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Section Five


[India 1993]
Schedule - 10: Employment and Unemployment

Introduction

[5.00 to 5.0.4 are not presented here.]

[p.4]
Concepts and Definitions

5.0.5 Economic activity: Any activity that results in production of goods and services that adds value to national product is considered as economic activity. Such activities include production of all goods and services for market i.e. production for pay or profit and the production of primary commodities for own consumption and own account production of fixed assets, among the non-market activities.

The entire spectrum of human activity falls into two categories economic and non-economic activities. The economic activities have two parts - market activities and non-market activities. Market activities are those that involve remuneration to those who perform it i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. These are essentially production of goods and services for the market including those of government services etc. Non-market activities are the production for own consumption of primary products including own account processing of primary products and own account production of fixed assets.

The full spectrum of economic activities as defined in the UN system of National Accounts is not covered in the definition adopted for the NSS 50th round survey of Employment and Unemployment. In this round the term ' economic activity' will include:

(i) All the market activities described above i.e. the activities performed for money or profit which result in production of goods and services for exchange.

(ii) Of the non-market activities,
(a) All the activities relating to the agricultural sector (industry section O of the NIC 1987) which result in production (including gathering of uncultivated crops, forestry, collection of firewood hunting, fishing etc.) of agricultural produce for own consumption

and

(b) The activities relating to the own-account production of fixed assets. Own account production of fixed assets include construction of own houses, roads, wells etc., and of machinery, tools etc., for household enterprise and also construction of any private or community facilities free of charge. A person may be engaged in own account construction either in the capacity of a labour or a supervisor.

The definition is much closer to the concept of the gainful activity used till now in the NSS. The difference in the definition of economic activity now introduced and the concept of gainful activity used earlier is the inclusion of own account production of fixed assets in the present survey. It is to be noted that like in earlier rounds, the activities like prostitution, begging, smuggling etc. which may result in earnings, by convention, will not be considered as economic activities.

5.0.6 Activity status: It is the activity situation in which a person is found during a reference period which concerns with the person's participation in economic and non-economic activities. According to this, a person will be in one or a combination of the following three statuses during a reference period:

(i) Working or being engaged in economic activity (work) as defined in para 5.0.5,

(ii) Being not engaged in economic activity (work) and either making tangible efforts to seek 'work' or being available for 'work' if the 'work' is available and

(iii) Being not engaged in any economic activity (work) and also not available for 'work'.

Activity statuses mentioned in (i) and (ii) above are associated with 'being in labour force' and the last with 'not being in the labour force'. Within the labour force activity status (i) is associated with 'employment' and that of (ii) with 'unemployment'.

Identification of each individual into a unique situation poses a problem when more than one of the three activity statuses listed above concurrently obtain for a person. In such an eventuality, the identification uniquely under any one of the three activity statuses is done by adopting either the major time or priority criterion. The former is used for classification of persons under 'usual activity status' and the latter for classification of persons under 'current activity status'. The three major activity statuses have been further sub-divided into several detailed activity categories. If a person is categorised as engaged in economic/non-economic activity, by adopting one of the two criteria mentioned above, is found to be pursuing more than one economic/non-economic activity during the reference period, the appropriate detailed status code will relate to the activity in which relatively more time has been spent. The categories under each of the three major activity statuses used in the survey are:

(i) Working or being engaged in economic activity (employed):
(a) Worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as an own-account worker
(b) Worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as an employer
(c) Worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as 'helper'
(d) Worked as regular salaried/wage employee
(e) Worked as casual wage labour in public works
(f) Worked as casual wage labour in other types of works
(g) Did not work due to sickness though there was work in household enterprise
(h) Did not work due to other reasons though there was work in household enterprise
(i) Did not work due to sickness but had regular salaried/ wage employment
(j) Did not work due to other reasons but had regular salaried wage employment
(ii) Dot working but seeking or available for work (unemployed) :
(a) Sought work
(b) Did not seek but was available for work
(iii) Not working and also not available for work (not in labour force) :
(a) Attended educational institution
(b) Attended domestic duties only
(c) Attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods, tailoring, weaving etc. for household use
(d) Recipients of rent, pension, remittance, etc.
(e) Not able to work due to disability
(f) Beggars, prostitutes etc.
(g) Others
(h) Did not work due to sickness (for casual workers only).
[p.7]
5.0.7 Workers (or employed): Persons who are engaged in any economic activity or who, despite their attachment to economic activity, have abstained from work for reason of illness, injury or other physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions or other contingencies necessitating temporary absence from work constitute workers. Unpaid helpers who assist in the operation of an economic activity in the household farm or non-farm activities are also considered as workers. All the workers are assigned one of the detailed activity statuses under the broad activity category 'working or being engaged in economic activity'.

5.0.8 Seeking or available for work (or unemployed) : Persons, who owing to lack of work, had not worked but either sought work through employment exchanges, intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or expressed their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing condition of work and remunerations are considered as those who are ' seeking or available for work'(or unemployed).

5.0.9 Labour force : Persons who are either 'working' (or employed) or 'seeking or available for work' (or unemployed) during the reference period together constitute the labour force. Persons who are neither 'working' and at the same time nor 'seeking or available for work' for various reasons during the reference period are considered to be 'out of labour force'. The persons under this category are students, those engaged in domestic duties, rentiers, pensioners, recipients of remittances, those living on alms, infirm or disabled persons, too young or too old persons, prostitutes, smugglers etc. and casual labourers not working due to sickness.

5.0.10 Self-employed in household enterprises: Persons who operates their own farm or non-farm enterprises or are engaged independently in a profession or trade on own-account or with one or a few partners are self-employed in household enterprises. The essential feature of self-employment is that the remuneration is determined wholly or mainly by sales or profits of the goods or services which are being produced. In the case of 'putting out' system where part of a job is performed in different household enterprises, persons will be considered as self-employed if they have some tangible or intangible means of production and their work is a kind of enterprise of them and the fee or remuneration really consists of two parts viz., the share of their labour and the profit of the enterprises. The self-employed persons may again be categories into the following three groups:

[p.8]

(i) Own-account workers: They are the self-employed who operate their enterprises on their own account or with one or a few partners and who during the reference period by and large, run their enterprise without hiring any labour. They may, however, have unpaid helpers to assist them in the activity of the enterprise.

(ii) Employers: The self-employed persons who work on their own account or with one or a few partners and by and large run their enterprise by hiring labour are the employers and

(iii) Helpers in household enterprise: The helpers are a category of self-employed persons mostly family members who keep themselves engaged in their household enterprises, working full or part time and do not receive any regular salary or wages in return for the work performed. They do not run the household enterprise on their own but assist the related person living in the same household in running the household enterprise. This is a departure from the definition of 'helpers' adopted in the employment unemployment surveys of the earlier rounds. Persons who worked in the capacity of 'helpers' but had a share in the family earning were not considered as 'helpers' till the NSS 43rd round. Such persons also will now be considered as 'helpers'.

5.0.11 Regular salaried/wage employee: Persons working in others farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return salary or wages on a regular basis (and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract) are the regular salaried/wage employees. The category not only includes persons getting time wage but also persons receiving piece wage or salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part-time.

5.0.12 Casual wage labour: A person casually engaged in others farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return wage according to the terms of the daily or periodic work contract a casual wage labour. Usually, in the rural areas, a type of casual labourers can be seen who normally engage themselves in 'public works' activities.

'Public works' are those activities which are sponsored by Government or local bodies for construction of roads, bunds, digging of ponds etc. as 'test relief' measures (like flood relief, drought relief, famine relief, etc.) and also employment generation scheme under poverty alleviation programmes (NREP, RLEGP, etc.).

5.0.13 Manual work: A job essentially involving physical labour is considered as manual work. However, jobs essentially involving physical labour but also requiring a certain level of general, professional, scientific or technical education are not to be termed as 'manual work'. On the other hand, jobs not involving much of physical labour and at the same time not requiring much educational (general, scientific, technical or otherwise) background are to be treated as 'manual work'. Thus, engineers, doctors, dentists, midwives, etc., are not considered manual workers even though their jobs involve some amount of physical labour. But, peons, chowkidars, watchman, etc. are considered manual workers even though their work might not involve much physical labour. Manual work has been defined as work pursued in one or more of the following occupational groups of the National Classification of Occupations (1968):

Division 5 - Service workers:

[p.9]

Group 52: Cooks, waiters, bartenders and related workers (domestic and institutional).
Group 53: Maid and other housekeeping service workers (not elsewhere classified).
Group 54: Building caretakers, sweepers, cleaners and related workers.
Group 55: Launders, dry cleaners and pressers.
Group 56: Hair dressers, barbers, beauticians and related worker.
Family 570: Fire fighters
Family 574: Watchmen, gate keepers
Family 579: Protective service workers not elsewhere classified.

Division 6 - Farmers, fishermen, hunters, loggers and related workers:

Group 63: Agricultural labourers
Group 64: Plantation labourers and related workers
Group 65: Other farm workers
Group 66: Forestry workers
Group 67: Hunters and related workers
Group 68: Fishermen and related workers.

Division 7-8-9 - Production and related workers, Transport equipment operators and labourers:

All groups excluding group 85 (electrical fitters and related workers) and group 86 (broadcasting station and sound equipment operators and cinema projectionists).

5.0.14 Rural Labour: Manual labour (living in rural areas) working in agricultural and /or non-agricultural occupations in return for wages paid either in cash or in king (excluding exchange labour) will be taken as rural labour.

5.0.15 Agricultural labour: A person will be considered to be engaged as agricultural labour, if he/she follows one or more of the following agricultural occupations in the capacity of a wage paid manual labour, whether paid in cash or kind or both :

(i) Farming,
(ii) Dairy farming,
(iii) Production of any horticultural commodity,
(iv) Raising of livestock, bees or poultry,
(v) Any practice performed on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm operations (including forestry and timbering) and the preparation for market and delivery to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm produce.
[p.10]
Working in fisheries is excluded from agricultural labour. Further, 'carriage for transportation' refers only to the first stage of the transport from farm to the first place of disposal.

5.0.16 Wage paid-manual labour: A person who does manual work in return for wages in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind (excluding exchange labour) is a wage paid manual labour. Salaries are also to be counted as wages. A person who is self-employed in manual work is not treated as a wage paid manual labour.

5.0.17 Usual activity status: The usual activity status relates to the activity status of a person during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The activity status on which a person spent relatively longer time (major time criterion) during the 365 days preceding the date of survey is considered the principal usual activity status of the person. To decide the principal usual activity of a person, he/she is first categorised as belonging to the labour force or not, during the reference period on the basis of major time criterion. Persons thus adjudged as not belonging to the labour force are assigned the broad activity status 'neither working nor available for work'. For the persons belonging to the labour force, the broad activity status of either 'working' or not working but seeking and/or available for work' is then ascertained again on the basis of the relatively longer time spent in the labour force during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. Within the broad activity status so determined, the detailed activity status category of a person pursuing more than one such activity will be determined again on the basis of the relatively longer time spent.

5.0.18 Subsidiary economic activity status: A person whose principal usual status is determined on the basis of the major time criterion may have pursued some economic activity for a relatively shorter time (minor time) during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The status in which such economic activity is pursued is the subsidiary economic activity status of the person. In case of multiple subsidiary economic activities, the status of the activity in which relatively longer time has been spent will be considered. It may be noted that engagement in work in subsidiary capacity may arise out of the two following situations:

(i) A person may be engaged for a relatively longer period during the last 365 days in economic/non-economic activity and for a relatively shorter period in another economic activity and

(ii) A person may be pursuing one economic activity/ non-economic activity almost throughout the year in the principal usual activity status and also simultaneously pursuing another economic activity for a relatively shorter period in a subsidiary capacity.
[p.11]
5.0.19 Current weekly activity status: The current weekly activity status of a person is the activity status in which a person is found during a reference period of 7 days preceding the date of survey. It is decided on the basis of a certain priority cum major time criterion. According to the priority criterion, the status of 'working' gets priority over the status of 'not working but seeking or available for work' which in turn gets priority over the status of 'neither working nor available for work'. A person is considered working (or employed)) if he/she, while pursuing any economic activity, had worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the 7 days preceding the date of survey. A person is considered 'seeking or available for work (or unemployed)' if during the reference week no economic activity was pursued by the person but he/she made efforts to get work or had been available for work any time during the reference week though not actively seeking work in the belief that no work was available. A person who had neither worked nor was available for work any time during the reference week, is considered to be engaged in non-economic activities (or not in labour force). Having decided the broad current weekly activity status of a person on the basis of 'priority' criterion, the detailed current activity status is again decided on the basis of 'major time' criterion if a person is pursuing multiple economic activities.

5.0.20 Current daily activity: The activity pattern of the population, particularly in the unorganised sector, is such that a person might be pursuing more than one activity during a week and sometimes during a day. Many people might undertake both economic and non-economic activities on the same day of a reference week. The current daily activity status for a person is determined on the basis of his/her activity status on each day of the reference week using a priority-cum-major time criterion (day to day labour time deposition). Each day of the reference week is looked upon as comprising of either two 'half days' or a 'full' day for assigning the activity status. A person is considered 'working' (employed) for the entire day if he/she had worked for 4 hours or more during the day. If a person was engaged in more than one of the economic activities for four hours or more on a day, he/she would be assigned two out of the different economic activities on which he/she devoted relatively longer time on the reference day (for each of those two activities, the intensity will be 0.5). If the person had worked for 1 hour or more but less than 4 hours he/she is considered 'working' (employed) for half-day and 'seeking or available for work' (unemployed) or 'neither seeking nor available for work' (not in labour force) for the other half of the day depending on whether he was seeking/available for work or not. On the other hand, if a person was not engaged in any 'work' even for 1 hour on a day but was seeking/available for work even for 4 hours or more, he is considered 'unemployed' for the entire day. But if he was 'seeking/available for work' for more than 1 hour and less than 4 hours only, he is considered 'unemployed' for half day and 'not in labour force' for the other half of the day. A person who neither had any 'work' to do nor was available for 'work' even for half a day was considered 'not in labour force' for the entire day and is assigned one or two of the detailed non-economic activity status depending upon the activities pursued during the reference day.

5.0.21 Principal industry - occupation of the household: To determine the principal industry-occupation of the household, the general rule to be followed is to list all the gainful occupations pursued by the members of the household during the period of 365 days preceding the date of survey, no matter whether such occupations were pursued by the members as their principal or subsidiary (on the basis of income) occupations. Out of the occupations listed, the one which fetched the maximum earnings to the household in the reference year will be considered as the principal household occupation. The industry in which this principal occupation is pursued by one or more members of the household will usually be the household industry. But it may so happen that this principal occupation is pursued by more than one member and they do so in different industries. In such a case, the industry which fetched the maximum earnings should be considered as the principal industry. In extreme cases, the earnings may be equal in two occupations or in two industry - occupation combinations. By convention, in such cases, priority will be given to the occupation or industry-occupation combination of the senior most among the participating members.

[p.12]
5.0.22 Operation: It is the type of work performed by a person during a reference period such as manual, non-manual, agricultural, non-agricultural etc. Operation has been combined with activity status and industry corresponding to the work performed. Information regarding the type of operation is collected only for rural areas and relating to current status only. The different types of operations are - ploughing, sowing, transporting, weeding, harvesting, others (manual) and others (non-manual). In the last two cases the sector in which the work is performed is indicated by the industry. It may be noted, that for 'regular salaried/wage employees' on leave or on holiday the 'operation' relates to their respective function in the work or job from which he/she is temporarily off. Similarly, for persons categorised as 'self-employed' but not working on a particular day in spite of having work on that day, the operation will relate to the work that he/she would have done if he/she had not enjoyed leisure on that day.

5.0.23 Skill: Any marketable expertise however, acquired, irrespective of whether marketed or not, whether the intention is to market it or not is considered as skill. Thus, a person holding a certificate or diploma on an appropriate subject will be considered to possess the specified skill along with the persons who have acquired the said skill without receiving any such certificate or even without attending any institution. When a person has acquired skill in more than one trade, the skill in which he is more (most) proficient is considered as his/her skill.

5.0.24 Nominal work : Work done by a person for 1 - 2 hours in a day of the 7 days reference week is said to be a day with nominal work for the person. In the day to day labour time disposition of the reference week, such a days work is considered to be 'half-days' work (and it gets half intensity while accounting).

5.0.25 Earning Earnings refer to the wage/salary income (and not total earnings) receivable for the wage/salaried work done during the reference week by the wage/salaried employees and casual labourers. The wage/salary receivable may be in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. The kind wages are evaluated at the current retail price. Bonus and perquisites evaluated at retail prices and duly apportioned for the reference week are also included in earnings. However, amount receivable as 'over-time' for the additional work done beyond normal working time is ignored.

5.0.26 Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops and related ancillary activities are considered as cultivation. Growing of trees, plants or crops as plantation or orchards (such as rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, tea etc.) are not considered as cultivation activities for the purpose of this survey. In general, the activities covered under industry groups 00 - 008 to be considered as cultivation.

[p.13]
Details of Schedule

5.0.27 Block 0: Description of identification of sample household:
This block is meant for recording descriptive identification particulars of the sample household and the sample village/block to which the sample household. The items are the same as that of Sch.1.0, therefore for the field instructions please refer to para 4.0.4 of Section Four.

5.1.0 Block 1: Identification of sample household: The identification particulars of the sample household will be recorded in this block. The instructions to be followed will be the same as those given in paragraphs 4.1.1 to 4.1.7.
However, the following points may be borne in mind:

(i) In item 'survey sequence' (item-14), code to be recorded will be 1 if Schedule 10 is canvassed first and it will be 2, if Schedule 10 is canvassed after canvassing Schedule 1.0 in the sample household.

(ii) In item 'response code' (item-16), the description for code 5 will be 'fatigue due to responses given for Schedule 1.0'.

5.2.0 Block 2: Particulars of field operations: The instructions to be followed for filling in this block will be same as discussed in paragraph 4.2.0.

5.3.0 Block 3: Household Characteristics: Items 1 to 20 of schedule 10 are similar to that of schedule 1.0. Therefore, for field instruction for these items for schedule 10 refer to paragraphs 4.3.1.1 to 4.3.1.14 of Section 4.

5.3.1 Items 21 and 22 : no. of members who got work for at least 60 days in 'public works' during last 365 days : It will be first ascertained if any member of the household got any work for at least 60 days during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey in 'public works'. The scope of 'public works' is as explained in para 5.0.12. The number of male and female members who got work in 'public works' will be recorded in items 21 and 22, respectively. If no member got any such work '0' will be recorded against the item.

5.3.2 Item 23: Did the household receive any assistance during the last 5 years from IRDP: The answer will be recorded in term of codes as given below :

1. No
2. Yes: milch animal
3. Yes: draught animal
4. Yes: sheep/goat
5. Yes: pump sets
6. Yes: for fish pond
7. Yes: for sewing machine
9. Others

In case a household has received assistance of more than one kind, the code corresponding to the one which has the highest value may be given.

[p.14]
5.4.0 Block 4: Demographic and usual activity particulars:

This block is meant to record the demographic particulars like sex, age, marital status etc. and usual activity particulars including both principal and subsidiary activity statuses along with the industry-occupation, for each member of the household. The description of the items and the procedure for recording them are explained below:

5.4.1 Column (1): Serial number: All the normally resident members of the sample household will be listed in this block with continuous serial nos. starting from 1 in this column while listing the head of the household will be listed first, followed by his/her spouse, the first son, his wife and children, second son, his wife and children etc. After the sons are listed, the daughters will be listed followed by other relations, dependent, servants, etc. For definitions of 'household' and 'normally resident members' of the household see para 2.0.8.

5.4.2 Column (2): Name of member: the name of the normally resident members corresponding to the serial numbers in column (1) in the order specified above will be entered in column (2).

5.4.3 Column (3): Relation to head: The family relationship of each member of the household to the head of the household will be recorded in codes in this column. The head of the household, who will be listed first, will be given code 1 corresponding to 'self'.
The codes to be used to indicate various relationships are as follows:

1. Self
2. Spouse of head
3. Married child
4. Spouse of married child
5. Unmarried child
6. Grandchild
7. Father/mother/father-in-law/mother-in-law
8. Brother/sister/brother-in-law/sister-in-law/other relatives
9. Servants/employees/other non-relatives

5.4.4 Column (4): Sex: The sex of each member of the household will be recorded as 1 or 2 depending on whether the member is a male or female.

5.4.5 Column (5): age (years): Age of each member in completed years as on the date of survey will be entered in this column, in a two digit formation. Thus, a child who is less than a year old will have an entry '00' and a person who is 35 years and 10 months will have entry '35'. If any person is found to be more than 99 years, old, his/her age will be recorded as '99'.

5.4.6 Column (6): Marital status (code): The marital status of each member will be recorded in this column in codes. The codes for different marital statuses are as follows:

1. Never married
2. Currently married
3. Widowed
4. Divorced/separated

[p. 15]
5.4.7 Educational standard: Information on highest general and technical education attained by the members of the household will be recorded in terms of codes in column (7) and column (8), respectively. For the purpose of making entries in these two columns, only the course successfully completed will be considered. For instance for a person who has studied up to say, first year B.A. or has failed in the final B.A. examination, his educational attainment will be considered only as 'higher secondary', for the purpose of column (7).

5.4.7.1 Column (7): General : In column (7), the highest level of general education of the members will be recorded in codes which are given below:

01. Not literate
02. Literate through attending NFEC/AEC
03. Literate through attending TLC
04. Literate through attending others
05. Literate but below primary
06. Primary
07. Middle
08. Secondary
09. Higher secondary
10. Graduate and above in agriculture
11. Graduate and above in engineering/technology
12. Graduate and above in medicine
13. Graduate and above in other subjects

A person who can read and write a simple message in any language with understanding is considered literate. Those who cannot do so will be treated as not literate and will be assigned code 01. Some persons achieve literacy by attending Non-formal Education Courses (NFEC) or Adult Education Centres (AEC). Such persons will be given code 02. During the last two years under the National Literacy Mission, in many parts of India, Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) are being organised. Persons who have become literate through attending TLC will be given code 03. Persons who are literate through means other than formal schooling or the two above enumerated ways will be given code 04. Those who are by definition literate but are yet to pass primary standard examination but have attended or are attending formal school classes will be assigned code 05. Codes 06, 07, 08, and 09 will be assigned to those who have passed the appropriate levels. The criteria for deciding primary, middle, secondary etc. levels will be that followed in the concerned states/u.t.'s. A graduate will get one of the codes 10 to 13 depending on the subject in which he/she has graduated. For code 12, medical graduates belonging to school of medicine other than allopathic, are also to be considered. In case the person has graduated in more than one discipline and if more than one of the codes 10 to 13 are applicable, then the following procedure may be followed:

(i) When code 13 as well as one of the codes 10 to 12 are relevant, code 13 will not be considered.

(ii) Where more than one of the codes 10 to 12 are relevant the code indicating the degree last obtained will be considered. Persons who have attained proficiency in languages like Sanskrit, Persian etc. through formal but not the general type of education will be classified appropriately at the equivalent level of general education standard.

[p.16]
5.4.7.2 Column (8): Technical: Technical education standard achieved by the members of the household will be recorded in one of the following codes. (This will be in addition to those covered in col. (7).

1. No technical education
2. Additional diploma or certificate in agriculture
3. Additional diploma or certificate in engineering/technology
4. Additional diploma or certificate in medicine
5. Additional diploma or certificate in crafts
9. Additional diploma or certificate in other subjects

If more than one of the codes 2 to 9 are applicable, the code indicating the diploma/certificate last received will be considered.

5.4.8 Column (9): Current attendance in educational institutions and course of study: For all persons listed in column(1), it will be first ascertained if the person is currently attending any educational institutions (government or private) or not. Persons who are registered for any regular correspondence courses or distance education courses for a stipulated period at the end of which, are allowed to appear in the examination for the course, will also be considered as "currently attending educational institutions". For those who are found currently attending, the course of study pursued by them will be further ascertained. Persons who are not currently attending any educational institutions will be given code 01. For others, codes will be assigned depending on the course of study pursued by them. The code structure for this item is as follows:

01. Currently not attending any educational institution
02. Currently attending NFEC/AEC
03. Currently attending TLC
04. Currently attending pre-primary
05. Currently attending primary
06. Currently attending middle
07. Currently attending secondary and higher secondary
08. Degree course: agriculture
09. Degree course: engineering/technology
10. Degree course: medicine
11. Degree course: other subjects
12. Diploma or certificate course: agriculture
13. Diploma or certificate course: engineering/technology
14. Diploma or certificate course: medicine
15. Diploma or certificate course: crafts
19. Diploma or certificate course: other subjects

[p.17]
5.4.9 Column (11) : Skill : Skill is defined as any marketable expertise and the information as to whether the person has acquired any of the listed skills as on the date of survey is to be recorded in this column. It is not necessary that such skill is acquired in any formal manner nor is it necessary that the person is actually marketing it or intends to market it. When a person has acquired skill in more than one of the listed skills, the skill in which the person is more proficient will be considered. Skill will be recorded irrespective of the level of general and technical education. The list of skills to be considered and the codes to be used are given below.

01. Typist, stenographer
02. Fisherman
03. Miner, quarryman
04. Spinner including charkha operator
05. Weaver
06. Tailor, cutter
07. Shoe-maker, cobbler
08. Carpenter
09. Mason, bricklayer
10. Moulder
11. Machineman
12. Fitter, die-maker
13. Welder
14. Black-smith
15. Goldsmith
16. Silversmith
17. Electrician
18. Repairer of electronic goods
19. Motor vehicle driver, tractor driver
20. Boatman
21. Potter
22. Nurse, midwife
23. Basket maker, wicker product maker
24. Toy maker
25. Brick maker, tile maker
26. Bidi maker
27. Book binder
28. Barber
29. Mud house builder and thatcher
30. Others
99. No skill

5.4.10 Principal usual activity: Information relating to the principal usual activity statuses and the subsidiary economic activity statuses and the corresponding industry-occupations will be collected for each of the members listed in this block in cols (13) - (15). The particulars of usual activity are collected with reference to a period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. The relevant concepts like 'activity statuses',' economic activity', 'principal usual activity', 'subsidiary economic activity' etc. are explained in the beginning of this section under 'concepts and definitions'.

5.4.11 Column (12): Status: For each of the members, the principal usual activity status will be recorded in this column. In the first instance the broad principal usual activity of the person will be identified based on the various activities pursued by the person during the reference period of last 365 days adopting a 'relatively long time (or major time)' criterion, not necessarily for a continuous period. The broad principal usual activity status will be one of the three categories viz. 'employed'(working), 'unemployed' (available for work) or 'not in labour force' (neither willing nor available for work). It is to be noted that in deciding this, only the normal working hours available for pursuing various activities need be considered, and not the 24 hours of a day. Identification of this broad usual status category is explained below. The broad principal usual activity status will be obtained on the basis of a two stage dichotomous classification depending on the major time spent. Persons will be classified in the first stage into (i) those who are engaged in any economic activity (i.e. employed) and / or available for any economic activity (i.e. unemployed) and (ii) who are not engaged and not available for any economic activity i.e., the persons will be first classified as those in the labour force and those not in the labour force depending on in which of these two statuses the person spent major part of the year. In the second stage, those who are found in the labour force will be further classified into working (i.e., engaged in economic activity or employed) and seeking and/or available for work (i.e. unemployed) based on the major time spent. Thus we can obtain the broad principal usual status as one of the three viz. employed, unemployed and out of labour force.
Diagrammatically the procedure is as follows:

[p. 18]
[The diagram is changed into the following:]
During the major time of the ref. year, was the persons working or available for work? [Yes or No]

Yes: Was the major time in labour force spent in "work"? [Yes or No]
Yes: Broad status is "employed"
No: Broad status is "unemployed"
No: Broad status is "not in labour force". [End]

Thus, the procedure followed in the identification of the broad usual status classification is different from the one followed in the past rounds. The following example will help in highlighting the differences as also clarify the procedure.

----------------------------------------------------------------------- person Number of months
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Labour force Not in Principal usual
------------------------labour activity status
Employed Unemployed Force according to 50th
round
----------------------------------------------------------------------- (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
A 5 4 3 Employed
B 4 5 3 Unemployed
C 4 3 5 Employed
D 4 1 7 Not in labour force
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

[p.19]
Note: In case of C as per the procedure followed in past rounds, he would have been categorised as not in labour force whereas he is now categorised as employed.

With the broad category identified for a person, detailed activity status will be assigned on the basis of relatively longer time spent on a detailed activity. For example, suppose A in the example given above worked in household enterprises without hiring labour for 3 months and worked as casual labour for 2 months, then his principal usual activity status would be, worked in household enterprise (own account worker). The detailed principal status activity codes are as given below.

11. Worked in household enterprise (self-employed): own account worker
12. Worked in household enterprise (self-employed): employer
21. Worked as a helper in household enterprise (unpaid family worker)
31. Worked as regular salaried/wage employee
41. Worked as casual wage labour: in public works
51. Worked as casual wage labour: in other types of work
81. Did not seek but was seeking and/or available for work
91. Attended educational institution
92. Attended domestic duties only
93. Attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods (vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle feed etc.) sewing, tailoring, weaving etc., for household use
94. Rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc.
95. Not able to work due to disability
96. Beggars, prostitutes
97. Others

Codes 11, 12, 21, 31, 41 and 51 refer to the 'employed', 81 to the 'unemployed' and the remaining viz. 91 to 97 refer to the 'not in labour force'. Definitions of categories of workers are provided in this section under 'Concepts and Definitions'.

(i) It may be emphasised that the definitions used for describing helper in household enterprises is different from the one used in earlier rounds. It is to be noted that availability for work being more of a status than an activity, a person being available for work may well be engaged in one or more of the activities denoted by codes 91 to 97. In all such cases except those engaged as students (code 91), person swill be categorised as 'unemployed' if he/she reports to be available for work for a relatively longer period, in spite of his/her being engaged simultaneously in a non-economic activity. But if a person who is available for work is reported to have attended educational institution more or less regularly for a relatively longer period during the preceding 365 days, further probing as to whether he will give up the study if the job is available is to be made before considering him as 'unemployed.

(ii) Again, it also needs to be emphasised that the procedure to be followed in ascertaining the activity status of a domestic servant who is a member of the employer's household is different than the procedure adopted for other member of the household. It could be seen from para. 5.0.5 and 5.0.6 that engagement in domestic duties by the member of a household is not considered economic activity as defined for the survey. On the other hand, although a domestic servant staying in the employer's household and taking food from the common kitchen is, by definition, a member of the employer's household, he/she is engaged in domestic duties in return of wages in cash and/or kind. Thus, as a special case, domestic duties pursued by a domestic servant will be considered as an economic activity and the activity status code as is applicable will be assigned to him/her.

[p. 20]
5.4.12 Columns (13)-(15): Principal industry-occupation :Columns (13) to (15) will be filled-in for those who are 'working' i.e. those with any one of codes 11, 12, 21, 31, 41, or 51 in column (12). The description of the industry-occupation relevant to the type of economic activity pursued by the person in the status recorded in col. (12) will be given in col. (13). The corresponding 3 digit industry group code (NIC 1987) and the 3 digit occupation family code (NCO 1968) will be entered in columns (14) and (15), respectively. In case, two or more industry-occupation combinations corresponding to the status code given in column (12) have been reported by a person, the principal industry- occupation will be the one, in which relatively more time has been spent during the preceding 365 days by the person.

5.4.13 Column (16): Place of work: For all persons assigned work status codes i.e., codes 11-51 in col. (12) information on their usual place of work vis-a-vis their place of stay will be collected. First the place of work viz., same village/town or another village or another town will be identified. Thereafter codes will be given according to the distance to be commuted to the place of work. For persons who do not have a fixed place of work like itinerant vendors, hawkers etc., the place of work may be taken same as their place of stay. In the case of taxi-drivers/rickshaw pullers etc. the taxi/rickshaw stand or the garage may be taken as the place of work. The codes to be recorded for various cases are as given below:
Same village/town:

1. distance less than 5 kilometers
2. distance 5-20 kilometers
3. distance 20 kilometers and above

Another village:

4. distance less than 5 kilometers
5. distance 5-20 kilometers
6. distance 20 kilometers and above

Another town:

7. distance less than 5 kilometers
8. distance 5-20 kilometers
9. distance 20 kilometers and above

5.4.14 Column (17): Whether engaged in any work in a subsidiary capacity: For each member of the household listed in this block, it has to be ascertained whether he/she worked in a subsidiary capacity during the 365 days preceding the date of survey or in other words if he had any subsidiary economic status. Code 1 or 2 will be recorded accordingly. The identification of those working in a subsidiary capacity will be done as follows. To illustrate, (i) a person categorised as working and assigned the principal usual activity status as own account worker may also be engaged for a relatively minor time during the reference year as casual wage labour (as in the case of 'A' quoted earlier). In such a case he will be considered to have worked also in a subsidiary capacity i.e. having a subsidiary economic status which is different from the principal economic status. A person may be own account worker in trade for a relatively longer period and simultaneously also engaged in agricultural production for a relatively minor time. In such cases, the principal usual status will be own account worker in trade and subsidiary economic status-own account worker in agriculture (ii) Similarly, persons categorised as 'unemployed' or 'not in labour force' on the basis of relatively long time criterion might have pursued some economic activity for relatively minor time during the year. In such cases, they will be treated as having subsidiary economic status and code 1 will be recorded in column (17). It may be noted that engagement in work in subsidiary capacity may arise out of two situations (i) a person may be engaged in a relatively long period during the 365 days in economic (non-economic activity) and for a relatively minor period in another economic activity (any economic activity), (ii) a person may be pursuing an economic activity (non-economic activity) almost throughout the year in the principal status and also simultaneously pursuing another economic activity (any economic activity) for relatively shorter time in a subsidiary capacity.

[p.21]
5.4.15 Column (18): Status: For persons having code 1 in column (17), the status codes of the economic activities pursued by them in the subsidiary capacity will be recorded in column (18) in terms of codes already specified for col.(12). In cases where a person is found to have pursued more than one type of economic activity in his/her subsidiary capacity, the activity on which more time was spent will be considered for recording the entries in this column. As only economic activity statuses are to be recorded, only codes 11-51 will be applicable.

5.4.16 Column (19)-(21): Industry-occupation: The description of the industry-occupation corresponding to the subsidiary economic activity status recorded in column (18) will be entered in column (19). The relevant 3 digit industry (NIC 1987) and occupation (NCO 1968) codes will be entered in column (20) and column (21), respectively.

5.4.17 Column (22): Place of work: For all persons with subsidiary economic activity i.e. codes 11-51 in column (18), information on their usual place or work vis-a-vis their place of stay will be collected. This will be recorded in the same way as in column (16), described in para 5.4.13.

5.4.18 Column (23): For codes other than 81 in column (12), whether sought/available for work for some period during last 365 days: The principal usual activity status of each person is recorded in column (12). It is to be ascertained from persons whose principal usual activity status was either employed or out of labour force (i.e., other than code 81 in column (12), whether they were seeking/available for work for some period during last 365 days or not. For example, a person may be employed in his/her principal usual activity status based on the majority time criterion. But he/she may have been looking for work for some period. Similarly, a girl may have been looking for job for sometime but subsequently got married and was engaged in the domestic duties. The latter activity might have been pursued for a relatively longer period. In all such cases, one of the codes 1 to 3 will be given in column (23), depending on the period (not necessarily continuous) they were seeking available for work. If a person was not seeking or available for work any time during the preceding 365 days, the appropriate code will be 4. The code structure applicable to column (23) is as given below:
Yes:

1. Less than 1 month
2. 1-3 months
3. 3-6 months

No:

4. No

[p. 22]

5.5.0 Block 5: Time disposition during the week :

This block is meant for recording the time disposition for all the 7 days preceding the date of survey, the current weekly status based on the 7 days time disposition, wage and salary earnings during the week etc. Unlike in the previous quinquennial rounds, time disposition will be recorded for every member in the household listed in block 4. This involves the recording of different activities pursued by the members along with the time intensity in quantitative terms for each day of the reference week. The different activities will be identified and recorded in terms of 'status' and 'industry' codes for persons in urban areas and 'status', 'industry' and 'operation' codes for persons in rural areas. The time intensity will be measured in half-day units. Since a person may be engaged in more than one type of activity on a single day, more than one line have been provided for each person in this block to record information on different activity particulars in separate lines. The status codes which will be used in recording daily activity particulars and the weekly activity particulars are as follows:

(a) Situation of working or being engaged in economic activities (employed)

1. Worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as account worker -11
2. Worked in household enterprise (self-employed) as employer - 12
3. Worked as helper in household enterprise (unpaid family worker) - 21
4. Worked as regular salaried/wage employee - 31
5. Worked as casual wage labour in public works - 41
6. Worked as casual wage labour in other types of work - 51
7. Had work in household enterprise but did not work due to:
(i) Sickness - 61
(ii) Other reasons - 62
8. Had regular salaried wage/employment but did not work due to:
(i) Sickness - 71
(ii) Other reasons - 72

(b) Situation of being not engaged in work but available for work (unemployment)

1. Sought work - 81
2. Did not seek but was available for work - 82

(c) Situation of being not available for work (not in labour force)

1. Attended educational institutional - 91
2. Attended domestic duties only - 92
3. Attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods, sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for household use - 93
4. Rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc - 94
5. Not able to work due disability - 95
6. Beggars, prostitutes, etc. - 96
7. Others - 97
8. Did not work due to sickness (for casual workers only) - 98
[p. 23]
These are same are the usual status codes except that codes 61,62,71,72,82 and 98 are not applicable for usual status and code 81 is used to indicate both the situations of seeking and being available for work. Further, the current weekly activity status for each individual will be identified based on the daily activity status codes. The procedure for doing this will be explained later in this chapter. The following paragraphs described in details the procedure to be followed in making entries in each of the columns.

5.5.1 Columns (1) and (2): Srl. no. and age: In column (1) and (2) of this block, serial number of each person listed in block 4 along with the age corresponding to each serial number will be copied respectively from columns (1) and (5) of block 4. The serial numbers in block 5 will be entered sequentially as they appear in col. (1) of block 4. Provision have been made to record particulars of four persons in one page. Two such pages have been provided. In case more pages are required to accommodate all the persons listed in block 4, additional sheets of block 5 may be used. These sheets should be firmly stapled with the main schedule at the appropriate place.

Since a person may pursue more one activity during the seven days of the reference week, four lines have been provided for each serial number recorded in column (1) for making separate entries relevant to the different activities on a day (two such activities) on different days of the reference week. Past experience indicates that provision of four lines will cover almost all the situations. However, if a person reports more than four different activities during the reference week the block of four lines meant for the next serial number of persons may be utilised by putting cross (x) marks in columns (1) and (2) and continuous serial numbers in column (3). Obviously, the particulars of the next person will be entered in the cell meant for serial number of persons subsequent to the cell already utilised for the previous person.*

5.5.2 Column (3): Serial no. of activity: For each persons listed in column (1) of this block (which will be same as listed in column (1) of block 4) the different activities pursued by them during all the seven days of the reference week will be serially numbered and this serial number of activity will be recorded in column (3). Presuming that the likelihood of one person pursuing more than four different activities in a week is rather remote, only four lines are provided for each person. As stated earlier, if a person pursues more than four different activities, the lines meant for the next person may be utilised. The current activity of a person in the rural areas is denoted by his states-cum-industry-cum-operation. Thus for a person with the same status, if the industry (at the section level) or operation are different on the same or different days, he will be considered to have pursued different activities and these activities will be entered in different lines. Similarly for the urban (are as the current activity of a person is denoted by his status -cum-industry.Thus, if *In the case of children 0-4 years their particulars will be entered in status code 97 will be assigned to them with intensity 1.0 without any probing.) areas the current activity of a person is denoted by his status-cum-industry. Thus, if a person ploughs his own field in the first half of the day and sows in the second half of the day for urban areas, he will be considered to have only one activity during the day. But for rural areas, he will be considered to have two activities.

[p. 24]

5.5.3 Column (4): Status: The current activity 'status' codes corresponding to the serial number of activity entered in column (3) will be recorded in this column. Although it may be theoretically possible that on a particular day of the reference week, a person may have any number of activities, the particulars relating to two activities identified on the basis of priority cum major time criterion need only be considered for making entries in this column. Thus, on a day, a person may either have only one activity with 'full' intensity or two activities with 'half' intensity for each. If the activity is pursued with intensity 'half' on a particular day, the entry will be 0.5 against that activity and if that is pursued with intensity more than half, 1.0 will be recorded against that activity in the relevant columns (7) - (13). Generally, an activity which is pursued for more than one hour but less than 4 hours is considered to have been pursued with half intensity. If, it is pursued for more than 4 hours, the activity is considered to have been pursued with full intensity. However, for some persons, less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession. In such cases he will be considered to have worked with full intensity. The decision whether the intensity to be recorded for an activity will be 0.5 or 1.0 has to be taken by the investigating staff making careful probes into the actual situation obtaining for the person on a particular day. Mere declaration made by the informants, that less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession, should not be the basis for recording the intensity as 1.0. In the case of a cultivator, a village artisan or a small trader, it should not be presumed that a few hours on a day, say during the lean periods of the year is their normal work, and the intensity 1.0 need not necessarily be recorded for them. Since the particular block of the schedule is meant for recording the information on periodical or seasonal under utilisation of available labour time, careful probes about the nature of work performed by a person during the day has to be made before recording the relevant entries. To illustrate, in so far as the daily activity pattern of a person is concerned, the following seven different situations can be visualised, (i) on a single day a person may be engaged fully in one economic activity (ii) on a single day a person may be engaged in two different types of economic activities; (iii) on a single day a person may be partly engaged in economic activity and for the rest of the time he may be seeking or available for work and at the same time may or may not be engaged in some non-economic activities (iv) on a single day a person may be partly engaged in economic activity and during the rest of the time he may but be available for work for the whole day and at the same time may or may not be doing some non-economic activities; (v) on a single day a person may be available for work for the entire day; (vi) on a single day a person may be available for work for part of the day and for the remaining part he may not be available for work and may be pursuing some non-economic activity and (vii) on a single day a persons may be fully engaged in non-economic activities. Which of the status codes are to be entered in column (4) will depend on whichever of the above situations are obtaining for a person on the different days of the reference week. The investigator is to first ascertain the exact situation from the informant and will record the appropriate status code or codes, as the case may be in this column using the priority-cum-major time criterion. The relevant codes to be used for recording the status are given in para. 5.5.0. In case more than one 'non-economic activity status' (codes 91-98) are assignable to a person in view of the typical activity pattern followed by him/her during the reference period the activity which appears first in the code list in the ascending order starting from 91 will be assigned. But it may be noted that a person engaged in 'domestic duties' should not be classified as 'student' simply because he/she was attending some training. Similarly, a disabled person who was a recipient of regular pensions remittances etc. should be classified as 'rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients etc. and not as the category 'not able to work due to disability' (code 95). The following illustrations may be noted for general guidance.

(a) A person found to be engaged in domestic duties should not be categorised 'engaged in domestic duties' (code 92) if the person reports that he/she has also been available for work concurrently.

(b) A person engaged in regular wage/salaried employment but currently not at work will be assigned code 71 or 72 irrespective of whether he is engaged in any other 'economic or non-economic' activity.

(c) Unpaid apprentices will be treated as 'students' while paid apprentices will be treated as employees.

(d) 'Free collection for sale' will be treated as self-employment.

5.5.4 Column (5): Industry (section): For each status code grouped under the activity category 'working' (i.e., for the status codes 11-72 recorded in column (4), the sector of activity in one digit code i.e., the industry section (NIC 1987) will be entered in column (5) in terms of the specified code numbers.

5.5.5 Column (6): Operation: This column will be filled in for persons belonging to the rural households only. The actual working operation performed by the persons relevant to the status codes grouped under the activity category working (i.e., status codes 11-72) will be entered in terms of code numbers in this column. It may be noted that for regular salaried/wage employees on leave or holiday the 'operation' will relate to their respective function in the work or job from which he is temporarily off in view of his taking leave or holiday. Similarly for persons categorised 'self-employed' (status codes 11, 12 and 21) if they are not at work on a particular day inspite of their having work on that day, operation to be recorded will relate to the work they would have done if they had not enjoyed leisure on that day. The relevant codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

a) Manual work in cultivation:

ploughing - 01, sowing - 02, transplanting - 03, weeding - 04, harvesting -05, other cultivation activities - 06;

b) Manual work in other agricultural activities:

forestry - 07, plantation - 08, animal husbandry-09, fisheries - 10, other agricultural activities - 11;
[p.26]
c) Manual work in non-agricultural activities - 12;

d) Non-manual work in:

cultivation - 13, activities other than cultivation-14.

[Flow chart 5.1 is not presented here.]

[p.27]
Note 1: An activity relating to work will be identified on the basis of the status-cum-industry-cum-operation in the rural areas and on the basis of status-cum-industry in the urban areas. An activity relating to other than work will be identified on the basis of status only both in rural and urban areas.

[p.28]
Note 2: On a day, a person will be considered to have been engaged in one activity with full intensity (1.0) or in two activities with half intensity of the many activities, two activities to be chosen based on priority-cum-major time criterion.

Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops by village and related ancillary activities will be considered cultivation. Growing of trees/plants/crops (such as rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, tea, etc.) as plantation or orchards will not be considered cultivation activity. In general, the activities covered under the industry groups 000-008 will be considered cultivation.

5.5.6 Columns (7) - (13): Intensity of activity: For each activity recorded in column (3), the intensity with which the particular activity is performed on the different days of the reference week will be recorded in quantitative terms 'half' or 'full' in these columns. As described earlier, either one 'full' intensity or two 'half' intensity may be assigned to a person on any one of the seven days of the reference week for each activity listed in column (3). For a particular activity, the recording of entries in columns (7) - (13) should start from column (7) which is provided for recording the intensity of that activity on the seventh day of the reference week, i.e., the day preceding the date of survey. Similarly, the intensity of that activity on the sixth, fifth and earlier days of the week will be recorded in columns (8), (9), (10), (11), (12) and (13) respectively. If the intensity of an activity is 'full' on a particular day, '1.0' will be recorded in the relevant column. On the other hand, if the intensity is 'half', the entry will be '0.5'. If that particular activity is not pursued on some days of the reference week, the corresponding columns provided in the block for those days will be left blank against that activity. For each day, thus for a person, either there will be only one entry with intensity 1.0 in any one of the lines or two entries with intensity 0.5 each in any two of the lines.

5.5.7 For determining the various activities pursued by a person during the reference week and their intensities, the following thumb rule may be adopted:

(a) If a person had worked or was employed, that is, if he was engaged in any one or more of the activities 11-72 for four hours or more on a day he would be considered 'working' or 'employed' for the whole day and assigned the one or two out of the different work activities on which he devoted relatively long time. In the former case, intensity will be 1.0 and in the latter cases, 0.5 for each of the two activities recorded.

(b) A person, who had worked for one hour or more but less than 4 hours on a day, would be considered 'working' for half day and for the other half he would be considered either 'seeking or available for work' i.e., 'unemployed' (code 81 or 82) or as 'neither working nor available for work', i.e., 'not in labour force' (91-98) depending on whether or not the person was seeking/available for work. The person will be assigned the relevant work status code (11-72) with 'half' intensity and non-work status code 81 or 82 if 'unemployed' and any one of the relevant codes 91-98 if 'not in labour force', with 'half' intensity.

[p.29]
(c) If a person had not worked even for an hour on the day but had sought work or was available for work for four hours or more, he/she would be considered unemployed for the whole day assigned the code 81 or 82 as the case might be with 'full' intensity. But if he/she sought work or was available for work for one house or more but less than four hours, he/she would be considered 'unemployed' for half day and assigned the activity status code 81 or 82 with 'half' intensity and 'not in labour force' with 'half' intensity for the other half of the day, for which the relevant code (any one of the codes 91-98) would be assigned.

(d) A person not so considered 'employed', or 'unemployed' either for 'full' day or 'half' day as shown in (a), (b) or (c), would be considered the relevant activity code 91-98 with intensity 'full' (or two of them with each having intensity 'half', as the case may be).
In the case of a person engaged in self-employment, such as a doctor, a stationary or peripatetic trader or vendor, a free lance artisan or a mason or a carpenter, etc. the following may be kept in view while recording entries on intensity.

(i) A doctor sitting in his chamber for 4 hours or more, no matter whether he examined and prescribed medicine for a single patient or not, intensity 1.0 should be recorded.

[Flow chart 5.2: Determining intensity of activity (for cols. 7-13) is not presented here.]

[p. 31]
(ii) For stationary or peripatetic vendor or trader moving around in his professional rounds for 4 or more hours, intensity 1.0 should be recorded whatever little business is done by the person.

(iii) For recording intensity (entries 1.0 or 0.5) in columns (7)-(13) in the cases of masons or carpenters in their professional rounds, similar procedure is to be adopted.

In the case of regular or casual salaried or wage employees, the activity beyond the normal working hours need not be considered for recording entries in these columns. On the other hand, if a person pursues two economic activities of duration, say 4-5 hours each, both are to be recorded with 0.5 intensity for each. In the case of self-employed persons, time spent on any ancillary activity relating to the actual activity of production of goods or services, will also be considered as time spent on 'work'. In this connection, it may be noted 'exchange labour' will be considered as 'work' performed in 'self-employed' capacity.
5.5.8 Column (14): Total number of days in each activity : The number of days for which a particular was pursued during the seven day, i.e., the total of columns (7) - (13) will be recorded in one place of decimal in column (14) separately for each activity listed column (3). It may be noted that the total number of days for all the activities taken together should always be 7.0 for each individual entered in column (1).

5.5.9 Column (15) - (17): Wage and salary earnings: The wage and salary earnings (not total earnings) receivable for the wage/salaried work done during the reference week, separately for each of the relevant activities pursued by each person, will be recorded in these columns. The relevant status codes for which wages and salary earnings are to be recorded are 31, 41, 51, 71 and 72. The wages and salaries receivable for the work done during the reference week may be already received or may still be due to be received in cash or in kind or partly in case and partly in kind. The total wage or salary receivable for the week in cash will be recorded in column (15) and the value (evaluated at the current retail price) of salary or wages in kind receivable for the week will be recorded in column (16). The total of columns (15) and (16) will be entered in column (17). The entries for all these columns will be made in 2 places of decimal. For recording the wages or salaries, amount receivable as 'over time' for the additional work done beyond normal working time will be ignored. Bonus (expected or paid) and perquisites evaluated at retail prices duly apportioned for the reference week, will be considered as wages and included for making entries in these columns. For the activity status '71' and '72', the amount receivable for the week will be worked out on the basis of the number of days reported under the activity during the week.

5.5.10 Column (18): Total number of days with nominal work: Some of the person reporting days with half intensity of work might have had work only for say, 1-2 hours on certain days out of them. Such days would be considered as days with nominal work. For each person, total number of days out of the 7 days reference period with only nominal work would be recorded in this column against the relevant person.

[p. 32]
5.5.11 Column (19): Current weekly activity particulars: Status (codes) based on the activity statuses obtaining for a person on the seven days of the reference week, the current weekly status is to be identified and the status code so obtained is to be recorded here. This will be done as follows.
As already explained the activity statuses of a person falls into one of three broad categories, viz. employed (any of codes 11-72), unemployed (any of codes 81 or 82) and out of labour force (any of codes 91-98). The activity statuses for any day of the seven days are recorded in column (4). If any of these is a work related activity code i.e., any of 11 to 72 the person will fall in the employed category on the current weekly status. In other words, if the person is found to have been assigned a work status code on any of the day of the last week he will be considered as working in the current weekly status. For assigning the unemployed status code (i.e., either 81 or 82) to a person as his weekly activity status code, the person should not have had any work activity status codes on any of the days of the last week but should have one of codes 81 or 82 on at least one day of the last week (i.e., the entry in column (4) should not be any of 11-72 but should be 81 or 82 against one of the serial nos. of activity). Persons without any of codes 11-82 in column (4) will be those who will be treated as out of labour force in the current weekly status.

Further within the three broad activity status categorisation, the detailed activity status codes will be assigned taking into account the number of days in each activity recorded in column (14) in terms of the aggregate of intensities obtaining on various days. Within the broad activity status category identified for a person, the activity status code in column (4) which has the highest value in column (14) will be recorded in column (19). A few cases are reported below as illustrations.

[The illustration is not presented here.]

The entries for column (19) will be made in the line corresponding to the first line for each person, i.e., the line in which serial no. of activity in col. (3) is 1. This third stage of assigning the CWS to the person is explained in the form of a flow chart (flow chart no. 5.3).

Flow chart 5.3 : Deciding current weekly status (for cols. (19)-(21))

[p. 33]
Consider the total no. of days recorded in col. (4) for each of statuses recorded in
col. (4) [Go to the next line.]

Is there any positive entry against any of the status codes 11-72? [Go to yes or no below.]

Yes: The broad category is employed. Identify the status industry in cols. (19) and (20) with the highest entry in column (14). This will be the current weekly status (CWS). [End here.]

No: Is there any positive entry against the status code 81 or 82 ? [Go yes or no below.]
Yes: The broad category is unemployed. Assign status code 81 or 82 as CWS depending on the highest entry in column (14)

No: The broad category is 'out of labour force', assign any of the codes 91-98 as CWS depending on the highest entry in column (14).

5.5.12 Columns (20 and 21): Industry and occupation: For persons with any of codes 11-72 in column (19) the 3-digited industry (NIC 1987) corresponding occupation (NCO 1968) will be recorded in these two columns. The industry and occupation will correspond to the economic activity in which the highest no. of days has been spent as explained in the previous para. In cases where equal number of days is spent on two or more activities (like in case of person with serial no. 4 in the above example) the industry and occupation corresponding to the activity appearing first in the code list will be noted in column (20) and (21).

5.5.13 Column (22): Whether unemployed for all the 7 days of the week: From the daily time disposition recorded in columns (7) to (13) it is to be ascertained whether the person was employed on all the seven days i.e., if he/she had code 81 or 82 in column (4) and intensity 1.0 on all the seven days. Code 1 or 2 will recorded depending on the situation.

[p. 34]
5.6.0 Block6: Follow-up questions for persons unemployed on all the seven days of the week: This block is meant for collecting information on persons who are found to be unemployed on all the seven days of the week preceding the date of survey. Such persons will be identified on the basis of the daily time disposition recorded in block 5, and column (22) of block 5 will have code 1 for such persons. Information to be recorded in this block broadly includes their academic performance, particulars of work sought/available and for those who had some employment in the past, the particulars of such employment. The item wise description of the blocks is as below.

5.6.1 Columns (1) and (2): Serial no. and age (years) : The serial number and age of persons with code 1 in column (22) of block 5 will be copied in these columns in the same order as they appear in block 5.

5.6.2 Column (3): General educational standard: The entry in this column will be copied from corresponding entry recorded in column (7) of block 4.

5.6.3 Columns (4) and (5): If code 08-13 in col.(3), the subject and performance : These two columns will respectively record the subject and performance for those whose attainment of highest educational standard is secondary and above i.e., with one of the codes 08 to 13 in col. (3) of this block. These two columns will be left blank if the persons figuring in this block have educational level less than secondary i.e. with one of the codes o1 to 07 in col. (3) of this block. The broad subject is specified below with the corresponding codes:

Secondary - 10
Higher secondary in:

Art -11
Science - 12
Commerce - 13
Others - 14

Graduate in:
Arts - 21
Social science - 22
Physical sciences - 23
Life sciences - 24
Medical sciences - 25
Engineering/technology - 26
Commerce - 27
Management - 28
Others - 29
Post graduate in:

Arts - 31
Science - 32
Commerce - 33
Medicine - 34
Engineering/technology - 35
Others - 39
Ph. D - 40

Those who have passed only secondary i.e. 10th standard, code 10 will be recorded in column (4). In the case of higher levels the code corresponding to the subject(s) of study in the highest level of education attained by the person(s) will be recorded. The guidelines for corresponding subjects into the broad category listed above will be as follows. In the case of higher secondary, the subject, are arts, science and commerce refer to the 'stream' of study. A course in higher secondary which does not fit in to the three broad streams- arts, science or commerce will be considered as 'others'. For graduate, the subject groups - arts, social science, physical science, life science and commerce are applicable to those who have successfully completed a honour's or a specialised course on a subject classified under one of the broad subject groups mentioned above. Arts in the case will include subjects like literature, languages, fine arts, history, philosophy etc. Social science, on the other hand, will include subjects like economics, political science, sociology, psychology, anthropology, geography etc. The term physical science has been extended to cover physics, chemistry, geology and allied subjects, while life sciences will include botany, zoology, physiology, biology etc. All subjects related to medical course irrespective of the system of medicines will be considered as medical science which will also include graduates in pharmacy. Degrees in engineering or technology like B.E., B. Tech. in civil mechanical, electronic, electrical, chemical metallurgical, computer engineering etc. will be grouped under graduate in engineering/technology. Commerce will include 'commerce and allied subjects'. Subjects that do not form part of any of the categories mentioned above such as mathematics, statistics will be assigned to 'others'. Again, persons who obtained bachelor degree in pass course will be considered under the category 'others'. However, in a few universities the system of three 'optional' subjects with equal weights is prevalent. These are different from the 'pass' courses. In these cases the group to which the majority of optional subjects belong will be considered for recording. In the case of post graduates the broad groups are only arts, science, commerce, medicine and engineering/technology. The subjects considered under 'arts' and 'social science' for the graduates will be considered as arts and those under physical and life sciences will be treated as science for post graduates. Any subject that does not fall into these five groups will be treated as 'others'. For Ph.D. persons, code 40 is to be assigned irrespective of the area of specialisation.

5.6.4 The performance of the person in the certificate or degree examination obtained, the details of which are recorded in cols. (3) and (4), will be recorded in col.(5). Performance will be entered in codes corresponding to different percentage of marks as follows:

1 - less than 40%
2 - 40% - 50%
3 - 50% - 60%
4 - 60% - 80%
5 - 80% and above

Where grades are awarded instead of marks, these grades may be converted to percentage points and the appropriate codes may be entered.

5.6.5 Column(6): Whether obtained any technical certificate/diploma : While collecting the demographic and other particulars of household members in block 4, it may be noted educational standard in technical education is also recorded. In order to make a deeper probe in to the technical back-ground of unemployed persons the subject of technical education will be recorded in more details in this block. Code 1 or 2 will be entered in column (6) depending on whether he/she had any technical certificate/diploma. Persons with code 1 in col. (6) of block 6 will have code other than 1 in column (8) of block 4.

[p.36]
5.6.6 Column (7) : Subject : For those unemployed persons with code 1 in column (6) i.e. those who have obtained any technical certificates/diploma the subject in which such certificate/diploma is obtained will be recorded in this column. In case the person has obtained more than one certificate/diploma in different subjects listed for the block, the code for the subject first in the list will be recorded. The codes to be used are as follows:
Subject:

01. Agriculture/forestry
02. Engineering/architecture/technology
03. Medicine/public health/pharmacy/dentistry/compounding/nursing/midwifery
04. Veterinary
05. Teacher's training/physical education
06. Law/business management/ accountancy
07. Computer science
08. Journalism
09. Library science
10. Dancing/acting/fine arts
11. Crafts and trade
19. Others

5.6.7 Column (8): Duration of present spell of unemployment :
The spell of unemployment means the continuous period for which the person remained unemployed. The present spell will, therefore, refer to the period starting from the day the person became unemployed to the survey date. In the case of persons who are first entrants to the labour force the present spell will be equal to the entire length of unemployment starting from the day such person joined the labour force i.e. the day since when he/she was seeking/available for work and for those who had any previous employment the present spell will be the period starting from the day they were seeking or available for work after closing their employment to the survey date. The spell will be recorded in codes indicating various durations.

1. Only 1 week
2. 1 to 2 weeks
3. 2 weeks to 1 month
4. 1 to 2 months
5. 2 to 3 months
6. 3 to 6 months
7. 6 to 12 months
8. Above 12 months

5.6.8 Column (9) - (15): Particulars of work sought/available:Columns (9) to (15) will be used to record the particulars like the nature of work sought, sector in which sought and efforts made, etc.

5.6.9. Column (9): Type of work: The type of work sought by the person or for which the person is available will be one of the following types-(i) self-employment, (ii) regular wage/salary work or (iii) casual labour. These three types will have the same meaning as explained in the 'concepts and definitions' in the beginning of this section. Codes 1, 2, or 3 will be recorded depending on the type. When a person is unable to clearly specify the type of work for which he/she is seeking/available, the preference may be probed by the investigator and record here.

[p.37]
5.6.10 Column (10): Full/part time work: If the person is looking for full time work code 1 may be entered in this column and if he/she is looking for part time work code 2 may be recorded.

5.6.11 Column (11): Sector of activity (agriculture-1, non-agriculture-2): Whether the person is seeking/available for work in agricultural in non-agricultural sector will be ascertained and recorded code 1 or 2 for agriculture and non-agriculture, respectively.

5.6.12 Column (12): Whether efforts made to get work: As this block is meant for persons who are either seeking or though not seeking but reported to be available for work, it will be ascertained if the person made any efforts to get work i.e. if the person actively sought work during the present spell of unemployment. Code 1 or 2 will be recorded according to whether the person made any efforts to get work or not during the current spell of unemployment.

5.6.13 Column (13): If code 1 in col. (12), nature of efforts made: For those persons who have reported 'yes' in column (12) i.e. made efforts to get work, the nature of efforts made will be recorded in codes as follows:

1. Registered in the employment exchange
2. Contacted prospective employer in person
3. Contacted prospective employer through application
9. Other efforts

Where more than one code is applicable, the code appearing first will be recorded. 'Registered in the employment exchange' will be only those who are currently in the live register of employment exchange.

5.6.14 Column (14): Whether appeared in an interview/written test: This column will be filled in only for those who have made efforts to get work. The reference period will again be the present spell of unemployment. If the person has appeared for a job interview/written test code 1 will be recorded irrespective of the results of the interview/test. An interview for this purpose will be any meeting of the person with the employer or his/her representative(s) with the explicit purpose of assessing the persons suitability for the job he/she has sought. Code 1 will be applicable even where the written test or interview is only a part of the selection process.

5.6.15 Column (15): If code 2 in column (12), reason for not seeking: For persons who have not actively sought work will have code 2 in col. (12) such persons have not sought work b but are available for work. The reason for their seeking work will be recorded in this column as follows.

1. Expecting recall to earlier job
2. Believes no opportunities exist/unaware of work avenues
3. Economic constraints
4. Social reasons
9. Other reasons
[p. 38]
Persons who were in employment but are currently unemployed due to reasons like lay off without pay, lockout etc. or whose work contract is periodical in nature and expect to be recalled to the earlier job and consequently is not seeking a job, will be given code 1. In many cases due to lack of demand the unit might have closed but the employee except to be recalled as soon as things improve, will also come in this category. Sometimes, due to the repeated failure of attempts to get work or seeing non-qualified persons unemployed, persons may step making efforts to get work. Many times persons with low educational levels may not be aware of opportunities for work. In all such cases, the code-2 will be assigned in this column. Economic constraints as a reason will include being too poor to spend m0money on applications, to go to cities/towns for search of work etc. Persons who do not actively make efforts to get work due to family traditions or other social factors will be given code-4.

Reasons which cannot be classified into any of the above five will be treated as 'others' and given code 9. In case more than one code is found applicable to a person the code which appears first in the code list will be recorded.

5.6.16 Column (16): Whether ever worked: The purpose of this item is to separate first time job seekers from persons who worked sometime in the past but are now unemployed. As the subsequent columns will be used to record the details of last employment, this last employment will mean having more or less regular work at least for some time. Thus among the unemployed, those who had more or less regular work at least for sometime in the past will be given code 1 in column (16).

5.6.17 Columns (17)-(22): If code 1 in col. (16) particulars of last employment : Columns (17) - (22) will be used to record the particulars of the last employment of those who had some employment in the past. Procedure for recording the particulars is explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

5.6.18 Column (17): Duration: The duration of the last employment will be recorded in codes similar to the duration codes used for column (8).

5.6.19 Column (18): Status :Status refers to the status of job like self-employment, casual labour etc. and the codes used for usual status relating to employment (i.e. 11-51) only will be applicable.

5.6.20 Columns (19) and (20): Industry and occupation: Industry and occupation codes (3 digit) as per NIC - 1987 and NCO - 1968, respectively, applicable to the last employment will be entered in these two columns.

5.6.21 Column (21) Reason for break in employment: This column is meant for recording to reason for break in or termination of the last job held by the persons. These reasons are coded as follows:

1. Loss of earlier job
2. Quit earlier job
3. Lay-off without pay
4. Unit has closed down
5. Lack of work in the enterprise (for self-employed persons)
6. Lack of work in the area (for casual labour)
9. Others
[p. 39]
The appropriate reason has to be identified through suitable probes. Loss of earlier job will include cases where person is removed from service or work due to temporary nature of work contract, on disciplinary grounds, a retrenchment, retirement and all such involuntary breaks other than those covered under codes 2, 4, 5 or 6. Quit earlier job (code 2) will be applicable for persons who have left the job on their own volition, may be owing to compelling circumstances. (The reason for doing so will be further recorded in column (22)). Lay-off is defined as 'failure/refusal/inability of an employer to give employment to a workman whose name is borne on the master rolls and who has not been retrenched'. Those laid-off with some pay are treated as employed. Those laid-off without any pay will be considered as unemployed and for such persons code 3 will be given. If the unit in which the person was working has closed down due to lack of demand, difficulties in running the unit or any other reason and consequently person is thrown out of employment, code 4 will be applicable. For those who were self-employed and are now out of job as there is lack of work in the enterprise due to fall in demand, scarcity of raw materials etc., code 5 will be recorded. Persons who are engaged as self-employed in the seasonal enterprises and are unemployed during the off season owing to lack of work in the enterprise will also be given code 5. However, if such an enterprise is closed down permanently, applicable code will be 4 and not 5. For those employed as casual workers and are out of work as there is no work in his/her area, code 6b will be given. This should be distinguished from those casual labour employed in enterprises with some regularity and coming under reasons 1, 2, 3 or 4. Thus, one of the reasons should be identified in a sequential manner starting with reason code 1. Reasons which cannot be coded in 1-6 will be given code 9.

5.6.22 Column (22): Reason for quitting job: For those persons who have quit their job (i.e. code 2 in column (21) the reason for quitting the job will be recorded as follows.

1. Work was not remunerative enough
2. Unpleasant environment
3. Employer harsh
4. Health hazard
6. To avail benefits of voluntary retirement
9. Others

Codes are self-explanatory. Unpleasant environment will be excluding the factor mentioned for codes 3 and 4. In case more than one code is applicable, the code which appears first in the code list will be given.

5.7.0 Block 7: Follow up questions for persons employed either in the principal or subsidiary status: In this block an attempt is made to collect information on certain qualitative aspects of the employment of those who are categorised as employed either in the principal or subsidiary status. The aspects to be probed include occupational mobility, extent of under utilisation of labour time, membership in trade unions, nature of employer, etc.

[p. 40]
5.7.1 Column (1) and (2): Serial no. and age as in block 4 : As already stated this block will be filled in only for those who are employed (i.e., status codes 11-51) either in the principal status (i.e. codes 11-51 in col.(1) of block 9) or subsidiary status (i.e., codes 11-51 in col. (18) of block 4). The serial number and age of such persons only will be copied from block 4 in the same order in columns (1) and (2), respectively.

5.7.2 Columns (3) and (4): Usual activity status: Principal and subsidiary: The principal activity status and subsidiary activity status will be copied from column (12) and column (18) of block 4 to columns (3) and (4) respectively as described below.
(i) For persons having one of the codes 11-51 in col.(12) of block 4, the entry same as that in col.(12) of block 4 will be made in col.(3) of block 7. A cross (x) mark will be put in col.(4) of block 7 for such persons.

(ii) For persons having one of the codes 81-98 in col.(12) and one of the codes 11-51 in col.(18) of block 4, the entry in cols.(3) and (4) of block 7 will be copied from cols. (12) and (18) of block 4 respectively.

5.7.3 Column (5): Whether changed nature of work and/or establishment during the last two years: Columns (5) - (7) will be filled in only for those who are employed in the principal usual status (i.e. persons with code 11-51 in column (3). The codes applicable for this column are:

1. Changed nature of work but not the establishment
2. Changed establishment but not the nature of work
3. Changed nature of work and also establishment
4. Neither changed nature of work nor establishment

The 'nature of work' will be based on the criterion of type of work performed by the person and can be taken as the occupation pursued by him/her. The term establishment is used in a broad sense and will include all producing units including household enterprises. In this sense, a person changing from one government department or organisation to another on a routine transfer/promotion posting will not be considered as having changed establishment. However, if his nature of work has changed consequent to this, code 1 will be given. In case he/she has lost or quit the earlier job and taken up a fresh job in another department or organisation, it will be taken as a change in establishment as such changes are an indication of occupational mobility. The reference period for this item will be preceding two years from the date of survey. Code 3 will be applicable even where the change in nature of work and change in establishment has taken place at two different time points within the reference period of two years.

5.7.4 Column (6): Reason for change: In this column, the reason for change will be recorded for those who have changed nature of work or establishment or both i.e., those with codes 1,2 or 3 in col.(5) of this block. The reason codes are as follows.

1. Loss of earlier job due to retrenchment/lay-off
2. Loss of earlier job due to closure of unit
3. For better remuneration
4. No job satisfaction
5. Lack of job security
6. Work place too far
7. Promotion/transfer
9. Others
[p. 41]
If during the last two years more than one change of work or establishment is reported the reason for the last change will be recorded. If more than one code is applicable to a person, of the relevant codes the one which appears first in the code list will be recorded.

5.7.5 Column (7): If code 1 or 3 in col.(5), last occupation (2-digited NCO-1968) : For those who have changed their nature of work in occupation, the occupation group (i.e., 2 digit level NCO) in which they were engaged prior to this change will be recorded in this column.

5.7.6 Column (8): Whether engaged mostly in full time or part time work during last 365 days (full time-1, part time-2): Columns (8) to (18) will be filled in for all those who are employed either in the principal or subsidiary status. In column (8) it will be ascertained if the person was engaged mostly in full time work or part time work. Those who are mostly engaged in full time work will be given code-1 and those who are mostly engaged in part time work will be given code -2.

5.7.7 Column (9): Whether worked more or less regularly during last 365 days: According to the principal usual status approach, the broad activities category has been determined on the basis of the major time criterion. Thus, the persons who are 'employed' in their principal status may or may not be employed throughout the last 365 days. By virtue of the procedure adopted for classification of activity statuses it is possible that some of them were not employed for considerable length of time. In the case of those who were employed only in the subsidiary status this will be the situation most often. Thus, this item will be filled in for both principal and subsidiary status employed. Those who have worked more or less regularly during the reference year will be given code 1. Others will be given code 2.

5.7.8 Column (10): If code 2 in column (9), approximately no. of months without work (months) : Columns (10) to (12) will be filled in for those who have not worked more or less regularly during the reference year. In column (10), the number of months such persons were without work will be recorded. The months without work need not be continuous. It is quite possible that a person was without any work for a couple of months, then in employment for some months and again out of work for a couple of months. The total of all the months out of work will be recorded here will include months in which person was unemployed and also months in which he/she was out of labour force i.e. neither seeking/available for work. The actual number of months will be recorded. Part of month will be rounded off to the nearest month.

5.7.9 Column (11): Whether sought/available for work during those months (yes : on most days-1, on some days-2, no-3): The codes given for this item in the brackets are self-explanatory.

[p. 42]
5.7.10 Column 12: Whether made any efforts to get work yes : registered in employment exchange-1, made other efforts-2, no efforts-3: For those who were at work more or less regularly, the efforts made by them to get work viz. whether they registered in the employment exchange, or made other efforts, will be recorded here. Relevant codes as given in bracket above will be entered in this column.

5.7.11 Column (13): Whether sought/available for additional work during the days he/she had work (yes: on most days-1, on some days-2; no.-3) : As already mentioned in the column heading, the time reference to record whether the person was seeking/available for additional work will be that period of last 365 days during which the person was employed. Thus for a person whose principal usual status is unemployed but had subsidiary work for a relatively short period, the availability for additional work will refer only to the short period he/she working. This criterion will be applicable to column (15) also. The entries will be made in codes as given in the column heading.

5.7.12 Column (14): If code 1 or 2 in col. (13), reason: The reason for seeking/available for additional work will be entered in this column in terms of codes as follows:

1. To supplement income
2. Not enough work
3. Both
9. Others

The codes are self-explanatory.

5.7.13 Column (15): Whether sought/available for alternative work during the days he/she had worked (yes: on most days-1, on some days-2; no-3) : As in the case of availability for additional work, information in respect of a person's availability for alternative work will be collected with reference to that period of last 365 days during which he/she was employed. The entry will be made in codes as given in the column heading. Alternative work will mean alternative occupation.

5.7.14 Column (16): If code 1 or 2 in col.(15) reason : For those who 'sought/available' for alternative work at least for some days the reason for doing so will be recorded as follows.

1. Present work not remunerative enough
2. No job satisfaction
3. Lack of job security
4. Work place too far
5. Wants wage/salary job
9. Others

When more than one code is applicable, the code appearing first in the list may be given.

5.7.15 Column (17): Is there any union/association in your trade ? (yes-1, no-2, not known-3) : Union/association will mean any registered/recognised body whose membership is open to a section of those engaged in a specific trade and whose main objective is to look into the interests of its members. 'Trade' refers to any occupation under the activity statuses 11-51. Thus besides the usual trade unions, association of owners, self-employed persons etc. will also be covered. The union/association sometimes may be a large body like a factory union looking after the welfare of different types/levels of workers. Depending on the respondents reply, codes 1, 2 or 3 will be recorded in this column. It is to be noted that even if a self employed person is aware of an association which looks after the interests of those of his kind, the answer to the question will be 'no' (code-2) if the membership of such an association is not open to him or the association does not cover the locality where he/she runs the enterprise. It is possible that some of the self-employed persons are not aware of the existence of any association of the kind described above relating to his trade. In such cases, code 3 will be entered in column (17).

[p. 43]
5.7.16 Column (18): If code 1 in col.(17) whether a member of the union/association: If the respondent reports that a union/association as discussed in para 5.7.15 is exists in his trade, it is to be ascertained if he/she is a member of that union/association, code 1 or 2 will be recorded accordingly.

5.7.17 Column (19): Nature of employment (permanent-1, temporary-2) : Column (19) and (20) will be filled in for those who are wage/salaried employees only i.e., those whose activity status code in col.(3) or (4) is 31. In column (19), the nature of employment (i.e., whether permanent or temporary) will be recorded in terms of code. Nature of employment will be considered as permanent if the person is in normal course likely to continue in the same employment. Code 1 or 2 will be given if the employment is permanent or temporary respectively.

5.7.18 Column (20): Nature of employer (public-1, semi-public-2 private-3): The nature of employer is classified into public, semi-public or private depending on the ownership of the enterprise employ in the regular wage/salaried person. Enterprises owned (i) wholly by central Govt., (ii) wholly by state and/or Local Govt. and (iii) jointly by central Govt. and state and or/local Govt. will be called 'public'. Enterprises wholly owned by private bodies (i.e., individual, partnership, limited companies or co-operatives etc.) will be 'private', 'semi public' will be those joint enterprises in which besides private share holders government (central/state/local bodies etc.) also hold some shares no matter who had the majority of shares.

5.8.0 Block 8: Follow-up questions for children aged 5-14 years: This block, which will be filled in only for persons aged5-14 years in children, is meant to record the education and activity profile of children. The details to be recorded include school attendance particulars, work related activity, etc. The time reference for identifying the activities pursued by children will be strictly that followed in either block 4 or block 5. Instead a reasonable regularity activity will be the criteria. A child will be considered working if he has spent at least a day any work with some regularity which may be seasonal.

5.8.1 Column (1) and (2): Serial no and age: In these two columns the serial number and age of these in the age group 5-14 years will be copied from columns (1) and (5) of block 4 respectively in the order they appear in block-4.

5.8.2 Column (3): School attendance (currently attending-1, dropped out-2 never attended-3) : School attendance for the purpose of this column will be include those attending classes I to X in a formal educational/institution/school. However, if it is found that some children in this age group are still attending kindergarten or similar pre-primary classes they may be treated as 'currently attending'. 'Currently attending' will have the same meaning as for making entry in column (9) of block 4 where current attendance in educational institution will be recorded. 'Dropped out' will be those have attended at least for some days in an educ ational institution/school but is not currently attending any school. 'Never attended' are those who have never attended any formal school and are not currently attending any pre-primary classes. Codes 1,2, or 3 will be recorded in this column as the case may be. As a special case, children who have completed class X and are currently attending higher classes/courses will be treated as currently attending and code 1 will be entered against them. Those who have completed class X and are not pursuing higher education will be given code-2 i.e., dropped out.

[p. 44]
5.8.3 Column (4): Whether helps in household chores: This column will be filled in for all children. For those children who more or less regularly helps in the household chores (domestic work) will be given code 1, for 'yes' and those who do not will be given code 2.
5.8.4 For children who are currently attending school, i.e. code 1 in column (3), their activity particulars with reference to 'work' and its effects on their studies will be recorded in columns (5) to (12). For children who are not currently attending i.e., either dropped out or never attended, the particulars of their economic activity will be recorded in columns (13) to (21). Thus, either columns (5) - (12) or columns (13)-(21) only be filled in this block for a particular child. It should be noted that a domestic servant engaged in household chores in return of wages in case and/or kind will be considered 'working', as mentioned in para 5.4.11 (11). Hence, code-2 will be given in col. (4) against him/her, although he/she regularly helps in the household chores.

5.8.5 Column (5): Whether also working : Code 1 or 2 will be recorded depending on whether the child is normally working or not. As the child is also currently attending school, such 'work' is not expected to be any 'full time' work over a long period. The work may be outside the school hours or during the school hours on a seasonal basis.

5.8.6 Column (6): Type of activity : For children who have working the type of activity will be recorded in codes as follows.

1. Work in household enterprise: agriculture
2. Work in household enterprise: non-agriculture
3. Hired worker: in agriculture
4. Hired worker: in non-agriculture

The codes are self-explanatory.

5.8.7 Column (7): Whether working in manufacturing or building construction industry: For children who are working hired worker in non-agricultural sector (i.e., code 4) in col.(6), it will be ascertained if the non-agricultural activity is either manufacturing or building construction. The activities covered under these two groups will include those coming under industry sections 2, 3 and 5 and division 97 i.e. repair services of NIC 1987. Code 1 or 2 as the case may be, will be recorded in this column.

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5.8.8 Column (8): If code 1 in col. (7) the 'process' in which working: The purpose of this column is to identify children working in 14 specific areas. Those who do not come under these 14 areas or 'process' will be assigned to 'others'. The relevant 'processes' and codes are as follows:

1. Bidi-making
2. Carpet weaving
3. Cement manufacture including bagging of cement
4. Cloth printing/dyeing and weaving
5. Manufacture of matches, explosives and splitting
6. Mica cutting and splitting
7. Shellac manufacture
8. Soup manufacture
9. Tanning
10. Wool cleaning
11. Building and construction industry
12. Manufacture of slate pencils (including packing)
13. Manufacture of products from agate
14. Manufacturing processes using toxic materials and substances such as lead, mercury, manganese, chromium, cadmium, benzene, pesticides and asbestos
19. Others

5.8.9 Column (9): Reason for working: The reason which forces the child to work will be recorded in codes as follows:

1. To supplement household income
2. Shortage of labour in household enterprise
3. To acquire skill
4. To meet personal expenses
5. To spend vacation time
6. Forced to repay loan
9. Others

The codes are self-explanatory. Code 6 is intended for cases where the child is forced to work as part of repayment of hereditary loan or a loan contracted by other members of the household. The child in this case may not be getting any pay or may be begetting a nominal pay only. In case more than one reason are found applicable to a child, the one which appears first in the code list will be given. For a member who is an employee or a domestic servant, the reference of the household in the reason code will mean his/her parent household. In case he/she does not have any parent household, then one of the codes 3 and 4 will be applicable to him/her.

5.8.10 Column (10): Whether misses school in order to work :The entry against this will be recorded as in terms of codes as follows.

1. Yes: intermittently
2. Yes: regularly during some seasons
3. No

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5.8.11 Column (11): Whether the work affects studies at home : The possible effect of the child's 'work' on his/her studies at home will be recorded in codes. The codes as given below are self-explanatory.

1. Yes: unable to do homework
2. Yes: unable to prepare for tests/exam
3. No

5.8.12 Column (12): Whether the work helps the household economically (yes-1, no-2): Sometimes, children are asked to work to reduce the work-load of the elders or to enable them to be engaged in some household chore. In other occasions, the children's work make a positive contribution to the household's economy. It is to be ascertained whether the level of living of the household is any way better owing to the work done by the children. If yes, code 1 will be recorded. But if the child's work does not make any material change in the well being of the household, code 2 will be recorded in this column.

5.8.13 Column (13): Reason for not currently attending:
(i) Column (13) onwards will be filled in for children who are not currently attending school. Some of the children who are not currently attending are those who did not attend school any time in the past. They will have code 3 in col.(3). There will be some others who are not currently attending any school but did so sometimes in the past and the left the school. They will have code 2 in col.(3).

(ii) For those with code 3 in col.(3), the reason code to be recorded in col.(13) will relate to the reason for not attending school at all. For those with code 2 in col.(3), the entry in col.(13) will relate to the reason for leaving the study. Although the code structure has been kept same for both the groups. For example, code 1 is not applicable to the drop out cases (i.e., children with code 2 in col.(3). Similarly, code 2 is not applicable to the children who never attended a school (i.e., children with code 3 in col. (3)). The codes to be used are as follows:

01. Too young to go to school
02. Unable to cope-up
03. School facility/higher level education facility not available
04. To participate in household economic activity
05. To work for wage/salary
06. To take care of sibling
07. To attend household chores: by preference
08. To attend household chores: as other members engaged in work
09. Cannot afford
10. Not interested
19. Others

Too young to go to school (code 1) will apply to those in the age-group 5-6 years and are not attending school either because of their parent's perception of the child being too small to go to school or unable to attend school due to school admission regulations regarding age. Code 2 will apply to those who drop out as they are not able to cope up with the studies. Such cases can be identified as drop outs due to repeated failures etc. This should be distinguished from code 10 i.e. 'not interested'. Not interested will be those who do not attend school or drop out because of lack of motivation to start or continue schooling. Persons who think schooling is futile and hence discontinue their schooling will also get code 10. Cannot afford (code 9) will be assigned to those who are not attending school due to financial difficulties in buying books, dress or payment of fees etc. Other codes are self-explanatory. In case of multiple codes the code appearing first will be given.

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5.8.14 Column (14) - (18): These columns are same as the corresponding columns (5) - (9) and they will be filled-in the same way.

5.8.15 Column (19): Whether the work helps the household economically (yes-1, no-2): The instruction for recording entry in this column is the same as for column (12).

5.8.16 Column (20): Whether seeking/available for work (yes-1, no-2): Columns (20) and (21) will be filled in for those children who are not working (i.e., code 2 in column (14). Code 1 or 2 will be recorded in this column for yes or no respectively.

5.8.17 Column (21): If code 1 in col. (20), reason for seeking/available for work: The reason for seeking /available for work will be recorded in codes as follows:

1. No prospect in studies
2. To supplement household income
3. To meet personal expenses
4. To acquire skill
9. Others

No prospect in studies is meant to cover cases where children discontinue or do not take up studies in the belief that studies do not help in improving their carrier or chances of getting jobs. This may be quoted by them as reason for seeking work.

5.9.0 Block 9: Follow up questions for persons with principal usual activity status codes 92 and 93 (i.e. those engaged in domestic duties): In order to study the pattern of activities carried out along with domestic chores of those classified as engaged in domestic duties - particularly women, a separate set of special follow-up questions have been designed. These follow-up questions will be asked to all normal members of the household, classified as engaged in domestic duties according to usual status (i.e. those with usual status codes 92 and 93), and the relevant answers will be recorded in terms of the specified codes. Entries against items 1 to 14 will be recorded in the first sheet and that for items 15 to 25 in 2nd sheet. The serial no. against item 1 in the first sheet will be copied against item 1 is the second sheet.

5.9.1 Items 1 and 2: Serial number and age as in block 4: For all household members categorised 'engaged in domestic duties' according to usual status classification, i.e., those assigned the usual status codes 92 and 93 in column (12) of block 4, their serial number and age as in columns (1) and (2) of block 4 will be entered against items 1 and 2. Different columns will be used for different members.

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5.9.2 Item 3-5: It will be ascertained whether the relevant persons are required to spend most of their time during 365 days preceding the date of survey on domestic duties. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against item 3 for each of the relevant members. If the answer is 'yes', i.e., if the entry against item 3 is code 1 for a person, the reason for his/her participation in the household duties will be ascertained and recorded in terms of the specified code numbers against item 4. The relevant codes to be used are:

1 No other member to carry out the domestic duties
2 Cannot afford hired help
3 For social and/or religious constraints
4 Others

For person with code 1 in item 3, item 5 will be left blank. On the other hand, if the entry against item 3 is code 2 for a person, (i.e., such participation was not required but still the person participated in the household chores) the reason for his/her voluntary participation in household chores) will be ascertained and the code relevant to the answer obtained will be recorded against item 5. In such a case, item 4 will be left blank. The codes to be used for making entries against item 5 are:

1 Non-availability of work
2 By preference
3 Others

5.9.3 Items 6-19: These 14 questions relate to relevant members' participation in 14 specified activities which are self-explanatory. It will be ascertained whether the member along with his/her normal domestic duties also participated during the 365 days preceding the date of survey more or less regularly in the specified activities listed. For the questions 6-9 and 15-19, if the answer is 'yes', code '1' and if the answer is 'no' code '2' will be recorded against the relevant items for the particular person. It may be noted that item 19 will be filled in for rural areas only. On the other hand, for the questions 10-14, if the answer is in the affirmative, it will be further ascertained whether the person participated in the processing of mainly, home produced/free collection commodities or processing of commodities otherwise procured and the code relevant to the situation will be recorded. The codes to be used are:
Yes:

1 Commodities produced in own farm/free collection
2 Commodities acquired otherwise

3 No

5.9.4 Item 20: If for a particular person the answer to the question listed against item 19, i.e. whether the person brings water from outside the village, is 'yes' (code 1), the distance (rounded off) to the nearest kilometre) the person had to travel from the household premises to the point of the source of water will be recorded against this item.

5.9.5 Item 21: For all those categorised 'usually engaged in domestic duties' and listed against item '1' it will be ascertained whether they will be prepared to accept work if work is made available at their household premises. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against this item.

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5.9.6 Item 22-25: The questions listed against these items will be put only to those who have answered in the affirmative for the question listed against item 21(i.e. persons with entry 1 against item 21). The codes appropriate for the answers obtained will be recorded against the relevant items. For items 22, 23 and 25, if more than one code is found to be applicable, the code which appears first in the code list only will be recorded. The relevant codes to be used for filling in the items 22, 23 and 25 are as under:

(i) Item 22: Nature of work acceptable:

1 Regular full time
2 Regular part time
3 Occasional full time
4 Occasional part time

(ii) Item 23: Type of work acceptable:

1 Dairy
2 Poultry
3 Other animal husbandry
4 Spinning and weaving
5 Manufacturing wood and cane products
6 Tailoring
7 Leather goods manufacturing
8 Others

(iii) Item 25: Assistance required:

1 No assistance
2 Initial finance on easy terms
3 Working finance facilities
4 Easy availability of raw materials
5 Assured market
6 Training
7 Accommodation
8 Others

(iv) Item 24: This item is self-explanatory and the answer to the question listed for this item will be recorded in terms of code '1' or '2'.

[5.10.0 to 5.10.5 are not presented here.]