will be considered. The distance will be measured from the geographical centre of the village irrespective of whether hamlet-groups have been formed or not. However, if a particular facility is available within the village, the distance code will always be 1 irrespective of its distance from the centre of the village. One of the codes 2 or 3 will be applicable when the facility is available at a place outside the village. If a facility is available at two different places, the distance of the nearest place will be considered for record¬ing the distance code. In this connection, it may be noted that if at a particular location, more than one facility is available in a combined form and if that location is the nearest one to the village in respect of all the facilities under consideration, then the distance code of that location is to be recorded against all the facilities. For example if the nearest secondary school also provides primary education and the nearest primary school is farther away than the secondary school then the distance code of the secondary school is to be recorded for the primary school also. The codes for distances are:

[] 1 Within village: 1
Outside village:
[] 2 Less than 5 kms
[] 3 5 kms or more

Most of the items listed in the block are self-explanatory. However, some of the terms are explained below.

2.8.1.1 Items 1- 3: These items are self-explanatory.

2.8.1.2 Item 4: metalled road: This will include roads made of pucca materials like asphalt, cement, concrete, bricks, stones, etc.

2.8.1.3 Item 5: school having primary level classes: Generally, up to the standard of class IV is considered as primary education. However, the practices differ in some states where education of class V is also included under 'primary' level. For the purpose of this survey, education up to class IV or V, as the local practice may be, will be considered as primary education. This item will cover institutions providing such educational facilities.

2.8.1.4 Item 6: School having secondary level classes: Secondary level means education up to class - X. A school providing secondary level education will be considered for entry against this item.

2.8.1.5 Item 7: higher secondary school/ junior college: Higher secondary school provides education up to 10+2 standard. In some places it is also known as junior college. Institutions providing education up to 10+2 standard will be covered under this item.

2.8.1.6 Item 8: health sub-centre/ dispensary: A health sub-centre is the most peripheral contact point in the primary health care system. It covers around 5,000 populations in plain area and 3,000 populations in hilly/ tribal area. It is run by government and located in the rural area. It is manned by two multi-purpose health workers -- one male and one female. A sub-centre usually does not have facilities for treatment as in-patients. Dispensary is the consulting place/ chamber which does not generally have facilities for treatment of in-patients.

2.8.1.7 Item 9: primary health centre: Primary health centre (PHC) is the first contact point between a village community and the medical officer. It has a medical officer and other paramedical staff. It is run by the Government and usually has in-patient and outpatient facilities. A PHC has jurisdiction over 6 sub-centres and serves about 30,000 populations in plain area and 20,000 populations in hilly/ tribal area.

2.8.1.8 Item 10: community health centre: Community Health Centres (CHC) serves about 1.2 lakh populations in plain area and 80,000 in the hilly/ tribal area. The CHC functions as referral centre for the PHC. It is manned by medical specialists and paramedical staff and has in-patient and out-patient facilities.

2.8.1.9 Item 11: government hospital: Medical institutions having provision of admission of sick persons as in-door patients (in-patients) for treatment are called hospitals. Hospital run by the central/ state government or local bodies like municipalities will be covered under this item.

2.8.1.10 Item 12: private clinic/ doctor: Private clinic is the consulting place/ chamber of private doctors. Doctors are those having degrees/ diploma in medicine and also registration from recognized universities/ institutions deemed to be universities. These doctors may follow any of the systems -- allopathic, homeopathy, ayurvedic, unani.

2.8.1.11 Item 13: medicine shop: A shop which sells drugs and medicines of any system of medicine viz. allopathic, homeopathic, ayurvedic or unani medicines, will be considered as a medicine shop.

2.8.1.12 Item 14: anganwadi centre (ICDS): The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is the primary government programme providing health and nutrition services for children under age 6, pregnant women, and nursing mothers. These services are provided through community-based

2.8.1.13 Items 15: post office: The item is self-explanatory.

2.8.1.14 Item 16: fair price shop: Fair price shop is the shop, which sells some essential commodities at subsidized rate. This may be owned by the government, local self-government, a government undertaking, the proprietor of a firm, co-operative(s) or private persons (individually or jointly) or other bodies like club, trust, etc.

2.8.1.15 Item 17: cooperative credit society: Co-operative credit society is a society that is formed through the co-operation of a number of persons (members of the society) for the benefit of the members. The funds are raised through contributions/ investments by the members and the profits are shared by the members. Cooperative banks will also be considered here.

2.8.1.16 Item 18: commercial bank: This includes all nationalized banks including the State Bank of India and its subsidiaries. All other scheduled and non-scheduled banks, other than co-operative banks, should also be considered here.

2.8.1.17 Item 19: PCO: Distance of the facility which is nearest to the village among telegraph office/ pubic call office (PCO)/ e-mail centre will be recorded in this item in code. A public call office or e-mail centre will refer to a place accessible to the villagers with or without payment of fee. E-mail is the electronic mail, which is sent through network (internet) from one place to another.

2.8.1.18 Item 20: veterinary hospital/ dispensary: A veterinary hospital/ dispensary has provision for the treatment of animals.

2.8.1.19 Item 21: fertilizer/ pesticide shop: Fertilizer/ pesticide shop is one which sells fertilizer and / or pesticide.

2.8.1.20 Item 22: agricultural produce market/rural primary market: This category would include periodical markets regulated/linked to regulated markets and markets owned by local bodies i.e. panchayats in the rural areas popularly called hats, paints, and shandies etc.

2.8.2 Items 23 - 25: Column (3): availability of amenities in the village (code):
2.8.2.1 Item 23: Major source of drinking water: Major source of water used for drinking by the residents of the village may be identified and recorded in codes here. The codes are:
[Table omitted]

2.8.2.2 Item 24: type of drainage arrangement: The information may be recorded in codes. The codes are:
[Table omitted]

2.8.2.3 Item 25: electricity connection (code): The information is to be recorded in code. The codes are:
[Table omitted]
If no household is using electricity, code will be 4.
2.8.3 Item 26: whether the villagers participated in NREG programme during last 365 days: It may be enquired if the villagers participated in NREG programme during last 365 days. Status of participation will be recorded, participation need not be within the village, it may be in any neighbouring villages also. If the answer is yes then code 1 may be recorded, otherwise code 2 may be entered.

2.8.4 Item 27: informant code: The information in block 7 is to be collected from one or more knowledgeable person(s) of the village. The source of such information collected is to be reported in this item. In case there is more than one source then the code will relate to the informant from whom maximum information has been collected. The codes are:
[Table omitted]

2.9 Block 8: remarks by investigator: The investigator may give remarks here on any abnormal situation or entry in the schedule.

2.10 Block 9: comments by other supervisory officer(s): The supervising officer inspecting the work relating to this schedule may give comments here.

2.11 Substitution of sample households:
If a sample household of a particular schedule type cannot be surveyed due to some reason or the other, it will be substituted by the next one having higher sampling serial number (provided not already selected) of the same SSS. The substitute for the one having last sampling serial number of an SSS will be the one having smallest sampling serial number within the same SSS. If the substituted household becomes a casualty, it will be substituted by another in the same manner. If this household also turns out to be a casualty, further substitute need not be taken. However, it must be ensured that for each schedule type (i.e. Schedules 1.0 (Type 1), 1.0 (Type 2), 10), a minimum of one sample household is always surveyed for each SSS if H>0 and for each hg/ sb. Substitution may be attempted more than twice in a few cases to adhere to this restriction. In such cases, the fact has to be recorded in the remarks block (blocks 8 and 9).

It is to be noted that in the case of a substitution of a household, the word "substituted" should be written at the top of the front page of schedule.

2.12 Random numbers: A table of random numbers is supplied to each investigator. The n -- th column of the table will be consulted in the case of the central sample and (n + 1) th column in the case of the state sample, where n is the last two digits of the serial number of the sample FSU. When n = 00, it will be taken as 100. The number of digits to be used will be the same as that of the highest number of the range within which the random number is to be selected. However, if random number is required to be drawn between 1 and 10 or between 1 and 100, only one or two digit random numbers may be used, as the cases may be, where random number '0' will stand for '10' and random number '00' for '100'.

The first random number will be used for hamlet-group/ sub-block selection whenever required. The subsequent random numbers may be used for selection of households in the order: (i) for hg/ sb 1 -- households for three SSS of schedule 1.0 (Type 1), households for three SSS of schedule 1.0 (Type 2), households for three SSS of schedule 10 and then (ii) for hg/ sb 2 -- households for three SSS of schedule 1.0 (Type 1), households for three SSS of schedule 1.0 (Type 2), households for three SSS of schedule 10. If the particular column of random numbers is exhausted in the process, next column may be used. Similarly, if all the columns of the random number table are exhausted, then the first column will be used.

2.13 Substitution of sample FSU:
(a) If a sample FSU cannot be surveyed due to say, it being not uniquely identifiable or traceable, not accessible or for any other reason, it will be substituted. All such cases will be referred to:

The Director (TC), DPD, NSSO,
Mahalanobis Bhavan,
164, Gopal Lal Tagore Road, Kolkata- 700108.
e-mail address: dpd_tc@yahoo.co.uk
fax: 033-25771025

A copy of the letter may be given to:

The Director (Coordination), SDRD, NSSO
Mahalanobis Bhawan
164, Gopal Lal Tagore Road, Kolkata- 700108.
e-mail address: sdrd@cal2.vsnl.net.in
fax: 033-25776439, Tele: 033-25781495

If the substituted FSU has same problem as the original, correspondences may be made immediately so that another substitute can be provided to prevent voidness of stratum. In case no substitute FSU could be surveyed even with best efforts [i.e. code 7 in item 17, block 1], a blank schedule 0.0 will be submitted with only blocks 0, 1, 2, 8 and 9 filled in. The word 'causalty' is to be written at the top of the front page of the schedule in such cases.

All efforts must be made to ensure that at least one FSU is always surveyed from each stratum/ sub-stratum for each sub-sample so as to prevent occurrences of void strata.

(b) If a sample FSU is found to be depopulated at the time of survey, or its population has shifted elsewhere due to some natural calamity, or it is treated as a "zero-case", it will not be substituted. It will be treated as a valid sample and blank schedule 0.0 with only blocks 0, 1, 2, 8 and 9 filled in will be submitted in such cases. The word/ words 'uninhabited' or 'zero case', as appropriate will be written on the top of the front page of the schedule in such cases. However, in Arunachal Pradesh and possibly elsewhere also in the hill tracts of North Eastern States where, for example, jhum cultivation is prevalent, whole village may shift from place to place. In such cases the sample village will be surveyed in the place where it is currently located and not treated as uninhabited if found absent in its original location.

(c) If a sample village is found to have been declared as urban (as a town by itself or as merged in another town) either by State Govt. notification or by Census authorities after Census 2001 and if it is covered in the urban frame used for selection of FSUs, it will be treated as a zero case and the procedure given in the previous para will be followed in this case. However, if it is not covered in the urban frame of FSUs, it is to be surveyed as per the rural programme. In such cases, however, if the boundaries of the original village are not identifiable, it may be substituted. If only a part of the village has been merged in the town, the remaining part will be surveyed as per rural programme even in this situation. It is suggested to write to SDRD before treating any sample as a zero case.

(d) It is important to note that a listing schedule 0.0 has to be submitted for every sample FSU irrespective of whether it is surveyed/ substituted (including uninhabited and zero cases) or a casualty.

2.14 Repetition of FSUs: If a sample FSU is repeated in the sample list, it will be surveyed as many times as it has been selected. The procedures to be followed in respective cases are described below:

2.14.1 Repetition within state or central sample FSUs:

Case (a): without hamlet-group/ sub-block formation: If repetition is in the same sub-round, listing is to be done only once. The listing schedule will be copied with the identification particulars changed to those of the serial number against which it is found repeated. (The items that may change are only these: serial number and sub-sample). The sample households will be selected afresh. However, if any household already selected is selected again, it is to be substituted. If the required number of fresh households (i.e. not selected in the first occasion) is not available in the frame as a result of which some households are reselected in the second/ subsequent occasion, entries in various blocks for such household may be copied. If, however, repetition of the FSU takes place in a different sub-round, it is to be surveyed just like a new sample with fresh listing and sample selection.

Case (b): With hamlet-group/ sub-block formation: If repetition is in the same sub-round, the hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks formed during the first occasion will be used for all subsequent repetitions. However, on the second and subsequent occasions, the survey will be conducted in the hamlet-groups/ sub-blocks selected afresh. Of course, sample hg/ sb number '1' will remain the same. For the selection of households, the usual procedure as suggested in case (a) may be followed. If, however, repetition of the FSU takes place in a different sub-round, it is to be surveyed just like a new sample with fresh listing and sample selection.
[Table omitted]

Chapter 4 - Schedule 10: Employment and unemployment
Introduction

4.0.0 The survey on employment and unemployment is the prime source of statistical indicators and estimates of various parameters of labour force and activity participation of the population. The first quinquennial survey on employment -- unemployment, carried out by the NSSO in the 27th round (September 1972 - October 1973), made a marked departure from the earlier employment surveys of NSSO in procedure and content. The concepts and procedures followed in this survey were primarily based on the recommendations of the 'Expert Committee on Unemployment Estimates' (1970). Since then, the six successive quinquennial surveys conducted in the 32nd, 38th, 43rd, 50th, 55th and 61st rounds have, more or less, followed an identical approach in the measurement of employment and unemployment. The basic approach in all these six quinquennial surveys have been the collection of data to generate the estimates of employment and unemployment according to the 'usual status' based on a reference period of one year, the 'current weekly status' based on a reference period of one week, and the 'current daily status' based on each day of the seven days preceding the date of survey. In order to reveal the multi-dimensional aspects of the employment-unemployment situation in India, information on several correlates were also gathered in these surveys. Sets of probing questions on some of these aspects have also been one of the basic features of these surveys. The eighth quinquennial survey on employment-unemployment is to be carried out along with the surveys on household consumer expenditure during the 66th round survey operations (July 2009 - June 2010) of the NSSO.

4.0.1 A Working Group was set up for the purpose of finalizing the survey methodology and schedules of enquiry of the 66th round. Considering all the aspects of current data demand and usefulness of the survey results, the Group has suggested a few improvisations, additions and deletions in the content of the schedule of enquiry for the present survey. The major changes made in the schedule for employment and unemployment survey vis-à-vis the previous quinquennial survey (NSS 61st round) are given below:

a) Instead of collecting information on number of members who got work for at least 60 days in public works during last 365 days, in the household characteristics block, a few questions will be put to the rural households for collection of information related to NREG works, such as 'whether the household has NREG job card', 'whether got work in NREG works during last 365 days', 'number of days worked' and 'mode of payment of the wages earned in NREG works'.

b) At the request of Department of Posts, Government of India, information on a few items related to holding of some specified Post Office accounts and use of some specified postal services will be collected in the household characteristics block.

c) Information on 'whether the household member is a beneficiary of the specified schemes', such as, 'Annapurna', 'ICDS', 'mid-day meal', and 'food for work', will not be collected.

d) Information on 'whether currently registered with employment exchanges' will be collected for all persons of age 15 to 45 years instead of persons of age below 65 years earlier.

e) The information on 'whether receiving/received any vocational training' will be collected for persons of age 15 to 59 years, instead of persons of age 15 to 29 years. Besides collecting information on 'source from where degree/diploma/certificate received', 'duration of training' and 'field of training' from those who have received or are receiving 'formal vocational training, as was done in NSS 61st round, information on 'whether the vocational training was ever helpful in getting a job' will be collected from those who have received formal vocational training

f) Information on 'voluntary participation without remuneration in production of goods and services' will not be collected in this round.

g) Some probing questions, similar to those canvassed in NSS 55th round, have been re-introduced to the self-employed persons in usual status to identify Home Based Workers (HBW). This time, this information will be collected for the self-employed engaged in non-agriculture sector as well as for those engaged in agricultural sector excluding only growing of crops, market gardening, horticulture (i.e., NIC-2004 code 011) and growing of crops combined with farming of animals (i.e., NIC-2004 code 013). Besides, the codes and its the description for 'location of the enterprise' in which they are engaged, have been suitably modified to facilitate the generation of information on HBW according to the recommendation of the Independent Group on Home-Based Workers in India.

h) NIC-2004 will be used for collection and recording of household principal industry and industry of work of household members. It is important to note that the industry Divisions 96 and 97 of NIC-2004 will not be used for the purpose of collection of information on industry of activity. The entire activities described under Division 97 are not under the production boundary of ISNA and are not also considered as economic activities in the employment and unemployment surveys of NSSO. A part of the activities under Division 96 (viz. hunting and gathering, farming and the production of shelter), which is within the production boundary of ISNA, is also considered as economic activities in NSS surveys and the industry of these undifferentiated activities will be judged in the usual manner as is done now, by considering the industry in which major time is spent. Thus, this part of activities will get classified against the respective industries under divisions 01-14 relating to the primary sector or 45 relating to construction. The rest of Division 96 is outside the production boundary of ISNA and will not be considered as economic activity for the NSS survey.

i) Information on household principal occupation and on the type of occupation for the workers according to usual status and current status will be collected using 3-digit NCO-2004 codes.

j) It is to be noted that the activity status code 41 (casual wage labour in public works) has been split into two codes for assigning activity status codes as per current daily activity status and current weekly activity status, as follows:
1) Worked as casual wage labour in public works other than National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) works -- 41.

2) Worked as casual wage labour in National Rural Employment Guarantee (NREG) works -- 42.

Summary description of the schedule
4.0.2 In the present round, Schedule 10 on employment-unemployment consists of 16 blocks. The first three blocks, viz. Blocks 0, 1 and 2, are used to record identification of sample households and particulars of field operations, as is the common practice in usual NSS rounds. The last two blocks, viz., Blocks 10 and 11 are to record the remarks of investigator and comments by supervisory officer(s), respectively. Block 3 will be used for recording the household characteristics, like household size, religion, social group, land possessed, land cultivated, etc. For the rural households information will also be collected, in Block 3, on whether the household has NREG job card, whether got work in NREG works during the last 365 days, number of days got work in NREG works and mode of payment of the wages earned in NREG works. Besides, some particulars about holding of specified Post Office accounts and use of specified Postal services will also be collected in this block. Block 3.1 is for recording particulars of indebtedness of rural labour households. Block 4 will be used for recording the demographic particulars and attendance in educational institutions of the household members. Particulars of vocational training being received by the household members will also be collected in this block. In Block 5.1, particulars of usual principal activity of all the household members will be recorded along with some particulars of the enterprises in which the usual status workers (excluding those in crop and plantation activities) are engaged. In this block information for all the workers about the location of workplace will also be collected. For the self-employed persons who are working under specifications (wholly or mainly), information will also be collected about 'who provided credit/raw materials/equipment's', 'basis of payment' and 'number of outlets of disposal'. Information on informal employment will also be collected in Block 5.1. Similarly, the particulars of one subsidiary economic activity of the household members along with some particulars of the enterprises, informal employment and details of the self-employed persons in their subsidiary activity will be recorded in Block 5.2. The daily time disposition for the seven days preceding the date of survey along with the corresponding activity particulars will be recorded for each household member in Block 5.3. Besides this, the current weekly status (CWS) will be derived from the daily time disposition data and will be recorded in this block. As in the past, wage and salary earnings and mode of payment will also be collected for regular salaried/wage employees and for the casual labourers in this block. Block 6 will be used to record the responses to the probing questions to the persons who were unemployed on all the seven days of the reference week. Blocks 7.1 and 7.2 contain the probing questions which are related to the underutilizations of labour time and labour mobility, respectively. For the members of the household classified as engaged in 'domestic duties' as per their usual principal status, some follow-up questions have been framed and listed in Block 8, with a view to collecting some additional information which might explain as to whether their usual attachment to domestic duties was voluntary or involuntary and also to throw light on their participation in some specified activities for family gain. A worksheet to obtain the total monthly household consumer expenditure has been provided in Block 9.

4.0.3 Concepts and definitions: Concepts and definitions for various terms, viz., economic activity, activity status, procedure for determining the activity status by different approaches, vocational training and other related terms used in this schedule have been discussed in Chapter One.

Details of schedule

4.0.4 Block 0: Descriptive identification of sample household: This block is meant for recording descriptive identification particulars of the sample household and the sample village/block to which the sample household belongs. All the items in this block are self-explanatory. Items 4 and 5 are applicable to rural areas only and a dash '-' will be put against this item in urban schedule. The name of the hamlet to which the sample household belongs will be recorded against the fifth item 'hamlet name'. On the other hand, for a sample village with no hamlet group selection, a dash (-) is to be recorded against this item. Item 6 is applicable to urban areas only and a dash (-) will be put against this item in rural schedules. The entry against the last item, viz., 'name of informant', will be the name of the principal informant, i.e., the person from whom the bulk of the information is collected.

4.1.0 Block 1: Identification of sample household:
The identification particulars of the sample household are to be recorded against items 1, 4 to 15. The entries against items 2 and 3 are already printed in the schedule. Items 1 and 4 to 12 will be copied from the relevant items of block 1 of schedule 0.0.

4.1.1 Item 13: Sample hamlet group/ sub-block number: This item will be obtained from the heading of block 5 of schedule 0.0.

4.1.2 Item 14: Second stage stratum number: This will be taken from headings of columns (21) to (23) of block 5 of schedule 0.0. Entries will be any of 1, 2 or 3.

4.1.3 Item 15: Sample household number: This is same as the order of selection of the sample household and will be copied from columns (21) to (23) of block 5 of schedule 0.0.

4.1.4 Item 16: Serial number of informant: The serial number of the person recorded in column 1 of block 4 from whom the bulk of the information is collected will be entered here. Information is to be collected from members of the household. However, under the compelling circumstances if bulk of the information is collected from a person who is not a member of the household, '99' will be recorded against this item.

4.1.5 Item 17: Response code: This item will be filled in after collecting information for all items in the schedule. The entry is to be made in terms of codes on the basis of the impression formed by the investigator regarding the overall response of the informant. The codes are:
[Table omitted]

4.1.6 Item 18: Survey code: Whether the originally selected sample household or a substitute household has been surveyed will be indicated against this item by recording code '1' if the originally selected household has been surveyed and code '2' if the substitute household has been surveyed. If neither the originally selected household nor a substitute household could be surveyed, i.e., if the sample household is a casualty, code '3' will be recorded. In case of a casualty only the blocks 0, 1, 2, 10 and 11 are to be filled up and on the top of the front page of the schedule the word 'casualty' will be written in block capitals.

4.1.7 Item 19: Reason for substitution of original household (code): For an originally selected sample household, which could not be surveyed, irrespective of whether a substituted household could be surveyed or not, the reason for not surveying the original household will be recorded against item 19 in terms of codes. The codes are:
[Table omitted]

This item is applicable if the entry against item 18 is either 2 or 3. Otherwise, this item is to be left blank.

4.2.0 Block 2: Particulars of field operation:
The identity of the Investigator and Supervisory officer(s) associated, date of survey/ inspection/ scrutiny of schedules, dispatch, etc., will be recorded in this block against the appropriate items in the relevant columns. Besides, from the 46th round onwards, person codes of field officials have been introduced which are to be recorded against item 1(ii) (for central sample only). If the schedule is required to be canvassed for more than one day, the first day of survey is to be recorded against the item serial number 2(i).

4.2.1 Items 4 and 5: Total time taken to canvass schedule 10 (in minutes): Total time taken to canvass schedule 10, which will include time taken to canvass block 9 also, will be recorded in item 4. Time taken to canvass block 9 only will be recorded against item 5. Entries in item 4 and 5 will be made in whole number in minutes. The time required to canvass the schedule should be the actual time to canvass the schedule and will not include the time needed by the investigator to finalize the schedule.

4.2.2 Item 6: Whether the schedule contains remarks? (yes --1, no-2): In blocks 10 and 11, remarks of (i) investigator and (iii) other supervisory officer(s) are to be recorded when some difficulty is encountered in collection of data or if some of the items of information seem doubtful in nature. Besides, the remarks blocks, sometimes remarks are also recorded in the available blank spaces in the schedules. These remarks may help to make proper assessment of the entries made in the schedule. Entry will be 1 against the appropriate cell if relevant remarks are recorded, else entry will be 2. If remarks have been recorded in block 10/11 entry will be 1 against the relevant cell, otherwise entry will be 2. If remarks are recorded elsewhere in the schedule, entry will be 1 in against the relevant cell, else entry will be 2.
4.3.0 Block 3: Household characteristics:
Certain household characteristics, such as, household size, household type, religion, social-group, household industry, household occupation, land owned/ land possessed as on the date of survey, land cultivated (including orchard and plantation) during July 2008 - June 2009, etc., which are intended to be used mainly as classificatory characteristics in studying the indicators of employment and unemployment will be recorded in this block. For the households in the rural areas information will also be collected on some items related to NREG works. Besides, for all the households, information will be collected on whether any member of the household is holding any specified post office account, number of such accounts in the household, and whether any member of the household has used any of the specified services in any post office.

4.3.1 Item 1: Household size: The size of the sample household, i.e., the total number of persons normally residing together (i.e., under the same roof) and taking food from the same kitchen (including temporary stay-aways and excluding temporary visitors) will be recorded against this item. This number will be same as the last serial number recorded in column 1 of block 4.

4.3.2 Item 2: Principal industry (NIC-2004): The description of the principal household industry will be recorded in the space provided. The appropriate five-digit industry code of the NIC-2004 is to be recorded against 5 cells provided for recording NIC codes putting one digit in each cell. For households deriving income from non-economic activities only, (e.g. for a pensioner/ beggar/ prostitute household) a dash (-) may be put against this item.

4.3.3 Item 3: Principal occupation (NCO-2004): The description of the principal household occupation will be recorded in the space provided. The appropriate three-digit occupation code of the NCO -2004 is to be recorded against 3 cells provided for recording the NCO codes putting one digit in each cell. For households deriving income from non-economic activities only, a dash (-) may be put against this item.

4.3.4 The procedure for determining principal industry and principal occupation of the household has been discussed in Para. 1.9.35 of Chapter One.

4.3.5 Item 4: Household type (code): For the rural areas, the selected household will be assigned appropriate type code out of the following five different household type codes:

[] 1 Self-employed in non-agriculture
[] 2 Agricultural labor
[] 3 Other labor
[] 4 Self-employed in agriculture
[] 9 Others
For urban areas, the household type codes are as follows:
[] 1 Self-employed
[] 2 Regular wage/salary earning
[] 3 Casual labor
[] 9 Others

4.3.6 The procedure for assigning household type codes for both rural and urban areas has been discussed in Para. 1.9.5 of Chapter One. A household, which does not have any income from economic activities, will get type code 9 (others).

4.3.7 Item 5: Religion (code): The religion of the household will be recorded against this item in codes. If different members of the household claim to belong to different religions, the religion of the head of the household will be considered as the religion of the household. The codes are:

[] 1 Hinduism
[] 2 Islam
[] 3 Christianity
[] 4 Sikhism
[] 5 Jainism
[] 6 Buddhism
[] 7 Zoroastrianism
[] 9 others

4.3.8 Item 6: Social group (code): Whether or not the household belongs to scheduled tribe, scheduled caste or other backward class will be indicated against this item in terms of the specified codes, which are:

[] 1 Scheduled tribe
[] 2 Scheduled caste
[] 3 Other backward classes
[] 9 Others

Those who do not come under any one of the first three social groups will be assigned code 9, meant to cover all other categories. In case different members belong to different social groups, the group to which the head of the household belongs will be considered as the 'social group' of the household.

4.3.9 Item 7: Land owned as on date of survey: The land area, including homestead land, owned by the household as on the date of survey will be recorded in hectares in three places of decimal. Special care is to be taken so that for urban households land owned in rural areas and for rural households land owned in urban areas are not excluded. Separate provision has been kept for recording integral and decimal parts. For 'nil' entry a dash (-) may be recorded here. A piece of land is considered 'owned by the household' if permanent heritable possession with or without the right to transfer the title is vested in a member or members of the household. Land held in owner-like possession under long-term lease or assignment is also considered as land owned. Detailed discussion regarding ownership of land has been made in Para. 1.9.7 of Chapter One.

4.3.10 Item 8: Land possessed as on date of survey: Land possessed is given by land owned (including land under 'owner like possession') + land leased in -- land leased out + land held by the household but neither owned nor leased in (e.g., encroached land). The land area possessed by the household as on the date of survey will be recorded in hectares in three places of decimal. Separate provision has been kept for recording integral and decimal parts. For 'nil' entry a dash (-) may be recorded here. Detailed discussion regarding possession of land has been made in Para. 1.9.8 of chapter one.

4.3.11 Item 9: Land cultivated (including orchard and plantation) during July 2008-June 2009: Land cultivated is defined as net sown area (areas sown with field crops and area under orchards and plantations counting an area only once in an agricultural year) during the agricultural year 2008-09, i.e., July 2008 to June 2009. Land cultivated (including orchard and plantation) during the agricultural year 2008-2009, i.e., July 2008 to June 2009 will be recorded against this item. Land cultivated may be from the land 'owned', 'land leased-in' or from 'land neither owned nor leased-in'. It will be recorded against item 9 in hectares in three places of decimal. Separate provision has been kept for recording integral and decimal parts. For 'nil' entry a dash (-) may be recorded here.

4.3.12 Items 10 to 13: Information for these items will be collected from the households in the rural areas and for urban samples, dash (-) may be put in these items.

4.3.13 Item 10: Whether the household has NREG job card?: Under the provisions of the NREGA, the Gram Panchayat is to issue job cards to every registered household. The Photographs of the adult members ("adult" means a person who has completed his eighteenth years of age) who are applicants have to be attached to the job cards. The application for registration may be given on plain paper to the local Gram Panchayat. It should contain names of those adult members of the household who are willing to do unskilled manual work. The job cards shall be valid for a period of five years and will have provision for the addition/deletion of members eligible for work. If the household has a NREGA job card, entry will be 1 in this item, otherwise entry will be 2.

4.3.14 Item 11: Whether got work in NREG works during last 365 days: In this column, for each household in the rural areas, situation in respect of whether the household member(s) got work in NREG works at least for a day, or sought but did not get work in NREG works, or did not seek work in NREG works, during the last 365 days, is to be ascertained and will be recorded in terms of the following codes:
[Table omitted]

4.3.15 Items 12 and 13: Information for these items will be collected from the households in the rural areas who have got work in NREG works during the last 365 days, i.e., for those household with entry 1 in item 11.

4.3.16 Item 12: Number of days worked: The total number of days worked in NREG works, during the last 365 days, by all the household members will be recorded in this item. Number of days worked in NREG works is to be arrived at considering all the days worked by different household members irrespective of the duration of NREG works done by the household member(s) in those days.

4.3.17 Column 13: Mode of payment: The 'operational guideline' of NREGA recommends that wages should be paid on weekly basis on a pre-specified day of the week in each Gram Panchayat. The mode of payment of wages earned for the work in NREG works by considering the total wages of all the household members during the last 365 days will be recorded in terms of the following codes:
[Table omitted]

To determine the mode of payment, the wages earned by all household members in NREG works during the last 365 days will be considered. If some members of a household have worked in NREG work for which no payment of wages earned has yet been received by them, code 7 may be recorded in this item. On the other hand, if the household has received some payment (either fully or partly) for the work done by its members in NREG works during the last 365 days, appropriate code will be assigned considering the mode through which the major part of the wages earned have already been received by the household. For example, if an amount of Rs. 2000/- was earned by a household as wages in NREG works and of which an amount of Rs. 500/- was paid directly into post office account, another amount of Rs. 200/- was given in Gram Sabha meeting, and Rs. 1300/- is due to be received, then the entry will be 1 in this item. The determination of the mode of payment may be made through the Flow Chart 1 given below:

4.3.18 Items 14 to 17: Is any member of the household the holder of post office account (yes-1, no-2, don't know-9) and number of such accounts in the household as on the date of survey: In items 14 to 17, information will be collected on whether any member(s) of the household is a holder of specified Post Office account(s) or savings instruments of Department of Post, Government of India, and if any member(s) of the household is a holder of specified Post Office account(s), number of such accounts held by all the members of the household as on the date of survey will be recorded. The specified accounts for which information will be collected are:

1) saving bank account,
2) recurring deposit account,
3) monthly income account, and
4) any other accounts or savings instruments, such as public provident fund account, national savings certificate, kisan vikas patra, time deposit, senior citizens savings scheme, etc.

For each type of account listed against items 14 to 17, two columns have been provided. In the first column, information on whether any member of the household has the specified account will be recorded. If any household member has the specified account entry will be 1 and entry will be 2 if no member of the household has the specified account. On the other hand, if the informant reports that he/she does not know whether any member of the household has the specified post office account entry will be 9 against that item. For the item(s) with entry 1, i.e., if any household member is holding the specific type of account, the number of such accounts held by all the household members will be recorded in the next column against that item. It may be noted that in item 17, besides the types of accounts listed in items 14 to 16, information will be recorded for any other type of accounts or savings instruments.

Brief descriptions of the specified Post Office accounts are given in BOX 1:
[Box 1 omitted]

4.3.19 Items 18 to 20: Has any member used the following services in any Post Office during last 3 months account (yes-1, no-2, don't know-9): In items 18 to 20, information will be collected on whether any member of the household has used any of the specified services in any Post Office of the Department of Post, Government of India, during the last 3 months. If any household member has used any of the specified services during the last 3 months entry will be 1 and entry will be 2 if no member of the household has used any of the specified services during the last 3 months. On the other hand, if the informant reports that he/she does not know whether any member of the household has used any of the specified services during the last 3 months entry will be 9 against that item. The household member can avail of these services in the capacity of either as a sender of money or as a receiver of money. A brief description of the specified services on which information will be collected is given below:

i) Money order: A money order is an order issued by the Post Office for the payment of a sum of money to the person in whose name the money order is sent through the agency of the Post Office.
ii) Instant Money Order: IMO is an instant web based money transfer service through Post Offices (IMO Centre) in India between two resident individuals in Indian territory.
iii) International Money Transfer Service: As a result of the collaboration of the Department of Posts, Government of India with the Western Union Financial Services, USA, a state of the art International Money Transfer Service is now available through the Post Offices in India, which enables instantaneous remittance of money from nearly 185 countries to India.

4.3.1.0 Block 3.1: Household indebtedness:
This block is intended to collect information on the extent of indebtedness of the rural labour households, i.e., those with household type code 2 or 3 against item 4 of block 3 of rural schedules. The information pertaining to the household indebtedness as on the date of survey will be collected in this block. For the purpose of this survey, loans will include borrowing in cash and/or kind (including hire purchases/credit purchase). Borrowings in kind should be evaluated at current retail price prevalent in the local market. An advance payment received for forward delivery of goods should also be regarded as loan. Attempts will be made to record each loan separately irrespective of the type of loan and amount outstanding. Each loan will have a separate serial number against which the information on nature, source, purpose and amount outstanding of the loan will be recorded. If, however, the nature, source and purpose of two or more loans are similar, they may be entered as a single loan.

4.3.1.1 Column (1): Serial number of loan: As mentioned above, entries are to be made for each loan separately. Thus, each loan outstanding on the date of survey will get a separate serial number and that has to be recorded under this column.

4.3.1.2 Column (2): Nature of loan: For each loan listed in column (1), the 'nature of loan' in terms of codes will be recorded in this column. The relevant codes are:

[] 1 Hereditary loan
[] 2 Loan contracted in cash
[] 3 Loan contracted in kind
[] 4 Loan contracted partly in cash and partly in kind

4.3.1.3 Column (3): Source: The information regarding the source of each loan will be recorded in this column in terms of the following codes:

[] 1 Government
[] 2 Co-operative society
[] 3 Bank
[] 4Employer/landlord
[] 5 Agricultural/professional money lender
[] 6 Shop-keeper/trader
[] 7 Relative/friends
[] 9 Others

If any relative/ friend charges interest, the proper source code should be 5 and not 7. Co-operative banks will be considered as banks and not co-operative society.

4.3.1.4 Column (4): Purpose: The purpose for which the loan has been contracted, irrespective of the actual use of the loan, by the household will be recorded in this column in terms of codes. If a particular loan is taken to meet more than one purpose, the purpose for which large part of the loan is intended to be utilized will be considered for recording entries in this column. The relevant codes are:
[Table omitted]

The purpose of loan taken for legal expenses for the enterprise will get code 7. Code 5 will cover for loans taken for the purpose of food consumption, consumption of clothing, purchase of durable goods, etc.

4.3.1.5 Column (5): Amount outstanding including interest as on date of survey: For each loan, the total amount due on the date of survey (i.e., the outstanding principal plus the interest due) will be recorded in column (5) in whole number of rupees. Initial discount allowed, if any, in the principal should be taken into account while recording the total amount of loan outstanding on the date of survey. Suppose the value of an item of hire purchase is Rs. 5,000/- and 10% off-season discount is allowed, then the loan under this situation will be considered as Rs. 4500/- only. Account should also be taken of any advance deduction made at the time of giving loan. Thus, for a loan of Rs. 100/-, if Rs. 10/- is deducted as interest at the time of receiving the loan, the entry against this column will be Rs. 100/- and not Rs. 90/-. If only one loan is recorded in column (5), the amount of that loan should be repeated in the line meant for recording 'total'. If information is recorded for two or more loans, the total amount of all such loans taken together should be recorded in the line meant for recording 'total'.

4.3.1.6 The procedure adopted for making entries in regard to credit purchase requires elaboration. In the case of credit purchase, it should first be ascertained whether such credits are really due on the date of survey or not. Sometimes the payments are usually made to shopkeepers (for purchases of some items like milk, news paper, etc.), or for house rent, electricity charges, doctors, maid servants, etc. once in a month or at the end of the month or after a fixed period of time, in all such cases, dues will be considered only after the expiry of the stipulated due date of payment of such charges.

4.4.0 Block 4: Demographic particulars of household members: This block is meant to record the demographic particulars like sex, age, marital status, educational level, current attendance in educational institution, current registration with employment exchange and receipt of vocational training, etc., of all the household members. The description of the items and the procedure for recording them are explained below:

4.4.1 Column (1): Serial number: All the members of the sample household will be listed in this block using a continuous serial number in column (1). In the list, the head of the household will appear first followed by head's spouse, the first son, first son's wife and their children, second son, second son's wife and their children and so on. After the sons are enumerated, the daughters will be listed followed by other relations, dependants, servants, etc.

4.4.2 Column 2: Name of member: The names of the members corresponding to the serial numbers entered in column (1) will be recorded in column (2).

4.4.3 Column 3: Relation to head: The family relationship of each member of the household with the head of the household (for the head, the relationship is 'self') expressed in terms of specified codes will be recorded in this column. The codes are:

[] 1 Self
[] 2 Spouse of head
[] 3 Married child
[] 4 Spouse of married child
[] 5 Unmarried child
[] 6 Grandchild
[] 7 Father/mother/father-in-law/mother- in-law
[] 8 Brother/sister/brother-in-law/sister-in-law /other relatives
[] 9 Servant/employees/other non-relatives

4.4.4 Column 4: Sex: For each and every member of the household, sex in terms of the code (male-1, female-2) will be recorded in this column. For eunuch, code '1' will be recorded.

4.4.5 Column 5: Age (years): The age in completed years of all the members listed, will be ascertained and recorded in column (5). For infants below one year of age at the time of listing, '0' will be entered in column (5). Similarly for persons of age 105 years, entry under this column will be 105.

4.4.6 Column (6): Marital status: The marital status of each member will be recorded in this column in codes. The codes for different marital statuses are as follows:

[] 1 Never married
[] 2 Currently married
[] 3 Widowed
[] 4 Divorced/ separated

4.4.7 Educational level: Information on the highest level of education successfully completed by each member of the household considering his/ her all general/ technical/ vocational educational level will be recorded in terms of codes in column (7), whereas in column (8), the highest level of technical education successfully completed will be recorded. A person who has studied up to say, first year B.A. or has failed in the final B.A. Examination, his educational attainment will be considered only as 'higher secondary', for the purpose of column (7).

4.4.8 Column (7): General: In column (7), the highest level of education successfully completed by the members of the household considering general/ technical/ vocational education will be recorded in codes which are given below:
[Table omitted]

A person who can both read and write a simple message with understanding in at least one language is to be considered literate. Those who are not able to do so, are to be considered not literate and will be assigned code 01. Some persons achieve literacy by attending Non-formal Education Courses (NFEC) or Adult Education Centres (AEC) or by attending primary schools created under Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS). Such persons will be given code 02. Persons who have become literate through attending Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) will be given code 03. Persons who are literate through means other than formal schooling or the two enumerated above will be given code 04. Those, who are by definition literate through formal schooling but are yet to pass primary standard examination will be assigned code 05. Similarly codes 06, 07, 08, and 10 to 13 will be assigned to those who have passed the appropriate levels. The criteria for deciding primary, middle, secondary, etc., levels will be that followed in the concerned states/union territories. Persons who have attained proficiency in Oriental languages (e.g., Sanskrit, Persian, etc.) through formal but not through the general type of education will be classified appropriately at the equivalent level of general education standard. For them who have completed some diploma or certificate course in general or technical education, which is equivalent to below graduation level, code 11 will be assigned. Whereas, code 12 will be recorded for them who have obtained degree or diploma or certificate in general or technical education, which is equivalent to graduation level. Similarly, code 13 will be assigned for them who have obtained degree or diploma or certificate in general or technical education, which is equivalent to post-graduation level and above.

4.4.9 Column (8): Technical: Technical education standard achieved by the members of the household will be recorded in one of the following codes:
[Table omitted]

Technical diploma or certificate in 'other subjects' will cover diploma or certificate in management, applied arts, etc. If more than one of the codes 03 to 07 are applicable, the code indicating the diploma/ certificate last received will be considered. Similar will be the treatment when more than one of the codes 08 to 12 are applicable for a person. It may be noted that the technical certificate/ diploma obtained by the person need not necessarily be recognized by the Government.

4.4.10 Column (9) and (10): Current attendance in educational institution: Columns (9) and (10) will be used to record the particulars of current attendance in educational institution for persons of age below 30 years. Column (9) will be used to record 'status of current attendance'. Column (10) will be used to record 'type of institution' for those who are currently attending educational institution, i.e., with entry 21 to 43 in column (9). Procedure for recording the particulars in these columns is explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

4.4.11 Column (9): Status of current attendance. It will be first ascertained if the person is currently attending any educational institutions (government or private) or not. Persons who are registered for any regular correspondence courses or distance education courses for a stipulated period at the end of which, are allowed to appear in the examination for the course, will also be considered as 'currently attending'. Persons who are awaiting results will be considered as 'currently attending' and the appropriate code for the level for which they have appeared in the examinations will be recorded. Persons who are not currently attending any educational institutions, reason for not attending will be ascertained and will be given any of the codes 01 to 05 if they have never attended and 11 to 15, if they ever attended but currently not attending. For those who are found 'currently attending', the course of study pursued by them will be further ascertained and codes will be assigned depending on the course of study pursued by them. For persons attending more than one course, the one which is of full time will be considered for recording current attendance, in case only one of the courses is full time. In case more than one of the courses are full time, the one, which is of higher level will be considered for current attendance. If the full time courses are of same level, the one with longer duration will be considered. If the person is pursuing only part time courses, the course to be considered for current attendance will be determined in the similar way as is done for full time course.
The code structure for status of current attendance is as follows:
[Table omitted]

4.4.12 Column (10): Type of institution: Those with code 21 to 43 in column (9) will be considered for recording entries here. The type of institution refers to the type of management by which the institution is run. It may be government, local body, or private body receiving government aid. Thus, the type may be (a) Government, (b) Local body, (c) Private aided or (d) Private unaided. All schools/ institutions run by the State, Central Government, Public Sector Undertakings or Autonomous Organizations, which are completely financed by the Government will be treated as government institutions. Schools/ institutions where some intervention of government is in the management and are mainly financed by the government will also be treated as government institutions. All institutions run by municipal corporations, municipal committees, notified area committees, zilla parishads, panchayat samitis, cantonment boards, etc., will be treated as local body institutions. Private and aided institution is one, which is run by an individual or a private organization and receives maintenance grant partly or fully from the Government or local body. Private and unaided institution is one that is managed by an individual or a private organization and not receiving maintenance grant either from a Government or a local body.

Relevant codes to be given are:

[] 1 Government
[] 2 Local body
[] 3 Private and aided
[] 4 Private and unaided
[] 5 Not known

4.4.13 Column (11): Currently registered with employment exchange: For persons of age 15 to 45 years listed in column (1) of this block, it is to be ascertained whether or not they are currently on the live register of the employment exchange. For a person to be currently on the live register, he or she should renew his/her registration before it lapses, i.e., when the renewal becomes due. The period specified for renewal varies from state to state and also perhaps, from one employment category to the other. The investigator, therefore, should ascertain from some knowledgeable sources, the period specified for such renewal in the particular region where he has to carry out the field work. With this background information, the investigator should find out when the person has registered in the employment exchange, whether he has renewed the registration, etc., and thus determine whether or not he or she was currently on the live register of the employment exchange. If the name of the person is in the live register of the employment exchange, code 1 and if not, code 2 will be recorded in this column.

4.4.14 Column (12) to (16): Particulars of vocational training: Columns (12) to (16) will be used to record particulars of vocational training received/ being received by persons of age 15 to 59 years. Procedure for recording the particulars in these columns is explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

4.4.15 Column (12): Whether receiving/received any vocational training: Information on whether the household member is receiving or has received any vocational training will be collected in this column in codes given below:
[Table omitted]

Only those who are currently receiving 'formal vocational training' will be given code 1 and if the vocational training, which is formal, has already been received, i.e., if the training course is successfully completed, then code will be 2. Codes 3 to 6 relate to non-formal vocational training. Code 3 will be applicable for those who have received 'hereditary' non-formal vocational trainings and code 4 for those who have received non-formal vocational trainings though 'self-learning'. Persons who have received non-formal vocational training through 'learning on the job' will be given code 5. All other cases of non-formal vocational training received will be assigned code 6. Persons who have failed in formal vocational training after completion of the full duration of the course will also be given code 6 provided they have acquired competency through this training to employ themselves as wage salary employee or self-employed. Note that if one has already received some vocational training, formal or informal, and also currently receiving some formal vocational training, then the vocational training already received will be recorded for him/her. In case, he/she has received more than one vocational training, then the one among the applicable codes that appears first will be recorded. Concepts of vocational training, formal and non-formal vocational trainings have been discussed in Paras. 1.9.40, 1.9.41 and 1.9.42, respectively, of Chapter One. Examples of some formal vocational trainings have been given in Annexure 1.

4.4.16 Columns (13) to (15) will be filled in for those who are receiving/ have received formal vocational training, i.e., for code 1 or 2 in column (12)

4.4.17 Column (13): Field of training (code): Field of training in this column refers to the broad area/ trade, say, 'Mechanical engineering trades', 'Electrical and electronic trades', 'Leather related work', etc., on which the formal vocational training has been received/being received by the household member. 'Field of training' will be recorded in terms of 2 digit codes.
4.4.17.1 For a formal vocational training, if the 'field of training' is not covered by any of the codes 01 to 21, code 99 will be assigned to that field of training. It may be noted that under a particular broad area of the training stated above, an individual may have received the vocational training for development of skill in specific area(s). For example, a vocational training may develop skill in specific area(s) like 'blacksmithy', 'fitter', etc., under the broad area 'Mechanical engineering trades' or in the specific area 'Cutting and Tailoring' under the broad area 'Textile related work' or in the specific area 'Cane and Bamboo work' under the broad area 'Artisan/ craftsman/ handicraft and cottage based production work'. Specific areas and broad areas of the vocational training, in most cases, will be understood from the name of trade/training course.

4.4.17.2 To facilitate the collection of data on 'field of training', an indicative list of specific areas on which one can receive the vocational training and the broad area covering the specific area(s) is given in Annexure 2. There may be cases where broad area of training can be understood from the specific area of training but the specific area is not covered under any of the broad areas in the list given in Annexure 2. For a person when more than one of the codes are applicable, last training received will be considered for giving code for 'field of training'.

4.4.17.3 Some instances for recording field of training are being illustrated with the help of the following examples:
1. A person has received a vocational training for which the name of the training course is 'Fitter'. In this case the specific area of the training is 'Fitter' and the broad area will be 'Mechanical engineering trades'. In this case, the entry against 'field of training' will be the code for the broad area of training 'Mechanical engineering trades', i.e., 01.

2. For the vocational training course 'Cutting and Tailoring', the specific area is 'Cutting and Tailoring', and the broad area will be 'Textile related work'. In this case, the entry against 'field of training' will be the code for the broad area of training 'Textile related work', i.e., 07.
The codes for the field of training to be used for making entry in this column are given below:
[Table omitted]

4.4.18 Column (14): Duration of training: Duration of the formal vocational training, in weeks, will be entered here. The stipulated duration that the training may take for successfully completing the course will be recorded for those who are receiving the training on the date of survey. In case, the duration of formal vocational training received/being received is in months or in years then it will be rounded off to the nearest week. For this purpose, one month will be considered as 4 weeks, three months will be considered as 13 weeks, 6 months will be considered as 26 weeks and one year will be considered as 52 weeks. If the duration of training is in terms of days then it will be converted to weeks and entry will be made in whole number.

4.4.19 Column (15): Source from where degree/diploma/certificate received/to be received: This column will be used to record the source, i.e., agency/authority from where degree/diploma/certificate is received/to be received by the members of the household who have received or are receiving formal vocational training, i.e, those with code 1 or 2 in column (12).
The relevant source codes that are to be used for recording the information are given next.
[Table omitted]

4.4.20 Column (16): Whether the vocational training was ever helpful in getting a job: This column will be applicable to those with code 2 in column 12, i.e., for those who have received formal vocational training. The term 'getting a job' implies getting engaged in economic activity. The usefulness of the vocational training received will be recorded in terms of the following codes:
[Table omitted]

It may be noted that if an individual reports that the vocational training received by him/her had been helpful in getting a job in the past, whether or not the expertise gained through the vocational training was required for executing the job, then any of the codes 1 or 2 will be applicable for him/her. On the other hand, if the individual reports that the vocational training received had not been helpful in getting a job in the past, irrespective of whether he/she was employed in the past or not, but at least sought some job, for them code 3 will be recorded. For others who did not seek job at all, although had received formal vocational training, for reasons of engagement in some other non-economic activities, code 4 will be assigned. The following situations may arise in recording code 1 or 2:

(i) Vocational training received was helpful in taking up only one type of economic activity (self-employment or wage/salaried employment) in the past. In this case, code will be 1 if the activity taken up was self-employment activity, and code will be 2 if the activity taken up was wage/salaried employment.

(ii) If the vocational training received was helpful in taking up both self-employment as well as regular wage salaried employment and both of these activities were terminated sometime in the past, then the code corresponding to the one which was terminated last will be recorded. However, if both of these activities were terminated simultaneously then the code appearing first in the code list will be recorded.

(iii) If the vocational training received was helpful in taking up both self-employment as well as regular wage salaried employment and one of these activities are still being pursued and the other was terminated, then the code corresponding to the one which is still being pursued will be recorded.

(iv) If the vocational training received was helpful in taking up both self-employment as well as regular wage salaried employment and both of these activities are still being pursued then the code appearing first in the code list will be recorded.

(v) If the vocational training received was helpful in taking up both self-employment as well as regular wage salaried employment and both of these activities are still being pursued then the code appearing first in the code list will be recorded.

4.5.1.0 Block 5.1: Usual principal activity particulars of household members:
The usual principal activity particulars of each member of the household will be collected in this block. This will include information on industry-occupation of the working members, some particulars of the enterprises in which they are working and conditions of employment for the persons employed as regular wage/salaried employee and casual labour. Besides, for the self-employment persons, information will be collected regarding whether worked under given specifications, and if worked under given specifications, who provided credit/raw materials, equipment's, etc., number of outlets of disposal and type of specifications. The particulars of usual activity are collected with reference to a period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The relevant concepts like 'economic activity', 'activity status', 'usual principal activity', 'usual subsidiary economic activity', etc., are explained in Paras. 1.9.11, 1.9.12, 1.9.22 and 1.9.23, respectively, of Chapter One. The description of the items and the procedure for recording them are explained below:

4.5.1.1 Columns (1) and (2): Serial no. and age, as in cols. (1) and (5) of block 4: The entries in these two columns are to be copied from columns (1) and (5) of block 4, for each of the members

4.5.1.2 Usual principal activity particulars of household members: The usual principal activity particulars of each member of the household will be collected in columns (3) to (6) of this block. This will include information on industry-occupation of the working members.
of the household.

4.5.1.3 Column (3): Status: For each of the members, the usual principal activity status will be recorded in this column. In the first instance, the broad usual principal activity of the person will be identified based on the various activities pursued by the person during the reference period of last 365 days adopting a 'relatively long time (or major time)' criterion, not necessarily for a continuous period. The broad usual principal activity status will be one of the three categories viz. 'employed' (working), 'unemployed' (available for work) or 'not in labour force' (neither working nor available for work). It is to be noted that in deciding this, only the period normally available in a day for pursuing various activities need to be considered, and not the 24 hours of a day.

4.5.1.4 Identification of broad usual principal activity status: The broad usual principal activity status will be obtained on the basis of a two stage dichotomous classification depending on the major time spent. Persons will be classified in the first stage into (i) those who are engaged in any economic activity (i.e. employed) and / or available for any economic activity (i.e., unemployed) and (ii) who are not engaged and also not available for any economic activity (i.e., not in labour force). Thus, the persons will be first classified as those in the labour force and those not in the labour force depending on in which status, out of these two, the person spent major part of the year. In the second stage, those who are found in the labour force will be further classified into working (i.e., engaged in economic activity or employed) and seeking and/or available for work (i.e., unemployed) based on the major time spent. Thus, we can obtain the broad usual principal status as one of the three viz. employed, unemployed and out of labour force. Flow chart 2 explains the procedure for determining the broad usual principal activity status.
[Flow chart about the Determination of Broad Usual Principal Status omitted]

4.5.1.5 The following examples will help in clarifying the procedure for identifying broad usual principal activity status of individual.
[Table omitted]

4.5.1.6 Detailed usual principal activity status: With the broad activity status identified for a person, detailed activity categories will be assigned on the basis of relatively longer time spent on a detailed activity. For example, suppose person A, in the example given above worked in household enterprises without hiring labour for 3 months and worked as casual labour for 2 months, then his usual principal activity status would be, worked in household enterprise (own account worker).
The detailed usual principal status activity codes are as given below:
[Table omitted]
Codes 11, 12, 21, 31, 41 and 51 refer to the 'employed', 81 to the 'unemployed' and the remaining viz. 91 to 97 refer to the 'not in labour force'. For children of age 0 - 4 years, code 97 may be given.

4.5.1.7 Some special cases for determining usual principal activity status are listed below:

(i) It is to be noted that availability for work being more of a status than an activity, a person being available for work may well be engaged in one or more of the activities denoted by codes 91 to 97. In all such cases except those engaged as students (code 91), persons will be categorized as 'unemployed' if he/she reports to be available for work for a relatively longer period, inspite of his/her being engaged simultaneously in a non-economic activity. But, if a person who is available for work is reported to have attended educational institution more or less regularly for a relatively longer period during the preceding 365 days, further probing as to whether he will give up the study if the job is available is to be made before considering him as 'unemployed'.

(ii) Again, it also needs to be emphasised that the procedure to be followed in ascertaining the activity status of a domestic servant who is a member of the employer's household is different from that adopted for other members of the household. It may be noted that engagement in domestic duties by such household members is not considered economic activity as defined for the survey. On the other hand, although a domestic servant staying in the employer's household and taking food from the common kitchen is, by definition, a member of the employer's household, he/she is also engaged in domestic duties in return for wages in cash and/or kind. Thus, as a special case, domestic duties pursued by a domestic servant will be considered as an economic activity and the activity status code as is applicable will be assigned to him/her.

(iii) Carpenters, masons, plumbers, etc., who move from place to place in search of work and carry out the work on a contract basis (not on wage basis) whenever work is available, will be considered as 'own-account worker'. But if such persons are working on a wage basis under a contractor, they will be considered as employee.

4.5.1.8 Columns (4) to (6): Principal industry-occupation: Columns (4) to (6) will be filled-in for those who are 'working', i.e., those with any one of codes 11, 12, 21, 31, 41, or 51 in column (3). The description of the industry-occupation relevant to the type of economic activity pursued by the person in the status recorded in column (3) will be given in column (4). The corresponding 5-digit industry code (NIC-2004) and the 3-digit occupation code (NCO-2004) will be entered in columns (5) and (6), respectively. In case, two or more industry-occupation combinations corresponding to the status code given in column (3) have been reported by a person, the principal industry-occupation will be the one in which relatively more time has been spent during the preceding 365 days by the person.
4.5.1.9 To identify certain category of workers separately, NIC-2004 industry class code 9500 (Division 95) has been split, for the purpose of the survey, into the following sub-classes as given below:

Division 95: Activities of private households as employers of domestic staff

housemaid/servant: 95001
governess/baby-sitter: 95005
cook: 95002
tutor: 95006
gardener: 95003
driver: 95007
gatekeeper/chowkidar/watchman: 95004
others: 95009

These additional codes are to be used, wherever necessary, in recording five digited industry codes in column 5 of block 5.1. In assigning the industry code under Division 95, it should be kept in mind that the work is to be performed predominantly in the premises of the household irrespective of whether it is performed in one or more than one household. If services provided by the individuals to the household originate and terminate in the same household, they will be classified under Division 95.

For example, all persons who collect electric bills from the households for payment, who provide potable water in the container made available by the household, who collect grocery items from the shops/market as per the list of items supplied by the household, who give tuition to the members of the household at the residence of the household members, etc., will be classified under this division. On the other hand, if the households avail these services by approaching such persons (providing these services) in their establishment/house, then those services will not be classified under Division 95. They will be classified under appropriate division. For example, for a person giving tuition in his coaching center or in his own house, his activity will be classified under NIC 80902 or NIC 80903, respectively. Similarly, a person who is supplying potable water to one or more households (and uses his own container - which is his asset) will be classified under NIC 93093. Note that the persons classified under NIC division 95 in the above example will be considered as 'wage earners/employees', while those not classified under division 95 will be considered as 'self-employed'.

4.5.1.10 It may be noted that in determining the usual principal status of a person, it is not essential to consider the time disposition in respect of various activities pursued by the person on a day-to-day basis - which is generally done in the case of current status. What is important is that the activity, which a person usually performed or the status in which the person usually belonged for a longer period during the reference period, is to be assessed. In order to determine the usual principal status, the dominant activity of the individual that kept the person engaged for a longer period during the reference period, may be identified. This may largely be understood by the functional role of the individual in daily life or normal attachment of the individual to an activity or the activity situation in which an individual disposes himself or herself. This may even be understood by the response to the question generally asked 'what he/she normally does or did during the reference period?' such as, teaching or housekeeping or tutoring others or studying or farming or renting or prostitution. For example, the dominant activity of a person whose normal attachment is with household chores, even though gives tuition for some time -- maybe for three/ four hours in a day, will be considered as performing 'domestic duties' or, that of a boy who disposes himself as a student though performs some work activity regularly will be considered as 'student'. Note that the dominant activity of a person during the reference period is determined irrespective of the activity situation on a specific point of time (say, 1 day) or during a short period of time (say, 1 week).

4.5.1.11 There may be several situations for a person during the reference period. The individual might be engaged in a single dominant activity throughout the year or, the dominant activity might be carried out with other activities simultaneously or in succession or in alternation. In the first situation, the dominant activity for the person, which did not change during the reference period, will determine his/her usual principal activity status. In the second situation, where the dominant activity changed, the usual principal status for the person will be determined by the activity that prevailed for a longer period for the person during the reference period, that is, by major time criteria. For example, the dominant activity situation for a person may be employed throughout the year, with or without any other activity carried out simultaneously, and accordingly, his/her usual principal activity status will be assigned as employed. On the other hand, the dominant activity situation for a person may be outside the labour force for some period, unemployed for some period and employed for the remaining period during the year. The broad usual principal status of the person will be the activity that prevailed for the person for a longer period during the year, which is obtained following a two-stage dichotomous classification depending on the major time spent on the different broad activities. However, if a person who did any economic activity for a period of 30 days or more, he/she will be considered as worker either in the principal status or in the subsidiary status depending upon the situation during reference period.

4.5.1.12 Column (7): Whether engaged in any work in a subsidiary capacity (yes-1, no-2): For each member of the household listed in this block, it has to be ascertained whether he/she worked in a subsidiary capacity during the 365 days preceding the date of survey or in other words if he had any subsidiary economic status. A person will be considered to have worked in the subsidiary capacity if he/she has worked for a minimum period of 30 days, not necessarily for a continuous period, during the last 365 days, and for them code 1 will be recorded in this column. Otherwise, code will be 2.

4.5.1.13 The identification of those working in a subsidiary capacity will be done as follows:

(i) For example, a person categorized as working and assigned the usual principal activity status as own account worker may also be engaged for a relatively minor time, but not less than 30 days, during the reference year as casual wage labour. In such a case, he will be considered to have worked also in a subsidiary capacity, i.e., having a subsidiary economic status which is different from the principal economic status. A person may be own account worker in trading for a relatively longer period and simultaneously also engaged in agricultural production for a relatively minor time, say for at least 30 days. In such a case, the usual principal status will be own account worker in trade and usual subsidiary economic status will be own account worker in agriculture.

(ii) Similarly, persons categorized as 'unemployed' or 'not in labour force' on the basis of relatively long time criterion might have pursued some economic activity for relatively minor time, say for at least 30 days, during the year (as in the case of persons 'B', 'D' and 'F' in the example cited earlier). In such cases, they will be treated as having subsidiary economic activity and code 1 will be recorded in column (7).

It may be stated again that engagement in work in subsidiary capacity may arise out of two situations:

(i) a person may be engaged in a relatively longer period during the 365 days in economic (non-economic activity) and for a relatively minor period, which is not less than 30 days, in another economic activity (any economic activity). 30 days of work need not necessarily be for a continuous period but may be distributed over the last 365 days.

(ii) a person may be pursuing an economic activity (non-economic activity) almost throughout the year in the principal status and also simultaneously pursuing another economic activity (any economic activity) for relatively shorter time in a subsidiary capacity. In such cases, since both the activities are being pursued throughout the year and hence the duration of both the activities are more than 30 days, the activity which is being pursued for a relatively shorter time will be considered as his/her subsidiary activity.

Differentiation between usual principal economic activity and usual subsidiary economic activity will be made by considering activity status and industry at 2-digit level of NIC-2004. Thus, while for a person with two or more economic activities pursued at different activity status, one of the economic activity will be considered as usual principal economic activity on the basis of major time criteria, another activity will be considered as usual subsidiary economic activity. On the other hand, if a person pursues two or more economic activities in the same activity status but if the industry at 2-digit level of NIC-2004 are different, then the person will be considered to have different usual principal and usual subsidiary economic activity.

4.5.1.14 Columns (8) to (15): Particulars of enterprise and conditions of employment: For persons with industry groups 012, 014, 015 and divisions 02 to 99 in col. (5), particulars of the enterprises where the household members are usually engaged will be recorded in columns (8) to (11), and conditions of employment will be recorded in columns (12) to (15) for those with status codes 31, 41 or 51 in column (3). The data recorded in these columns will provide indicators of Home-based Workers (HBW), informal sector and informal employment. Note that in this block the particulars to be collected in columns (8) to (15) will pertain to the principal status (col. 3) and industry (col. 5) obtained for the person.

4.5.1.15 Column (8): Location of workplace (code): The location of the workplace will be recorded in terms of code under this column. The detailed codes are:
[Table omitted]

It may be noted that the location of the sample household (rural or urban) is not to be considered for entry in this column; location of the enterprise is to be ascertained and appropriate code is to be recorded. For the purpose of the survey, the term 'adjacent' area/structure will be restricted within homestead land only. For the working members, if the enterprise in which they are working does not have a fixed premises or in other words if these enterprises do not have fixed workplace (as in the case of a hawker or an artisan like carpenter, cobbler, knife-grinder, own-account carpenters, etc., who moves from place to place and goes to the customers), code 99 will be assigned, irrespective of whether the enterprise is operation in rural or urban areas. For those working in enterprises with fixed location, two sets of codes have been provided, one for the enterprises, which are located in the rural areas and the other for those that are in the urban areas. The two sets are identical in their classification. In the case, where the sector of location is both rural and urban, appropriate code is to be given on the basis major time criterion. Code 18/ 28 is relevant only for persons engaged in construction industry. The workplace of the workers engaged in construction activity is normally the site of construction and may change frequently. For them appropriate entry will be 18 / 28 and not 99. If the enterprise changes its location from time to time, e.g., a trading enterprise may shift its location from one market to the other on different days of the week although operates in a fixed place of the market, code will be 19 or 29 depending on whether the workplace is in the rural areas or in the urban areas. Similarly for the own account workers such as, rickshaw pullers, auto drivers, taxi drivers, lorry drivers, etc., code 19 or 29 will be assigned on the basis major time of operation of such enterprises.

4.5.1.16 Column (9): Enterprise type: The type of enterprise in which the household member is working is to be recorded under this column. The entry is to be made in terms of codes as given below:
enterprise type:

Proprietary:
[] 1 male:
[] 2 female
Partnership:
[] 3 With members from same household
[] 4 With members from different household
[] 5 Government/public sector
[] 6 Public/Private limited company
[] 7 Co-operative societies/trust/ other nonprofit institutions
[] 8 Employer's households (i.e., private households employing maid servant, watchman, cook, etc.)
[] 9 Others

If the informant does not know the type of enterprise in which the household member works and the investigator is unable to collect such information in spite of his/her best efforts, code 9 will be recorded for such working member against type of enterprise. For persons engaged in own account production of fixed assets, the enterprise type will be either proprietary or partnership, i.e, any of the codes 1 to 4.

4.5.1.17 Column (10): Whether uses electricity for its production (yes -1, no -2, not known -9): The information as to whether the enterprise in which the person works, uses electricity for its production purposes is to be recorded here. It may be mentioned here that use of electricity exclusively for purposes other than production like, for comfort, security, illumination, etc., will not be considered as the use of electricity by the enterprise for its production. Code 1 will be assigned if the enterprise uses electricity for its production. If the enterprise does not use electricity for its production, code will be 2. If the informant does not know whether the enterprise uses electricity for its production, code 9 will be recorded.

4.5.1.18 Column (11): Number of workers in the enterprise: Number of workers would mean the number of workers employed in the enterprise on an average in a day of operation, irrespective of whether they are hired worker or household members working in the enterprise. The number of workers that includes working owner(s), will be recorded in terms of codes as detailed below:
[Table omitted]

In case the informant is not able to provide information on the number of workers, code 9 will be recorded.

4.5.1.19 Column (12) to Column (15): Columns 12 to 15 will be filled in for each employee (i.e., those with code 31, 41, or 51 in column 3) working in industry groups 012, 014, 015 and divisions 02 to 99 of NIC 2004 in col. (5).

4.5.1.20 Column (12): Type of job contract: It is to be ascertained for each employee (i.e., those with code 31, 41, or 51 in column 3) whether for the job in which he/she is engaged, there is any written contract or agreement, whether protected under national legislation or not, in respect of duration of employment with his/her employer. For those who reports to have written job contract with their employer, further probing may be done in respect of the length of duration of job contracted, and the information so obtained may be recorded in terms of the code 2, 3 or 4, depending upon the length of such contract, as given below:

[] 1 No written job contract
Written job contract:
[] 2 For 1 year or less
[] 3 For more than 1 year to 3 years
[] 4 More than 3 years

If the contract of employment specifies a particular date of termination which is more than 3 years or if the type of job contracted is such that no time is fixed but the contract can only be terminated for certain administrative reasons such as incompetence, misconduct or for economic reasons then code 4 will be recorded. However, if no written contract exists, then irrespective of the duration of employment, code 1 will be recorded.

4.5.1.21 Column (13): Whether eligible for paid leave: If the employee is eligible for paid leave then code 1 will be entered, otherwise code will be 2. Paid leave may include leave during sickness, maternity, or such leaves, as the employee is eligible to take without loss of pay as per the conditions of employment. The situation will be obtained excluding the paid off days/holidays which an enterprise normally allows to its employees.

4.5.1.22 Column (14): Availability of social security benefits: It will be ascertained from the employees whether they are covered under any of the specified social security benefits or a combination of them which are arranged or for which contribution is made by the employer. The following code structure is to be adopted for recording the entry against this column:
[Table omitted]

The term Provident Fund (PF) will include General Provident Fund, Contributory Provident Fund, Public Provident Fund, Employees Provident Fund, etc. It may be mentioned that coverage under any of these social security schemes will mean that the employer contributes/ arranges/ pays in implementing the social security benefits for the worker. If an employee operates, in his/ her individual capacity, a PPF account and the employer is not contributing in that account then it will not be considered a social security benefit. On the contrary, a scheme, in which both the employee and the employer contribute, will be considered a social security benefit. When benefits are given by the employer for treatment of illness/ injury or an employee is eligible for paid leave for a specified period of pre-natal/ childbirth/ post-natal stage or the expenditure for maternity care or childbirth is borne by the employer as per the conditions of employment, then such benefits will be considered as health care and maternity benefits. There may be cases where the employer is not directly contributing in a social security scheme for the employees, but being the member of the welfare association or organization or scheme in relation to the specific activity carried out by the employer, the employees get the benefit from that welfare association/ organization/ scheme. Such cases will also be considered as social security benefits availed through the employer and appropriate code will be assigned. If availability of social security benefits is not known to the employee, a dash (-) may be put in this column.

4.5.1.23 Column (15): Method of payment: The method of payment received by the person for work done will be recorded in codes. The applicable codes are:
[Table omitted]

4.5.1.24 Columns (16) to (20): These items are meant for identification of home-based workers/home-workers and study of their characteristics, and are to be canvassed for the self-employed persons, i.e., for code 11, 12 or 21 in col. 3, with industry groups/divisions 012, 014, 015 and divisions 02 to 99 (in col. 5). The item-wise details are given below.

4.5.1.25 Column (16): Whether worked under given specifications: It is to be ascertained whether in relation to the activity recorded in col. 3, the person carried out the production (i.e., goods and services) on the basis of given or laid product-specifications of the 'employer'. The term 'employer' means a person, natural or legal, who, either directly or through an intermediary, whether or not intermediaries are provided for in national legislation, gives out home work in pursuance of his or her business activity. When a person procures the order/contract from the 'employer' for his or her household enterprise to supply goods, normally an implicit or explicit specification of the product, written or oral, is laid by the 'employer'. Sometimes, the whole activity is carried out under the specifications of the 'employer', or a part under the specifications of the 'employer' and rest of his own specification. The appropriate situation is to be ascertained and be recorded in codes. Note that most of the self-employed carry out activities on their own specification and for all the customers. They will get code 4. The relevant codes are given below:
worked under given specifications:

[] Yes:
[] 1 Wholly
[] 2 Mainly
[] 3 Partly

[] 4 No
[] 9 Not known

The situation of whether the self-employed person has worked under given specification of the 'employer', is to be adjudged corresponding to the activity status (recorded in col. 3) and the industry (recorded in col. 5) at 2 -digit level of NIC-2004. If the production of the whole range of products/services corresponding to the activity of the self-employed person is carried out according to the product specification of the 'employer', code 1 will be recorded. On the other hand, if majority of the production, in terms of value of output (i.e., more than or equal to 50 per cent), is carried out according to the product specification of the 'employer', applicable code will be 2. However, if only a part of the production is carried out according to the product specification of the 'employer', code will be 3. If the self-employed person does not work under the product specification of any 'employer' code will be 4.

4.5.1.26 Columns 17, 18, 19 and 20 are to be filled in for those who are self-employed and working wholly or mainly under the given product-specifications, i.e., for those with code 1 or 2 in col. 16.

4.5.1.27 Column (17): Who provided credit / raw material / equipment: Three questions are integrated under this column: credit, raw material and equipment. A composite code structure has been provided for recording the entries under this column. It is to be ascertained from the self-employed persons whether the 'employer' who gives product-specifications (in terms of the order/contract) also provides credit/raw material/equipment to them. Here, 'credit' means cash advance for a particular order or a group of orders and for working capital only (i.e., for purchase of raw material and meeting other running expenses). However, credit provided for purchase of equipment will not be considered as 'credit' and instead will be considered as 'provided for equipment's'. The entry is to be recorded in terms of codes as given below:

[] 1 Own arrangement 1
[] 2 Provided by the enterprise: credit only
[] 3 Raw material only
[] 4 Equipment's only
[] 5 Credit and raw material only
[] 6 Credit and equipment only
[] 7 Raw material and equipment only
[] 8 Credit, raw material and equipment
[] 9 Not known 9

4.5.1.28 Column (18): No. of outlets of disposal: Here, the outlet means the 'employer' for whom the self-employed is working. There may be cases where the self-employed may be working under the specifications of more than one 'employers'. Appropriate code depending upon the cases may be recorded as given below:

[] 1 One outlet
[] 2 Two outlets
[] 3 Three or more outlets
[] 9 Not known

4.5.1.29 Column (19): Basis of payment: In most cases, the payment received for the work done on order/contract is on the basis of piece rate. For those cases, code 1 will be recorded, otherwise code 2.
[] 1 Piece rate
[] 2 Contract rate

4.5.1.30 Column (20): Type of specifications: The specifications laid by the 'employer' may be written one or oral and accordingly, code 1 or 2 will be recorded..

[] 1 Written
[] 2 Oral
[] 9 Not known

4.5.1.31 Column (21): Period of seeking/ available for work during last 365 days: For persons of age 5 years and above, it is to be ascertained whether they were seeking/ available for work for some period during last 365 days. The period, which need not necessarily be continuous, for which the person was seeking/ available for work during last 365 days will be first rounded off to the nearest number of months and then appropriate code is to be given. For example, a person may be employed in his/ her principal usual activity status based on the major time criterion. But he/ she may have been looking for work for some period. Similarly, a girl may have been looking for job for sometime but subsequently got married and may be engaged in the domestic duties. The latter activity might have been pursued for a relatively longer period. In all such cases, one of the codes 1 to 5, applicable for the situation, will be given. If a person was not seeking or available for work any time during the preceding 365 days, the appropriate code will be 6.

The code structure for period of seeking/ availability for work is as given below:
Sought/ available for:

[] 1 Less than 1 month
[] 2 1 Month and above but less than 3 months
[] 3 3 Months and above but less than 7 months
[] 4 7 Months and above but less than 10 months
[] 5 10 Months to 12 months
[] 6 Did not seek/ not available

4.5.1.32 Column (22): Seeking or available or suitable for the type of occupation: This column is applicable for persons of age below 75 years and with codes 81 to 97 in column (3), i.e., for those who did not work but was seeking/ available for work or those who were out of labour force. Probing may be done to ascertain the type of occupation for which one was seeking or available or suitable and information so obtained may be recorded in terms of the appropriate 3-digit NCO-2004 code. It is expected that a person who is seeking a particular job, will generally opt for an occupation in which he/ she is proficient. Similarly, there may be a person who is not looking for a job effectively but may be available to do a particular type of job if the job is available to him/ her. The type of job for which he/ she is available will largely determine the type of occupation. In case a person is seeking/ available for more than one job, the type of occupation will be determined in respect of the job in which the person considers himself/herself most suitable based on his/ her proficiency, educational background, interest, etc. There may be a third category of persons who are neither available nor are seeking job, i.e., who are out of labour force. For them, type of occupation will be decided considering their opinion regarding the type of job that they feel suitable for them - had they been given an opportunity, which may depend upon educational qualification, interest, aptitude, skill of the individual.

4.5.2.0 Block 5.2: Usual subsidiary economic activity particulars of household members:
This block will be filled in for those who have reported to have carried out some economic activity in the subsidiary capacity, i.e., for those with code 1 in col. 7 of Block 5.1. Information in this block will be recorded for each and every member of the household reporting subsidiary economic activity (i.e., for those with code 1 in col. 7 of Block 5.1) irrespective of whether in the usual principal activity status the person is employed or not. This will include information on industry-occupation of the working members, some particulars of the enterprises in which they are working and conditions of employment for the persons employed as regular wage/salaried employee and casual labour. Besides, for the self-employment persons, information will be collected regarding whether worked under given specifications, and if worked under given specifications, who provided credit/raw materials, equipment's, etc, number of outlets of disposal and type of specifications. The particulars of usual activity are collected with reference to a period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The relevant concepts like 'activity status', 'economic activity', 'principal usual activity', 'subsidiary economic activity', etc. are explained in Chapter One. In the situation where a person has been found to have pursued more than one economic activity during the last 365 days in his or her subsidiary capacity, the details of the subsidiary economic activity on which more time has been spent would be considered for recording entry in this block. The description of the item and the procedure for recording them are explained below:

4.5.2.1 Columns (1) and (2): Serial. number and age, as in cols. (1) and (2) of block 5.1: The entries in these two columns are to be copied from columns (1) and (2) of block 5.1, for each of the members of the household reported to have carried out some economic activity in the subsidiary capacity, i.e, with code 1 in column (7) of block 5.1.

4.5.2.2 Column(3): Usual subsidiary economic activity status: For all persons engaged in any 'work' in subsidiary capacity, i.e., for those with code 1 in col. 7 of Block 5.1, the status code corresponding to the economic activities pursued by them in their subsidiary capacity will be recorded in column (3). Activity status codes 11, 12, 21, 31, 41 and 51 relate to economic activity and only these codes are applicable for column (3).

4.5.2.3 Columns (4) to (6): Subsidiary industry-occupation: For the economic activities pursued in the subsidiary capacity, the particulars of industry-occupation will be entered in columns (4) to (6). The procedure for making entry in these columns is similar to that given for block 5.1.

4.5.2.4 Columns (7) to (14): Particulars of enterprise and conditions of employment: These columns are applicable for persons with industry groups 012, 014, 015 and divisions 02 to 99 in column (5). Particulars of the enterprises where the household members are usually engaged in the subsidiary capacity will be recorded in columns (7) to (10). This apart, conditions of employment will be recorded in columns (11) to (14) for those with status codes 31, 41 or 51 in column (3). Note that in this block the particulars to be collected in columns (7) to (14) will pertain to the subsidiary status (col. 3) and industry (col. 5) obtained for the person. The detailed instructions for columns (7) to (14) of Block 5.2 are similar to that given for Block 5.1 for the relevant columns, and therefore, those are not repeated here.

4.5.2.5 Columns (15) to (19): These columns are meant for identification of home-based workers/home-workers and study their characteristics and to be canvassed for the self-employed persons, i.e., for code 11, 12 or 21 in col. 3, with industry groups/divisions 012, 014, 015 and divisions 02 to 99 (in col. 5). The detailed instructions for columns (15) to (19) of Block 5.2 are similar to that given for block 5.1 for the relevant columns, and therefore, those are not repeated here.

4.5.3.0 Block 5.3: Time disposition of members during the week:
The data compiled in this block will generate various estimates of employment and unemployment based on the approach of current daily status (CDS) and current weekly status (CWS). This block is meant for recording the time disposition for all the 7 days preceding the date of survey, the current weekly status based on the 7 days time disposition, wage and salary earnings during the week, etc. Time disposition will be recorded for every member of the household listed in block 4. This involves recording of different activities pursued by the members along with the time intensity in quantitative terms for each day of the reference week. The different activities will be identified and recorded in terms of 'status' and 'industry' codes for persons in urban areas and 'status', 'industry' and 'operation' codes for persons in rural areas. The time intensity will be measured in half-day units. Since a person may be engaged in more than one type of activity on a single day, (in which case two such activities will be considered for that day) and different activities may be carried out on different days of the week, more than one line have been provided for each person in this block to record information on different activity particulars which have been carried out by the person in the week in separate lines.

4.5.3.1 Columns (1) and (2): Serial number and age: In columns (1) and (2) of this block, serial number of each person and his/her age recorded in columns (1) and (5), respectively of block 4, will be copied. The serial numbers in block 5.3 will be entered sequentially as they appear in column (1) of block 4. Provision has been made to record particulars of five persons in one page. Three such sheets have been provided. In case more pages are required to record the particulars of all the persons listed in block 4, additional sheets of block 5.3 may be used. These sheets should be firmly stapled with the main schedule at the appropriate place.

4.5.3.2 Since a person may pursue more than one activity during the seven days of the reference week, four lines have been provided for each serial number recorded in column (1) for making separate entries relevant to the different activities on a day (two such activities) on different days of the reference week. Past experience indicates that provision of four lines will cover almost all the situations. However, if a person reports more than four different activities during the reference week the block of four lines meant for the next serial number of persons may be utilized by putting cross (x) marks in columns (1) and (2), and continuous serial numbers in column (3). Obviously, the particulars of the next person will be entered in the cell meant for serial number of persons subsequent to the cell already utilized for the previous person. In the case of children of age 0 - 4 years, their particulars will be entered and status code 97 will be assigned to them with intensity 1.0 for all the seven days preceding the date of survey without any probing.

4.5.3.3 Column(3): Serial number of activity: For each persons listed in column (1) of this block (which will be same as listed in column (1) of block 4), different activities pursued by them during all the seven days of the reference week will be serially numbered and this serial number of activity will be recorded in column (3). Presuming that the likelihood of one person pursuing more than four different activities in a week is rather remote, only four lines are provided for each person. As stated earlier, if a person pursues more than four different activities, the lines meant for the next person may be utilized. The current activity of a person in the rural areas is denoted by his status-cum-industry-cum-operation. Thus, for a person in the rural areas with the same status, if the industry division (2-digit NIC-2004 code) or operation are different on the same or different days, he will be considered to have pursued different activities and these activities will be entered in different lines. Similarly, in urban areas, the current activity of a person is denoted by his status-cum-industry. Thus, if a person in urban area ploughs his own field in the first half of the day and sows in the second half of the day, he will be considered to have only one activity during the day. But, in rural areas, he will be considered to have two activities.

4.5.3.4 Column (4): Status: The current activity 'status' codes corresponding to the serial number of activity entered in column (3) will be recorded in this column. The status codes which will be used in recording daily activity particulars and the weekly activity particulars are as follows:
[Table omitted]

It may be noted that these are same as the usual activity status codes, except the codes 42, 61, 62, 71, 72, 82 and 98 which are not applicable for usual status. Moreover, activity status code 41 in the usual status is used for casual wage labour in all types of public works, whereas in the current activity status, code 41 is for casual wage labour in public works other than NREG works and code 42 is for casual wage labour in NREG works. It may be noted that though under NREG Act persons of age 18 years and above in rural areas willing to do unskilled manual work are entitled to get NREG public works, for this survey, activity status code 42 may be assigned to those who have worked under NREG works irrespective of the age and place of residence of the person. Besides, code 81 in usual status is used to indicate both the situations of seeking and being available for work, while in the current activity status, code 81 is for the persons 'seeking work' and code 82 is for the persons who 'did not seek but was available for work'. The current weekly activity status for each individual will be identified based on the daily activity status codes. The procedure for doing this will be explained later in this chapter. The following paragraphs describe in details the procedure to be followed in making entries in each of the columns.

4.5.3.5 Column (5): Industry division (2-digit NIC-2004 code): For each status code grouped under the activity category 'working' (i.e., for the status codes 11-72 recorded in column 4), the 2-digit NIC-2004 code will be entered in column (5) in terms of the specified code numbers.

4.5.3.6 Column (6): Operation (for rural areas): This column will be filled in for persons belonging to the rural households only. The actual working operation performed by the persons relevant to the status codes grouped under the activity category working (i.e., status codes 11-72) will be entered in terms of codes in this column. It may be noted that for regular salaried/wage employees on leave or holiday, the 'operation' will relate to their respective function in the work or job from which he is temporarily off in view of his taking leave or holiday. Similarly for persons categorized 'self-employed' (status codes 11, 12 and 21) if they are not at work on a particular day inspite of their having work on that day, operation to be recorded will relate to the work they would have done if they had not enjoyed leisure on that day. The relevant codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

a) Manual work in cultivation :
[] 01 Ploughing
[] 02 Sowing
[] 03 Transplanting
[] 04 Weeding
[] 05 Harvesting
[] 06 Other cultivation activities

b) Manual work in other agricultural activities :
[] 07 Forestry
[] 08 Plantation
[] 10 Animal husbandry
[] 11 Fisheries
[] 12 Other agricultural activities

c) manual work in non-agricultural activities - 13;

d) non-manual work in:
[] 14 Cultivation
[] 15 Activities other than cultivation

4.5.3.7 Although it may be theoretically possible that on a particular day of the reference week, a person may have any number of activities, the particulars relating to two activities identified on the basis of priority cum major time criterion need only be considered for making entries in this column. Thus, on a day, a person may either have only one activity with 'full' intensity or two activities with 'half' intensity for each. If the activity is pursued with intensity 'half' on a particular day, the entry will be 0.5 against that activity and if that is pursued with intensity more than half, 1.0 will be recorded against that activity in the relevant columns (7) to (13). Generally, an activity, which is pursued for more than 1 hour but less than 4 hours is considered to have been pursued with 'half' intensity. If it is pursued for 4 hours or more, the activity is considered to have been pursued with 'full' intensity. However, for some persons, less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession. In such cases he will be considered to have worked with 'full' intensity.

4.5.3.8 The decision whether the intensity to be recorded for an activity will be 0.5 or 1.0 has to be taken by the investigating staff making careful probes into the actual situation obtaining for the person on a particular day. Mere declaration made by the informants, that less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession, should not be the basis for recording the intensity as 1.0. In the case of a cultivator, a village artisan or a small trader, it should not be presumed that a few hours on a day, say during the lean periods of the year, is their normal work, and the intensity 1.0 need not necessarily be recorded for them. Since this particular block of the schedule is meant for recording the information on periodical or seasonal under-utilisation of available labour time, careful probes about the nature of work performed by a person during the day has to be made before recording the relevant entries.

To illustrate, in so far as the daily activity pattern of a person is concerned, the following seven different situations can be visualized for a person on a single day:

(i) he/she may be engaged fully in one economic activity;
(ii) he/she may be engaged in two different types of economic activities;
(iii) he/she may be partly engaged in economic activity and for the rest of the day he may be seeking or available for work and at the same time may or may not be doing some non-economic activities;
(iv) he/she may be partly engaged in economic activity and during the rest of the day he is not available for work and may be doing some non-economic activities;
(v) he/she may be available for work for the entire day;
(vi) he/she may be available for work for part of the day and for the remaining part he may not be available for work and may be pursuing some non-economic activity and
(vii) he/she may be fully engaged in non-economic activities.

4.5.3.9 Which of the status codes are to be entered in column (4) will depend on whichever of the above situations are obtaining for a person on the different days of the reference week. The investigator is to first ascertain the exact situation from the informant and will then record the appropriate status code or codes, as the case may be, in this column using the priority-cum-major time criterion. The relevant codes to be used for recording the status are already given. The following illustrations may be noted for general guidance.

(a) A person found to be engaged in domestic duties should not be categorized 'engaged in domestic duties' (code 92) if the person reports that he/she has also been available for work concurrently.
(b) A person engaged in regular salaried/wage employment but currently not at work will be assigned code 71 or 72 irrespective of whether he is engaged in any other 'economic or non-economic' activity.
(c) Unpaid apprentices will be treated as 'students' while paid apprentices will be treated as employees.
(d) 'Free collection for sale' will be treated as self- employment.

4.5.3.10 Columns (7) to (13): Intensity of activity: For each activity recorded in column (3), the intensity with which the particular activity is performed on the different days of the reference week will be recorded in quantitative terms 'half' or 'full' in these columns. As described earlier, for each activity listed in column (3) either one 'full' intensity or two 'half' intensity may be assigned to a person on any one of the seven days of the reference week. For a particular activity, the recording of entries in columns (7) to (13) should start from column (7) which is provided for recording the intensity of that activity on the seventh day of the reference week, i.e., the day preceding the date of survey. Similarly, the intensity of that activity on the sixth, fifth and earlier days of the week will be recorded in columns (8), (9), (10), (11), (12) and (13) respectively. If the intensity of an activity is 'full' on a particular day, '1.0' will be recorded in the relevant column. On the other hand, if the intensity is 'half', the entry will be '0.5'. If that particular activity is not pursued on some other days of the reference week, the corresponding columns provided in the block for those days will be left blank against that activity. Thus, for each day, for a person, there will be either only one entry with intensity 1.0 in any one of the lines or two entries with intensity 0.5 each in any two of the lines. Procedure for recording different activities and the intensities of the activities on different days are explained in the Flow Charts 3 and 4.
[Two charts omitted]

Note: 1. An activity relating to work will be identified on the basis of the status-cum-industry-cum-operation in the rural areas and on the basis of status-cum-industry in the urban areas. An activity relating to other than work will be identified on the basis of status only both in rural and urban areas.

2. On a day, a person will be considered to have been engaged in one activity with full intensity (1.0) or in two activities with half intensity (0.5). Of the many activities, two activities to be chosen based on priority-cum-major time criterion.

4.5.3.11 For determining the various activities pursued by a person during the reference week and their intensities, the following thumb rule may be adopted:

If a person had worked or was employed, that is, if he was engaged in any one or more of the activities 11-72 for four hours or more on a day he would be considered 'working' or 'employed' for the whole day and assigned the one or two out of the different work activities on which he devoted relatively long time. In the former case, intensity will be 1.0 and in the latter cases, 0.5 for each of the two activities recorded.

A person, who had worked for 1 hour or more but less than 4 hours on a day, would be considered 'working' for half day and for the other half he would be considered either 'seeking or available for work', i.e., 'unemployed' (code 81 or 82) or as 'neither working nor available for work', i.e., 'not in labour force' (91-98) depending on whether or not the person was seeking/available for work. The person will be assigned the relevant work status code (11-72) with 'half' intensity and non-work status code 81 or 82 if 'unemployed' and any one of the relevant codes 91-98 if 'not in labour force', with 'half' intensity. If the nature of work is such that, (when employed in a full day) he/she works for less than 4 hours, full intensity will be given (e.g, a doctor may practice for 3 hours only on each day).

If a person had not worked even for an hour on the day but had sought work or was available for work for four hours or more, he/she would be considered unemployed for the whole day and assigned the code 81 or 82 as the case might be with 'full' intensity. But if he/she sought work or was available for work for one hour or more but less than four hours, he/she would be considered 'unemployed' for half day and assigned the activity status code 81 or 82 with 'half' intensity and 'not in labour force' with 'half' intensity for the other half of the day, for which the relevant code (any one of the codes 91-98) would be assigned.

(d) A person not so considered 'employed', or 'unemployed' either for 'full' day or 'half' day as shown in (a), (b) or (c), would be given activity codes 91-98 with intensity 'full' or two of them with each having intensity 'half', as the case may be.

4.5.3.12 A few special cases are stated below regarding assigning of intensity.

(a) In the case of a person engaged in self-employment, such as a doctor, a stationary or peripatetic trader or vendor, a freelance artisan or a mason or a carpenter, etc., the following may be kept in view while recording entries on intensity.

(i) A doctor sitting in his chamber for 4 hours or more, no matter whether he examined and prescribed medicine for a single patient or not, intensity 1.0 should be recorded.

(ii) For stationary or peripatetic vendor or trader moving around in his professional rounds for 4 or more hours, intensity 1.0 should be recorded whatever little business is done by the person.

(iii) For recording intensity (entries 1.0 or 0.5) in columns (7) to (13) in the cases of masons or carpenters in their professional rounds, similar procedure is to be adopted.

(b) In the case of regular or casual salaried or wage employees, the activity beyond the normal working hours need not be considered for recording entries in these columns. On the other hand, if a person pursues two economic activities of duration, say 4-5 hours each, both are to be recorded with 0.5 intensity for each. In the case of self-employed persons, time spent on any ancillary activity relating to the actual activity of production of goods or services, will also be considered as time spent on 'work'. In this connection, it may be noted 'exchange labour' will be considered as 'work' performed in 'self-employed' capacity.

4.5.3.13 Column (14): Total number of days in each activity: The number of days for which a particular activity was pursued during the seven days, i.e., the total of columns (7) to (13) will be recorded in one place of decimal in column (14) separately for each activity listed in column (3). It may be noted that the total number of days for all the activities taken together should always be 7.0 for each individual entered in column (1).

4.5.3.14 Columns (15) to (17): Wage and salary earnings (received or receivable) for the work done during the week (Rs): The wage and salary earnings (not total earnings) receivable for the wage/ salaried work done during the reference week, separately for each of the relevant activities pursued by each person, will be recorded in these columns. The wage and salary earnings are collected for regular wage/salaried employees and casual wage labours, the relevant status codes for which wages and salary are to be recorded are 31, 41, 42, 51, 71 and 72. The wages and salaries receivable for the work done during the reference week may be already received or may still be due to be received in cash or in kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. The total wage or salary receivable for the week in cash will be recorded in column 15 and the value of salary or wages in kind (evaluated at the current retail price) receivable for the week will be recorded in column 16. The total of columns 15 and 16 will be entered in column 17. The entries for all these columns will be made in whole number in rupees. For recording the wages or salaries, amount receivable as 'overtime' for the additional work done even from the same economic activity beyond normal working time will be excluded. Bonus (expected or paid) and perquisites evaluated at retail prices duly apportioned for the reference week will be considered as wages and included for making entries in these columns. For the activity statuses '71' and '72', the amount receivable for the week will be worked out on the basis of the number of days reported under the activity during the week.

4.5.3.15 Column (18): Mode of payment: This column will be filled in for those members with status codes 31, 41, 42, 51, 71, and 72 in column (4). The mode of payment made by the employer will be recorded in this column in terms of codes. The codes to be used for recording entries are given below:

Piece rate in cash: daily-01, weekly-02, fortnightly-03, monthly-04, other-05.
Piece rate in kind: daily-06, weekly-07, fortnightly-08, monthly-09, other-10.
Piece rate in both cash and kind: daily-11, weekly-12, fortnightly-13, monthly-14, other-15.
Other (non-piece) rate in cash: daily-16, weekly-17, fortnightly-18, monthly-19, other-20.
Other (non-piece) rate in kind: daily-21, weekly-22, fortnightly-23, monthly-24, other-25.
Other (non-piece) rate in both cash and kind: daily-26, weekly-27, fortnightly-28, monthly-29, other-30.

4.5.3.16 Column (19): Total number of days with nominal work: This column will be filled in for the persons with status code 11 to 72 recorded in column (4) against any 'serial number of activity' in column (3). Some of these persons who have reported intensity of work as 'half', for some of the days might have had work only for say, 1-2 hours on certain days out of them. Such days would be considered as days with nominal work. For each person, total number of days with only nominal work out of the 7 days reference period, for which intensity has been collected in columns (7) to (13) would be recorded in this column against the first line for the person. If for a person with status code 11 to 72, none of the days in the week are with nominal work entry in this column will be made as 0.

4.5.3.17 Column (20): Current weekly status (codes): Based on the activity status obtaining for a person on the seven days of the reference week, the current weekly status is to be identified and the status code so obtained is to be recorded here. This will be done as follows:
4.5.3.18 As already explained, the activity status of a person falls into one of three broad categories, viz. employed (any of codes 11-72), unemployed (any of codes 81 or 82) and out of labour force (any of codes 91-98). The activity status for any day of the seven days is recorded in column (4). If any of these is a work related activity code, i.e., any of 11 to 72 the person will fall in the employed category on the current weekly status. In other words, if the person is found to have been assigned a work status code on any of the day of the last week he will be considered as working in the current weekly status. For assigning the unemployed status code (i.e., either 81 or 82) to a person as his weekly activity status code, the person should not have had any work activity status codes on any of the days of the last week but should have one of codes 81 or 82 on at least one day of the last week (i.e., the entry in column (4) should not be any of 11-72 but should be 81 or 82 against one of the serial nos. of activity). Persons without any of codes 11-82 in column (4) will be those who will be treated as out of labour force in the current weekly status.
[Two charts omitted]

4.5.3.19 Further, within the three broad activity status categorization, the detailed activity status codes will be assigned taking into account the number of days in each activity recorded in column (14) in terms of the aggregate of intensities obtaining on various days. Within the broad activity status category identified for a person, the activity status code in column (4), which has the highest value in column (14), corresponding to a serial number of activity within the broad activity status, will be recorded in column (20). The entries for column (20) will be made in the line corresponding to the first line for each person, i.e., the line in which serial no. of activity in col. (3) is 1. The procedure for assigning the CWS to a person is explained in the form of Flow Chart 5.

4.5.3.20 A few examples for determination of current weekly status are given below :
[Two charts omitted]

4.5.3.21 Columns (21) and (22): Industry and occupation: For persons with any of codes 11-72 in column (20), the 5-digit industry (NIC-2004) and 3-digit occupation (NCO-2004) will be recorded in these two columns. Note that to identify certain category of workers separately, NIC-2004 industry class code 9500 has been split. Those are to be considered here also. The industry and occupation will correspond to the economic activity in which the highest number of days have been spent as explained in the previous paragraph. In the cases where equal number of days is spent on two or more activities (like in case of person with serial number 4 in the above example) the industry and occupation corresponding to the activity appearing first in the code list in terms of status and industry (in urban areas) or in terms of status, industry and operation (in rural areas) will be noted in columns (21) and (22).

4.5.3.22 Column (23): Whether unemployed on all the 7 days of the week: From the daily time disposition recorded in columns (7) to (13), it is to be ascertained whether the person was unemployed on all the seven days, i.e., if he/she had total intensity 1.0 against code 81/82 in column (4) on all the seven days of the week. Code 1 or 2 will be recorded in this column depending on the situation.

4.6.0 Block 6: Follow-up questions for persons unemployed on all the seven days of the week:
This block is meant for collecting information on persons who are found to be unemployed on all the seven days of the week preceding the date of survey, i.e., for those persons with entry 1 in column (23) of block 5.3. Information to be recorded in this block broadly includes their present spell of unemployment and particulars of last employment for those who are unemployed on all the 7 days of the week but were ever employed. The item-wise description of the block is given below.

4.6.1 Columns (1) and (2): Serial number and age (years): The serial number and age of persons with code 1 in column (23) of block 5.3 will be copied in columns (1) and (2) in the same order as they appear in block 5.3.

4.6.2 Column (3): Duration of present spell of unemployment: The spell of unemployment means the continuous period for which the person remains unemployed. The present spell will, therefore, refer to the period starting from the day the person became unemployed to the survey date, without any change in his/ her activity status. In the case of persons who are first entrants to the labour force, the present spell will be equal to the entire length of unemployment starting from the day such person joins the labour force, i.e., the day since when he/ she was seeking/ available for work. For those who had any previous employment, the present spell will be the period starting from the day they were seeking or available for work after losing their last employment to the survey date. The spell will be recorded in terms of codes indicating various durations as follows:
[Table omitted]

4.6.3 Column (4): Whether ever employed: The purpose of this item is to separate first time job seekers from persons who worked sometime in the past but are now unemployed. As the subsequent columns will be used to record the details of last employment, this last employment will mean having more or less regular work at least for some time in the past. Thus, among the unemployed, those who had worked at least for sometime in the past will be given code 1 in column (4).

4.6.4 Columns (5) to (10): Particulars of last employment: Columns (5) to (10) will be used to record the particulars of the last employment of those who had some employment in the past, i.e., entry 1 in column (4). Procedure for recording the particulars are explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

4.6.5 Column (5): Duration of last employment: The duration of last employment will be recorded in codes, which are:
[Table omitted]

4.6.6 Column (6): Status: Status refers to the usual work activity status during the period he/ she was employed like self-employment, casual labour, etc., and the codes used for usual work activity status relating to employment (i.e. codes 11-51) only will be applicable. The activity status and corresponding codes are as follows:
[Table omitted]

4.6.7 Columns (7) and (8): Industry and occupation: 2-digit industry code as per NIC-2004 and 3-digit occupation code as per NCO-2004, respectively, applicable to the last employment will be entered in these two columns.

4.6.8 Column (9): Reason for break in employment: This column is meant for recording the reason for break in or termination of the last job held by the persons.
These reasons are coded as follows:

[] 1 Loss of earlier job
[] 2 Quit earlier job
[] 3 Lay-off without pay
[] 4 Unit has closed down
[] 5 Lack of work in the enterprise (for self-employed persons)
[] 6 Lack of work in the area (for casual labour)
[] 9 Others

The appropriate reason has to be identified through suitable probes. Loss of earlier job will include cases where person is removed from service or work due to temporary nature of work contract, on disciplinary grounds, retrenchment, retirement and all such involuntary breaks other than those covered under codes 3, 4 or 6. Quit earlier job (code 2) will be applicable for persons who have left the job on their own volition, may be owing to compelling circumstances. (The reason for doing so will be further recorded in column 10). Lay-off is defined as 'failure/refusal/inability of an employer to give employment to a workman whose name is borne on the master rolls and who has not been retrenched'. Those laid-off with some pay are treated as employed. Those laid-off without any pay will be considered as unemployed and for such persons code 3 will be given. If the unit in which the person was working has closed down due to lack of demand, difficulties in running the unit or any other reason and consequently person is thrown out of employment, code 4 will be applicable. For those who were self-employed and are now out of job as there is lack of work in the enterprise due to fall in demand, scarcity of raw materials, etc., code 5 will be recorded. Persons who are engaged as self-employed in the seasonal enterprises and are unemployed during the off season owing to lack of work in the enterprise will also be given code 5. However, if such an enterprise is closed down permanently, applicable code will be 4 and not 5. For those employed as casual workers and are out of work as there is no work in his/her area, code 6 will be given. This should be distinguished from those casual labours employed in enterprises with some regularity and coming under reasons 1, 2, 3 or 4. Thus, one of the reasons should be identified in a sequential manner starting with reason code 1. Reasons which cannot be coded in 1 to 6 will be given code 9.

4.6.9 Column (10): Reason for quitting job: For those persons who have quit their job (i.e., code 2 in column 9) the reason for quitting the job will be recorded as follows:
[Table omitted]

Codes are self-explanatory. Unpleasant environment will be excluding the factor mentioned for codes 3 and 4. In case more than one code is applicable, the code, which appears first in the code list will be given.

4.7.1.0 Block 7.1: Follow-up questions on availability of work to persons working in the usual principal or subsidiary status (i.e. those with codes 11-51 in col. 3 of bl. 5.1 or bl. 5.2): In this block an attempt is made to collect information on certain qualitative aspects of employment of those who are categorised as employed either in the principal or subsidiary status. The procedure for recording the information under each column is described below.

4.7.1.1 Column (1) and (2): Srl no. and age as in block 5.1: As already stated, this block will be filled in only for those who are employed either in the principal status or in the subsidiary status (i.e., codes 11-51 in col. 3 of block 5.1 or block 5.2). The serial number and age of such persons will be copied from block 5.1 in the same order in columns (1) and (2), respectively.

4.7.1.2 Columns (3) and (4): Usual Principal activity status and usual subsidiary activity status: The usual principal activity status and usual subsidiary activity status will be copied from column (3) of block 5.1 and 5.2 to columns (3) and (4), respectively, as described below.

(i) For persons having one of the codes 11-51 in column (3) of block 5.1, the entry in column (3) of block 7.1 will be same as that in column (3) of block 5.1. For these persons, the subsidiary status will also be recorded in column (4) and will be copied from column (3) of block 5.2. For persons with one of the codes 11-51 in column (3) of block 5.1 and not having any subsidiary economic activity, put a 'x' mark in col. (4).

(ii) For persons engaged in economic activity in subsidiary capacity only, their subsidiary status will be copied from column (3) of block 5.2 and recorded in column (4), and principal status will be copied from column (3) of block 5.1 and recorded in column (3).

4.7.1.3 Column (5): Whether engaged mostly in full time or part time work during last 365 days: In column (5), it will be ascertained if the person was engaged mostly in full time work or part time work during last 365 days. Persons working for less than or equal to half of the normal working hours of the enterprise on a fairly regularly basis will be considered as part time workers and others will be considered as full time workers. Those who are mostly engaged in full time work will be given code 1 and those who are mostly engaged in part time work will be given code 2.
The codes are:

[] 1 Full time
[] 2 Part time

4.7.1.4 Column (6): Whether worked more or less regularly during last 365 days: According to the usual principal status approach, the broad activity category has been determined on the basis of the major time criterion. Thus, the persons, who are 'employed' in their usual principal status may or may not be employed throughout the last 365 days. By virtue of the procedure adopted for classification of activity statuses it is possible that some of them were not employed for considerable length of time. In the case of those, who were employed only in the subsidiary status, this will be the situation most often. Thus, this item will be filled in both for usual principal status workers and usual subsidiary status workers. Those who have worked more or less regularly, considering both principal economic activity and subsidiary economic activity, during the reference year will be given code 1. Others will be given code 2.

4.7.1.5 Column (7): Approximate no. of months without work: In column (7), the number of months a person was without work will be recorded. The months without work need not be continuous. It is quite possible that a person was without any work for a couple of months, then in employment for some months and again out of work for a couple of months. The 'approximate number of months without work' will include the months in which a person was unemployed and also the months in which he/she was out of labour force, i.e., neither seeking/ available for work. Part of month will be rounded off to the nearest month. Hence, for a month if the period without work is reported to be less than 30 days but 15 days or more, it should be recorded as 1 month without work. Situation is to be assessed for all the months separately to get number of months without work during the reference year. Note that some of those, who have reported to have worked more or less regularly during the reference year, i.e., code 1 in column (6), may be found to be without work for some months, after deep probing. For such persons also, number of months without work will be recorded in column (7) and entry in col. (6) should not be changed.

4.7.1.6 Column (8): If entry ? 1 in column (7), whether sought/available for work during those months: Column (8) will be filled in for persons who were without work for at least one month, i.e., entry greater than or equal to 1 in column (7). The codes for column (8) are given below:

[] Yes:
[] 1 On most days
[] 2 On some days
[] 3 No

4.7.1.7 Column (9): Whether made any efforts to get work: For those who were not at work for some months and sought or were available for work on most or some days of those months (i.e., with codes 1 or 2 in col. 8), the efforts made by them to get work, viz., whether they registered their name in the employment exchange, or made other efforts, will be recorded here. Relevant codes to be entered in this column are:

[] Yes:
[] 1 Registered in employment exchange
[] 2 Made other efforts

[] 3 No efforts

4.7.1.8 Column (10) and (11): Earning from employment: Columns (10) and (11) will be filled in for the persons, whose status is self-employed either in the principal status or in the subsidiary status, i.e., codes 11, 12 or 21 either in column (3) or in column (4). Columns (10) and (11) will be used to have some idea about earning from self-employment. The procedure for filling up column (10) and column (11) are stated below.

4.7.1.9 Column (10): Do you regard the current earning from self-employment as remunerative: In this column, perception of the self-employed member of the household, either in the principal status or in the subsidiary status, (i.e., for the member of the household having codes 11, 12 or 21 in column 3 or 4) on whether the current earning from self-employment is regarded as remunerative will be recorded. Here the earning of the individual is to be judged considering all his/ her farm and non-farm businesses together in which he/ she is engaged in self-employment capacity during the last 365 days, either in principal status or subsidiary status or in both the status. The current earning from self-employment will be regarded as remunerative if total earnings from self-employment are able to meet the desired level of income of the individual under the existing situation in respect of type of activity, scale of operation of the business (s), market condition, location of the business, etc. If the actual earnings from the self-employment activities fall short of the desired level, the employment may not be regarded as remunerative. It may be noted that the situation for the 'helpers' may be judged in the similar manner as for the 'own account workers' or 'employers' and no distinction should be made for them in this regard. If the owners of the enterprise are from the same household, earning will be judged by considering equal distribution of income among all the owners including the helpers irrespective of the shares hold by the individual member. If the owners of the enterprise are from the different households, earning from the partnership business will be distributed first, according to the agreement (verbal or written), among the partner households. Then, the share of the earning from self-employment hold by a household will be distributed among its owners including the helpers equally. If the employment is regarded as remunerative by the individual, code will be 1. Otherwise, code will be 2.

4.7.1.10 Column (11): What amount (Rs) per month would you regard as remunerative: This column is to be filled-in for all the self-employed members of the household for whom column (10) is filled in. The desired level of earnings in a month from all the activities carried out by them in the self-employment capacity, considering the existing situation in respect of type of activity, scale of operation of the business (s), market condition, location of the business, etc., is to be ascertained and recorded in terms of the codes as given below:
[Table omitted]

4.7.1.11 Column (12): Whether sought/ available for additional work during the days he/ she had work: The time reference to record whether the person was seeking/ available for additional work (i.e., work in addition to the present work) will be that period of last 365 days during which the person was employed either in principal status or in subsidiary status or in both the status. Thus, for a person, whose usual principal status is unemployed but had subsidiary work for a relatively short period, the availability for additional work will refer only to the short period he/ she was working. This criterion will be applicable to column (14) also. The entries will be made in codes given below:

[] Yes:
[] 1 On most days
[] 2 On some days
[] 3 No

4.7.1.12 Column (13): Reason for seeking/ available for additional work: For codes 1 and 2 in column (12), the reason for seeking/ available for additional work will be entered in this column in terms of codes as follows:

[] 1 To supplement income
[] 2 Not enough work
[] 3 Both
[] 9 Others

4.7.1.13 Column (14): Whether sought/ available for alternative work during the days he/ she had work: As in the case of availability for additional work, information in respect of a person's availability for alternative work (i.e., work instead of the present work) will be collected with reference to that period of last 365 days during which he/ she was employed either in principal status or in subsidiary status or in both the status. The entry will be made in codes as given below.

[] Yes:
[] 1 On most days
[] 2 On some days
[] 3 No

4.7.1.14 Column (15): Reason for seeking/ available for alternative work: For the persons who 'sought/ available' for alternative work at least for some days, i.e., for persons with codes 1 and 2 in column (14), the reason for doing so will be recorded in codes as follows:
[Table omitted]

When more than one code is applicable, the code appearing first in the list may be given.

4.7.2.0 Block 7.2: Follow-up questions on change of nature of work and/ or establishment to persons working in the usual principal or subsidiary status (i.e., with codes 11-51 in col. 3 of bl. 5.1 or 5.2):
This block will be filled in only for the persons categorised as employed either in usual principal or usual subsidiary status. Attempt is made to collect information on certain qualitative aspects of mobility - changes in status, occupation, industry, establishment, etc., for the persons employed in the usual principal status and membership in trade unions, nature of employment, etc. for the employed either in the principal or subsidiary status.

4.7.2.1 Column (1) and (2): Serial no. and age as in block 5.1: This block will be filled in only for those who are employed either in the principal status or subsidiary status (i.e. codes 11-51 in col. 3 of block 5.1 or 5.2). The serial number and age of such persons will be copied from block 5.1 in the same order in columns (1) and (2), respectively.

4.7.2.2 Columns (3) and (4): Usual Principal activity status and usual subsidiary activity status: The usual principal activity status and usual subsidiary activity status will be copied from column (3) and column (4) of block 5.1/5.2 to columns (3) and (4), respectively in block 7.2, as described below.

(i) For persons having one of the codes 11-51 in column (3) of block 5.1, the entry in column (3) of block 7.2 will be same as that in column (3) of block 5.1. For such persons, a cross (x) mark will be put in column (4) of block 7.2.

(ii) For persons having one of the codes 81-97 in column (3) of block 5.1 and one of the codes 11-51 in column (3) of block 5.2 , the entry in columns (3) and (4) of block 7.2 will be copied from column (3) of blocks 5.1 and 5.2, respectively.

4.7.2.3 Column (5): Is there any union/association in your activity?: Union/association will mean any registered/recognized body whose membership is open to a section of those engaged in a specific activity or trade and whose main objective is to look into the interests of its members. 'Trade' here refers to any occupation under the usual statuses 11-51. Thus, besides the usual trade unions, association of owners, self-employed persons, etc., will also be covered. The union/association sometimes may be a large body like a factory union looking after the welfare of different types/levels of workers. Depending on the respondents reply, codes 1, 2 or 9 will be recorded in this column. It is to be noted that even if a self-employed person is aware of an association which looks after the interests of those of his kind, the answer to the question will be 'no' (code-2) if the membership of such an association is not open to him or the association does not cover the locality where he/she runs the enterprise. It is possible that some of the self-employed persons are not aware of the existence of any association of the kind described above relating to his trade. In such cases, code 9 will be entered in column (5).
The relevant entries for column (5) are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No
[] 9 Not known

4.7.2.4 Column (6): Whether a member of union/association: If the respondent reports that a union/association exists in his/her activity, i.e, if entry is 1 in column (5), it is to be ascertained if he/she is a member of that union/association. If the household member is a member of that union/association, code 1 will be recorded, otherwise code will be 2.

4.7.2.5 Column (7): Nature of employment: In column (7), the nature of employment (i.e., whether permanent or temporary) will be recorded in terms of code. Nature of employment will be considered as permanent if the person is, in normal course, likely to continue in the same employment. If the nature of employment is permanent code will be 1 and if the nature of employment is temporary code will be 2.

4.7.2.6 Columns (8) to (14): Change in work activity status, industry, occupation and establishment during last 2 years: These columns will be filled in only for those who are employed in the usual principal status (i.e., persons with code 11-51 in col. 3). In columns (8) to (14) information on whether during the last 2 years, the person has changed - usual principal work activity status, industry associated with usual principal work activity, occupation associated with usual principal work activity and establishment will be ascertained and if a change in respect of work activity status, industry and occupation is reported, the earlier position in that regard would also be ascertained.

4.7.2.7 Columns (8) and (9): During last 2 years, whether changed work activity status and if changed, last activity status: It will be ascertained whether or not the person has changed his/ her usual principal work activity status (i.e., work statuses 11-51) during the last 2 years. In column (8), code 1 will be assigned, if he has changed the work status and code 2 if not. For persons with code 1 in column (8), i.e., those reporting a change in work status, the last usual principal work activity status prior to this change will be recorded in column (9). The codes applicable in column (9) are any of 11 to 51 only. (The detailed code structure is given for col. 3, block 5.1). Note that during the last 2 years, if a person was initially unemployed or out of labour force and he/ she is now employed according to usual principal status, then he/she will not be considered to have changed his/ her activity status as the work activity status did not change. It is quite possible that during the period in between the changes in the work activity status, a person was unemployed or out of labour force. Such a person will be considered to have changed his/her work activity status and code 1 will be recorded here. In the case of more than one change in work statuses during last 2 years, the work status relating to the last change (i.e., work status prior to the present status) will be recorded in column (9).

4.7.2.8 Columns (10) and (11): During last 2 years, whether changed industry and if changed, last industry: Whether the person has changed his/her industry of work, associated with usual principal work activity, at 2-digit code as per NIC-2004 during the last 2 years will be ascertained. If the person has changed industry of work at 2-digit code as per NIC-2004 then in column (10) entry will be code 1, otherwise, code 2 will be entered in column (10). For persons with code 1 in column (10), that is, those reporting a change in industry, the last industry of work in terms of 2-digit code as per NIC-2004 will be recorded in column (11).

4.7.2.9 Columns (12) and (13): Whether during last 2 years changed occupation and if changed, last occupation: Whether the person has changed his/her occupation, associated with usual principal work activity, as per NCO-2004, during the last 2 years will be ascertained. If the person has changed occupation then in column (12) entry will be code 1, otherwise, code 2 will be entered in column (12). For persons with code 1 in column (12), that is, those reporting a change in occupation, the last occupation in terms of 2-digit code as per NCO-2004 code will be recorded in column (13).

4.7.2.10 Column (14): Whether during last 2 years changed establishment: For the workers in the usual principal status, it will be ascertained whether they have changed their establishment (of work) during the last 2 years. The term establishment is used in a broad sense and will include all producing units including household enterprises. In this sense, a person changing from one section/department/organization to another of the same establishment on a transfer/ promotion posting will not be considered as having changed establishment. However, if his/her nature of work in respect of NIC (at 2-digit level) or NCO (at 2-digit level) has changed consequent to this transfer/promotion, it will be considered as change of establishment. In case he/ she has lost or quit the earlier job and taken up a fresh job in another department or organization, it will be taken as a change in establishment. Those reporting a change in establishment will be assigned code 1 and others will be assigned code 2.

4.7.2.11 Column (15): Reason for last change: In this column, the reason for the last change will be recorded for those who have either changed their industry or occupation or both during the last 2 years, i.e., those with codes 1 in column (10) and/or (12) of this block.

The reason codes are as follows.

Loss of earlier job due to:

[] 1 Retrenchment/lay-off
[] 2 Closure of unit
[] 3 For better income / remuneration
[] 4 No job satisfaction
[] 5 Lack of work in the enterprise (for self-employed)
[] 6 Lack of job security
[] 7 Work place too far
[] 8 Promotion/transfer
[] 9 Others

If more than one code is applicable to a person, the one, which appears first in the code list will be recorded.

4.8.0 Block 8: Follow-up questions for persons with usual principal activity status code 92 or 93 in column (3) of block 5.1:

In order to study the pattern of activities carried out along with domestic chores of the persons classified as engaged in domestic duties, a separate set of special follow-up questions have been designed. These follow-up questions will be asked to all the members of the household classified as engaged in domestic duties according to usual principal status (i.e. those with usual principal status codes 92 or 93 in column 3 of block 5.1) and the relevant answers will be recorded in terms of the specified codes.

4.8.1 Items 1 and 2: Serial number and age as in column (1) and (2) of block 5.1: For all members categorized as 'engaged in domestic duties' according to usual principal status, i.e., those assigned the usual status codes 92 or 93 in column (3) of block 5.1, their serial number and age as in columns (1) and (2) of block 5.1 will be entered against items 1 and 2. Different columns will be used for different members.

4.8.2 Item 3 to 5: It will be ascertained whether the members are "required to spend most of their time on domestic duties during 365 days preceding the date of survey". If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against item 3 for each of the members. If the answer is 'yes', i.e., if the entry against item 3 is code 1 for a member, the reason for his/her participation in the household duties will be ascertained and recorded in terms of the specified codes against item 4.
The relevant codes to be used for item 4 are:

[] No other member to carry out the domestic duties: 1
[] Cannot afford hired help: 2
[] For social and/or religious constraints: 3
[] Others: 9

For persons with code 1 in item 3, item 5 will be left blank. On the other hand, if the entry against item 3 is 2 for a person, (i.e., such participation was not required but still the he/she participated in the household chores) the reason for his/her voluntary participation in household chores will be ascertained and the code relevant to the answer obtained will be recorded against item 5. In such a case, item 4 will be left blank.

The codes to be used for making entries against item 5 are:

[] Non-availability of work: 1
[] By preference: 2
[] Others: 9

4.8.3 Items to 19: These 14 questions relate to the participation in 14 specified activities, which are self-explanatory. It will be ascertained whether the person along with his/her normal domestic duties also participated, during the 365 days preceding the date of survey, more or less regularly in the specified activities listed. For the questions to and 15 to 19, if the answer is 'yes', code '1' and if the answer is 'no', code '2' will be recorded against the relevant items for the particular person. It may be noted that item 19 and 20 will be filled in for rural areas only. On the other hand, for the items 10 to 14, if the answer is in the affirmative, it will be further ascertained whether the person participated in the processing of mainly own farm/free collected commodities or processing of commodities procured otherwise and the code relevant to the situation will be recorded. The codes to be used are:

Yes:
[] 1 Commodities produced in own farm/free collection
[] 2 Commodities acquired otherwise
[] 3 No

4.8.4 Item 20: This item will be used for rural areas only. If for particular person the answer to the question listed against item 19 (i.e., whether the person brings water from outside the village), is 'yes' (i.e., code 1), the distance (rounded off to the nearest kilometer) he/she had to travel from the household premises to the source of water will be recorded against this item.

4.8.5 Item 21: For all those categorized as 'usually engaged in domestic duties' and listed against item '1' it will be ascertained whether they will be prepared to accept work if work is made available at their household premises. If the answer is in the affirmative, code and if the answer is in the negative, code will be recorded against this item.

Information on items 22 to 25 is to be collected for those with code in item 21.
4.8.6 Item 22 to 25 (for persons with code in item 21): The questions listed against these items will be put only to those who have answered in the affirmative for the question listed against item 21 (i.e., persons with entry against item 21). The codes appropriate for the answers obtained will be recorded against the relevant items. For items 22, 23 and 25, if more than one code is found to be applicable, the code which appears first in the code list only will be recorded. The relevant codes to be used for filling in the items 22, 23 and 25 are as under:

(i) Item 22: nature of work acceptable:

[] Regular full time 1
[] Regular part time .. 2
[] Occasional full time 3
[] Occasional part time .. 4

(ii) Item 23: type of work acceptable:

[] Dairy: 1
[] Poultry: 2
[] Other animal husbandry: 3
[] Food processing: 4
[] Spinning weaving: 5
[] Manufacturing wood cane products: 6
[] Tailoring: 7
[] Leather goods manufacturing: 8
[] Others: 9

(iii) Item 25: assistance required to undertake that work:

[] No assistance.1
yes:
[] Initial finance on easy terms .2
[] Working finance facilities 3
[] Easy availability of raw materials 4
[] Assured market .5
[] Training.6
[] Accommodation 7
[] Others.9

(iv) Item 24: In this item information on whether the person have any skill/experience to undertake the work which is acceptable to him/her as mentioned in item 23, will be recorded. If the person has any skill/experience to undertake the work code will be 1, otherwise code will be 2.

4.9.0 Block 9: Household consumer expenditure:
Household consumer expenditure is the sum total of monetary values of all goods and services consumed (out of purchase or procured otherwise) by the household on domestic account during a specific reference period. The definition of household consumer expenditure and the procedure for evaluating it will be the same as for Schedule 1.0. Care should be taken to exclude (i) expenditure on purchase of land and building (ii) expenditure on household enterprise including farm (iii) interest payments (iv) cash transfers (one-way transactions where the household does not receive any consumer goods and services in return), as all these may be mistakenly reported by the household as "consumer expenditure".

4.9.1 A worksheet has been designed to collect information on household consumer expenditure in Schedule 10. The aim of this worksheet is to arrive at an approximate value of household consumer expenditure, which will serve as proxy for total expenditure that could be obtained through the detailed consumer expenditure schedule. This approximate value of consumer expenditure will be used for classifying sample households into different levels of living for studying employment characteristics of households at different levels of living. The worksheet contains 36 different components of household consumer expenditure. Considering that an item group may contain different items, an attempt has been made to indicate, in parentheses, some of the items included in a particular group, so as to facilitate collection of consumer expenditure data for an item group. Two reference periods, via,. 30 days and 365 days, will be used to record consumption of different groups of items; these are indicated in the headings of columns (3) and (4).

4.9.2 The items of consumption have been classified into four groups and the definition of consumption differs from group to group, as explained in tabular form below.
[Table omitted]

4.9.3 Sources of consumption: A household procures different items for its consumption by different ways. The different ways of collecting items of consumption are:

1. Purchase
2. Receipt in exchange of goods and services
3. Home-grown/home-produced stock
4. Transfer receipts such as gifts, loans, charities, etc., and
5. Free collection

4.9.4 Imputation of value: Consider the items of Group I and Group III in the table above. If an item is purchased and consumed by a household, the value of consumption can be taken as its purchase value. But the value of an item consumed out of commodities received in exchange of goods and services, home-grown/home-produced stock, transfer receipts or free collection requires imputation. The rule for imputation of value of consumption of commodities is given below:

- The value of goods and services received in exchange of goods and services -- including those received as perquisites by the members of the household from their employers - will be imputed at the rate of average local retail prices prevailing during the reference period. However, the judgement of the respondent about the price of the goods purchased in exchange is to be taken into account.
The value of home produce will be imputed at the ex-farm or ex-factory rate. This should not include any element of distributive service charges.
- The value of consumption out of gifts, loans, free collection, etc., will be imputed at the average local retail prices prevailing during the reference period.
- The value of consumption out of purchase will be the value at which the purchase was made.

4.9.5 Special care is to be taken to ensure that the items which are consumed by the household out of home grown stock as well as from other sources like free collection, gifts, loans, etc., do not get missed out and necessary probing is to be done to include such consumption, if any, in the total consumption of the household.

4.9.6 Note: For items of Group II and Group IV, the question of imputation of value normally does not arise, as value of consumption is, for these groups, defined as expenditure incurred, and is zero when zero expenditure is incurred. However, in case of items of Group II and Group IV received from employer or any creditor as perquisite or payment, imputation of value is necessary because for such items it is considered as if the receiver incurs expenditure on them. Imputation in such cases should be done at local retail prices.

Value of consumption during last 30 days

4.9.7 Item 1: Cereals and cereal products: This will include items like rice, wheat/atta, jowar, bajra, maize, barley, small millets and their products like chira, khoi, lawa, muri, maida, suji, rawa, sewai, noodles, bread (bakery), cornflakes, pop-corn, etc. and sattu prepared from barley/ other cereals. Besides these, tapioca, jackfruit seed, mahua, etc, which are consumed as substitutes for cereals will also be included here.

4.9.8 Item 2: Pulses and pulse products: This includes pulses such as arhar, gram, moong, masur, urd, peas, soyabean, khesari, etc., and pulse products such as besan, sattu, papad, badi, etc.

4.9.9 Item 3: Milk: This will mean milk as directly obtained from cow, buffalo, goat or any other livestock, milk sold in bottle or polypack. If the household purchases milk and prepares sweetmeats or transforms milk into curd, casein, ghee, etc., at home these will be included here.

4.9.10 Item 4: Milk products: This will include condensed/powder milk, curd, ghee, butter and also baby food, ice-creams, etc., the principal constituent of which is milk.

4.9.11 Item 5: Edible oil and vanaspati: Oil used in food preparation will be considered as 'edible oil' such as vanaspati, margarine, mustard oil, groundnut oil, etc. If oil is extracted by crushing purchased or grown oilseeds and the oil is consumed then the entry will be shown against this item.

4.9.12 Item 6: Vegetables: This item will include potato, onion, radish, carrot, turnip, beet, sweet potato, arum, leafy vegetables, tomato, peas, garlic, ginger, etc. It will also include green fruits like mango, watermelon, etc. consumed after preparing processed food.

4.9.13 Item 7: Fruits and nuts: This includes fresh fruits such as mango, banana, jackfruit, watermelon, pineapple, sugarcane coconut, guava, orange, etc. and also dry fruits and nuts.

4.9.14 Item 10: Salt and spices: It will include all edible salt irrespective of whether it is iodised or not. This item will also include spices such as turmeric, black pepper, dry chillies, oilseeds which are generally used in food preparations.

4.9.15 Item 11: Other food items: This will include prepared tea, coffee, tea leaf, coffee powder, ice, cold beverages, fruit juice, green coconut, biscuits, salted refreshments, prepared sweets, cake, pastry, pickles, sauce, jam, jelly, cooked meals, prepared rice, snacks, tiffin, food packets, etc. Food items for babies like Farex, Cerelac, etc., whose principal constituent is not milk will also be included here.

4.9.16 Item 12: Pan, tobacco and intoxicants: This will include pan leaf, finished pan, supari, lime, katha, bidi, cigarettes, snuff, cheroot, zarda, ganja, toddy, country liquor, beer, foreign liquor, etc.

4.9.17 Item 13: Fuel and light: This will include coke, firewood and chips, electricity, dung cake, kerosene, match box, coal, LPG, gobar gas, candle, etc. and petrol, diesel, etc. used for generating electricity.

4.9.18 Item 20: Rent/house rent: This item consists of rent for residential building and garage rent for private vehicle of the household. Amount last paid divided by the number of months for which the payment was made will be recorded here. The rent for government quarters will be the amount of house rent allowance (HRA) per month not paid to the employee plus the license fee deducted per month from the salary for the quarters. Salami/pugree will not be considered anywhere in the schedule. No imputation of rent will be done for owner occupied dwellings.

4.9.19 Item 21: Consumer taxes and cesses: This will include road cess, chowkidari tax, municipal rates, water charges, etc.. Sometimes, while purchasing a new vehicle, life tax is paid. In such case, monthly average of tax and cess will be recorded against this item.

4.9.20 Item 22: Medical expenses (non-institutional): This includes expenditure which were incurred on medical treatment not as an in-patient of a medical institution. This includes expenses on medicine, clinical tests, X-ray, pathological tests, payments made to doctor, nurse, etc., on account of professional fees. Expenditure on family planning appliances such as IUD, oral pills, condoms, diaphragm, spermicide. Expenditure incurred on MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) may be recorded against here if hospitalization is not necessary. Similarly, hiring charges for ambulance may be recorded here if hospitalization is not necessary. Reference period for medical expenses (non-institutional) is 30 days.

Value of consumption during last 365 days

4.9.21 Item 24: Medical expenses (institutional): This includes expenditure which were incurred on medical treatment as an in-patient of a medical institution. Expenditure incurred on MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) may be recorded against here if hospitalization is necessary. Similarly, hiring charges for ambulance may be recorded here if hospitalization is necessary. Expenditure incurred for clinical tests, X-ray, etc. will be recorded against this item if hospitalization was necessary.

4.9.22 Item 25: Tuition fees and other fees: It also includes fees paid to educational institutions (e.g., schools, colleges, universities, etc.) on account of tuition (inclusive of minor items like game fees, fan fees, etc.) and payment to private tutor. Occasional payments to the school fund made on account of charities provided for indigent students and 'donations' generally will not be included here as these are regarded as transfer payments.

4.9.23 Item 26: School books and other educational articles: Expenditure on all kinds of books, magazines, journals, etc., including novels and other fiction will be covered under this item. Expenditure on Internet other than telephone charges will also be covered here. Besides these, expenses on library charges, stationery, etc., will also be covered here.

4.9.24 Item 27: Clothing and bedding: In this item, information on value of consumption of all items of clothing and bedding during the last 365 days will be collected. When any garment is sewn at home by a household member, its value will be equal to the value of cloth only. No labour charges for sewing of the garment need be included unless the sample household itself is running a tailoring shop. Similarly, for a quilt made at home of which the materials (viz., cloth, stuffing, cotton, thread, etc.) were purchased the value of the materials used will be shown against this item. All second-hand clothing items, like dhoti, saree, ready-made garments, etc., purchased and brought into first-use will be recorded against this item.

4.9.25 Durables goods (items 29 to 37): Information on expenditure incurred for purchase and cost of raw materials and services for construction and repairs of durable goods for domestic use during the last 365 days will be collected in items 29 to 37. Expenditure will include both cash and kind. Purchase will include both first-hand and second-hand purchase. Only if some expenditure is incurred towards purchase of an item, may be in cash or kind or both, the item will be considered as purchased. Expenditure incurred on purchase of durable goods for giving gifts will also be included. In case of credit/ hire-purchase, the actual expenditure made during the reference period will be recorded.

4.9.26 It should be noted that the purchase of residential building and land, whether first-hand or second-hand, should not be entered in item 37, since such purchases are considered capital expenditure on real estate. Any new construction of building is also an expense on capital account and should not be entered in item 37. The total expenditure incurred by the household towards repairs and maintenance of dwelling unit (only) during the reference period would be entered against item 37.

4.9.27 Investigators should not spend too much time for filling up the worksheet. Unless the respondents themselves ask for clarifications, they are not to ask about quantities consumed item by item to arrive at sub-total figure. The idea is to fill up the worksheet in about half an hour per household. Experience shows that one can obtain a fair enough estimate of household consumer expenditure in half an hour per household.

4.9.28 In case both Schedule 1.0 (Type 1) and Schedule 10 are canvassed in the same household, then the entries in the worksheet (Block 9) of Schedule 10 for item groups 1 to 22 (which has a reference period of last 30 days) and 24 to 37 (which has a reference period of last 365 days) will be obtained from the corresponding items of Schedule 1.0 (Type 1). On the other hand, if Schedule 1.0 (Type 2) and Schedule 10 are canvassed in the same household, then the entries in the worksheet for item groups 1 to 22 and 24 to 37 of Schedule 10 will be copied from the corresponding items bearing same reference period obtained for Schedule 1.0 (Type 2). For the other items, for which the reference period is different, the information in the worksheet of Schedule 10 will be collected afresh from the household corresponding to the reference period for these item groups.

4.10.0 Block 10: Remarks by investigator: Any remark which is considered necessary for explaining any peculiarity in the consumption pattern of the household or any other item-specific unusual feature of the household or of any member thereof will be noted here. Such remarks will help in understanding the entries made in different blocks of the schedule, especially when any entry is numerically very high or very low or entry is unusual.

4.11.0 Block 11: Comments by supervisory officer(s): The supervisory officers should note their views on any aspect pertaining to the characteristics under enquiry in this schedule relating to the household or any member thereof.

4.12.0 Some Important Clarifications for determining activity status:

1. Production of primary goods for own consumption is considered as economic activity. It may be noted that 'production of agricultural goods for own consumption' covers all activities up to and including stages of thrashing and storing of produce.
2. Engagement in domestic duties by a member of the household is not considered economic activity but the domestic duties performed by the domestic servant staying in the employer's household and taking food from the common kitchen and thereby being a member of the household is to be considered as an economic activity, as a special case. Activity status code 31 will be assigned to domestic servants.
3. Free collection for sale' will be treated as self-employment. In the case of primary products in the agricultural sector, even if the products collected are not for sale but for household consumption, persons engaged in these activities will be considered as self-employed. If the products collected relate to agricultural sector, the NIC-2004 section will be 'A' and for other goods like rag, waste paper, tins, etc., the NIC-2004 section will be 'G'.
4. A disabled person/ pensioner will be considered as 'employed' according to usual principal status if he/she is engaged in an economic activity for a relatively long time during the reference year. He/she will be treated as unemployed if reported to be seeking/available for work for a relatively long time during the reference year, and not as a disabled person/pensioner.
5. Any person carrying out domestic duty for major part of the day and additionally doing some economic activity for three/ four hours in a day, both on a regular basis, will be considered as engaged in domestic duties according to the usual principal status. Similarly, a pensioner/ student doing agricultural activities in household agricultural enterprise for three/ four hours in a day, his usual principal activity status will be pensioner/ student, and not worker in the usual principal status. However, according to the usual status considering principal status and subsidiary status together, they will be considered as worker.
6. Sometimes it is found that a regular student is currently on live register of the Employment Exchange and such a situation creates confusion in deciding his usual activity status. Normally, the person will be categorised as a student. But before categorising him/her as a student, further probes should be made as to whether he/she will give up his/her studies the moment he/she gets a job. If it is found that he/she will leave his studies to take up the type of job for which he/she has registered, he/she will be considered as unemployed.
7. Current weekly activity status of a student/ disabled person/ pensioner/person engaged in domestic duties will be 'employed' if he/she is engaged in an economic activity for at least 1 hour on any day during the reference week (i.e at least 0.5 intensity against any of the activity status codes 11 to 72 in column 14 of block 5.3).
8. A Government servant who is on extraordinary leave or suspended, his/her usual principal status code will be 31. Other economic activities pursued by him/her during the period will not be considered for determining his usual principal activity status but those activities will be considered as subsidiary economic activities.
9. According to the current status approach, for a regular salaried/wage employee, activity status code 31 is to be given on holidays and code 71/72 for the days he is on leave depending on the reason. Additional economic activity carried out on these days by a regular wage/ salaried employee will not be considered to determine his current daily status, e.g., for a Govt. employee who is on leave for 1 week and does agricultural activity during that week, his current daily status code for all the 7 days of the week will be 72.
10. According to the current status approach, for a self-employed person, activity status code 11 is to be given on holidays or weekly-off days and code 61 or 62 for the days he is on leave depending on the reason.
11. If a casual worker works for 4 days in a week and remains without work for the other 3 days, then for the days he did not work, his current activity status codes will be 81, 82 or any of 91 to 98 depending upon the situation on those days.
12. For regular salaried/wage employees on leave or holiday, the 'operation' will relate to their respective function in the work or job from which he is temporarily off in view of his taking leave or holiday. Similarly for persons categorised 'self-employed' (status codes 11, 12 and 21) if they are not at work on a particular day inspite of their having work on that day, operation to be recorded will relate to the work they would have done if they had not enjoyed leisure on that day.
13. If a person performed 3 economic activities in a day then number of hours spent on each activity is to be considered to assign intensity for the different activities.
a. If only 1 of the activities is done for 4 hours or more, 1.0 intensity to be given for that activity.
b. If any of the 2 activities are done for 4 hours or more, then 0.5 intensity is to be given to each of these two activities.
c. If all activities are done for more than 4 hours then two of the activities by major time criteria (MTC) will be given intensity 0.5.
d. If all the activities are performed for less than 4 hours but the total is more than 4 hours then 2 activities by MTC will be assigned 0.5 intensity.
e. If all the activities are performed for less than 4 hours and the total is less than 4 hours but more than 1 hour, then 1 activity by MTC will be assigned 0.5 intensity.
14. If a person is engaged in 2 economic activities each of less than 1 hour duration but the total duration is 1 to 4 hours, then one of the activities will be assigned intensity 0.5 by MTC.
15. When a female casual labourer reports that she is not able to work due to pregnancy, she will be treated as 'casual labour not working due to sickness' and will be given current activity code 98.
16. Exchange labour will be considered as 'self-employed'. But a regular employee, on holiday or while on leave, working as 'exchange labour', will be assigned status code 31/71/72. On the other hand, a casual labourer working as 'exchange labour' on some days will be categorized as 'self-employed' for those days.
17. The 'meal carriers' (who collects meals from respective households and delivers the same at various offices), 'night watchmen' of a locality, 'cowherd', etc., are normally employed by a group of households on a regular monthly wage. The 'activity status' of such workers will be the same as that of maid servant/male servant, etc., i.e., 'wage/salaried employee'.
18. Carpenters, masons, plumbers, etc., who in their professional rounds, move from place to place in search of work and carry out the work on contract basis whenever work is available will be considered as own account worker. But if such persons are working on a wage basis or so under a contractor or for a household, they will be considered as regular salaried/wage employee.
19. Unpaid apprentices will be treated as 'students' while paid apprentices will be treated as employees.
20. Persons under 'paid lay-off' will be considered 'employed'. Those under 'unpaid lay off' will not be considered as employed and they will be considered 'unemployed' if they are seeking and/or available for work. Persons who are under lay-off without any payment from the establishment but gets some benefits from other sources because of the lay-off will not be considered as worker.
21. MPs and MLAs will be considered as regular salaried worker. Party functionaries not getting salaries are not to be considered as economically active if they are not engaged in any other economic activity.
22. A porter/ coolie in their professional rounds in search of jobs contracts with several clients for the amount of remuneration depending upon the quantity and volume of goods to be carried for a given distance. Thus in a day, he/ she, in fact, serves several clients and generally, possess some tangible assets to perform these activities. Moreover, they decide the scale of operation of their own. In view of this, a porter/ coolie may be considered as self-employed and may be given the industry code 93093 as per NIC-2004.
23. Renting of machinery and equipment, building for residential or non-residential purposes is considered as economic activity, if those are performed as a business activity, for which substantial amount of time is spent.

[Two tables omitted]