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[Government of India
National Sample Survey Organisation
Socio-Economic Survey: July, 1987-June 1988]

Section Five

Household Schedule 10: Employment and Unemployment

Introduction

5.0.1 The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) carried out the first country wide Quinquennial survey on Employment and Unemployment during its 27th round survey operation (September 1972- October 1973). This survey marked the beginning of the renewed efforts of the NSSO in the collection of comprehensive data on employment and unemployment taking into consideration all the basic recommendations of the 'Expert Committee on Unemployment Estates' (1970). The 27th round survey, apart from collecting the required data to throw up three different rates of employment and unemployment, i.e., the 'usual status' rates based on the activities pursued during a long period in the past, say one year, the 'current weekly status' rates based on the data on activities pursued during a reference period of seven days (one week) period of reference, also attempted to elicit information on the extent of under utilization of labour time of those classifies as employed, unemployed, students, house workers, etc., through separate sets of probing questions put to the relevant respondents in the households at the time of investigation.

5.0.2 The above three rates cross classified by different correlates, such as, sex, age, education, industry, occupation, residence status, etc., revealed the different factors of the multidimensional character of the employment - unemployment situation in the country, particularly in the rural sector. The answer forthcoming to the probing question helped in obtaining further insight into the activity situation of the population.

5.0.3 The second survey in the series was carried out during 1977-78 in the 32nd round survey operation of the NSSO. Although, the basic conceptual framework of the 32nd round survey remained essentially the same as that of the 27th round survey, were, however, introduced in the second quinquennial survey. The important changes were:

i. Using of the criterion of spending relatively longer time (i.e. major time) in any one of the three broad activity categories- the status of working, the status of seeking work or being available for work and the status of being out of labour force to decide the 'usual status' of a person with reference to a fixed period of 365 days preceding the date of survey;

ii. Collection of information on the subsidiary gainful activities of those classified as 'not working' according to usual status with a view to obtaining data required for generating estimates comparable to that of Census 1961 and NSS 27th round;

iii. Streamlining of the different sets of follow-up questions (or probing questions) canvasses in the 27th round survey and making one uniform set of questions to suit all the different categories of the population;

iv. Introduction of a new set of probing questions for persons classified according to usual status as 'engaged in domestic duties' to elicit information on their work pattern;

v. Integration with the main survey the collection of information on wages, employment and indebtedness from rural labour households comparable, to the extent possible, to the rural labour enquiries conducted earlier (NSS 29th round).

5.0.4 According to the original work programme, the third survey was to be carried out during July 1982-June 1983. But as it was felt that for the 'land holding' survey, the calendar year (and not agricultural year) should be the survey period with a view to reducing the re-call error in data collection, a survey on 'disabled persons', to continue for a period of six months (July 1981 to December 1981), was planned to be conducted in the NSS 36th round. The 'land holding' and 'debt and investment' survey was, therefore, carried out in the NSS 37th round starting in January 1982 to be completed by December 1982. Naturally, the third quinquennial survey on Employment and Unemployment had been planned and carried out in the 38th round survey operations during January- December 1983.

5.0.5 As it was felt that the comparability of the 38th round survey results with those pertaining to the 32nd round survey would be very important, the conceptual frame work adopted in the 32nd round was retained, as far as practicable, in the 38th round survey also. In fact, the 38th round survey methodology, compared to 32nd round survey, was kept as a no change model for the employment - unemployment survey. However, in the 38th round, information on migration characteristics of population was also collected with a view to studying its linkage with the level of employment, unemployment and the level of living of the population.

5.0.6 As per the work programme for the quinquennial surveys, the third repeated survey, for employment and unemployment and consumer expenditure has been planned to be carried out in the 43rd round survey operation during July 1987 - June 1988. The working group set up for planning of the entire scheme of the survey, among other things, examined also in detail some of the key results generated from the 38th round data and the conceptual issued raised in the forthcoming IBO document and recommended some stream-lining of the 38th round schedule for the use in the 43rd round. Further, it felt no need for changing the engaging the easting conceptual frame work. However, some additional items were recommended to be included in the schedule to obtain the necessary and relevant information for generating results to see the effects on participation rates in view of the ILO suggestions.

5.0.7 The NSSO Governing Council approved the recommendations of the working group and also the schedule of enquiry in its 44th meeting held on 16 January, 1987.

5.0.8 Summary description of the schedule: The Schedule on employment and unemployment (Schedule 10) framed for the 43rd round survey consists of 11 blocks. The identification particulars of the sample village/block and the sample households in which the survey schedules will be canvassed are to be recorded in block 1. Block 2 is meant for recording the particulars of field operations. Certain characteristics of the sample household meant to be used as classificatory variables in the tabulation of date and information as to whether the sample household has received any assistance under IRDP, employment generation scheme, etc., will be recorded in block 3. The demographic particulars, such as, age, sex, marital status, educational standard, etc., and the particulars of current weekly activity obtaining during the seven days preceding the date of survey of all the normally resident members of the household will be recorded in block 4. Block 5 is meant for recording detailed day-to-day disposition of labour time of those classified as in the labour force according to current weekly activity status, i.e., information on the various activities pursued on different days of the reference week by household members reported as 'working' and 'seeking and/or available for work' and the intensity in quantitative terms, namely 'full' and 'half' of such activity. The particulars of usual activity of each normally resident member of the sample household, information on the subsidiary gainful activity status of those classified as 'working' as well as 'not working', migration status and for those identified as migrants, the various migration characteristics such as, period since migrated, reason for migration, type of last usual place of residence, etc., are to be collected in block 6. The follow up questions (probing questions) pertaining to the availability for 'work'/'additional work'/'alternative work' meant to be put to those classified as 'working' , 'students', 'person engaged in domestic duties' and 'pensioners'/ renters, etc., are housed in block 7. The answers to these questions will be ascertained to the extent possible from the relevant members of the household and recorded in this block. For persons classified as 'engaged in domestic duties', some further follow up questions are formulated and listed in block 8 with a view to collecting some additional information which might explain as to whether weir usual attached at to domestic duties is voluntary or involuntary and also throw light on their participation in some specified activities for family gain. Particulars regarding the household indebtedness, such as amount of loan, its nature, source of borrowing, etc., will be collected in block 9 only for the rural labour households. Any relevant remarks of the investigators will be recorded in block 10 and the comments by the supervisory officers in block 11.

Details of schedule

5.1.1 Block 1, items 1-6, 9-12, 13 and 14: identification particulars of the sample village/block: The identification particulars of the sample village and block respectively for rural and urban areas will be recorded against the relevant items 1-6, 9-12, and 14 of this block. At the listing stage these particulars will be copied from the sample list in block 1 of the schedule 0.1 for rural areas and the schedule 0.2 for urban areas. The required identification particulars will be transferred to the respective items of this block from schedule 0.1 in the case of rural areas and schedule 0.2 in the case of urban areas. The name (s) of the hamlet ( ) will be copied from 1 block 3.1 of schedule 0.1 in item 13.

5.1.2 Items 7, 8, 15 and 16: Identification of sample households: The identification particulars of the sample household, i.e. the substratum number (1 or 2) to which the sample household belongs, sample household number (order of selection), house number and the name of the head of the household are to be copied from block 6 of schedule 0.1/0.2 against items 7, 8, 15 and 16 respectively. The sub-stratum number will be 1 or 2 according to whether the sample household appears in columns 15 or 16 of schedule 0.1 for rural areas and 17 or 18 of block 6 of schedule 0.2 for urban areas. For sub-stratum 1, the sample household number will be copied from column 15 (Schedule 0.1) in the case of rural areas and from column17 (schedule 0.2) in the case of urban areas. Similarly, the sample household number for sub-stratum 2 will be copied from column16, block 6 (schedule 0.1) for rural areas and column18 block 6 (schedule 0.2) for urban areas. For each sample household, the house number and the name of the head of the household are to be copied respectively from columns 1 and 3 of block 6 of schedule 0.1 for rural areas and schedule 0.2 for urban areas.

5.1.3 Item 17: Sex of head: The sex of the head of the household in terms of codes (male - 1, female - 2) is to be recorded against this item. The entry will be same as the one entered in column (4) against line 1 in block 4.

5.1.4 Items 18 - 21: Primary informant: The name of the primary informant i.e., the person from whom bulk of the information will be collected is to be recorded against item 18. The information as to whether schedule 10 or schedule 1.0 is 'canvassed' first will be indicated against item 19. Code 1 will be recorded if schedule 10 is 'canvassed' first and code 2, if 'canvassed' second. For this purpose, filling in of the major part of the schedule will be considered as 'canvassing' of the schedule. Whether the primary informant is the head of the household or any other member of the household will be indicated against item 20 in terms of code '1' and code '2' respectively. If the primary informant is not a member of the household, code '9' will be recorded. The type of the primary informant, i.e., whether he is co-operative, busy, etc., will be recorded against item 21 in terms of the specified codes. The codes are:

Co-operative and capable .. 1
Co-operative but not capable ..... 2
Busy .......... 3
Reluctant ..... 4
Others .............. 9

This information will be recorded on the basis of the investigator's impression after canvassing the entire schedule 10.

5.1.5 Item 22: Survey code: Whether the originally selected household has been surveyed or a substituted household has been surveyed will be indicated against this item by recording '1' if it is the originally selected sample, and '2' if it is the substituted sample. If neither the originally selected household nor the substituted household could be surveyed, i.e., if the sample household was casualty, code '3' would be recorded. In such case only block 1 and 2 will be filled up and on the top of the front page of the schedule, the word 'casualty' will be written and underlined.

5.1.6 Item 23: Reason for casualty: For the originally selected sample household which could not be surveyed, the reason for its becoming a casualty will be recorded against item 23 in terms of the specified code which is:

Informant busy.... 1
Members away from home... 2
Informant non co-operative... 3
Others...... 9

5.2.0 Block 2: Particulars of field operations: The name of the Investigator, Assistant Superintendent, and Superintendent, their signatures, dates of survey/inspection scrutiny, duplication of schedules, dispatch, etc., will be recorded in this block against the appropriate items in the relevant columns.

5.3.0 Block 3: Household characteristics: Certain household characteristics which are intended to be used as classificatory characters in tabulation, particulars regarding the extent of the use of hired labour for work in household enterprises and information as to whether the household received any assistance under IRDP, etc., will be collected in this block.

5.3.1 Item 1: Size: The size of the sample household, i.e., the total number of persons normally residing together (i.e., under the same roof) and taking food in the same kitchen (including temporary stay away and excluding temporary visitors) will be recorded against this item. This number will be the same as the last serial number recorded in column (1) of block 4.

5.3.2 Item 2: Principal industry occupation: The entry against this item will be recorded in terms of six-digit code numbers of which the first three left hand digits will refer to the appropriate 'industry group' and the next three to the relevant 'occupation family' of the NIC, 1970 and NCO, 1968 respectively. The description of the principal household industry-occupation will be recorded in the space provided along with the item description.

5.3.3 To determine the principal household industry-occupation, the general procedure to be followed is to list all the gainful occupations pursued by the members of the household excluding those employed by the household and paying guests (who in view of their staying and taking food in the household are considered its normal members) during the one year period preceding the date of survey, no matter whether such occupations are pursued by the members in their principal or subsidiary (on the basis of earnings) capacity. Out of the occupations listed, that one which fetched the maximum earnings to the household during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey would be considered as the principal household occupation. It is quite possible that the household occupation, thus determined as the principal one, may be pursued in different industries by one or more members of the household. In such cases, the particulars industry out of all the different industries corresponding to the principal occupation, which fetched the maximum earnings, would be considered as the principal industry of the household. In extreme cases, the earning may be equal in two different occupations or industry occupations. By convention, in such cases, priority will be given to the occupation or industry-occupation combination of the senior most among the participating members.

5.3.4 Item 3: Type: At the listing stage, for the rural areas, all the households are assigned codes 1, 2 or 9 in column5 of block 6 (schedule 0.1) according to whether they belong to the three groups, namely (i) households self-employed in non-agriculture, (ii) rural labour household and (iii) other households, decided on the basis of their means of livelihood. But at the time of detailed enquiry (i.e. when schedules 10 and 1.0 will be canvassed in the sample households), each of the sample households will be assigned a 'type' code. Out of the following five different types code, the ones appropriate for the sample household will be chosen:

Self-employed in non-agriculture.1
Agricultural labour... 2
Other labour.......3
Self-employed in agriculture.....4
Others......9

The households categorized as belonging to the 'means of livelihood' code-1 in schedule 0.1 will be assigned the household type 'self-employed in non-agriculture' and code - 1 will be recorded against item 3 of block 3. The households listed as rural labour households in schedule 0.1, i.e. those assigned means of livelihood code 2 will be further classified into two groups - 'agricultural labour' households and 'other labour' households for assigning the appropriate household type codes against this them. The household to be categorized as the 'agricultural labour' households will be those which earned 50 p.c. or more of their total income (from gainful occupations) during the last 365 days from wage paid manual labour in agriculture and for such households, type code-2 will be recorded against this item. The remaining households will be categorized as 'other labour' households and for them code - 3 will be recorded. The households assigned the means of livelihood code-9 in schedule 0.1 , will be further regrouped into households 'self-employed in agricultural occupations' and 'other' households for assigned the appropriate household type codes. Households 'self-employed in agricultural occupations' will be those which earned 50 p.c. or more of their total income from self-employment in agricultural occupations during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey and for such households code-4 will be recorded against this item.

The remaining households will be grouped as 'other' households and for them code-9 will be recorded. Thus, the selected households will be grouped into five different household types for recording the relevant household type code against item 3 of this block. At the time of the detailed enquiry the means of livelihood code assigned at the listing stage will be verified and the code assigned at that time will be corrected, if found wrong. But no substitution of household is to be made in such cases.

5.3.5 A person will be treated as wage-paid manual labourer in agriculture or in the other words, agricultural labourer, if he/she follows one or more of the following agricultural occupations in the capacity of a labourer on hire or on exchange, whether paid wholly in cash or in kind or partly in cash and partly in kind:

a. Farming including cultivation and village of the soil, etc.,
b. Dairy farming,
c. Production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any horticultural commodity,
d. Raising of livestock, bees or poultry, and
e. Any practice performed on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm operations (including any forestry or timbering operations and the preparation for market and delivery to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm production).

It may be noted that wage paid manual labour in 'fisheries' are excluded from the purview of the category 'agricultural labour'. Further, carriage for transportation will refer only to the first stage of the transportation from farm to the first place of disposal.

5.3.6 As regards the urban households, for recording the appropriate 'type' the 'means of livelihood' codes assigned in column (5), block 6 or schedule 0.2 will be copied against item 3 for the respective sample households. The codes to be used are:

Self employed....... 1
Regular wages/salary earning 2
Casual labour..... 3
Others........ 9

5.3.7 Item 4: Religion: The religion of the household in terms of the specified code will be recorded against this item. If different members of the household claim to belong to different religions, though such an eventuality is likely to be rare, the religion of the head of the household will be considered as the religion of the household. The codes for household religion are:

Hinduism 1
Islam 2
Christianity 3
Sikhism 4
Jainism 5
Buddhism 6
Zoroastrianism 7
Others 8

5.3.8 Items 5: Group: Whether or not the household belong to scheduled tribe or scheduled caste or neo-Buddhists will be indicated against this item in terms of the specified codes which are:

Scheduled tribe 1
Scheduled caste 2
Neo-Buddhist 3
Others 9

Those who do not come under any of first three groups will be assigned code 9 meant to cover all other categories. In case, different members belong to different household groups, the group to which the head of the household belongs will be considered as the 'household group' and the group code appropriate for the head of the household will be assigned.

5.3.9 Item 6: Homestead type: Information regarding the type of the homestead (house and house site) will be recorded against this item. If the homestead is owned by the household code 1 and if otherwise possessed, code 9 will be recorded. In the cases where the homestead is partly owned and partly otherwise possessed, code 9 will be recorded.

5.3.10 Item 7-11: Land area: The area of land (in 0.00 hectares) 'owned', 'leased in', neither owned nor leased in' and 'leased out' by the household as on the date of survey will be ascertained and recorded against the items 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively. The total land area possessed by the household will be worked out as item 7+8+9-10 and recorded against item 11 in 2 places of decimal. A piece of land is considered to be owned by the household if permanent heritable possession with or without the right to transfer the title is vested in a member or the members of the household. Land held in owner like possession say, under perpetual lease, hereditary tenure, long term leases for 30 years or more etc., will also be considered as land owned. For a piece of land under the possession of the household, if the household lacks title of ownership and also it does not have any lease agreement for the use of land transacted either verbally or in writing, such land will be considered as neither owned nor 1 seed in. In collecting information regarding 'land possessed', the actual position as obtaining on the date of survey will be considered. It may be noted that the 'area of land' to be recorded against these items should not include the area of land owned, leased out, leased in, etc., by servant/paying guest who are considered as the normal members of the household.

5.3.11 Items 12-15: Land cultivated: The total area (in 0.00 hectares) cultivated by the household will be recorded under the three break downs, 'owned', 'leased in' and 'neither owned nor leased in' respectively against items 12, 13 and 14. The total of items 12, 13 and 14 will be entered against item15. To record entries against these items, the 'area cultivated' will refer to the net area cultivated during the agricultural year 1986-87. 'Area cultivated' is defined as the net area sown during the reference period plus area under orchards a plantations and current fallow used for seeding.

5.3.12 Item 16: Land irrigated: The net area of land irrigated by the household out of its total possession during the agricultural year 1986-87 will be ascertained and entered in hectare areas in 2 places of decimal against this item.

5.3.13 Items 17 and 18: Use of hired labour: Against these two items information relating to the use of hired labour by the household for crop production or any other enterprises will recorded in terms of the specified codes, which are:

For item 17: hires labour:

Regularly 1
During peak seasons only 2
Casually 3
Hires no labour for crop production 4
No crop production 5

For item 18: hires labour:

Regularly 1
During peak seasons only 2
Casually 3
Address no labour for other productive enterprises 4
No other productive enterprises 5

To illustrate, if a household engaged hired labour regularly for crop production, code 1 will be recorded against item 17. If labour is hired only during peak seasons, code 2 will be recorded. On the other hand, if use of hired labour is only casual, code 3 and practically nil, code 4 will be recorded. If the household is not engaged in crop production activities, code 5 will be recorded against item 17. Similar information relating to use of hired labour in enterprises [other] than crop production will be recorded against item 18. The information to be collected against these items will relate to the pattern followed by the sample household during the 365 days preceding the date of survey.

5.3.14 Item 19: Per capita expenditure - last month: The per capita expenditure (in rupees correct to two places of decimal) of the household during the last 30 days preceding the date of survey will be recorded against this item. Detailed information on total household consumption expenditure is being collected through the household consumer expenditure schedule 1.0 from all sample households in which schedule 10 are canvassed. The per capita expenditure is calculated and recorded against item 19, block 3.1 of schedule 1.0. This entry will be copied against item 19 of block 3 on schedule 10.

5.3.15 Item 20: No. of members who got work for at least 60 days in 'public work' during last 365 days: For making the relevant entry against this item, it has to be first ascertained whether a member of the household got 'work' for at least 60 days during 365-days preceding the date of survey in 'public work'. On the basis of the information thus obtained, the number of male members of the household who got 'work' will be recorded against item 20(i) and the number of female members who got such work will be recorded against item 20(ii). If no male/female member got such work, the entry to be made will be 'o' against the relevant item 20(i) or 20(ii) or both. The definition of 'public work' is given in paragraph 5.12.4.

5.3.16 Item 21: Did the household receive any assistance during the last 5 years from IRDP: The relevant information is to be first collected for schedule 1.0 and recorded in terms of the specified codes against item 41 of block 3.4. This entry will be copied against item 21, block 3 of schedule 10.

5.3.17 Item 22: General educational standard of the head: For this item the entry will be the same as that recorded against the head of the household in column7 of block 4.

5.4.0 Block 4: Demographic particulars and current activity particulars for the week: This block is meant for recording the demographic particulars and the current activity status particulars (i.e. those obtaining for a reference period of 7 days preceding the date of survey) of all the normal members of the household.

5.4.1 Definitions: Definitions adopted for a few important items on which data will be collected in block 4 -6 are as follows:

a. Activity status: The activity status of an individual is the activity situation obtaining for the person in respect of his/her participation is gainful and also non-gainful activities during a given reference period. Normally, one of the following three major activity situations or a combination of them will be obtained for a person:

i. Of working or being engaged in gainful activities (or work) for pay, profit, or family gain.

ii. Of being not engaged in gainful activities (or work) but either of making tangible efforts to seek work or of being available for work and

iii. Of being not available for work because of various reasons.

Identification of each individual according to a unique situation poses a problem when more than one of the three activity situations listed above concurrently obtain for a person. In such an eventuality, the unique identification under any one of the three activity situations is done by adopting either the 'relatively long time' (or the major time) or the 'priority' criterion. The former is used for classification of persons under 'usual activity status' with reference to a period 365 days preceding the date of survey and the latter for classification of persons under 'current activity status' with reference to a period of 7 days preceding the date of survey or to each day of the seven days' period. The three major activity status categories referred to above have been further sub-divided into several detailed activity categories. The detailed categories (under each of the three major activity status categories) along with the corresponding codes to be used in the 43rd round survey are listed below:

(a. i) Situation of working or being engaged in gainful activities (employed)

1. Worked in household enterprises (self-employed) 11
2. Worked as helper in household enterprises 21
3. Worked as regular salaried/wage employee 31
4. Worked as casual wage labour in public works 41
5. Worked as casual wage labour in other types of work 51
6. Had work in household Enterprises but did not work due to:
Sickness 61
Other reasons 62
7. Had regular salaried wage employment but did not work due to:
Sickness 71
Other reasons 72

(a. ii) Situation of being not engaged in work but available for work

Sought work 81
Did not seek but was available for work 82

(a. iii) Situation of being not available for work

1. Attended educational institution 91
2. Attended domestic duties only. 92
3. Attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods, sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for household use 93
4. Renters, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc 94
5. Not able to work due to disability 95
6. Beggars, prostitutes, etc 96
7. Others 97
8. Did not work due to sickness (for casual workers only) 98

For usual status classification codes 61, 62, 71, 72, 82 and 98 are not applicable and code 81 will be used to indicate both the situations of seeking work and being available for work.

b. Gainful activity: (work) is the activity pursued by persons for pay, profit or gain or in other words, the activity which adds value to the 'national products'. Normally, it is an activity which results in productions of 'goods and services' for exchange. However, the activities in 'agriculture' (i.e., all activities relating to industry division) in which the part of the whole or the agricultural production is used for own consumption and does not go for sale, are also considered 'gainful'. Executions of household chores for social commitments, etc., however, are not considered 'gainful' activities. The activities, such as, prostitution, begging, etc., which may result in earnings, are also by convention not considered 'gainful'.

c. Workers (or employed): persons engaged in any gainful activity are considered 'workers' (or employed). They are persons pursuing work in any one or more of the nine-situations listed under the first broad activity category , i.e., 'working or being engaged in gainful work' as given above while defining the 'activity status'.

d. Seeking or available for work (or unemployed): persons who, owing to lack of work, had not worked but either sought work through employment exchanges intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or expressed their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing conditions of work and remuneration are considered unemployed.

e. Labour force: persons categorized as working (or employed) and categorized as seeking or available for work for (unemployed) together constitute the labour forces.

f. Not in labour force: Persons categorized neither 'working' nor 'seeking or available for work' are considered to be engaged in non-gainful activities and categorized 'not in labour force'. The persons falling in this category are students, including those engaged in domestic chores, renters, pensioners, those living on alms, remittance, etc. infirm and disabled persons, prostitutes and smugglers etc.

5.4.2 Column (1): Serial number: All the 'normally resident members' of the sample household will be listed in block 4 using a continuous serial number in column (1). While listing, the head of the household will be listed first followed by head's spouse, the first son, first son's wife and children, second son, second son's wife and children, etc. After the sons are enumerated, the daughters will be listed followed by other relations, dependants, servants, etc. For definitions of 'household' and 'normally resident members' of the household see paragraphs 2.0.9 and 2.0.10 respectively (pages 15 to 17 of this manual.

5.4.3 Column (2): Name of member: The names of the family resident members corresponding to the serial numbers entered in column (1) will be recorded in column (2).

5.4.4 Column (3): Relation to head: The family relationship of each member of the household with the head of the household (for the head, the relationship is 'self') expressed in terms of specifies codes will be recorded in this column. The codes to be used are:

Self 1
Spouse of head 2
Married child 3
Spouse of married child 4
Unmarried child 5
Grandchild 6
Father/mother/father-in-law mother-in-law 7
Brother/sister/brother-in-law/sister-in-law/other relatives 8
Servant/employee/other non-relatives 9

5.4.5 Column (4): Sex: The sex of each member of the household, in terms of the code numbers (male-1, female-2), will be recorded in this column.

5.4.6 Column (5): Age: The age in completed years of all the members listed in column (1) will be ascertained and recorded in column (5). For a few born babies or the baby who has not completed one year of age at the time of listing, the entry to be made in column (5) will be 'O'.

5.4.7 Column (6): Marital status: The marital status of each member will be recorded in terms of the specified code numbers in this column. The codes are:

Never married 1
Currently married 2
Widowed 3
Divorced/separated 4

5.4.8 Columns (7) and (8): Educational standard: Information regarding the general and technical education attained by the normal members of the household listed in column (1) will be recorded in columns (7) and (8) respectively in terms of the specified code numbers. For the purpose of making entries in those columns, only the course successfully completed will be considered. For instance, for a person who has studies up to say, first year B.A., his educational attainment will be considered only secondary (code number 5). Also, for a person who has studies up to 12th standard but has not set for the final examination or has failed or even passed in the examination, his educational attainment will be considered "secondary" only. The relevant codes to be used for recording entries in these two columns are:

General education [column (7)]

Not literate 0
Literate without formal schooling 1
Literate but below primary 2
Primary 3
Middle 4
Secondary 5

Graduate and above in:
Agriculture 6
Engineering/technology 7
Medicine 8
Other subject 9

Technical education [column (8)]
No technical education 0
Additional diploma/certificate in:
Agriculture 1
Engineering/technology 2
Medicine 3
Crafts 4
Other subjects 5

A person who can both read and write a simple message in at least one language is to be considered literate. Those who are not able to do so are to be considered not literate and will be assigned code 0. Those who are literate but never attended any school will be assigned code 1. Those who are by definition literate but are yet to pass primary standard examination will get code 2. Similarly code 3, 4 and 5 will indicate the successive higher standard of examinations passed. Matriculation, School Final, Pre-University, Higher Secondary and Intermediate Examinations will come under Secondary (code 5). A degree holder will get one of the codes 6 to 9 depending on the subject studied. For code 8, medical graduates belonging to school of medicine other than allopathic, e.g., homeopathic, ayurvedic, etc., are also to be taken into consideration. Code 6 will also include graduates in 'forestry', 'fishery science', etc. If more than one of the codes 6 to 9 are relevant for a person the following procedure will be adopted.

i. When code 9 as well as one of the codes 6 to 8 are relevant code 9 will not be considered.

ii. When more than one of the codes 6 to 8 are relevant, the code indicating the degree last obtained will be considered.

Persons who have attained proficiency in original languages (e.g. Sanskrit, Persian, etc.) through formal but not the general type of education will be classified appropriately at the equivalent level of general education standard.

5.4.9 Column (9): Current attendance in educational institution and course of study:
For all persons listed in column (1), it will be first ascertained whether the person is currently attending any educational institution (government or private) or not. In many universities like Rajasthan, Delhi, Madurai, etc., candidates are enrolled for regular correspondence courses for a stipulated period, at the end of which they will be allowed to appear in the university examinations of the particular course of study. Persons enrolled for such correspondence course will also be considered as 'currently attending in an educational institution'; it will be further probed in regard to the course of study they are pursuing. For all those who are not attending any educational institution, code 01 will be recorded in this column. For those who are found to be attending an educational institution, the courses of study they are pursuing will be recorded in terms of specified codes. The relevant codes to be used for filling up of this column are:

Currently not attending any educational institution.....01
Currently attending an educational institution for:
Pre-primary........... 02
Primary............. 03
Middle.......... 04
Secondary......... 05

Degree course in:
Agriculture............06
Engineering/technology.........07
Medicine...........08
Other subjects............09

Diploma/certificate course in:
Agriculture...... ...10
Engineering/technology......11
Medicine........... 12
Craft.......... 13
Other subjects............... 14

5.4.10 Column (10): Registration with employment exchange: For all persons listed in column (1). It has to be ascertained whether or not they are currently on the live register of the employment exchange. For a person to be currently on the live register, he or she should renew his/her registration before it lapses, i.e. when the renewal becomes due. The period specifies for renewal varies from state to state and also perhaps, from one employment category to the other. The investigator therefore, should ascertain from some knowledgeable sources, the patrol specified for such renewal in the particular region where he has to carry out the field work. With this back ground information, the investigator should find out when the person has registered in the employment exchange, whether he had renewed the registration, etc., and thus, determine whether or not he or she was currently on the live register of the employment exchange. If the name of the person is in the live register of the employment exchange, code 1 and if not, code 2, as the case may be, will be recorded in column (10).

5.4.11 Column (11): Current week activity status: The current week activity status of a person will be activity status obtaining for a person during a reference period of seven days preceding the date of survey. Irrespective of the usual activity pursued by a person, his/her current week activity will be determined strictly on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the reference period of seven days preceding the date of survey adopting the priority criterion. Even for self-employed persons, one need not prejudge and take for granted that the current activity situation for them will be identical to the usual activity situation. A careful probe on the part of the investigator regarding the various activities pursued by the person during the seven days preceding the date of survey is, therefore, necessary for ascertaining his/her current week activity status. In defining the 'activity status' (paragraph 5.4.1) it has already been mentioned that the activities are grouped broadly into three categories namely (i) working, (ii) not working but seeking and /or available for week and (iii ) neither working nor available for work. According to the priority criterion, the status of 'working gets priority over the status 'not working but seeking and/or available for work' which in turn gets priority over the status of 'neither working nor available for work' , the status 'seeking ' gets priority over the status of 'not seeking but available for work'. A person would be considered 'working (or employed)' if he/she while pursuing any gainful activity had worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the week preceding the date of survey. A person would be considered 'seeking and /or available for work (or unemployed)' if during the reference week no 'work' was done by the person but he or she had made efforts to get work or had been available for work during the reference week though not activity seeking work, in the belief that no work was available. A person who had neither worked nor was available for work will be considered to be engaged in non-gainful activities (or not in labour force). The three broad groups of activities are further classified into 19 detailed 'status' categories, 9 for persons categorized 'working' (codes 11-72), 2 for those categorized 'not working but seeking and/or available for work' (codes 81 and 82) and 8 for those categorized 'neither working nor available for work' (codes 91-98). For a person, the appropriate broad 'status' will be determined first adopting the priority criterion. If a person categorized 'working' is found to be pursuing more than one gainful activity during the reference week, the gainful activity in which relatively more time has been spent will be the appropriate detailed 'status' that will be assigned to him/her. If the time spent on the different activities is found to be equal, the activity that appears first in the list will be assigned to the person. In case more than one 'non-gainful activity status' (codes 91-98) are assignable to a person in view of the typical activity pattern followed by him/her during the references week, the activity which appears first in the code list in the ascending order starting from 91 will be assigned. But it may be noted that a person engaged in 'domestic duties' should not be classified as 'student' simply because he/she was attending some training. Similarly, a disabled person who was a recipient of regular pension, remittance, etc., should be classified as 'renters, pensioners, remittance recipients, etc.' and not as the category 'nor able to work due to disability' (code 95). After thus determining the current weekly activity status of a household member, the corporate 2 --digit code (see paragraph 5.4.1) will be recorded in column (11). The following points may be noted while assigning the 'activity status' to a person.

a. A person found to be engage in domestic duties should not be categorized 'engaged in domestic duties' (code 92) if the person reports that he/ she has also been available for work concurrently.

b. A person engaged in regular wage/salaried employment but currently not at work, will be assigned code 71 or 72 irrespective of whether he is in engaged in any other 'gainful or non-gainful' activity.

c. Unpaid apprentices will be treated as 'students', while paid apprentices will be treated as 'employees.

d. Persons under 'paid lay off' will be considered 'employed' and those under 'unpaid lay off', 'unemployed' if they are seeking and/or available for work.

e. 'Free collection for sale' will be treated as self-employment. If the products collected relate to agricultural sector (even if the products collected are not for sale but for household consumption) the industry division will be 'O') and for other goods like rag, waste paper, tins etc., the industry division will be '6'.

5.4.12 Column (12): Industry division: for the persons categorized 'working' (i.e., those with status codes 11-72) the corresponding, 'industry division' will be recorded in terms of the specified codes in column (12). The codes are:

Agricultural, hunting, forestry and fishing....0
Mining and quarrying.......1
Manufacturing.........2/3
Electricity, gas and water..........4
Construction............ 5
Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels.... 6
Transport, storage and communication..... 7
Financing, insurance, real estate and business services.. 8
Community, social and personal services.......9

5.4.13 Columns (13-15): Principal industry-occupation: For each person assigned the 'work' status codes (i.e. codes 11-72) in column (11), the description of the principal industry-occupation relevant t the type of gainful activity pursued by the person' during the reference week will be recorded in column (13). The corresponding three digit industry group code (NIC 1970) will be recorded in column (14) and the 3 digit occupation family code (NCO 1968) will be recorded in column (15). In case more than one industry- occupation is assignable to a person, the principal industry-occupation relevant to the person will be the one, in which relatively more time has been spent during the reference week, in pursuing such gainful activities.

5.4.14 Column 16: Whether engaged in own account construction: For each member of the household, it will be ascertained whether he or she was engaged in 'own account construction' activity at any time during the week or not. Own account construction activity includes construction of own houses, roads and well, etc., and also construction of any private or community facilities, but free of charge. A person will be considered to be engaged in own account construction only when he participates in the activity of construction for own household or for others free of charge either in the labour or in the supervisory capacity. For a person who had participated in 'own account construction' for own household at any time during the reference week, code 1 will be assigned. For these who were engaged in construction activities for others but free of charge, code 2 will be recorded. For persons who had not participated in such activities, code 3 will be recorded. It may be noted that column 16 will be filled up irrespective of his week activity particulars reported in cols. 11-15. For a person self-employed in construction activity, the status and industry div. codes in cols. 11 and 12 will be 11 and 5 respectively. If such a person undertakes any own account construction also during the week, he will be assigned either code 1 or 2 in column (16) depending on whether he undertook the construction activity for own household of for other.

5.5.0 Blocks 5: Time disposition during the reference week: The information on the detail labour time disposition of the normal members of the sample household who have reported either as 'working' (including those who did not work due to sickness, leave who did not work due to sickness, leave, etc., but otherwise would have been working) or as 'seeking and/or available for work' during the reference period and as such record in block 4 (i.e., all those with status codes 11-82 in column 11, block 4), the wages or salaried received or receivable by wage and salary earners during the same week, number of days with only nominal (1-2 hrs.) work and the duration of the current spell of unemployment for those classified as unemployed on all the seven days, etc., will be recorded in this block. To obtain information of the detailed day-to-day labour time disposition of persons during the reference period, particulars of the different activities pursued by them with the respective time intensity, in quantitative terms, of each such activity separately for each day of the reference week will be recorded. The time intensity of an activity will be measured in half day units. The different activities pursued by a person will be specified in terms of the 'current week activity' codes which comprise of the 'status' and 'industry' codes for persons in urban areas and 'status', industry and 'operation' codes for persons in rural areas. Since a person may be engaged in more than one type of activity on a single day, more than one line have been provided for in the block for recording information on different activity particulars for each person in separate lines. Provision has also been made in this block to record the total of different entries made or each day of the reference week.

5.5.1 Column1: Serial number as in block 4: The serial number of the household members enumerated and assigned any of the status codes 11-82 in column 11 of block 4 will be entered in this column. For each such person, the detailed day-to-day labour time disposition and other related particulars will be collected in the subsequent columns of this block. Since one working person may pursue more than one activity during the seven days of the reference week, for each serial number recorded in column 1, four lines have been provided for making separate entries relevant for the different activities on different days of the week.

5.5.2 Column 2: Serial number of activity: For each person listed in column 1, the different activities pursued by them during all the seven days of the reference week will be serially number of activity will be recorded in volume (2). Presuming that the likelihood of one person pursuing more than four different activities in a week is rather remote, only four lines are provided for each person. It is mentioned earlier that the current activity of a person in the rural areas is denoted by his status-cum-industry-cum-operation. Thus, for a person with the same status, if the industry (at the division level) or operations are different on the same or different days, he will be considered to have pursued different activities and these activities will be entered in different lines. Similarly, for the urban areas the current activity of a person is denoted by his status-cum-industry. Thus, if a person ploughs his own field in the first half of the day and sow in the second half of the day, for urban areas, he will be considered to have only one activity, during the day. But for rural areas he will be considered to have pursued two activities.

5.5.3 Column (3): Status: The current activity 'status' codes corresponding to the serial number of activity entered in column (2) will be recorded in this column. Although it may be theoretically possible that on a particular day of the reference week, a person may have any number of activities, the particulars relating to two activities need only be considered for making entries in this column. Thus, on a day, a person may either have only one activity with 'full' intensity or two activities with 'half' intensity for each. If the activity is pursued with intensity 'half' on a particular day, the entry will be 0.5 against that activity and if that is pursued with intensity more than half, 1.0 will be recorded against that activity is the relevant columns (6) -- (12). The decision whether the intensity to be recorded for a activity will be 0.5 or 1.0 has to be taken by the investigating staff making careful probes into the actual situation obtaining for the person on a particular day. More declaration made by the informants, that less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession, should not be the basis for recording the intensity as 1.0. In the case of cultivator, a village artisan or a small trader, it should not be presumed that a few hours on a day, seven during the loan periods of the year is their normal work, and the intensity 1.0 need not necessarily be recorded for them. Since the particular block of the schedule is meant for recording the information on periodical or seasonal under utilization of available labour time, careful probes about the nature of work performed by a person during the day has to be made before recording the relevant entries. To illustrate, in so far as the current activity pattern of a person is concerned, the following seven different situations can be visualized (i) on a single day a person may be engaged fully in one gainful activity; (ii) on a single day person may be engaged in two different types of gainful activities; (iii) on as single day a person may be partly engaged in gainful activity and for the rest of the time he may be seeking or available for gainful activity and at the same time may or may not be engaged in some non-gainful activities; (iv) on a single day a person may be partly engaged in gainful activity and during the rest of the time he may not be available for work for the whole day and at the same time may or may not be doing some non-gainful work; (v) on a single day a person may be available for work for the entire day; )vi) on a single day a person may be available for work for part of the day and for the remaining part he may not be available for work and may be pursuing some non-gainful activity (vii) on a single day a person may be fully engaged in non-gainful activities. Which of the status codes are to be entered in column (3) will depend on whichever of the above situations are obtaining for a person on the different days of the reference week. The investigator is to first ascertain the exact situation from the informant and will record the exact situation from the informant and will record the appropriate status code or codes, as the case may be in this column.

5.5.4 Column (4): Industry division: For each status code grouped under the activity category 'working' (i.e. for the status codes 11-72 recorded in column 3), the sector of activity i.e., the industry division will be entered in column (4) in terms of the specified code numbers.

5.5.5 Column (5): Operation: This column will be filled in for persons belonging to the rural households only. The actual working operation performed by the persons relevant to the status codes grouped under the activity category working (i.e., status codes 11-72) will be entered in terms of code numbers in this column. It may be noted that for regular salaried/wage employees on leave or holiday the 'operation' will relate to their respective function in the work or job from which he is temporarily off in view of his taking leave or holiday. Similarly for persons categorized 'self-employed', if they are not at work on a particular any in spite of their having work on that day, operation to be recorded will relate to the work they would have done if they had not enjoyed leisure on that day. The relevant codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

Manual work in cultivation:

Ploughing -- 01
Sowing -- 02
Transplanting - 03
Weeding -- 04
Harvesting -- 05
Other cultivation activities -- 06;

(b) Manual work in other agricultural activities:

Forestry -- 07
Plantation -- 08
Animal husbandry -09
Fisheries -- 10
Other agricultural activities -- 11;

(c) Manual work in non-agricultural activities -- 12;

(d) Non-manual work in:

Cultivation -- 13
Activities other than cultivation -- 14.
Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops by village and related ancillary activities will be considered cultivation. Growing of trees/plants/crops (such as rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, teas, etc.) as plantation or orchards will not be considered cultivation activity. In general, the activities covered under the industry groups 000-008 will be considered cultivation.

5.5.6 Column (6) -- (12) Intensity of activity: For each activity recorded in column (3), the intensity with which the particular activity is performed on the different days of the reference week will be recorded in quantitative terms 'half' or 'full' in these columns. As described earlier, either one 'full' intensity or two 'half' intensity may be assigned to a person on any one of the seven days of the reference week for each activity listed in column (2). For a particular activity the recording of entries in columns (6) -- (12) should start from column (6) which is provided for recording the intensity of that activity on the seventh day of the reference week, i.e., the day preceding the date of survey. Similarly, the intensity of that activity on the sixth, fifth and earlier days of the week will be recorded in columns (7), (8), (9), (10), (11) and (12) respectively. If the intensity of an activity is 'full' on a particular day, '1.0' will be recorded in the relevant column. On the other hand, if the intensity is 'half', the entry will be '0.5'. If that particular activity is not pursued oh some days of the reference week, the corresponding columns provided in the block for those days will be left blank. For each day, thus, for a person, either there will be only one entry with intensity 1.0 in any one of the lines or two entries with intensity 0.5 each in any two of the lines.

5.5.7 For determining the various activities pursued by a person during the reference week and their intensities, the following thumb rule may be adopted:

a. If a person had worked or was employed, that is, if he was engaged in any
one or more of the activities 11-72 for four hours or more on a day he would be considered 'working' or 'employed' for the whole day and assigned the one or two out of the different work activities on which he devoted relatively long time. In the former case, intensity will be 1.0 and in the latter case 0.5 for each of the two activities recorded.

b. A person, who had worked for one hour or more but less than 4 hours on a
day, would be considered 'working' for half day and for the other half he would be considered either 'seeking or available for work' i.e., 'unemployed' (code 81 or 82) or as 'neither working nor available for work', i.e., not in labour force (91-98) depending on whether or not the person was seeking/ available for work. The person will be assigned the relevant work status code (11-72) with 'half' intensity and the non-work status code 81 or 82 if 'unemployed' and any one of the relevant codes 91-98 if 'not in labour force', with 'half' intensity.

c. If a person had not worked even an hour on the day but had sought work or was available for work four hours or more, he/she would be considered unemployed for the whole day and assigned the code 81-82 as the case might be with 'full' intensity. But if he/she sought work or was available for work for one hour or more but less than four hours, he/she would be considered 'unemployed' for half day and assigned the activity status code 81 or 82 with 'half' intensity and, not in labour force' with 'half' intensity for the other half of the day, for which the relevant code (any one of the codes (01-09) would be assigned.

d. A person not so considered 'employed', or 'unemployed' either for 'full' day or 'half' day as shown in (A0, (b) or ( c), would be considered 'not in labour force' for the whole day and assigned the relevant activity code 91-98 with intensity 'full' (or two of them with each having intensity 'half', as the case may be).

In the case of persons engaged in self employment, such as a doctor, a stationary or peripatetic trader or vendor, a free lance artisan or parmesan or carpenter, etc., the following may be kept in view wide recording entries on intensity.

A doctor sitting in his chamber for 4 hours or more, no matter whether he examined and prescribed medicine for a single patient or not, intensity 1.0 should be recoded.

For stationary or peripatetic vendor or trader moving around in his professional rounds for 4 or more hours, intensity 1.0 should be recorded whatever little business is done by the person.

For recording intensity (entries 1.0 or 0.5) in columns (6)-(12) in the cases of masons or carpenters in their professional rounds, similar procedure is to be adopted.

In the case of regular or casual salaried or wage employees, the activity beyond the normal working hours need not be considered for recording entries in these columns. On the other hand, if a person pursues two gainful activities of duration of duration, say 4-5 hours each, both are to be recorded with 0.5 intensity for each. In the case of self-employed persons, time spent on any ancillary activity relating to the actual activity of production of goods or services, will also be considered as time spent on 'work'. In this connection, it may be noted that 'exchange labour' will be considered as 'work' performed in 'self-employed' capacity.

5.5.8 Column (13): Total number of days in each activity: The number of days for which a particular activity was pursued during the seven days, i.e., the total of columns (6) -- (12) will be recorded in one place of decimal in column (13) separately for each activity status listed in column (2). It may be noted that the total number of days for all the activities together should always be 7.0 for each individual entered in column (1).

5.5.9 Columns (14) - (16): Wage and salary earnings: The wage and salary earning (not total earnings) receivable for the wages/salaried work done during the reference week, separately for each of the relevant activities pursued by each person, will be recorded in these columns. The relevant status codes for which wage and salary earnings are to be recorded are 31, 41, 51, 71 and 72. The wages and salaries for the work done during the reference week may be already received or may be receivable in cash or in kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. The total wage or salary received or receivable for the week in cash will be recorded in column (14) and the value (evaluated at the current retain price) of salary or wages in kind received or receivable will be recorded in column (15). The total of columns (14) and (15) will be entered in column (16). The entries for all these columns will be made in 2 places of decimal. For recording the wages or salaries, amount receivable as 'over time' for the additional work done beyond normal working time will be ignored. Bonus (expected or paid) and perquisites, evaluated at retain prices duly apportioned for the reference week, will be considered as wages and included for making entries in these columns. For the activity status '71' and '72' the amount receivable for the week will be worked out on the basis of the number of days reported under the activity during the week.

5.5.10 Column (17): Total number of days with nominal work: Some of the persons reporting days with half intensity of work might have had work only for say, 1-2 hours on certain days out of them. Such days would be considered as days with nominal work. For each person, total number of days out of the 7 days' reference period with only nominal work would be recorded in this column against the relevant person.

5.5.11 Column (18): Duration of the current spell of unemployment: For each person reported as unemployed on all the seven days of the week, the duration of the current continuous spell of unemployment will be recorded in this column against the relevant person in terms of the specified codes which are:

Only one week....1
Up to two weeks.... 2
Up to one month.... 3
Up to two months...4
Up to three months..........5
Up to six months............ 6
More than six months............. 7

It may be noted that duration to be recorded will relate only to the present spell. For example, if a person was unemployed, say, for two months, then employed for a short period and again unemployed and found so at the time enumeration, for the purpose of making entry in this column for such a person, the latter spell of unemployment should only be a considered.

5.6.0 Block 6: Usual activity and migration particulars: The usual activity (principal as well as subsidiary) particulars with respect to a reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey of all the normally resident members of the household and particulars relating to their migration, if any will be collected in Block 6.

5.6.1 Column (1): Serial number as in block 4: All the normally resident members of the household enumerated in block 4 will again be listed in this column in the same serial order as that of column (1) of block 4. In fact, the serial number assigned for each member in block 4 will be copied in this column in the same order as done for block 4.

5.6.2 Column (2): Principal usual activity status: Usual activity status of a person will be determined on the basis of the various activities pursued by the person during the reference period of 365 days adopting 'relatively long time (or major time)' criterion. As mentioned earlier, the activities are grouped into, three major categories -- 'working', 'not working but seeking and /or available for work' and 'neither working nor available for work'. For determining the 'usual activity status' of a person, he or she has to be first classified into any one of the above three broad category groups on the basis of the time spent on them during the reference period of 365 days. Thus, the broad activity status of a person will be the one out of the three, 'working', 'available for work', 'neither working nor available for work', on which the person spent relatively long period during the 365 days. In deciding this, one should consider only the normal working time available for pursuing the various activities and not 24 hours of each day. After deciding the broad usual status of the person, the detailed activity, status within the broad group will be determined adopting again the 'relatively long' or 'major time' criterion. The detailed activity status, thus determined, will be the principal usual activity status of the person. The code corresponding to this activity status will be recorded in column (2). To elucidate, consider the following example.

[A table has been omitted.]

In the first case, relatively long time has been spent on employment and therefore, he has been categorized as usually employed. Using the same 'time spent criterion, 'b and c have been categorized as 'unemployed' and 'not in labour force' respectively. If A, out of the 5 months, was 'self-employed' for 3 months and worked as 'casual labour' for 2 months, his principal usual activity status would be 'self-employment' (i.e., code 11). It may be noted that if a person found to be engaged in domestic duties for a respectively long period of the reference period of 365 days is also reported to be simultaneously seeking/available for work, the person should be categorized as 'unemployed' and not as 'engaged in domestic duties'.

5.6.3 Column (3): Industry division: For persons categories as 'working', i.e., those with the status code 11- 51 in column (2), the industry division code corresponding to the activity status recorded in column (2) will be entered in column (3).

5.6.4 Column (4) -- (6): Principal- occupation:

For all those reported as working i.e., those with status codes 11-51 in column (2), the description of the activity, i.e., the industry and the corresponding function of work, i.e., the occupation in which the person was engaged, will be recorded in column (4). The relevant 3-digited industry group code (NIC, 1970) and the 3-digited occupation family code (NCO, 1968) will be respectively entered in columns (5) and (6).

5.6.5 Column (7): Whether engaged in any work in a subsidiary capacity: For each person listed in this block, it has to be ascertained whether he or she worked in a subsidiary capacity during the 365 days preceding the date of survey or not in other words, he or she had a subsidiary gainful usual status. This has to be ascertained for all the broad categories of persons initially classifies as 'employed', 'unemployed' and 'not in labour force' and coded accordingly in column (2) of the block. To illustrate, a person categorized as working and assigned the principal usual activity status as 'self-employed' may also be engaged for a relatively minor time during the year as casual wage labour as in the case of 'A' in the example cited on page 117 (paragraph 5.6.2). In such a case, he will be considered to have worked also in a subsidiary capacity (i.e., having a subsidiary gainful status which is different from the principal gainful status. (On the other hand, a person may be self-employed in trade for a relatively longer period and simultaneously also engaged in agricultural production for a relatively minor time. In such case, the principal usual activity status will be self-employed in trade and subsidiary gainful status, self-employed in agricultural). Similarly, persons categorized as 'unemployed' or 'not in labour force' on the basis of relatively long time' criterion might have pursued some gainful activity for relatively minor time during the year as in the cases of B and C in the example cited in page 117 (paragraph 5.6.2). In all the above cases, they will be treated to have had subsidiary gainful usual status and code 1 will be recorded for them in column (7). For persons who had not pursued any gainful activity in the subsidiary capacity, code 2 will be recorded. It may be noted that engagement in work in subsidiary capacity may arise out of two situations -- (i) 3 person may be engaged in a relatively long period during the 365 days in one gainful activity/non-gainful activity and for a relatively minor period in another gainful activity/gainful activity, (ii) a person may be pursuing one gainful activity/non-gainful activity almost throughout the year in the principal status and also simultaneously pursuing another gainful activity/gainful activity for relatively shorter time in a subsidiary capacity.

5.6.6 Columns (8) and (9): Subsidiary gainful activity status and industry division: For persons having code 1 in column (7), the 'status' codes of the gainful activities pursued by them in their subsidiary capacity will be recorded in column (8) and the corresponding 'industry division' codes will be recorded in column (9). In the situation when a person has been found to have pursued more than one gainful activity during the last 365 days in his or her subsidiary capacity, the activity on which more time had been spent would be considered for recording the entries in these columns.

5.6.7 Columns (10) -- (12): Industry-occupation: The description of the industry-occupation corresponding to the subsidiary gainful activity recorded in columns (8) and (9) will be recorded in column (10) and the relevant 3-digited industry (NIC 1970) and occupation (NCO 1968) codes will be entered in column (11) and (12) respectively.

5.6.8 Column (13): Place of work: For all persons assigned work status codes, i.e., codes 11-51 in column (2), information on their usual places of work vis-à-vis their places of stay will be collected and recorded in this column in terms of the specified codes. For a sample, a person staying in a village may be working in the same village or in another village or in a town and that also for different persons, the distance to be computed may be different. Similarly, a person staying in a town may be working in the same town, another town or in a village. According to the situation obtaining for each relevant person and also taking into consideration the distance to be commuted, the appropriate code will be decided and recorded. The codes are:

Same village/town: distance:

less than 5 km. - 1
5 - 20 km. - 2
20 km. and above - 3

Another village: distance:

less than 5 km. - 4
5 - 20 km. - 5
20 km. and above - 6

Another town: distance:

less then 5 km. - 7
5 - 20 km. - 8
20 km. and above - 9

5.6.9 Column (14): Whether place of enumeration different from last usual residence:
For obtaining the appropriate response to the question, it has to be ascertained for each member of the household listed in this block, whether his/her place of enumeration is different from his last (previous) usual residence, if any, the usual residence for the purpose of this survey being defined as a place (village or town) where the person has stayed continuously for a period of six months or more. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if it is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded in column (14). The place of enumeration will obviously be his/her current place of stay (destination) and the place (village or town) where the person stayed continuously for a period of six months or more prior to moving into the current place of stay (i.e., place of enumeration) will be considered the 'place of last usual residence' (origin). However, visits of daughters-in-law (staying period which sometimes may extended to more than six months) to their parents' house for child birth or for any other reason will not be considered a migratory movement and therefore, will not be considered for recording entries in this column. But movements for undergoing for undergoing studies or under transfer will be considered as migratory movements. The following points may be noted in this context.

1. For persons who have only moved from one locality to another within the same town/village, in their life time up to the same of enumeration, the place enumeration and place of last usual residence will be the same.

ii. Stay in a different town or village for less than six months will be ignored. In this context, the following example may be considered. Suppose, a person was born in the village A stayed there for 15 years. On getting married, the person had accompanied her spouse to village B, stayed there for 8 months and then moved to village c, staying there only for 5 months. From village C they moved to village D where they had been enumerated. For this person the last usual residence would be village B.

5.6.10 Column (15): Period since leaving the last usual residence: The period elapsed since leaving the last usual residence will be recorded in years rounded off to the nearest integer in this column. For working out this, the period of temporary stay (less than six months) in other places after leaving the last usual residence and ultimately moving into the place of enumeration will also be included. If the period clasped since leaving the last usual residence is less than 6 months, then they entry will be 'O'.

5.6.11 Column (16): Type of last usual residence: The type of the last usual residence, i.e. whether it was rural areas of same district or urban areas of the same district or it was rural areas of another state, etc., will be ascertained and indicated in this column in terms of the specified code members. Codes to be used are:

Rural area of the district - 1
Urban area of the same district - 2
Rural area of another district in the same state - 3
Urban area of another district in the same state - 4
Rural area of another state - 5
Urban area of another state - 6
Another country - 7

5.6.12 Columns (17) - (18): State: The name of the state to which the last usual residence belonged will be recorded in column (17) and the corresponding state code in column (18). The relevant codes are to be taken from the list of NSS regions, and their composition given in the Appendix. In case the type code of last usual residence is '7' (i.e., another country), the name of the country will be written in capital letters across the space under columns (17) -- (18) against the relevant person.

5.6.13 Column (19): Usual activity status at the time of migration: For determining the usual activity status of a migrant at the time of migration, the reference period to be adopted will be 365 days preceding the day of migration. The determination of the person's usual activity status will be done adopting the 'relatively long time criterion' as described in paragraph 5.6.2. The usual activity status of the person will, naturally, relate to the principal status. After determining the 'usual status' of a migrant the code relevant to the status assigned for the person will be recorded in column 19.

5.6.14 Column (20): Industry division: For the persons assigned the activity status codes 11-51 (i.e., those categorized working), the appropriate industry division code will be recorded in column (20).

5.6.15 Column (21): Reason for leaving the last usual residence: The reason for moving out of the last usual residence will be ascertained for each migrant member and entered in terms of the specified codes in this column. It may so happen that a person had moved out of his last usual residence for a particular reason, stayed in a different village/town for a short period (less than 6 months; if this period is 6 months or more that place will become his last usual residence) and then moved to the place of enumeration (a village or town other than the previous one) for a different reason. In such a case only the reason which motivated his/her first movement will be recorded. The codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

In search of employment......1

In search of better employment (for persons who
Were employed at the place of origin prior to migration)...2

Under transfer on service/business contract...3

For pursuing studies......4

On marriage.........5

Due to migration of parent(s) earning member(s).....6

For political change/lack of security of social adjustment.......7

Due to natural calamity........8

Due to other reason......9

Note: Columns 15- 21 are to be filled up only for those reporting code 1 in column 14.

5.6.16 Whether usually economically active: It may be recalled that for determining the usual activity status of a person, the three broad categories of activities obtainable for a person (during the reference period) i.e., 'employment', 'unemployment' and the status of being 'not in the labour force are to be considered. Then, by adopting a 'relatively long time' spent criterion, one of the above three situation is assigned for the person. A person is considered to be economically active if he/she is either 'employed' for 'available for employment' (unemployment) and is considered to be usually economically active if during the 365 days preceding the date of survey, the period under 'employment' and unemployment' taken together for him/her is found to be more than (or equal to) the period for which he or she was not available for work (or not in labour force). It may be noted that for classifying a person either as 'usually economically active' or not, no additional information need be collected. The information already gathered for assigning the principal usual activity status will be used for the purpose. The investigator, based on the already collected information will decide whether the person is 'usually economically active' or not and record the appropriate code 1 or 2 in column (22). The relevant code will be recorded for all the persons listed in column 1 of this block. In the example given under paragraph 5.6.2 all the three persons A, B, and C will be considered to be 'usually economically active' though C's usual principal status is 'not in labour force'. For 'C', the period 'employed' and 'unemployed' together is 7 months (3+4) which is more than the period of 5 months during which he was not in the labour force.

5.7.0 Block 7: Follow-up questions for the persons with usual activity status codes 11-94 :
With a view to leaving an in depth study of the work pattern and the extent of under-utilization of available labour time of the population, the procedure of obtaining ancillary information from responses to some meaningful follow-up questions put to different homogeneous groups of population determined by usual activity status categories was first attempted in the 27th round survey. Drawing upon the experiences of the 27th round survey, the follow-up questions used in that round have been streamlined for the purpose of formulating a set of uniform questions for use in the 32nd round for all the different categories of the population. For the 38th round survey, the same set of questions has further been rationalized. As it was felt the questions used in the 38th round did not bring to light all the situations obtaining for persons categorized as 'working' in the principal status as well as in the subsidiary status, some modification and restructuring have been effected on those set of questions. The revised questions are housed in block-7. These questions will be put to all the household members assigned any of the usual activity status codes 11-94. As there may be more than one member of the household with any of the above usual activity status code, provision has been made in this block to record the forthcoming answers for 6 such individuals. The follow-up questions listed in this block are in most cases self-ex-planetary. The probable answers to these questions are pre-coded and printed in parentheses along with the relevant questions. The investigators will try to find out, through their investigation, what, of the many possible alternative answers, is the answer offered by the informant and record in the box spaces provided for the appropriate code relevant to that answer. The reference period is the 365 days preceding the date of survey.

5.7.1 It may be noted that population to which the follow-up questions in block 7 are to be constituted of three categories which are:

i. Persons classified as usually 'working' (usually status code 11-51) i.e., those working for a relatively long time during the period of 365 days preceding the date of survey.

ii. Persons classified as usually 'not working' (usual status codes 81-94) but categorized 'working' in the subsidiary capacity (i.e. those with code '1' in column 7 of block 6).

iii. Persons classified as usually 'not working' (usual status codes 81-94) and also categorized 'not working' even in subsidiary capacity (i.e. those with code '2' in column 7 of block 6).

It is obvious that persons covered under (i) and (ii) above will be engaged in some work during the 365 days procedure the date of survey and persons under (i) may have some sort of full engagement in gainful activities while the persons under (ii) will have only marginal engagement in gainful activities. Some among them may like to have some 'additional work' over and above whatever work they had during the reference period. It is, of course, possible that some of them, in spite of the work they are currently having, will still like to have 'not additional work' but 'alternate work', persons covered under (iii) who had not work during the reference period are the set of people who may, like to have some 'work', may be on a full time basis. These points must be kept in mind while the relevant question on the availability for work/additional work, etc. is put to the respondent. Depending on the answer obtained, the subsequent questions should be put to the informant by the investigator in the manner demanded by the situation. For example, if a person under (i) (though expected to have had almost full work) says that he wants alternative work (not additional work), the subsequent questions on the efforts made, period of availability for work, etc., should relate to the alternative work and not 'additional work'.

5.7.2 Item 1: Serial number of person as in block 4:
The serial numbers as in column (1), block 4, of the household members assigned any of the usual activity status codes 11-94 in column (2) of block (which will be same as the serial numbers in column (1) of block 6 also) will be copied against this item in the box spaces provided for. Provision has been made in this block to record the particulars of six such household members.

5.7.3 Item 2: Usual activity: For each of the members whole serial number is recorded against item 1, his or her usual activity 'status' and 'industry division' codes (as recorded in columns (2) and (3) respectively of block (6) will be entered against item 2 as a three- digit code of which the unit place will indicate the industry division code and the tenth and hundredth places will indicate the status code. Thus, if the entries were '11' and 0 for a person in column 2 and 3 of block 6, the entry for item 2 will be made as 110. It may be noted that for the usual activity status, the 'industry division' codes are recorded only for those categorized 'working' (i.e., persons assigned codes 11-51). For persons categorized 'not working' including those categorized 'seeking and/or available for work', the status code will be recorded as the hundredth and the tenth classes and a cross mark (x) will be put in the unit place to indicate that 'industry' is not applicable to those persons. For example, the entry for a person categorized 'seeking and/ or available for work' according to usual status will be 81x.

5.7.4 Item 3: Usual subsidiary gainful activity: For all persons with usual activity status codes 81-94, i.e., those categorized as engaged in non-work activities, their usual subsidiary gainful activity status, if any, will be copied from columns (8 ) and (9) of blocks 6 against this item. For making entry against this item, the status code will be recorded first, followed by the industry division code in the same manner as recorded for making entries against item 2.

5.7.5 Item 4: Fully engaged or not, in work: The question 'were you more or less fully engaged in work during the last 365 days' listed in item 4 will be put only to those categorized usually 'working' (i.e. those with status codes 11-51) recorded against item *2) with a view to finding out whether the person considers himself/herself as having enough work to keep himself/herself busy in that work almost throughout the year. If the answer to the question is in the affirmative, code-1 and if in the negative, code-2 will be entered against this item. For those persons with the answers in the affirmative question 8 will be asked skipping questions 5 to 7. But to persons who answered 'no' to question 4, questions, 5 and 6 are to be asked.

*in 100th and 10 place.

5.7.6 Item 5: Whether engaged in full time or part time work: For a person with the status 11-51 who answered negatively to question 4, it has to be asked whether he or she was pursuing mainly full-time work or part time work during the 365 days' reference period. If he or she had pursued full time work, code 1 will be recorded against this item. On the other hand, if the person had pursued part time work, code 2 will recorded.

5.7.7 Item 6: Period without work: for those who reported as not fully engaged in work during the last 365 days for question 4, apart from the question in item 5, another question is also to be asked to find out the approximate period for which they were without work during the 365 days. The reported period without work will be recorded against item 6 for relevant person in terms of weeks rounded off to the nearest integer.

5.7.8 Item 7: Seeking or available for work the first time: The question -- 'were you seeking or available for work for the first time?' listed against item 7 will be put to only those who have been classified as 'seeking and/or available for work' according to usual status (i.e. those with usual activity status code 81). The answer obtained will be recorded in code members (yes-1, no-2) against this item in the relevant box space.

5.7.9 Item 8: Availability for work/additional work/ alternative work: The question listed against this item is --'were you seeking or available for work/additional work/ alternative work?'. This particular question will be put to all the persons with usual activity status code 11-94. It may be noted that the persons for whom this set of follow-up questions are meant can broadly be divided into two groups -- (i) those who had some work during the reference year (i.e., persons with usual status codes 11-51 and 81-94 with some usual subsidiary gainful activity) and (ii) those who had no wok during the reference year (i.e., persons with usual activity status codes 81-94 with no usual subsidiary gainful activity). It is expected that the first group, if at all willing, will normally opt for 'additional work or 'alternative work' to this group, therefore, the question should be put in such a way as to reflect both the possibilities. To the second group, naturally, the question 'whether they were seeking or available for work' will be asked. Depending on the answer obtained, the entry will be made against this item interim of the code numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4. The codes are:

Yes: for: work .....1
Additional work....2
Alternative work....3
No: ...4

For persons categorized 'seeking and or available for work' According t usual status (i.e. persons with status code 81,) the question need not be asked again. For them code 1 will simply be recorded.

5.7.10 (Items 9 and 10): The questions listed against these items will be asked only to those persons who answer in the affirmative (i.e. those with codes 1, 2 or 3 in items 8) to the question listed against item 8. As mentioned earlier, these questions are to be suitably put depending on the answer obtained for the question against item 8, i.e., depending on whether the person wanted 'additional work', alternative work' or 'work'. Through the question listed in item 9, it will be ascertained, what efforts the persons reported to be available for work/additional work/alternative work have made to get in the work. If a person is found to have been on the live register of the employment exchange, code 1 will be recorded for the person against this item. Concurrently, if he or she has made some other efforts to get work, like contacting prospective employers, responding to advertisement, etc., priority will be given to registration with employment exchange' and in such cases also, code 1 will be recorded. For a person who is currently not in the live register of the employment exchange but has made other efforts to get work, code 2 will be assigned. If no effort has been made code 3 will be recorded.

Through the question listed as item 10, for persons who have answered in the affirmative to the question listed as item 8, the information on the number of months for which they were available for work/additional work/ alternative work will be ascertained and record against item 11 in terms of appropriate code numbers which are:

Less than 1 month......1
1-3 months......2
3-6 months......3
6-9 months......4
9 months or more......5

5.8.0 Block 8: Follow up questions for persons having usual activity status codes 92 and 93 (i.e., those engaged in domestic duties): As it was felt that the first quinquennial survey on employment -- unemployment (27th round) did not reveal fully the pattern of activities carries out along with domestic duties -- particularly women a separate set of special follow-up questions was introduced in the 32nd round to be canvassed among the category of the population noted above. These follow-up questions have further been rationalized on the basis of the experiences of the 32nd round and the 38th round surveys and are housed in block 8 along with the possible answers printed in parentheses. Those follow-up questions will be asked to all normal members of the household, classified as engaged in domestic duties according to usual status (i.e., those with usual status codes 92 and 93, and the relevant answers will be recorded in terms of the specified codes).

5.8.1 Item 1: Serial number as in block 4: For all household members categorized 'engaged in domestic duties' according to usual status classification, i.e. , those assigned the usual status codes 92 and 93 in column (2) of block 6, their serial numbers as in column (1) of block 4/6 will be entered against item 1. Different columns will be used for different members.

5.8.2 Item 2: Usual activity status: For each member recorded against item 1, his/her usual activity status code (92 or 93) will be copied from column (2) of block 6 against this item.

5.8.3 Item 3: Usual subsidiary gainful activity: For each person the subsidiary status-cum-industry divided code will be recorded in a those digit from as described in paragraphs 5.7.3 and 5.7.4. The relevant codes are to be copied from columns (8) and (9) of block 6. The entries will be like 936 or say, 92x, etc.

5.8.4 Item 4 -- 6: It will be ascertained whether the relevant persons are required to spend most of their time during 365 days preceding the date of survey on domestic duties. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against 4 for each of the relevant members. If the answer is 'yes' , i.e., if the entry against item 4 is code 1 for a person, the reason for his/her participation in the household duties will be ascertained and recorded in terms of the specified code numbers against item 5. The relevant codes to be used are:

No other member to carry out the domestic duties....1
Cannot afford hired help........2
For social and/or religious constraints....3
Others...........9

For such a person, item 6 will be left blank. On the other hand, if the entry against item 4 is code '2' for a person, (i.e., such participation was not required but still the person participated in the household chores) the reason for his/her voluntary participation in household chores will be ascertained and the code relevant to the answer obtained will be recorded against item 6. In such a case, item 5 will be left blank. The codes to be used for making entries against item 6 are:

Non- availability of work.....1
By preference...2
Others......9

5.8.5 Items 7- 20: These 14 questions relate to relevant member's participation in 14 specified activities which are self explanatory, it will be ascertained whether the member along with/his/her normal domestic duties also participated during the 365 days preceding the date of survey more or less regularly in the specified activities listed. For the question 7 -- 10 and 16 -- 20, if the answer in 'yes', code '1' and if the answer is 'no' code '2' will be recorded against the relevant items for the particular person. It may be noted that item 20 will be filled in for rural areas only. On the other hand, for the questions 11-15, if the answer is in the affirmative, it will be further ascertained whether the person participated in the processing of mainly, home produced/free collection commodities or processing of commodities otherwise procured and the code relevant to the situation will be recorded. The codes to be used are:

Yes: Commodities produced in own farm
Free collection....1
Commodities acquired otherwise....2
No: ........................ 3

5.8.6 Item 21: It for a particular person the answer to the question listed against item 20, i.e., whether the person brings water from outside the village, is 'yes' (code 1) the distance (rounded off to the nearest kilometer) the person had to travel from the household premises to the point of the source of water will be recorded against this item.

5.8.7 Item 22: For all those categorized 'usually engaged in domestic duties' and listed against item '1' it will be ascertained whether they will be prepared to accept work if work is made available at their household promises. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and ii the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against this item.

5.8.8 Items 23 -- 26: The question listed against these items will be put only to those who have answered in the affirmative for the question listed against item 22 (i.e. persons with entry 1 against item 22). The codes appropriate for the answer obtained will be recorded against the relevant items. For items 23, 24 and 26, if more than one code is found to be applicable, the code which appears first in the code list only will be recorded. The relevant codes to be used for filling in the items 23, 24 and 26 are as under:

i. Item 23: Nature of work acceptable:

Regular full time ....1
Regular part time....2
Occasional full time...3
Occasional part time......4

ii. Item 24: Type of work acceptable:

Dairy......1
Poultry......2
Other animal husbandry......3
Spinning and weaving......4
Manufacturing wood and cane products......5
Tailoring......6
Leather goods manufacturing......7
Other (specify)......9

iii. Item 26: Assistance required:

No assistance ....1
Initial finance on easy terms ....2
Working finance facilities........ 3
Easy availability of raw materials .... 4
Assured market.................................................. 5
Training ................................................ 6
Accommodation ............................................... 7
Others .................................................... 9

iv. Item 25: This item is self explanatory and the answer for the question listed for this item will be recorded in terms of code '1' or '2'.

[Instruction on household indebtedness (block 9) omitted.]

5.10.0 Block 10: Remarks by investigator: Any relevant remarks relating to the problems encountered in collecting the date, attitude of respondents, etc., will be recorded in this block by the investigators. If the investigator feels that certain information given by the informant is of doubtful nature, it may be also indicated with comments, if any. Any other qualified comments which may help to make proper assessment of the entries made in the schedules may also be recorded here.

5.11.0 Block 11: Comments by supervisory officer: This block will be used by the supervisory officers to record their comments and suggestions. They should particularly highlight the inconsistent data, in any, recorded in the schedule giving possible reason for such entries. This, of course, has to be done after making necessary reference to the investigator concerned.

Definitions of some important terms

5.12.0 Definition of a few important terms or activity categories to be used for collection of data on employment unemployment in the 43rd round survey are laid down below with a view to focusing special attention to the appropriate use of the terms during the work of investigation.

5.12.1 Worked (self-employed) in household enterprises: usual and current status category 11: Persons who are engaged in their own farm or non-farm enterprises are defined as self-employed -- the term used to designate their activity status. There are different kinds of self-employed. Some may operate their enterprises without hiring any labour. Some others may normally work on their own, but occasionally hire a few labourers. There is also a third category who, by and large, regularly run their enterprises by hiring labour. The first two groups of self-employed are called own-account workers and the third, the employer.

It is expected that a bulk of self-employed persons in our economy can easily be identified by adopting the above definition. But in certain cases the identification will pose some problem. This problem particularly manifests itself in the (i) so called 'putting out' system prevalent in our production process in which, that part of production which put out, is performed in different household enterprises (e.g., master weaver putting out jobs to different households or big biri manufacturer getting the biri produced through distribution of work to different households), (ii) the system of part of the work being done through contractors or sub-contractors' household enterprises and (iii) there may also be cases of putting out jobs (in part or full), the terms of payment for which is just piece or time rate.

In the first two of the above cases cited, the parsons owning and operating the household enterprises or the contraction and sub-contractors are to be termed 'self-employed'. But in regard to the third cases cited the workers engaged in the work will be categorized as 'employees' and not 'self-employed'. In so far as the first two cases illustrated above, the underlying idea of categorizing them as self-employed is that all of then have some tangible or intangible means of production and their work is a kind of enterprise to them and the fee or remuneration really consists of two parts -- (i) the share for their labour and (ii) the profit of the enterprise. Apart from manufacture, in the cases of persons engaged in construction services or profession, the distinction between a free-lance own account worker and an employee of ten becomes difficult to draw and however liberal or food-proof definitions are formulated, there will always be some cases which will not fit-in well in the definitions and thus, there will be the problem of identification. In the NSS, therefore, besides having a working definition, some conventions also are in use. An illustrative list of such conventions is given below:

i. A mason is to be identified as a self-employed person when he works free-lance. But a mason assistant is an employee.

ii. A barber on his rounds to secure work is self-employed.

iii. A private tutor is self-employed whereas a maid servant working for different households is not.

iv. A master tailor or a contractor or sub-contractor tailor who does the work himself or by hiring some tailors will be identified as self-employed, though the hired tailors of the master or the contractor tailor will be identified as employees.

v. A porter or a coolly is not self-employed but an employee.

5.12.2 Worked as helper in household enterprises: usual and current status category 21:
The helpers are a category of working persons who keep themselves engaged in household enterprises, working full or part time and do not receive any cash payment in return for the work performed or any share of the family earnings from the enterprises. They are household members, a large number of them being nearly or distantly related to the household head and others may be unrelated but nonetheless they are dependant members of the household who work for the family enterprises and are given food/shelter like other members of the household. One may also come across persons in a household who do not receive any cash remuneration for their work in the household enterprises but have a share in the family earnings cut of such enterprises. Such persons are not 'helpers' but self-employed'.

5.12.3 Worked as regular salaried/wage employees: usual and current status code 31: Persons working in others' farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return salary or wages on a regular basis (and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract) are treated as regular salaried/wage employees. The category, salaried wage employees will include not only salary and wage earners getting time wage but also earners getting piece wage of salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part time.

5.12.4 Worked as casual wage labour: usual and current status codes: 41 and 51: Persons engaged in others' farm or non-farm enterprises' (both household and non-household) and getting in return wages according to the terms of the daily or periodic work contract are treated as casual wage labour. Usually, in the rural areas, a type of casual labourers can be seen who normally engage themselves in 'public works' activities 'public works' are those sponsored by government or local bodies for construction of roads, bunds, digging of ponds, etc., as 'test relief' measures (like flood relief, draught relief, famine relief, etc.) and also as employment generation schemes under poverty alleviation programmes (NREP, RLEGP, etc.). The casual labourers doing only 'public works' activities will be assigned code 41. The rest will be categorized under code 51.

5.12.5 Had work in household enterprises but did not work-current status codes 61 , 62/ and had regular salaried/wage employment but did not work-current status codes 71 and 72: Persons engaged in household farm or non-farm enterprises or working in others' farm and non-farm enterprises as salaried/wage employees but absenting from work temporarily due to sickness or for enjoying leave or holiday or for other reasons will be categorized under codes 61- 62 or 71 and 72 respectively depending on whether they are self-employed in household farm or non-farm enterprises or employed in others' farm or non-farm enterprises as wage/salaried employees. In the case of self employed, if the reason is sickness, the code to be used is 61 and for other reason code 62 will be used. Similarly, for the regular salaried/ wage employees, code 71 will be used for those who did not work due to sickness and code 72 will be used for others who did not work due to other reasons.

5.12.6 Attended domestic duties and was also so engaged in free collection of goods sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc., for household use: usual and current status code 93. In the rural areas in general and particularly in the tribal areas domestic work usually will also involve lot of work for free collection of vegetables, roots, firewood, etc. and also spinning and weaving of cloths for household requirement (whenever a person engaged in domestic work) is found to be also spending regularly some of his/her time in performing the above mentioned activities, the status code appropriate for him/her will be 93 and not 92.

5.12.7 Household industry-occupation Industry is the sector of economic activity in which a person works. The 'National Industrial Classification' (NIC-1970) is being used for classifying the industry of a person. NIC- 1970 groups together economic activities which are akin in terms of process type, raw material used and finished goods produced. The classification does not make any distinction according to type of ownership or type of economic organization and except in some cases the classification does not distinguish between large scale and small scale activity. The unit of classification is establishment which is an economic unit engaged in one or predominantly one economic activity. Where a single physical establishment is engaged in more than one activity, it would be desirable to treat each of the component technical units as a separate establishment. But when it is not possible to separate these units from the parent establishment, it will be classified by the major activities of the establishment measured with regard to the value added by production of different products and services or not revenue derived from various activities. Where such assessment is not possible, major activity may be decided on the basis of gross revenue attributed to the products or services of the establishment, the number of persons employed for various activities convenient and appropriate.

The NIC- 1970 classifications are presented generally in terms of 3 digited codes in which the left most digit describes the 'industry division', the left two digits together give a finer division called 'major groups and all the three digits together pin point the ultimo the industry group. However, for major group 19 and industry divisions 2 and 3 there is a fourth digit also denoting the sub-group.

One digit level classification (Industry Division) of NIC- 1970 is as follow:

0 Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing
1 Mining and Quarrying
2 and3 Manufacture
4 Electricity, Gas and Water
5 Construction
6 Wholesale and Retail Trade, and Hotels and Restaurants
7 Transport, Storage and Communications
8 Financing, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services
9 Community, Social and personnel Services
X Activities not adequately defined
Y Repair Services.
Occupation is the nature of work performed by person. For classifying the occupation of a person, the "National Classification of Occupation" (NCO -- 1968) is being used. In an occupational classification, the grouping of occupations has to be based on the fundamental criterion of 'type of work performed'. All the workers engaged in same type of work are grouped together irrespective of the industrial classification of establishment where they are engaged. For example, all clerical workers have been classified in one occupational group whether they are engaged in a factory, mine, government office or even a shop. Factors like materials handled, tools or machines used, standard of performance required, level or responsibility involved, physical and social environment, industrial affiliations, etc., have not affected the classification of occupation. But factors like type of operations involved in the performance of a job, types of qualifications, vocational and professional training, status (e.g. own-account worker, employer), levels of skill, etc., are considered in classifying a person as belonging to particular occupation. Job definitions or descriptions represent only the average national picture of the various occupations. The occupational classifications as used in the NSS are three digited codes with the left most digit denoting the broad occupation division. The left two digits together denote the Occupation group and the three digits together indicate the occupation family. In addition, the NCO -- 1968 also provides a finer classification of actual occupations in terms of five digited codes.

The occupation divisions are as follows:

Division 0 -1: Professional, technical and related workers

Division 2: Administrative, executive and managerial workers

Division 3: Clerical and related workers

Division 4: Sales workers

Division 5: Service Workers

Division 6: Farmers, fisherman, hunters, loggers and related workers

Division 7-8-9: Production and related workers, transport equipment

Operators and labourers

Division X: Workers not classified by occupations.
Household Industry Occupation is determined on the basis of income derived during the 365 days preceding the date of survey from the gainful occupations pursued by the normal resident members of the household during the said reference period. For determining the appropriate 'industry-occupation' of the household the following procedures are to be adopted.

i. List all the gainful occupations pursued during the last 365 days by all the normal members (excluding employee members and paying guests) of the household. If a member is pursuing more than one gainful occupation, all of them are to be listed irrespective of the quantum of income derived from each of them. In other words, the principal and all the subsidiary occupations of the members are to be listed.

Consequently, in a household having say, six members, all of them being engaged in gainful occupations, there can be more than six occupations. Having listed all the occupations, the identical occupations are to be grouped (in terms of codes) and find out the one which fetched the maximum income to be household. This will be the occupation of the household. In exceptional cases, if a household gets equal income from two or more occupations, the occupation of the most senior member (in terms of age) will be considered the household occupation. Further, if there are say, two senior members of the same age, then the occupation which appears first in the code list will be considered.

ii. Having thus decided the occupation of the household, 'list all the establishments in which the household members are pursuing the particulars occupation. The industry of the 'establishment' from which the household divided maximum income by pursuing the particular occupation will be the household industry. In case the earnings from two or more industries are equal, the industry of the most senior member pursuing the particular occupation will be the household industry.

iii. The occupation and the industry thus determined will be household industry occupation.

To illustrate, the following examples may be considered.

Case I: A household is constituted of the following members:

1. Father: He is pensioner and received Rs. 3050/- from state Government during last 365 days.

2. Mother: Attends to domestic duties only.

3. Son:
(a) He is a doctor in a textile mill. The mill has no dispensary or hospital but has employed this doctor on a full time basis, who sits in the office and attends to patients. During the last days be received Rs. 18,000/- as his total emoluments.
(b) He also does private practice and during the last 365 days earned Rs. 5,800/-from that.

4. Son's son: Attends school only.

For this household, father's income is from non-gainful activity. Mother and son's are also engaged in non-gainful activities and have no income. Son is the only earner and his occupation is physical Allopathic (code 70). But he is pursuing this occupation in two industries, i.e. Cotton textile Mill (industry Code 231) and Medical Practice (Industry Code 930). But as his occupation from employment in the Textile Mills has fetched more income the household industry occupation code will be 231070.

Case II. If the Physician, cited in the above example, was attached to a hospital or a Dispensary which say, is run as separate to establishment, though owned by the textile mill, then the industry code will be that of 'medical and health services' (code 930). The house hold industry occupation code will be therefore 930070.

Case III. A household is instituted of husband, wife and a servant, Husband and wife get Rs. 500/- per month from their sons as remittances and pay Rs. 200/- per month to the servant as his salary. For this household, the husband and wife are not pursing any gainful activity. The servant, though employed (i.e. having gainful occupation), for determining the Industry Occupation of the household, his occupation will not be considered. This household, therefore, will be considered pursuing only non-gainful activities. Naturally, there will be no industry-occupation for this household.

Some broad guidelines for recording entries in Schedule 10

5.13.1 When codes are recorded, the investigator should be careful to see that the codes are admissible. For example, if for a particular item/column, the possible relevant codes are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 9, the entered code number should only be one of the numbers 1-4, or 9.

5.13.2 If for a particular item/column, no entry is relevant, cross (x) is to be put in the relevant item/column.

5.13.3 When an entry is relevant, the item/column should not be left blank. If it is left blank, the reason for leaving it blank should be given I the 'remarks' block.

5.13.4 In lock 1 items 12 and 13 are relevant only for rural sample households and therefore, 'X' will be put against these items when particulars are recorded for urban sample households. Similarly, item 14 is relevant only for urban sample households and therefore, 'X' will be put against this item when particulars are recorded for rural samples.

5.13.5 In block 3: for items 7-16 and 19, the entries are to be made in2 places of decimal.
Even if the reported data are in whole numbers, two zeros will be put to fill up the 2 places of decimal. For example, if the 'household land irrigated' is reported as 5 hectares the entry to be made will be 5.00.

5.13.6 In block 4:

(i) Columns (2)-(11) and (16) are to be filled -- in for all household members enumerated in column (1).

(ii) Columns (12) -- (15) are to be filled-in for all entries 11-72 made in column (11). For codes 81, 82 and 91-98 in column (11), 'X' will be put in columns (12- (15).

5.13.7 In block 5:

i. Entries are to be made for only those persons assigned any of the 'labour force' status codes according to current weekly status i.e., one of the codes 11-82 in column (11) of block 4,

ii. Column (5) will be filled-in for rural samples only and will be crossed for urban samples,

iii. For a person, entries in each of the columns (6)-(12) will be either only one '1.0' in any of the lines or two '0.5' each for two activities in any two of the lines. The entries are to be made in one place of decimal,

iv. For each person enumerated in this block, the total over columns (6)-(12) and all relevant lines will be 7.0(as printed against 'total' for a person under col. 13),

v. The entries in columns (14)-(16) are to be recorded in two places of decimal even if the 'wages' reported are in whole numbers,

vi. Column (17) is to be filed in for these with intensities of 'employment' (codes 11-71 in col. 3 as only 0.5 on any one or more of the cols (6)-(12). For such persons, the number of days with only 1-2, hrs of work will be recorded. For others, put 'X' in this column,

vii. Column (18) is to be filled-up only for those persons reported as unemployed On all the seven days, i.e., those with entries 1.0 in all the columns (6)- (12) and the status Code 81 and or 82 recorded in the line (s) under column (3). For others put 'X' in this column.

5.13.8 In block 6:

i. Recording of entries to be made for all the usual members of the household enumerated in bl. 4 of the schedule,

ii. Columns (3) -- (6) are to be filled-in only for those for whom any one of the status codes 11-51 is recorded in column (2). For others, these columns will be crossed,

iii. Columns (8)-12 are to be filled-in for all the persons enumerated in this block and getting code 1 in column (7). For others, i.e. those getting code 2 in column (7) these will be crossed,

iv. Columns (15) -- (21) are to be filled-in for all those for whom code 1 is recorded in column (14). For persons with code 2 recorded in column (14), Column (15- (21) will be crossed.

v. Column (20) should be filed in for all persons getting any of the codes 11 -- 51 in column (19). For others, this column will be crossed.

5.13.9 In block 7:

i. Entries are to be made for all those for whom any one of the status codes 11 -- 94 in recorded in column (2) of block 6,

ii. Items 3 will be filled-in only for whom any one of the status codes 81-94 is recorded against item 2. The relevant entries are to be copied from cols. (8) and (9) of bl. 6. For persons with no usual subsidiary gainful activity, put dash (-) against this item. For those with any one of the status codes 11-54 recorded against item 2, this item will be crossed,

iii. Item 4 will be filled-in only for those for whom any one of the status codes 11 -- 51 is recorded against item 2. For others, this item will be crossed.

iv. Items 5 and 6 will be filled-in only for those for whom code 2 is recorded against item 4. For others, against this item, 'X' will be put,

v. Item 7 will be filled-in only for those for whom status code 81 is recorded against item 2. For others, 'X' is to be put against this item.

vi. Item 8 will be filled-in for all (i.e., those with any one of the status codes 11-94 recorded against item 2). Persons for whom status code 81 is recorded against item 2, code 1 will be recorded against this item without putting the question to the informant,

(vii) Items 9 and 10 will be filled-in only for those with code 1/2/3 recorded against item 8. For others, these items will be crossed.

5.13.10 In block 8 :

i. Entries are to be made only for those for whom any one of the status codes 92 and 93 is recorded in column (2) of block 6,

ii. Item 5 will be filled-in for all those for whom code 1 is recorded against item 4 and for them item 6 will be crossed,

iii. Item 6 will be filled-in for all those for whom code 2 is recorded against item 4 and for them item 5 will be crossed,

iv. Items 20 and 21 will be filled-in only for rural sample households. For urban sample households these items will be crossed. Item 20 will be filled-in only if the entry against item 20 is 1 and the recorded entries will be in whole number. If the entry against item 20 is 2, item 21 will be crossed,

v. Items 23-26 are to be filled-in for all those with code against item 22. If the entry against item 22 is '2', items 23-26 will be crossed.

5.13.11 In block -- 9:

i. Entries are to be made only for rural labour households. For other households the block will be crossed,

ii. Entries in column (3) of this block are to be made in whole numbers. The 'total' line should be filled-in both in the case of single loan or multiple loans recorded in one or more than one lines under column (3),

iii. For a rural labour household, if these are no indebtedness to report, write 'NO LOAN' in column (3)
5.14.0 Some Important Clarifications

General

1. Wage paid manual labour in sericulture should be treated as agricultural labour.

2. When the same person is regularly hired in both the crop production enterprises and the other productive enterprises of a particular household, the household should be considered to be hiring labour regularly for both the crop-production and either productive enterprise.

3. A man will be treated as 'not literate' if he cannot carefully read and write a simple message, even if he reports that he could read and write in the past by virtue of his acquiring that knowledge at that time.

4. A person, who has acquired some proficiency in a particular technical subject without obtaining the necessary certificate or diploma, will not be treated as technically qualified in that subject for the purpose of deciding the attainment in technical education.

5. Persons who have obtained diploma or certificate in painting, vocal/instrumental music, dancing, etc, through the respective training school will be considered to have the technical education in 'other subjects' (code 5).

6. Central govt. employees attending the 'Hindi teaching Scheme classes' will not be considered as persons 'currently attending educational institutions'.

7. When a person is found to be simultaneously attending two courses one 'general' and the other 'technical' the course which will be considered higher in rank will be treated as the 'current course, of study'.

8. The information as to whether a person is currently on the line register of the employment exchange or not will be collected for all persons, irrespective of their activity statuses.

Activity status

9. If a student is reported to be engaged in private tuition or in any other gainful activity like help in the family enter for at least pries one hour on any during the reference week, his current week activity status code will be 11 (self-employed).If spent on such activity is less than one hour, his current week activity status code will be 91 (student).

10. Household members who have legal or moral claim on the family enterprises, when they participate in the activities of the enterprise without receiving any wage/ salary will be treated as self-employed. Those members like distant relatives who do not have any legal or moral claim in the enterprise without receiving wage/salary, will be treated as 'helper'.

11. A disabled person/pensioner, reporting to be sacked/available for work, will be treated as unemployed and not as disabled person pensioner.

12. When a female casual labour report that she is not able to work due to pregnancy, she will be treated as 'casual labour not working due to sickness' and will be assigned current activity code 98.

13. 'Exchange labour 'will be considered as 'self-employed' .But a regular employee as exchange labour while on leave or holiday will be assigned status code 72. On the other hand, a casual labour working as 'exchange labour' on some days will be categorized as 'self-employed' for those days.

14. For determining the activity status code of MP/MLA/Municipal Councilor (M.C), etc., it has to be first ascertained whether they had any other primary gainful occupation or not. If they had other primary gainful occupation, their activity status will be according to that gainful occupation. If not, they will be categorized as self-employed (status code 11) with industry div. code as '9'. For them, the industry group and occupation family codes will be 949 and 200, 949 and 201, 949 and 202respectively for MP, MLA, MC, Etc.

15. A pensioner reported to be engaged in the family enterprises or employed in any other capacity should be considered as 'currently working' if he/she was engaged in the activity at least for one hour on any one day of the reference week and 'usually working' if he/she was engaged for a relatively long time during the reference year.

16. The 'meal carriers' (who deliver launch at various offices), 'night watchman' of a locality 'cattle hard', etc., are normally employed by a group of households on a regular monthly wage. The 'activity status' of such workers will be same as that of maid servant/male servant, etc., i.e. 'wage/salaried employee'.

17. Sometimes it is found that a regular student is currently on the live register of the
Employment Exchange, and such a situation creates confusion in deciding his activity status. Normally, the person will be categorized as a student. But before categorizing him as student, further probes should be made as to whether he will give up his studies the moment he gets a job. If it is found that he will leave his studies to take up the type of job for which he has registered, he will be treated as unemployment.

18. Normally, all the gainful activities can be uniquely classified into one or other of the industry divisions '0-9'. Division "Y' is same as the major group '97'. The division 'X' is for those activities for which the industry cannot adequately be defined. Even for such cases deeper probe can help in uniquely deciding the relevant industry division codes 0-9. In all cases attempt should be made to ascertain the actual sector of work and the applicable code 0-9 should be assigned.

[Instruction on travel habits of household (section six) omitted]