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[India 1983]
SECTION FIVE

HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE 10;
EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT

[introduction skipped]

Summary description of the schedule

5,0,8 Summary description of the schedule: The Schedule on Employment and Unemployment (Schedule 10) framed for the 38th round survey consists of 15 blocks. The identification particulars of the sample village/block and the sample village/block and the sample households in which the survey schedules will be canvassed are to be recorded in block 1. Block 2.1 is meant for recording the particulars of field operations and block 2.2 for recording the processing particulars at the NSSO data processing centres. Certain characteristics of the sample household meant to be used as classificatory variables in the tabulation of data, and information as to whether the same household has made any migratory movement or not during the last 365 days, etc. will be recorded in block 3. The demographic particulars such as, age, sex, marital status, educational standard etc. and the particulars or current weekly activity obtaining during the seven days preceding the date of survey of all the normally resident members of the household and also the information as to whether some or all of them are migrants or not will be recorded in block 4.1. for those, identified accordingly to the criterion specified, as migrants in block 4.1, the various migration characteristics such as, period since migrated, reason for migration type of the last place of residence etc. are to be recorded in block 4.2. Block 5 is meant for recording detailed day-to-day disposition of labour time of those classified as in the labour force according to current weekly activity status i.e., information on the various activities pursued on different days of the reference week by household members reported as 'working' and 'seeking and/or available for work' and the intensity in the qualitative terms, namely, 'full' and 'half' on each such activity. The particulars of usual activity of each normally resident members of the sample household, information on the subsidiary gainful activity status of those classified as working, particulars of temporary stay aways who remained absent from household for 4 weeks or more for work etc. are to be collected in block 6. Block 7 will be used for recording the particulars of the marginal gainful activities normally pursed by all those classified in block 6 as usually 'not working' (excepting those reported to be 'too young'). The follow up question (probing questions) pertaining to the availability for 'additional work'/'work' meant to be put to those classified as 'working', 'students', 'persons engaged in domestic duties' and 'pensioners/rentiers etc.' are housed in block 8. The answers of these questions will be ascertained from the relevant member of the household and recorded in this block. For persons classified as 'engaged in domestic duties', some further follow up questions are formulated and listed in block 9 with a view to collecting some additional information which might explain as to whether their usual attachment to domestic duties in voluntary or involuntary. Particulars regarding the household indebtedness such as, amount of loan, its nature, source of borrowing etc. will be collected in block 10 only for the rural labour households Block 11 is meant for recording the number of reporting lines/columns of the various blocks 3-10 of the schedules. Any relevant remarks of the investigators will be recorded in block 12 and the comments by the supervisory officers in block 13.

DETAIL OF SCHEDULE

5.1.1 Block 1, items 1-6, 6-11 and 13-14: identification particulars of the sample village/block :
The identification particular of the sample village and block respectively for rural and urban areas will be recorded against the relevant items 1-6, 8-11 and 13-14 of this block. At the listing stage these particulars will be copied from the sample list in block 1 of the schedule 0.1 for rural areas and the schedule 0.2 for urban areas. The required identification particulars will be transferred to the respective items of this block from the schedule 0.1 in the case of rural areas and the schedule 0.2 in the case of urban areas.

5.1.2 Items 15, 16 and 17: identification of sample households:
The identification particulars of the sample household i.e. the house number, the name of the head of household and the sample household number will be copied respectively from columns (1), (3) and (14) of block 6 of the schedule 0.1 for rural areas and from columns (1), (3) and (18) of block 6 of the schedule 0.2.

5.1.3 Item 17-19: primary informant
The name of the primary informant i.e., the person from whole bulk of the information will be collected is to be recorded against item 17. Whether the primary informant is the head of the household or any other member of the household will be indicated against item 18 in terms of code '1' and code '2' respectively. If the primary informant is not a member of the household code '9' will be recorded. The type of primary informant i.e., whether he is co-operative, busy etc. will be recorded against item 19 in terms of the specified codes. The codes are:

Co-operative and capable - 1
Co-operative but not capable - 2
Busy - 3
Reluctant - 4
Others - 9

This information will be recorded on the basis of the investigator's impression after canvassing the entire schedule 10.

5.1.4 Item 20: survey code
Whether the originally selected household has been surveyed or a substituted household has been surveyed will be indicated against this item by recording '1', if it is the originally selected sample and '2', if it is the substituted sample. If neither the originally selected household nor the substituted household could be surveyed i.e., if the sample household was a casualty, code '3' would be recorded. In such cases only blocks 1 and 2.1 will be filled up and on the type of the front page of the schedule, the word 'casualty' will be written and underlined.

Item 21: reason for casualty
For the originally selected sample household which could not be surveyed, the reason for its becoming a casualty will be recorded against item 21 in terms of the specified codes which are:

informant busy - 1
members away from home - 2
informant non co-operative - 3
others - 9

5.2.1.0 Block 2.1: particulars of field operations :
The name of the Investigator, Assistant Superintendent and Superintendent, their signatures, dates of survey/inspection/scrutiny, duplication of schedules, dispatch etc. will be recorded in this block against the appropriate items in the relevant columns of this block.

5.2.2.0 Block 2.2: processing particulars:
This block need not be filled-in by the field staff and recording of the relevant entries will be taken care of at the Data Processing Centre where the schedules will be scrutinized and the data transferred to punched cards or Floppy in the direct data entry systems as the case may be.

Block 3: household characteristics:
Certain household characteristics which are intended to be used as classificatory characters in tabulation, particulars regarding the extent of the use of hired labour for work in household enterprises and certain household migration characteristics etc. will be collected in this block.

5.3.1. Item 1: household size:
The size of the sample household i.e. the total number of persons normally residing together (i.e., under the same roof) and taking food in the same kitchen (including temporary stay aways and excluding temporary visitors) will be recorded against this item. This number should tally with the last serial number recorded in column (1) of block 4.1.

5.3.2 . Item 2: household principal industry-occupation :
The entry against this item will be recorded in terms of six digits code number of which the first three left hand digits will refer to the appropriate 'Industry group' and the next three to the relevant 'Occupation family' of NIC 1970 of NCO, 1968 respectively. The description of the principal household industry-occupation will be recorded in the space provided along with the item description.

Procedure to determine the principal household industry-occupation
To determine the principal household industry-occupation, the general procedure to be followed is to list all the gainful occupations pursued by the members of the household excluding those employed by the household and paying quests (who in view of their staying and taking food in the household are considered its normal members during the one year period preceding the date of survey), on matter whether such occupations are pursued by the members in their principal or subsidiary (on the basis of earnings) capacity. Out of the occupations listed, that one which fetched the maximum earnings of the household during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey would be considered as the principal household occupation. It is quite possible that the household occupation, thus determined as the principal one, may be pursued in different industries by one or more members of the household. In such cases, the particular industry out of all the different industries corresponding to the principal occupation, which fetched the maximum earnings, should be considered as the principal industry of the household. In extreme cases, the earnings may be equal in two different occupations or industry-occupation combinations. By convention, in such cases, priority will be given to the occupation or industry-occupation combination of the senior most among the participating members.

Item 2: household type:
At the listing stage, for the rural areas, all the households will be categorized under three groups namely (i) households self-employed in non-agriculture, (ii) regular labour households and (iii) other households, depending on their means of livelihood. Codes 1, 2, and 9 are assigned respectively to the different households belonging to these groups and the appropriate codes will be recorded in column (5), block 6 of the schedule 0.1. But at the time of detailed enquiry (i.e. when schedules 10 and 1.0 will be canvassed in the sample household) 'household type' code. Out of the following five different household type codes, the one appropriate for sample household will be chosen:

Households self-employed in non-agricultural occupations - 1
Agricultural labour households - 2
Other labour households - 3
Households self-employed in agricultural occupations - 4
Other households - 9

The households categorized as belonging to the 'means of livelihood' code-1 in the schedule 0.1 will be assigned the household type 'self-employed in non-agricultural occupations' and code 1 will be recorded against item 3. The rural labour households in the schedule 0.1 i.e. those assigned means of livelihood code 2, will be further classified into two groups- 'agricultural labour' households and 'other labour' households for assigning the appropriate household type codes against this item. The households to be categorized as the 'agricultural labour' households will be those which earned 50 p.c. or more of their total income during the last 365 days from wage paid manual labour in agriculture and for such households, type code-2 will be recorded against this item. The remaining households will be categorized as the 'other labour' households and for them code -3 will be recorded. The households assigned the means of livelihood code 9 in the schedule 0.1, will be further regrouped into households 'self-employed in agricultural occupations' will be those which earned 50 p.c. or more of their total income from self-employment in agricultural occupations during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey and for such households code 4 will be recorded against this item.

The remaining households will be categorized as 'other' households and for them code 9 will be recorded. Thus, the selected households will be grouped into five different household types for recording the relevant household type code against item 3 of this block. At the time of detailed enquiry the means of livelihood code assigned at the listing stage will be verified and the code assigned at that time will be corrected, if found wrong. But no substitution of household is to be made in such cases.

Agricultural laborer
5.3.5A person will be treated as wage-paid manual laborer in agriculture or in other words, agricultural laborer if he/she follows one or more of the following agricultural occupations in the capacity of a laborer on hire or on exchange, whether paid wholly in cash or in kind or partly in case of partly in kind.

(a) farming including cultivation and tillage of the soil etc.
(b) dairy farming
(c) production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any horticultural commodity
(d) raising of live stock, bees or poultry and
(e) any practice performed on a farm as incidental to or in conjunction with farm
operations (including any forestry or timbering operations and the preparation for market and delivery to storage or to market or to carriage for transportation to market of farm production).

It may be noted that wage paid manual labour in 'fisheries' are excluded from the purview of the category agricultural labour. Further, carriage for transportation will refer only to the first stage of the transportation from farm to the first place of disposal.

Urban households
5.3.6
. As regards the urban households, for recording the appropriate household type codes, the 'self-employment' codes assigned in column (5), block 6 of schedule 0.2 will be copied against item 3 for the respective sample households. The codes to be used are:

Self-employed households - 1
Other households - 9

5.3.7 Item 4 : household religion :
The religion of the household in terms of the specified code will be recorded against item. If different members of the household claim to belong to different religions, though such an eventuality is likely to be rare, the religion of the head of the household will be considered as the religion of the household. The codes for household religion are:

Hinduism - 1
Islam - 2
Christianity - 3
Sikhism - 4
Jainism - 5
Buddhism - 6
Zoroastrianism - 7
Others - 9

5.3.8 Item 5: household group :
Whether or not the household belongs to scheduled tribe or scheduled caste or neo-Buddhists will be indicated against this item in terms of the specified codes which are:

Scheduled tribe - 1
Scheduled caste - 2
Neo-Buddhist - 3
Others - 9

Those who do not come under any one of the first three groups will be assigned code 9 meant to cover all other categories. In case, different members belong to different households groups, the group to which the head of the household belongs will be considered as the 'household group' and the group code appropriate for the head of the household will be assigned.

5.3.9 Item 6: homestead type:
Information regarding the type of the homestead (house and house site), will be recorded against this item. If the homestead is owned by the household code 1 and if otherwise possessed code 9 will be recorded. In cases when the homestead is partly owned and partly otherwise possessed code 9 will be recorded.

5.3.10 Item 7-11 : Household land particulars :
The area of land (in 0.00 acres) 'owned', 'leased in' in 'neither owned nor leased in' and 'leased out' by the household as on the date of survey will be ascertained and recorded against the items 7,8,9 and 10 respectively. The total land area possessed by the household will be worked out as items 7+8+9-10 and recorded the against item 11 in 2 places of decimal. A piece of land is considered to be owned by the household if permanent heritable possession with or without the right to transfer the title is vested in a member or the members of the household. Land held in owner like possession say, under perpetual lease, hereditary tenure, long term leases for 30 years or more etc. will also be considered as land owned. For a piece of land under the possession of the household, if the household lacks title of ownership and also it does not have any lease agreement for the use of land transacted either verbally or in writing, such land will be considered as neither owned nor leased in. In collecting information regarding 'land possessed', the actual position as obtained on the date of survey will be considered.

5.3.11 Item 12-15 : house holding land cultivated:
The total area (in 0.00 acres) cultivated by the household will be recorded under the three break downs, 'owned', 'leased in' and 'neither owned nor leased in' respectively against items 12, 13 and 14. The total of items 12, 13 and 14 will be entered against item 15. For recording entries against these items, for the first two sub-rounds 1 and 2, the 'area cultivated' will refer to the net area cultivated during the agricultural year 1981-82. For the next two sub-rounds 3 and 4 the 'area' will refer to the net area cultivated during the agricultural year 1982-83. 'Area cultivated' is defined as the net area sown during the reference period plus area under orchards and plantations and current fallow used for seeding.

5.3.12 Item 16 : house holding land irrigated:
The net area of land irrigated by the household out of its total possession during the reference period will be ascertained and entered against this item in acres in 2 places of decimal. The reference period for this item will be the same as that of the items 12-15 [area cultivated during the agricultural 1982-1983].

5.3.13 Item 17 and 18: use of hired labour:
Against these two items information relating to the use of hired labour by the household in crop production or any other enterprise will be recorded in terms of the specified codes, which are:

For column (17)

Hired labour:

Regularly - 1
During peak seasons only- 2
Casually - 3
Hires no labour for crop production - 4
Households with no crop production - 5

For column (18)

Hired labour:

Regularly - 1
During peak seasons only - 2
Casually - 3
Hires no labour for other productive enterprises - 4
Households with no other productive enterprises - 5

To illustrate, if a household engaged hired labour regularly for crop production, code 1 will be recorded against item 17. If labour is hired only during peak reasons, code 2 will be recorded. On the other hand, if use of hired labour is only casual code 3 and very rare or nil, code 4 will be recorded. If the households is not engaged in crop production activities, code 5 will be recorded against item 17. Similar information relating to use of hired labourer in enterprises other than crop production will be recorded against item 18. The information to be collected against these items will relate to the pattern normally followed by the sample household and not to any specific period or point of time.

5.3.14: Item 19: household monthly per capital expenditure- last month: The per capita expenditure (in rupees correct to two places of decimal) of the household incurred during the last 30 days preceding the date of survey, will be recorded against this item. Detailed information on total household consumption expenditure is being collected through the household consumer expenditure schedule 1.0 from all sample households in which schedule 10 are canvassed. The per capita expenditure is calculated and recorded against item 11, block 3.1 of schedule 1.0. This entry will be copied against item 30 of block 3 in schedule 10.

5.3.15: Item 20 : whether the household moved or not :
It is to be ascertained from each sample household whether the entire household has moved from a different place during the last 365 days preceding the date of survey, to the sample village/own of enumeration. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 will be recorded against this item. If the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded. It may be noted that any movement irrespective of the reason will be considered for making entry against this item. In some cases, on member of the household might have moved first and the other members might have joined/him her later. Such a movement will also be considered as movement of the household for making entry against this item. It may so happen that in certain cases, some addition to the household by way of births, marriages etc. might have taken place after the movement. Even then the entered household would be considered to have moved to the place of enumeration.

5.3.16: Item 21 : type of last residence (place) code :
This item and the subsequent items 22 and 23 will be filled in only for those households which are reported to have moved to the village/town of enumeration from some other place during the last 365 days (i.e. for those households with entry 1 against item 20). For such a household the type of last place of residence (i.e.) the type of place of enumeration will be recorded in terms of the specified codes against item 21. The codes are:

rural areas of the same district - 1
urban areas of the same district - 2
rural areas of other districts of the same state - 3
urban areas of other districts of the same state - 4
rural areas of other states - 5
urban areas of other states - 6
other countries - 7

5.3.17: Item 22: whether the movement was temporary or permanent: [This item will be filled in only for those households which are reported to have moved to the village/town of enumeration from some other place during the last 365 days (i.e. for those households with entry 1 against item 20).]

The information as to whether the present movement was a temporary one or a permanent one would be recorded against item 22. For this purpose, the movement would be considered permanent if the household either stayed or intended to stay for six months or more at the place of enumeration. For such households, code '3' will be recorded against this item. For the other households (i.e. those reporting the movement as not permanent but temporary), it has to the further ascertained whether the movement was a seasonal one or not. For those households reporting the movement as seasonal, code 1 and for the other code 2 will be entered.

5.3.18: Item 23: reason for the movement :
[This item will be filled in only for those households which are reported to have moved to the village/town of enumeration from some other place during the last 365 days (i.e. for those households with entry 1 against item 20).]

For each household reporting movement, the reason for the movement will be recorded in terms of the specified codes against this item. The reason will relate to the main bread-winner of the household. The relevant codes are:

in search of work - 1
on work - 2
others - 9

If the movement is made to look for work or to take up work or to take up better work-in all these cases, code 1 will be recorded. If the movement is made in connection with the occupation pursued prior to movement, code 2 will be recorded. For all other reasons, code 9 will be entered.

5.4.1.0 Block 4.1 : demographic and current activity particulars during the week :
This block is meant for recording the demographic and the current activity status particulars of all the normal members of the household. Besides that, the information as to whether the household members are to be considered migrants according to certain laid down criterion will also be collected in this block.

5.4.1.1 Definitions: Definitions adopted for a few important items on which data will be collected in block 4.1 are as follows:

(a) Activity status : The activity status of an individual is the activity situation obtaining for the person is respect of his/her participation in gainful and also non-gainful activities during a given reference period. Normally, one of the following three major activity situations of a combination of them will obtain to a person:

(i) of working or being engaged in gainful activities (or work) for pay, profit or family gain,

(ii) of being not engaged in gainful activities (of work ) but either of making tangible efforts to seek work or of being available for work, and

(iii) of being not available for work because of various reasons.

Identification of each individual according to a unique situation poses a problem when more than one of the three activity situations listed above concurrently obtain to a person. In such an eventuality, the unique identification under any one of the three activity situations is done by adopting either the 'relatively long time' or the major time) or the 'priority' criterion. The former is used for classification of persons under 'usual activity status' with reference to a period of 365 days preceding the data of survey and the latter for classification of persons under 'current activity status' with reference to a period of 7 days preceding the date of survey or to each day of the seven days period. The three major activity status referred to above have been further sub-divided into several detailed activity categories. The detailed categories (under each of the three major activity status categories) along with the corresponding coded to be used in the 38th round survey are listed below:

(i) Situation of working or being engaged in gainful activities (employed)

1. worked with an employer under obligation/work not specifically compensated by prevalent wage/salary.
(a) attached to land lord - 01
(b) attached to money lender - 02
(c) attached to land lord-cum-money lender - 03
(d) attached to others - 04
2. worked (self-employed) in household enterprise - 11

3. worked as helper in household enterprise - 21

4. worked as regular salaried/wage employee - 31

5. worked as casual wage labour in public works - 41

6. worked as casual wage labour in other types of work - 51

7. did not work though there was work in the household enterprise - 61

8. did not work but had regular salaried/wage employment - 71

(ii) situation of being not engaged in work but available for work:

1. sought work - 81

2. did not seek but was available for work - 82

(iii) situation of being not available for work:

1. attended education institution - 91
2. attended domestic duties only - 92
3. attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of good, sewing, tailoring, weaving etc. for household use - 93
4. too young to work/attend school/seek employment - 94
5. old and disabled - 95
6. rentiers, pensioners, remittance recipients etc - 96
7. beggars, prostitutes, etc - 97
8. others - 98
9. did not work due to sickness (for casual workers only) - 99

for usual status classification, codes 61, 71, 82 and 99 are not applicable and code 81 will be used to indicate both the situations-seeking work and being available for work.

(b) Gainful activity : Gainful activity (or work) is the activity pursued by persons for pay, profit or family gain or in other words, the activity which adds value to the 'national product'. Normally, it is an activity which results in production of 'goods and services' for exchange. However, the activities in 'agriculture' in which the part or the whole of the agricultural production is used for own consumption and does not go for sale, are also considered 'gainful'. Execution of household chores or social committees. The activities, such as, prostitution, begging, etc., which may result in earnings, are also by convention not considered 'gainful'.

(c) Workers (or employed) : Persons engaged in any gainful activity are concerned workers (or employed). They are persons pursuing any one or more of the eight situations listed under the first broad activity category i.e. 'working or being engaged in gainful work' as given above while defining the 'activity status'.

(d) Seeking or available for work (or employed): Persons who owing to lack of work, had not worked but either sought work through employment exchange, intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or expressed their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing conditions of work and remuneration are considered unemployed.

(e) Labour force: Persons categories as working (or employed and categorized as seeking or available for work (or unemployed) together constitute the labour force.

(f) Not in labour force: Persons categorized neither 'working' nor 'seeking or available for work' are considered engaged in non-gainful activities and categorized 'not in labour force'. The persons falling in this category are students, those engaged in domestic chores, rentiers, pensioners, those living on alms, remittance etc., in-firm and disabled persons, prostitutes, smugglers and casual labourers not working due to sickness during the reference period.

5.4.1.2 Column (1): serial number: All the 'normally resident members' of the sample household will be listed in block 4.1 using a continuous serial number in column (1). While listing, the head of the household will be listed first followed by head's spouse, the first son, first son's wife and children, second son, second son's wife and children etc. After the sons are enumerated, the daughters will be listed followed by other relations, dependents, servants etc. For definitions of 'household' and 'normally resident members' if the household see 2.0.9 and 2.0.10.

5.4.1.3 Column (2): name of member : The names of the normally resident members corresponding to the serial numbers entered in column (1) will be recorded in column (2).

5.4.1.4 Column (3) and (4): relation to head : The family relationship of each member of the household with the head of the household (for the head, the relationship is 'self') expressed in terms, such as wife, the first son, second son, 1st daughter, brother-in-law, employee, etc. will be recorded in column (3) using abbreviations, such as, 'F' for father, 'M' for mother, 'H' for husband, 'W' for wife, 'SIS' for sister, 'B' for brother, 'S' for son, 'D' for daughter, 'F.B' for father's brother, 'F.B.S' for father's brother's son, 'SIS.D' for sister's daughter etc. The appropriate code relevant to the relationship described in column (3) will be entered in column (4) against each member enumerated in column (1). The codes to be used are:

Head - 1
Spouse of head - 2
Married child - 3
Spouse of married child - 4
Unmarried child - 5
Grandchild - 6
Father/mother/father-in-law/ mother--in-law - 7
Brother/sister/brother-in-law/sister-in-law/other relatives - 8
Servant/employee/other non relatives - 9

5.4.1.5 Column (5): sex: The sex of each member of the house hold, in terms of the code number (male-1, female-2), will be recorded in this column.

5.4.1.6 Column (6) : age: The age in completed years of all the members listed in column (1) will be ascertained and recorded in column (6). For a new born baby or the baby who has not completed one year of age at the time of listing, the entry to be made in column (6) will be 'C'.

5.4.1.7 Column (7) : marital status: The marital status of the each member will be recorded in terms of the specified code numbers in this column. The codes are:

never married - 1
currently married - 2
widowed, divorced or separated - 3

5.4.1.8 Column (8) and ( 9): educational standard:
Information regarding the general and technical education attained by the normal members of the household listed in col. (1) will be recorded in columns (8) and (9) respectively in terms of the specified code numbers. For the purpose of making entries in these columns only the course successfully completed will be considered. For instances, for a person who has studied up to say, first year B.A., his educational attainment will be considered only secondary (code number 5). Also, for a person who has studied up to 12th standard but has not sat for the final examination or has failed or ever passed in the examination, his educational attainment will be considered 'secondary' only. The relevant codes to be used for recording entries in these two columns are:

general education[column(8)]

Not literate ... 00
Literate without formal schooling ... 01
Literate but below primary ... 02
Primary ... 03
Middle ... 04
Secondary ... 05

Graduates and above in:
Agriculture ... 06
Engineering/technology ... 07
Medicine ... 08
Other subjects ... 09
technical education[column (9)]
Additional diploma/certificate

Agriculture ... 10
Engineering/technology ... 11
Medicine ... 12
Crafts ... 13
Other subjects ... 14
No technical education ... 15

A person who can both read and write a simple message in at least one language is to be considered literate. Those who are not able to do so are to be considered not literate and will be assigned code 00. Those who are literate but never attended any school, will be assigned code 01. Those who are by definition literate but are yet to pass primary standard examination will get code 02. Similarly codes 03, 04, and 05 will indicate the successive higher standard of examinations passed. Matriculation, School Final, Pre-University, Higher Secondary and Intermediate examination will come under Secondary (code 05). A degree holder will get one of the codes 06 to 09 depending on the subject studied. For code 08, medical graduates belonging to Schools of medicine other than allopathic, e.g., homeopathic, ayurvedic, etc. are also to be taken into consideration. Code 06 will also include graduates in 'forestry', 'fishery science' etc. If more than one of the codes 06 to 09 are relevant for a person the following procedure will be adopted.

i) When code 09 as well as one of the codes 06 to 08 are relevant code 09 will not be considered.
ii) When more than one of the codes 06 to 08 are relevant, the code indicating the degree last obtained will be considered.

Persons who have attained proficiency in oriental languages (e.g. Sanskrit, Persian etc.) through formal but not the general type of education will be classified appropriately at the equivalent level of general education standard.

5.4.1.9 Column (9): was any part of the study done as private external candidate? :
It has to be ascertained for each household member whether or not any part of the study undertaken by him/her to attain the educational standard reported in columns (8) and (9) has been done as private or external candidate (irrespective of whether any correspondence course has been taken or not) i.e., without being enrolled in an educational institution as a regular student. If the answer is in the negative, code 3 (no) will be recorded in this column. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 will be recorded for those who passed the course as a private or external candidate without taking any correspondence course and code 2 for those who passed through taking correspondence course.

5.4.1.10 Column (11): number of years of formal education:
The number of years a person has to attend on educational institution to pass a class, level or grade of education -- both general and technical -- excluding the number of years spent in pre-primary education (below standard one) will be recorded for each member rounded off to the nearest integer. Thus, for a person who is either studying in class XI has failed in class XI and has discontinued the education thereafter, the entry will be '10'. Similarly for a person studying say, in the second year of the degree course, the number of years to be recorded will be '13' (10+2+1) or for a person who has completed 9 months' technical education after passing class XII, the entry will be '13'. For those who pursued the old system of education, the number of years required would have to be worked out in the same manner. It may, however, be noted that the years spent for a person's attending some level or grade of education through correspondence course or through private study and passing out the level or grade as private or external candidate will not be counted for recording the 'number of years of formal education'. For example, if a person has passed class XII through attending an educational institution and then completed his graduation and post-graduation as a private candidate the 'number of years' to be recorded will only be 12.

5.4.1.11 Column (12): current enrollment in education institutions and course of study:
For all persons listed in column (1), it will be first ascertained whether the person is currently enrolled in any educational institution or not. A person will be considered to be currently enrolled in an educational institution if he or she is in the rolls of an educational institution for any course of study which will lead to the person's obtaining a degree/diploma/certificate on successful completion of the course of study. In many universities like Rajasthan, Delhi, Madurai etc. candidates are enrolled for regular correspondence courses for a stipulated period, at the end of which they will be allowed to appear in the university examinations of the particular course of study, Persons enrolled for such correspondence course will also be considered as 'currently enrolled in an educational institution'. For a person thus considered as currently enrolled in an educational institution, it will be further probed in regard to the course of study for which they are enrolled. For all those who are not enrolled in any educational institution, code 01 will be recorded in this column. For those who are considered enrolled in an educational institution on the basis of the criterion laid down above, the course of study for which they are enrolled will be recorded in terms of specified codes. The relevant codes to be used for filling up of this column are:

currently not enrolled in any educational institution - 01
currently enrolled in any educational institution for:
pre-primary - 02
primary - 03
middle - 04
secondary - 05
graduated and above in:
agriculture - 06
engineering/technology - 07
medicine - 08
other subjects - 09
diploma/certificate in :
agriculture - 10
engineering/technology - 11
medicine - 12
crafts - 13
other subjects - 14

5.4.1.12 Column (13): registration with employment exchange:
For all persons listed in column (1), it has to be ascertained whether or not they are currently on the live register of the employment exchange. For a person to be currently on the live register, he should renew his registration before it lapses, i.e., when the renewal becomes due. The period specified for renewal varies from state to state and also perhaps from one employment category to the other. The investigator, therefore, should ascertain from some knowledgeable sources, the period specified for such renewal in the particular region where he has to carry out the field work. With this background information, the investigator should find out when the person has registered in the employment exchange, whether he had renewed since the registration etc. and thus determine whether or not he or she was currently on the live register of the employment exchange. If the name of the person is recorded in the live register of the employment exchange, code 1 and if not, code 2, as the case may be, will be recorded in column (13).

5.4.1.13 Column (14): current weekly activity status:
The current weekly activity status of a person will be the activity status obtaining for a person during a reference period of seven days preceding the date of survey. Irrespective of the usual activity pursued by a person, his/her current weekly activity will be determined strictly on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the reference period of seven days adopting the priority criterion. Even for self-employed persons, one need not prejudge and take for granted that the current activity situation for them will be identical to the usual activity situation. A careful probe on the part of the investigator regarding the various activities pursued by the person during the seven days preceding the date of survey is therefore, necessary for ascertaining his/her current weekly activity status. In defining the activity status (paragraph 5.4.1.1) it has already been mentioned that the activities are grouped broadly into three categories namely: (i) working, (ii) not working but seeking and/or available for work, and (iii) neither working nor available for work.

According to the priority criterion, the status of 'working' gets priority over the status 'not working but seeking and/or available for work' which in turn gets priority over the status of 'neither working nor available for work'.

In the category 'not working but seeking and/or available for work', the status 'seeking' gets priority over the status or 'not seeking but available for work'.

A person would be considered 'working (or employed)' if he or she while pursuing any gainful activity had worked for at least one hour on at least one day during the week preceding the date of survey.

A person would be considered 'seeking and/or available for work (or unemployed)' if during the reference week no gainful work was done by the person but he or she had made efforts to get work or had been available for work during the reference week though not actively seeking work.

A person who had neither worked nor was available for work will be considered to be engaged in 'non-gainful activities (or not in labour force)':

The three broad groups of activities are further classified into 22 detailed 'status' categories, 11 for persons categorized 'working' (codes 01-71), 2 for those categorized 'not working but seeking and/or available for work' (coded 81 and 82) and 9 for those categorized 'neither working nor available for work' (coded 91-99). For a person, the appropriate broad 'status' will be determined first adopting the priority criterion.

If a person categorized 'working' is found to be pursuing more than one gainful activity during the reference week, the gainful activity in which relatively more time has been spent will be the appropriate detailed 'status' that will be assigned to him/her. In case more than one 'non-gainful activity status' (codes 91-99) are assignable to a person in view of the typical activity pattern followed by his/her during the reference week, the activity which appears first in the code list in the ascending order starting from 91 will be assigned. But it may be noted that a person essentially engaged in 'domestic duties' should not be classified as 'student' simply because he/she was attending some training. Similarly, an old or disabled person who was a recipient of regular pension, remittance etc. should be classified as 'renters, pensioners, remittance recipients etc.' and not as 'old or disabled'. After thus determining the current weekly activity status of a household member, the appropriate 2-digit code (see paragraph 5.4.1.1) will be recorded in column (14). The following points may be noted while assigning to the 'activity status' to a person.

(a) A person found to be engaged in domestic duties should not be categorized 'in domestic duties' (code 92) if the person reports that he/she has also been available for work concurrently.

(b) A person engaged in regular wage/salaried employment but currently not at work, will be assigned code 71 irrespective of whether he is engaged in any other 'gainful' or 'non-gainful' activity.

(c) Unpaid apprentices will be treated as 'students'.

(d) Person under 'paid lay off' will be considered employed and those under 'unpaid lay off' unemployed if they are seeking and/or available for work.

(e) 'Free collection for sale' will be treated as self-employment. If the products collected relate to agricultural sector the industry division will be 'O' and for other goods like rag, waste paper, tins etc., the industry division will be '6'.

5.4.1.14 Column (15): industry division:
For the persons categorized 'working' (i.e. those with status codes 01-71), the corresponding 'industry division' will be recorded in terms of the specified codes in column (15). The codes are:

Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing - 0
Mining and quarrying - 1
Manufacturing -- 2-3
Electricity, gas and water - 4
Construction - 5
Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels - 6
Transport, storage and communication - 7
Financing, insurance, real estate and business services - 8
Community, social and personal services - 9

5.4.1.15 Column (16)-(18): principal industry-occupation:
For each person assigned the 'work' status codes (i.e. codes 01-71) in column (14), the description of the principal industry-occupation relevant to the type of gainful activity pursued by the person during the reference week will be recorded in column (16). The corresponding three-digit industry group code (NIC 1970) will be recorded in column (17) and the 3-digit occupation family code (NIC, 1968) will be recorded in column (18). In combination is assignable to a person, the principal industry-occupation case more than one industry-occupation/relevant to the person will be the one, in which relatively more time has been spent during the reference week, in pursuing such gainful activities.

5.4.1.16 Column (19): whether place of enumeration different from last usual residence:
"For obtaining the appropriate response to this question for each member of the household listed in this block, it has to be ascertained from them whether his/her place of enumeration is different from his last (previous) usual residence, if any, the usual residence for the purpose of this survey being defined as a place (village or town) where the person has stayed continuously for a period of six months or more. If the answer is in affirmative, code 1 and if it is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded in column (19). The place of enumeration will obviously be his/her current place of stay (destination) and the place (village or town) where the persons stayed continuously for a period of six months or more prior to moving into the current place of stay (i.e. place of enumeration will be considered the 'place of last usual residence' (origin). However, daughter-in-law, staying for a period (which sometimes may extend to more than six months) in their parents' house for child birth or for any other reason will not be considered a migratory movement and therefore, will not be considered for recording entries in the column. But movement for undergoing studies or under transfer will be considered as migratory movements. The following points may be noted in this context:

i) For persons who have only moved from one locality to another within the same town/village, in their life time up to the time of enumeration, the place of enumeration and place of last usual residence will be the same.

ii) Stay in a different town or village for less than six months will be ignored. In this context the following examples may be considered. Suppose a person was born in the village A and stayed there for 15 yrs. On getting married the person had accompanied her spouse to village B stayed there for 8 months and then moved to village C, staying there only for 5 months. From village C they moved to village D where they had been enumerated. For this person the last usual residence would be village B.

5.4.1.17 Column (20): duration of stay at the place of enumeration:
The period of stay at the place of enumeration (the village or town in which the person has been enumerated), i.e. the period elapsed since the person has moved into the place of enumeration will be recorded in column (20) in terms of specified codes. While residing in the present place, if a person has stayed elsewhere for a period less than six months this period will be included in working out the period of stay at the place of enumeration. In case the person has stayed for more than six months in a different place say, A, while usually living at the place of enumeration say, B, then A becomes his last usual residence and the 'duration of stay at the place of enumeration' will refer only to the period since the person's return from place A to B. The relevant codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

Less than 1 year - 1
1-5 years - 2
Above 5 years - 3

It may be noted that this column will be filled in only for those for whom entry 1 is recorded in column (19).

5.4.2.0 Block 4.2: Migration particulars:
This block will be filled in for all the household members reported to have the place of enumeration (i.e. the sample village/town where the survey is carried out) different from the last usual residence in block 4.1 (i.e., those with 'code-1' as the entries in column (19) of block 4.1). For all such household members, information pertaining to their last usual residence, reasons for the movement, demographic and activity particulars prior to movement etc. will be ascertained and recorded in this block.

5.4.2.1 Column (1): serial number as in block 4.1:
All household member assigned 'code-1' in column (19) of block 4.1 will again be listed in this column. The listing will be done in the same order assigning the same serial number as that used in column (1) of block 4.1.

5.4.2.2 Column (1): period since leaving the last usual residence:
The period elapsed since leaving the last usual residence will be recorded in years rounded off to the nearest integer in this column. For working out this, the period of temporary stay (less than six months) in other places after leaving the last usual residence and ultimately moving into the place of enumeration will also be included.

5.4.2.3 Column (3): type of last usual residence:
The type of last usual residence i.e., whether it was rural areas of same district or urban areas of the same district or it was rural areas of another state etc. will be ascertained and indicated in this column in terms of the specified code numbers (the codes to be used are described in paragraph 3.3.16).

5.4.2.4 Column (4)-(7): state and district of last usual residence:
The names of state and district to which the last usual residence belonged will be recorded respectively in columns (4) and (6) and the corresponding codes in columns (5) and (7). The relevant codes are to be taken from the list of NSS regions and their composition given in the Appendix. In case the type code of last usual residence is '7' (i.e., other countries), the name of the country will be written in capital letters across the space under columns (4) -- (7) against the relevant person.

5.4.2.5 Column (8)-(10): age, marital status and general education at the time of migration:
For each household member listed in column (1), the age is completed years at the time of moving out from the last usual residence (i.e., at the time of migration) will be entered in column (8). Similarly, the marital status and general education attained by the members at the time of migration will be recorded respectively in columns (9) and (10) in terms of the specified codes.

5.4.2.6 Column(11) : usual activity status :
The usual activity status of a person will be determined on the basis of the various activities pursued by the person during a reference period of 365 days adopting 'relatively long time (or major time)' criterion. As mentioned earlier, the activities are grouped into three major categories - 'working', 'not working but seeking and/or available for work' and 'neither working nor available for work'.

For determining the 'usual activity status' of a person, he or she to be first classified into any one of the above three broad category groups on the basis of the time spent on them during the reference period of 365 days. Thus, the broad activity status of a period will be the one out of the three, 'working', 'available for work', 'neither working nor available for work', on which the person spent relatively long period during the 365 days. In deciding this, one should consider only the normal working time available for pursuing the various activities and not 24 hours of each day. After deciding the broad status of the person, if he or she is found to have been pursuing more than one activity coming under the particular broad group, the activity on which relatively more time was spent will be considered as his/her usual activity status.

For determining the usual activity status of a migrant at the time of migration, the reference period to be used will be 365 days preceding the date of migration. For each relevant member of the household, after determining his/her 'usual activity status' at the time of migration, (i.e., the activity out of the different activities pursued during the 365 days preceding the date of migration on which relatively long time was spent) The relevant code specified for the activity will be recorded in column (11).

For the description of the codes see paragraph 5.4.1.1. It may be noted that if a person found to be engaged in domestic duties for a relatively long period of the reference period of 365 days, reports that he/she is also simultaneously available for work, he/she should be categorized as unemployed (i.e. code 81) and not as 'engaged in domestic duties'.

5.4.2.7 Column (12): industry division:
For the persons assigned the activity status codes 01-51 (i.e., those categorized working), the appropriate industry division code will be recorded in column (12).

5.4.2.8 Column (13)-(14) : usual occupation at the time of migration:
For each member categorized 'working' at the time of movement from the place of last usual residence, description of the corresponding occupation in which he was engaged will be recorded in column (13) and the three digit occupation family code (NCO 1968) in column (14). If a person was found to have been pursuing more than one occupation, the occupation on which relatively more time was spent by the person during the 365 days preceding two dates on migration will be considered for the purpose of making entries in these columns.

5.4.2.9 Column (15): reasons for leaving the last usual residence:
The reason for moving out of the last usual residence will be ascertained for each member listed in this block and entered in terms of the specified codes in this column. It may so happen that a person had moved out of his last usual residence for a particular reason, stayed in a different village/town for a short period (less than 6 months; if this period is 6 months or more that place will become his last usual residence) and then moved to the place of enumeration (a village or town other than the previous one) for a different reason. In such a case only the reason which motivated his/her first movement will be recorded. The codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

In search of employment -1
In search of better employment (for persons who were employed at the place of origin prior to migration) - 2
Under transfer on service/business contract - 3
For pursuing studies - 4
On marriage - 5
Due to migration of parent(s) earning - 6
Member(s) for political change/lack of security or social adjustment - 7
Due to natural calamity - 8
Due to other reasons - 9

5.5.0 Block 5: time disposition during the reference week:
The information on the detailed labour time disposition of the normal members of the sample household who are either reported as 'working' (including those who did not work due to sickness, leave etc. but otherwise would have been working) or as 'seeking and/or available for work' during the reference period and as such recorded in block 4.1 (i.e. all those with status codes 01-82 in column 14, block 4.1), the wages of salaries received or receivable by wage and salary earners during the same week and the duration of the current spell of unemployment for those classified as unemployed on all the seven days, etc. will be recorded in this block. To obtain information of the detailed day-to-day labour time disposition of persons during the reference period, particulars of the different activities pursued by them with the respective time intensity, in quantitative terms, of each such activity separately for each day of the reference week will be recorded. The time intensity of an activity will be measured in half day units. The different activities pursued by a person will be specified in terms of the 'current weekly activity' codes which comprise of the 'status' and 'industry' codes for persons in urban areas and 'status' and 'industry' and 'operation' codes for persons in rural areas. Since a person may be engaged in more than one type of activity on a single day, more than one line have been provided for in the block for recording information on different activity particulars for each person in separate lines. Provision has also been made in this block to record the total of different entries made for each day of the reference week.

5.5.1 Column 1: serial number as in block 4.1:
The serial numbers of the household members enumerated and assigned any of the 'status' codes 01-82 in col. 14 of block 4.1 will be entered in this column. For each such person, the detailed day-to-day labour time disposition and other related particulars will be collected in subsequent columns of this block. Since one working person may pursue more than one activity during the seven days of the reference week for each serial number recorded in column 1, four lines have been provided for making separate entries relevant for the reference intensities on different days.

5.5.2 Column 2: serial number of activity:
For each person listed in column 1, the different activities pursued by them during all the seven days of the reference week will be serially numbered and this serial number of activity will be recorded in column (2). Presuming that the likelihood of one person pursuing more than four different activities in a week is rather remote, only four lines are provide for each person. It is mentioned earlier that the current activity of a person in the rural areas is denoted by his status-cum-industry-cum-operation. Thus, for a person with the same status, if the industry (at the Division level) or operations are different on the same or different days he will be considered to have pursued different activities and these activities will be entered in different lines. Similarly, for the urban areas the current activity of a person is denoted by his status-cum-industry. Thus, if a person ploughs his own field in the first half of the day and sows in the second half of the day, for urban areas, he will be considered to have only one activity, during the day. But for rural areas he will be considered to have pursued two activities.

5.5.3 Column 3: Status:
The current activity 'status' codes corresponding to the serial number of activity entered in column (2) will be recorded in this column. Although it may be theoretically possible that on a particular day of the reference week, a person may have any number of activities, the particulars relating to two activities need only be considered for making entries in this column. Thus on a day, a person may either have only one activity with 'full' intensity or two activities with 'half intensity for each. If the activity is pursued with intensity 'half' on a particular day, the entry will be 0.5 against that activity and if that is pursued with intensity more than half, 1.0 will be recorded against that activity in the relevant columns (6) -- (12).

The decision whether the intensity to be recorded for an activity will be 0.5 or 1.0 has to be taken by the investigating staff making careful probes into the actual situation obtaining for the person on a particular day. Mere declaration made by the informants that less than four hours of work daily is their normal working hours for the work or profession should not be the basis for recording the intensity as 1.0 In the case of cultivator, a village artisan or a small trader, it should not be presumed that a few hours on a day, even during the lean periods of the year, is their normal work, and the intensity 1.0 need not necessarily be recorded for them. Since the particular block of the schedule is meant for recording the information on periodical or seasonal under utilization of available labour time, careful probes about the nature of work performed by a person during the day has to be made before recording the relevant entries.

To illustrate, in so far as the current activity pattern of a person is concerned, the following seven different situations can be visualized (i) on a single day a person may be engaged fully in on gainful activity; (ii) on a single day a person may be partly engaged in different types of gainful activities; (iii) on a single day a person may be partly engaged in gainful activity and for the rest of the time he may be seeking or available for gainful activity and at the same time may or may not be engaged in some non-gainful activities; (iv) on a single day a person may be partially engaged in gainful activity and during the rest of the time he may not be available for work for the whole day and at the same time may or may not be doing some non-gainful work; (vi) on a single day a person may be available for work for part of the day and for the remaining part he may not be available for work and may be pursuing some non-gainful activity; (vii) on a single day a person may be fully engaged in non-gainful activities. Which of the status codes are to be entered in column (3) will depend on whichever of the above situations are obtaining for a person on the different days of the reference week. The investigator is to first ascertain the exact situation from the informant and will record the appropriate status code or codes, as the case may be in this column.

5.5.4 Column (4): Industry division:
For each status code grouped under the activity category 'working' (i.e. for the status codes 01-71 recorded in column 3), the sector of activity i.e. the industry division will be entered in column (4) in terms of the specified code numbers.

5.5.5 Column (5): Operation:
This column will be filled-in for persons belonging to the rural households only. The actual working operation performed by the persons relevant to the status codes grouped under the activity category working (i.e. status 01-71) will be entered in terms of code numbers in this column. It may be noted that for regular salaried/wage employees on leave or holiday the 'operation' will relate to their respective function in the work or job from which he is temporarily off in view of his taking leave or holiday. Similarly for persons categorized 'self-employed', if they are not at work on a particular day in spite of their having work on that day, the operation to be recorded will relate to the work they would have done if they had not enjoyed leisure on that day. The relevant codes to be used for making entries in this column are:

(a) Manual work in cultivation:
Ploughing - 01, Sowing - 02, Transplanting - 03, Weeding - 04,
Harvesting - 05, Other cultivation activities - 06


(b) Manual work in other agricultural activities:
Forestry - 07, Plantation - 08, Animal husbandry - 09,
Fisheries - 10, Other agricultural activities - 11;


(c) Manual work in non-agricultural activities - 12;

(d) Non-manual work in:
Cultivation - 13, Activities other than cultivation - 14.
Cultivation: All activities relating to production of crops by tillage and related ancillary activities will be considered cultivation. Growing of trees/plants/crops (such as, rubber, cashew, coconut, pepper, coffee, tea etc.) as plantation or orchards will not be considered cultivation activity. In general, the activities covered under the industry groups 000-008 will be considered cultivation.

5.5.6 Column (6) -- (12): intensity of activity:
For each activity recorded in column (3) the intensity with which the particular activity is performed on the different days of the reference week will be recorded in quantitative terms 'half' or 'full' intensity or 'half' in these columns. As described earlier, either one 'full' intensity or 'half' intensity may be assigned to a person on any one of the seven days of the reference week for each activity listed in column (2). For a particular activity the recording of entries in columns (6) -- (12) should start from column (6) which is provided for recording the intensity of that activity on the seventh day of the reference week i.e. the day preceding the date of survey. Similarly, the intensity of that activity on the sixth, fifth and earlier days of the week will be recorded in columns (7), (8), (9), (10), (11) and (12) respectively. If the intensity of an activity is 'full' on a particular day, '1.0' will be recorded in the relevant column. On the other hand, if the intensity is 'half' the entry will be '0.5'. If that particular activity is not pursued on some days of the reference work, the corresponding columns provided in the block for those days will be left blank.

5.5.7 For deterring the various activities pursued by a person during the reference week and their intensities, the following thumb rule may be adopted:

(a) If a person had worked or was employed, that is, if he was engaged in any one or more of the activities 01-71 for four hours or more on a day he would be considered 'working' or 'employed' for the whole day and assigned the one or two out of the different work activities on which he devoted relatively long time. In the former case, intensity will be 1.0 and in the latter case 0.5 for each of the two activities recorded.

(b) A person, who had worked for one hour or more but less than 4 hours on a day, would be considered 'working' for half day and for the other half he would be considered either 'seeking or available for work' i.e. 'unemployed' (codes 81 or 82) or as 'neither working not available for work' i.e. not in labour force (91-99) depending on whether or not the person was seeking/available for work. The person will be assigned the relevant work status code (01-71) with 'half' intensity and the non work status code 81 or 82 if 'unemployed' any one of the relevant codes 91-99 if 'not in labour force', with 'half' intensity.

(c) If a person had not worked even an hour on the day but had sought work or was available for work for four hours or more, he/she would be considered unemployed for the whole day one assigned the code 81 or 82 as the case might me with 'full' intensity. But if he/she sought work or was available for work for hour or more but less than four hours he/she would be considered unemployed for half day, and assigned the activity status code 81 or 82 with 'half' intensity and 'not in labour force' with 'half' intensity for the other half of the day, for which the relevant code (any one of the codes 91-99) could be assigned.

(d) A person not so considered 'employed', or 'unemployed' either for 'full' day or 'half' day as shown in (a), (b) or (c), would be considered 'not in labour force' for the whole day and assigned the relevant activity code 91-99 with intensity 'full' or two of them with each having intensity 'half', as the case may be.

In the case of person engaged in self employment, such as a doctor, stationary or peripatetic trader or vendor, a free lance artesian or a mason or a carpenter etc., the following may be kept in view while recording entries on intensity.

(i) A doctor sitting in his chamber for 4 hours or more, no matter whether he examined and prescribed medicine for a single patient or not, intensity 1.0 should be recorded.

(ii) For a stationary or peripatetic vendor or trader moving around in this processional rounds for 4 or more hours. Intensity 1.0 should be recorded whatever little business is done by the person.

(iii) For recording intensity (entries 1.0 or 0.5) in columns (6)-(12) in the cases of masons or carpenters in their professional rounds, similar procedure is to be adopted.

In the case of regular or casual salaried or wage employees, the activity beyond the normal working hours need not be considered for recording entries in these columns. On the other hand, if a person pursues two gainful activities or duration, say, 4-6 hours each, both are to be recorded with 0.5 intensity for each.

5.5.8 Column (13): total number of days in each activity:
The number days for which a particular activity was pursued during the seven days i.e. the total of columns (6)-(12) will be recorded in one place of decimal in column (13) separately for each activity status listed in column (2). It may be noted that the total number of days for all the activities together should always be 7.0 for each individual entered in column (1).

5.5.9 Columns (14)-(16): wage and salary earning :
The wage and salary income (not total earnings) receivable for the wage/salaried work done during the reference week, separately for each of the relevant activities and the total for each person will be recorded in these columns. The relevant status codes for which wage and salary earnings are to be recorded are 31, 41, 51 and 71. The wages and salaries for the work done during the reference week may be already received or may be receivable in cash or in kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. The total wage or salary received or receivable for the week in cash will be recorded in column (14) and the value (evaluated at the current retail price) of salary or wages in kind received or receivable will be recorded in column (15). The total of columns (14) and (15) will be entered in column (16). The entries for all these columns will be made in 2 places of decimal. For recording the wages or salaries amount receivable as 'over time' for the additional work done beyond normal working time will be ignored. Bonus (expected or paid) and perquisites evaluated at retail prices duly apportioned for the reference week will be considered as wages and included for making entries in these columns. For the activity status '71', the amount receivable for the week will be worked out on the basis of the number of days reported under that activity during the week.

5.5.10 Column (17): duration of current spell of unemployment:
For each person reported as unemployed on all the seven days of the week the duration of the current continuous spell of unemployment will be recorded against the relevant total line in terms of the specified code which are:

Only one week - 1
Up to two weeks - 2
Up to one month - 3
Up to two months - 4
Up to three months - 5
Up to six months - 6
More than six months - 7

It may be noted that the duration to be recorded will relate only to the present spell. For example, if a person was 'unemployed', say, for two months, then employed for a short period and again unemployed and found so at the time of enumeration, for the purpose of making entry in this column for such a person the latter spell of unemployment need only be considered.

5.6.0 Block 6: usual activity particulars :
The usual activity particulars with respect to a reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey of all the normally resident members of the household and particulars of their seasonal movement if any, in connection with their work, will be collected in Block 6.

5.6.1 Column (1): serial number as in block 4.1:
All the normally resident members of the household enumerated in block 4.1 will again be listed in this column in the same serial order as that of column (1) of block 4.1. In fact, the serial number assigned for each member in block 4.1 will be copied in this column in the same order as done earlier for block 4.1.

5.6.2 Column (2): principal usual activity status:
For determining the principal usual activity status of a person, the reference period to be used will be the 365 days preceding the date of survey. As mentioned earlier, the broad activity status of the person will first be determined adopting the 'relatively long' or 'major time' criterion. Thus, the broad usual activity status of a person will be the one out of the three-broad activity status, such as 'working', 'seeking and/or available for work' and 'neither working nor available for work' on which relatively long period was spent by the person during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. After determining the broad status, the detailed activity status within the broad group will again be determined adopting again the 'relatively long' or 'major time' criterion. The detailed activity status, thus determined, will be the principal usual activity status of the person. The code corresponding to this activity status will be recorded in column (2).

5.6.3 Column (3): industry division:
For persons categorized as 'working' i.e. those with the status codes 01-51 in column (2), the industry division code corresponding to the activity status recorded in column 2 will be entered in column (3).

5.6.4 Column (4) - (6): principal industry-occupation:
For all those reported as working (i.e. those with the status codes 01-51 in column (2) the description of the sector of activity i.e., the industry and the corresponding function of work i.e. the occupation in which the engaged, will be recorded in column (4). The relevant 3-digited industry group code (NIC, 1970) and the 3-digited industry group code (NIC, 1970) and the 3-digited occupation family code (NCO, 1968) will be respectively entered in columns (5) and (6).

5.6.5 Column (7) - (11): subsidiary gainful usual activity:
It has to be ascertained, for all those with principal usual status 'working' (i.e. those with the status codes 01-51 in column (2)), whether or not they had any subsidiary gainful usual activity other than the one reported as the principal one. To illustrate, a person categories 'working' may be engaged in two or more gainful activities, say, 'self-employment' and 'casual wage labour' and relatively long time is spent on the latter. In this case, the principal usual activity will be the status of 'self-employment'. After determining the subsidiary gainful usual activity status, the corresponding status code will be recorded in column (7). The industry division code relevant to the status recorded in column (7) will be recorded in column (8). The description of the industry-occupation combination relating to the subsidiary gainful activity will be recorded in column (9) and the corresponding 3-digited industry group code (NIC 1970) and the 3-digited occupation family code (NCO, 1968) will be respectively recorded in columns (10) and (11). It may be noted that if the principal usual activity status is other than those groups under 'working' (i.e. status codes other than 01-51) for a person, columns (7)-(11) will not be filled in for his/her.

5.6.6 Column (12): whether stayed temporarily in a different place for work:
For each person enumerated in this block it has to be ascertained whether or not the person stayed in a different village or town other than the place of enumeration for a continuous period of 4 weeks or more during the last 365 days in connection with work. If it is found on enquiry that the person did stay away for a continuous period of 4 weeks or more for work, code '1' will be entered in column (12). Otherwise, code '2' will be recorded.

5.6.7 Column (13)-(23): particulars relating to the temporary stay in different places other than the place of enumeration:
For all those reported to have stayed in places other than the place of enumeration for a continuous period of 4 weeks or more during the 365 days preceding the date of survey in connection with work (i.e. those with code 1 recorded in column (12)), the reason why they had to stay in a different place will be recorded in terms of the specified codes in column (13). The relevant codes are:

Non-availability of work at in place of enumeration - 1
For better employment - 2
Required by the nature of work - 3

It may so happen that a person might have stayed away a number of times interspersed by stay at the place of enumeration and that too in different places during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. In such cases, the reason will relate to the one for which the maximum duration of the total time spent away from the place of enumeration. The total period in completed weeks, thus spent elsewhere in connection with the work, during the 365 days preceding the date of survey, will be recorded in column (14) and the number of places where the person stayed like the manner described above will be recorded in column (15). The description of the industry-occupation combination relating to work, pursued during the major part of the total period of stay away for work, will be ascertained and recorded in column (16). The corresponding 3-digited industry group code and 3-digited occupation family code will be recorded respectively in columns (17) and (18). The type of the place where major part of the total period of stay away for work was spent, in terms of the specified codes (see also paragraphs 5, 3, 16), will be recorded in column (19). The names of the state and the district to which this place belongs will be entered respectively in columns (20) and (22), and the corresponding codes in columns (21) and (23).

5.7.0 Block 7: particulars of usual subsidiary gainful activity: Information relating to the subsidiary gainful activities, if any, pursued during the 365 days preceding the date of survey by the household members categorized 'not working' in block 6 (i.e. those having usual status codes 81-93 and 95-998 in column (2) of block (6) and the corresponding industry will be collected in this block). This information need not be collected for persons categorized too young (code 94).

5.7.1 Column (1): serial number as in block 4.1:
The household members assigned any of the usual activity status codes 81-93 and 95-98 in column (2) of block 6 will again be listed in this column in the same order as done in block 4.1 and block 6. The same serial numbers recorded for them in column (1) of blocks 4.1 and 6 will be recorded in this column for them.

5.7.2 Column (2): usual activity status:
For each person enumerated in column (1), the usual activity status code as assigned to him or her in column (2) of block 6 will be copied in this column.

5.7.3 Column (3):
For recording entries in this column, it will be ascertained whether or not the persons enumerated in column (1) were engaged in any gainful activity in their subsidiary capacity during the 365 days preceding the date of survey, or in other words whether or not they did some gainful work, more or less regularly even though intermittently, for a shorter duration of time during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey. For person who pursued some gainful activities in their subsidiary capacity, code '1' will be recorded in this column. For others who did not have any subsidiary gainful activities during the period, code 2 will be recorded. It may be noted that engagement in gainful activities in the subsidiary capacity may arise out of two situations: (i) a person may be engaged for relatively a long period during the last 365 days in non-gainful activity and for the remaining period engaged in gainful activities, (ii) a person may be pursuing non-gainful activities in the principal capacity throughout the year but only for a relatively shorter time. For the purpose of recording entries in this block, for both the situations illustrated above, the person will be considered to have pursued some subsidiary gainful activity, although according to the relatively long time criterion of determining the principal usual status, he/she has been categorized 'not working' in block 6.

5.7.4 Column (4) and (5): activity:
For persons having code 1 in column (3), the 'status' codes of the gainful activities pursued by them in their subsidiary capacity will be recorded in column (4) and the corresponding 'industry division' codes will be recorded in column (5). In the situation 'when a person has been found to have pursued more than one gainful activity on which more time had been spent would be considered for recording the entries in these columns.'

5.7.5 Column (6) and (8): industry-occupation:
The description of the industry-occupation corresponding to the subsidiary gainful activity recorded in columns (4) and (5) will be recorded in column (6) and the relevant 3-digited industry (NIC 1970) and occupation (NCO 1968) codes will be entered in columns (7) and (8) respectively.

5.8.0 Block 8: follow-up questions for the persons with usual activity status codes 01-93 and 96:
With a view to having an in depth study of the work pattern and the extent of under-utilization of available labour time of the population, the procedure of obtaining ancillary information from responses to some meaningful follow-up questions put to different homogeneous groups of population determined by usual activity status categories was first attempted in the 27th round survey. Drawing upon the experiences of the 27th round survey, the follow-up questions used in that round have been streamlined for the purpose of formulating a set of uniform questions for use in the 32nd round for all the different categories of population. For the 38th round survey, the same set of questions have further been rationalized and housed in this block.
These question will be put in all the household members assigned any one of the usual activity status codes 01-51, 81, 91-93 and 96. As there may be more than one member of the household with any of the above usual activity status codes, provision has been made in this block to record the forthcoming answers for 5 such individuals. The follow-up questions listed in this block are in most cases self explanatory and their scope and limitations are also apparent. The probable answers to these questions are pre-coded and printed in parenthesis along with the relevant questions. The investigators will try to find out, through their investigation, what, of the many possible alternative answers, is the answer offered by the informant and record in the box spaces provided for, the appropriate code relevant to that answer. The questions and answers should, in general, refer to the period of 365 days preceding the date of survey.

5.8.1 It may be noted that the population to which the follow-up questions in block 8 are to be put in constituted of three categories which are:

persons classified as usually 'working' (usual status codes 01-51) i.e. those working for a relatively long time during the period of 365 days preceding the date of survey,

person classified as usually 'not working' (usual status codes 81-93 and 96) but categorized 'working' in the subsidiary capacity (i.e. those with code '1' in col. 3 of block 7),

person classified as usually 'not working' (usual status codes 81-93 and 96) and also categorized 'not working' even I the subsidiary capacity (i.e. those with code '2' in column 3 of block 7)

It is obvious that person covered under (i) and (ii) above will be engaged in some work during the 365 days preceding the date of survey and persons under (i) may have some sort of full engagement in gainful activities while the persons under (ii) will have only marginal engagement in gainful activities. Whichever be the case, they are the persons who may like to have some 'additional work' over the above whatever work they have during the reference period. It is of course possible that some of them, in spite of the work they are currently having, will still like to have not additional work but alternate full time work. Persons covered under (iii) who had no work during the reference period are the set of people who, in the natural course, may like to have some substantive work (not additional work). These points must be kept in mind while the relevant question on the availability for work is put to the respondent. Depending on the answer obtained, the subsequent questions should be put to the answer obtained, and the subsequent question should be put to the informant by the investigator in the manner demanded by the situation. For example, if a person under (i) (though expected to have had almost full work) says that he wants full work (not additional work), the subsequent question on the efforts made, type of work desirable etc. should relate to the substantive or full 'work' and not 'additional work'.

5.8.2 Item 1: serial number as in block 4.1:
The serial numbers as in column (1), block 4.1, of the household members assigned any of the usual activity status codes 01-93 and 96 in column (2) of block 6 (which will be same as the serial numbers in column (1) of block 6 also) will be copied against this item in the box spaces provided for. Provision has been made in this block to record the particulars of five such household members.

5.8.3 Item 2: usual activity:
For each of the members whose serial number is recorded against item 1, his or her usual activity 'status' and 'industry division' codes (as recorded in columns (2) and (3) respectively of block 6) will be entered against item 2 with a hyphen (-) in between the two codes. It may be noted that for the usual activity status, the 'industry division' codes are recorded only for those categorized 'working' (i.e. those with status codes 01-51). For persons categorized not working, including those categorized 'seeking and/or available for work', the status code will be recorded first and then a cross mark (x) proceeded by a hyphen (-) will be put to indicate that 'industry' is not applicable to those persons. For example, the entry for a person categorized 'seeking and/or available for work' according to usual status will be '81-x.'

5.8.4 Item 3: usual subsidiary gainful activity:
For all person with usual activity status codes 81-93 and 96 (i.e. those categorized as engaged in non work activities), their usual subsidiary gainful activity status, if any, will be copied from columns (4) and (5) of block 7 against this item. For making entry against this item, the status code will be recorded first, followed by a hyphen (-) and then the industry division code in the same manner as recorded for making entries against item 2.

5.8.5 Item 4: fully engaged or not, in work:
The question - 'were you more or less fully engaged in work during the last 365 days?' listed in item 4-will be put only to those categorized usually 'working' (i.e. those with status codes 01-51 recorded against item) 2) with a view to finding out whether the person considers himself/herself as having enough work to keep himself/herself busy in that work almost throughout the year. If the answer to the question is in affirmative, code-1 and if in the negative, code-2 will be entered against this item.

5.8.6 Item 5: The question- 'were you seeking or available for work for the first time?' listed against item 5- will be put to only those who have been classified as 'seeking and/or available for work' according to usual status (i.e. those with usual activity status code 81). The answer obtained will be recorded in code numbers (yes-1, no-2) against this item in the relevant box space.

5.8.7 Item 6: The question listed against this item is -- 'were you seeking or available for work/additional work?' It may be noted that the persons for whom this set of follow-up questions are meant can broadly be divided into two groups - (i) those who had some work during the reference year (i.e. persons with usual status codes 01-51 and 81-93 and 96 with some usual subsidiary gainful activity) and (ii) those who had no work during the reference year (i.e. persons with usual activity status codes 81-93 and 96 with no usual subsidiary gainful activity). It is expected that the first group, if at all willing, will normally opt for 'additional work' and to this group, therefore, the question to be put will be 'were your seeking of available for addition work?' To the second group, naturally, the question 'whether they were seeking of available for work' will be asked. Demanding on the answer obtained, the entry will be made against this item in terms of the code number '1' for 'yes' and '2' for 'no'. For persons categorized 'seeking and/or available for work' according to usual status (i.e. persons with status code 81, the question need not be asked again). For them code = 1 will simply be recorded.

5.8.8 Item 7 - 11: The questions listed against these items will be asked only to these persons who answer in the affirmative to the question listed against item 6. As mentioned earlier, these questions are to be suitably put depending on the answer obtained for the question against item6 i.e. depending on whether the person wanted 'additional work' or 'work'.

5.8.9 Item 7: For persons reporting as 'seeking or available for work /additional work', it will be ascertained what efforts they have made to get the work. If a person is found to have been on the live register of the employment exchange, code 1 will be recorded for the person against this item. Concurrently, if he or she has made some other efforts to get work, like contacting prospective employers, responding to advertisement etc., priority will be given to 'registration with employment exchange' and in such cases also, code 1 will be recorded. For a person who is currently not in the live register of the employment exchange but has made other efforts to get work, code 2 will be assigned. If no effort has been made, code 3 will be recorded.

5.8.10 Item 8 and 9: For persons who have answered in the affirmative to the question listed against item 6, the information on the period for which they are seeking or available for work/additional work will be ascertained and recorded against item 8 in terms of appropriate code numbers which are:

Up to 1 month - 1
1-3 months - 2
3-6 months - 3
6-9 months - 4
9-12 months - 5
More than 12 months - 6

If a person is reported to be seeking or available for work/additional work for the entire 365 days preceding the date of survey or for a period of 9 months or more up to the entire 12 months, the appropriate code to be recorded will be 5. On the other hand, if it is reported that the person has been seeking or available for work/additional work since a date prior to the period of 365 days preceding the data of survey and that effort of seeking or availability for work continued for the entire reference period, code 6 will be recorded. The information on the type of work they have been seeking or been available for will be recorded against item 9 in code numbers. Four different types of work classified below will be considered for recording entries against this item: (i) both farm work (code-1), (ii) farm work only (code-2), (iii) public works only (code-3), and (iv) non-farm work only (code-4). Any work relating to the agricultural sector (i.e. industry divisions C of NIC 1970) will be treated as from work. Work relating to any of the non-agricultural sectors (i.e. industry divisions 1-9 and X and Y of NIC 1970) will be treated as non-farm work.

Any work relating to government projects like construction of dams, roads, buildings etc. including test relief works will be treated as a 'public work'. It may be noted that 'public works' will be considered non-farm work. Hence 'both farm and non-farm work' will mean any work relating to the industry division 0-9, X and Y including 'public works' and 'non-farm work only' means the work relating to the industry division 1-9 and X and Y including 'public works' and 'non-farm work only' means the work defined as public works above.

5.8.11 Item 10: The information in regard to the status of work sought (or available for) for those persons who are seeking or available for work/additional work, will be ascertained and recorded against item 10 in terms of appropriate code numbers. The codes are:

Wage/salaried employment:
Full time - 1
Part time - 2
Contract/piece rate work:
Full time - 3
Part time - 4
Self employment:
Full time - 5
Part time - 6

While recording the relevant information against this item, subject to priority being always given for full-time work over part-time work, if more than one code is found to be applicable for a periods, the code which appears first in the has sought (or was available for) part-time wage/salaried employment (code - 2), full-time contract/place-rate work (code - 3) as well as full time self employment (code-5), only code 5 will be assigned to him.

5.8.12 Item 11: For persons reporting themselves as willing to accept wage or salaried employment, their desired to preferred location of work will be ascertained and recorded against this item in terms of the specified code number which are:

Within village/town - 1
Outside village/town only - 2
Within outside village/town - 3

5.8.13 Item 12-16: Special questions or persons with usual activity status codes 01-04 and 31 only:
In the Indian economic scene, particularly in rural areas, one comes across persons who, in the main, work as labourers, both agricultural and others. Frequently, these labourers directly or indirectly remain locked up with their employers and have little or no freedom to change their employers or even to work for themselves. Secondly, they often do not obtain compensatory wages or salaries for their services rendered as labourers to their employers. Often, the wages or salaries they obtain are less than the prevalent wage or salary paid to others for the same or similar work done. With a view to obtaining some quantitative information in regard to the above aspects of the labour situation prevailing in the country side, five special questions are formulated to be canvassed only in the rural areas from the persons classified according to usual status as 'working under obligation/work not specifically compensated by prevalent wage/salary' (codes 01-04) and 'regular salaried/wage employees' (code 31). These questions are listed as item 12-16 in this block. The first two questions (items 12 and 13) relate to relevant person's freedom to change the present employer for purpose of working for any other employer or for himself/herself. It will be ascertained whether the person is free to change the employer during the busy season (ref. item 12) and whether the person is free to change the employer during the lean season (ref. item 13). If the answer is in the affirmative code-1 and in the negative, code-2 will be recorded against these two items in the box spaces provided for the purpose. It will further be ascertained whether the relevant person gets the locally prevalent wage rate for the work done for the present employer (a) during the busy season (ref. item 14) and (b) during the lean season (ref. item 15). If the person gets the prevalent wage rate, code 1 and otherwise, code 2 will be recorded against the respective items. The fifth question (ref. item 16) to be put is whether the present employer employs the relevant person before employing others when there is work in the employer's enterprise. If the answer to the question is in the affirmative, code 1 and if it is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against item 16.

5.9.0 Block 9: Follow-up questions for persons classified as usually engaged in domestic chores:
[All questions in this section (5.9) were asked of household members classified as engaged in domestic duties according to usual status (i.e. those with usual states codes 92 and 93), and the relevant answers will be recorded in terms of the specified codes. Status codes 92 and 93 refer to usual principal activity status from block 6, column 2.]

As it was felt that the first quinquennial survey on employment and unemployment (27th round) did not reveal fully the pattern of activities carried out along with domestic chores of those classified as engaged in domestic duties (particularly women), a separate set of special follow-up questions was introduced in the 32nd round for canvassing them among the category of the population noted above. These follow-up questions have further been rationalized on the basis of the experiences of the 32nd round survey for use in the 38th round and are housed in block 9 along with possible answers printed in parenthesis. These follow-up questions will be asked to all normal members of the household, classified as engaged in domestic duties according to usual status (i.e. those with usual states codes 92 and 93 ), and the relevant answers will be recorded in terms of the specified codes.

5.9.1 Item 1:Serial number as in block 4.1:
For all household members categorized 'engaged in domestic duties' according to usual status classification i.e., those assigned the usual status codes 92 and 93 in column (2) of block 6, their serial numbers as in column (1) of block 4. 1/6 will be entered against item 1. Different columns will be used for different members.

5.9.2 Item 2: usual activity status:
For each member recorded against item 1, his/her usual activity status code (92 or 93) will be copied from column (2) of block 6 against this item.

5.9.3 Item 3-5 : It will be ascertained whether the relevant persons are required to spent most of their time during the 365 days preceding the date of survey on domestic duties. If the answer is in the affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in the negative, code 2 will be recorded against item 3 of each entry against item 3 is code 1 for a person, the reason for his/her participation is in the household duties will be ascertained and recorded in terms of the specified code numbers against item 4.

The relevant codes to be used are:

No other member to carry out the domestic duties - 1
Cannot afford hired help - 2
For social and/or religious constraints - 3
Others - 4

For such a person, item 5 will be left blank. On the other hand, if the entry against item 3 is code '2' for a person, (i.e. such participation was not required but still the person participated in the household chores) the reason for his/her voluntary participation in household chores will be ascertained and the code relevant to the answer obtained will be recorded against item 5. In such a case, item 4 will be left blank. The codes to be used for making entries against item 5 are:

Non-availability of work - 1
By preference - 2
Others - 3

5.9.4 Item 6-10: These 13 questions relate to relevant members' participating in 13 specified activities which are self-explanatory. It will be ascertained whether the member along with his/her normal domestic duties also participates more or less regularly in the specified activities listed. If the answer is 'yes', code '1' and if the answer is 'not', code '2' will be recorded against the relevant item 6.18 for the particular person. It may be noted that item 18 will be filled in for rural areas only.

Item 19 : If for a particular person the answer to the question listed 5.9.5 Item 19: If for a particular person the answer to the question listed against item 18 (i.e., whether the person brings water from outside the village) is 'yes', (code 1), the distance (rounded off the nearest kilometer) the person has to travel from his household premises to the point of the source of water will be recorded against this item.

5.9.6 Item 20: For all those categorized 'usually engaged. For all those categorized 'usually engaged in domestic duties' and listed against item '1', it will be ascertained whether they will be prepared to accept work if work is made available at their household premises. If the answer is in affirmative, code 1 and if the answer is in negative, code 2 will be recorded against this item.

Item 21-24 : The questions listed against these items.
5.9.7 Item 21-24 : The questions listed against these items will be put only to those who have answered in affirmative for the question listed against item 20 [if usually engaged in domestic duties, would accept work if made available], (i.e. persons with entry 1 against item 20). The codes appropriate for the answers will be recorded against the relevant items. For the items 21, 22 and 24, if more than one code is found to be applicable, the code which appears first only will be recorded. The relevant codes to be used for filling in the items 21, 22 and 24 are as under:

(i) Item 21: nature of work acceptable:
Regular full time - 1
Regular part time - 2
Occasional full time - 3
Occasional part time - 4

(ii) Item 22: type of work acceptable:
Dairy - 1
Poultry - 2
Other animal husbandry - 3
Spinning and weaving - 4
Manufacturing of wood and cane products - 5
Tailoring - 6
Leather goods manufacturing and repairing - 7
Other (specify) - 9

(iii) Item 24: assistance required:
No assistance - 1
Initial financial on easy terms - 2
Working finance facilities - 3
Easy availability of raw materials - 4
Assured market - 5
Training - 6
Accommodation - 7
Others - 9

[Instruction on household indebtedness (block 10) omitted]

5.11.0 Block 11: Particulars of entries made in different blocks of the schedule: This block is meant for recording the number of reporting lines/columns in the various blocks of the schedule. For blocks 3-7 and 10, the number of reporting lines will be recorded in columns (3) whereas. For block 8 and 9 the number of reporting columns will be recorded in column (4). This will be done by the Assistant Superintendent who will carry out the table scrutiny of the schedule. Column (5) will be filed-in at the Data Processing Centre and therefore, to be left blank at the field level.

5.12.0 Block 12: remarks by investigation: Any relevant remarks relating to the problems encountered in collecting the date, attitude of respondents etc. will be recorded in this block by the investigators. If the investigator feels that certain information given by the informant is of doubtful nature it may be also indicated with comments if any. Any other qualified comments which may help to make proper assessment of the entries made in the schedule may also be records here.

5.13.0 Block 13: Comments by supervisory officer:
This block will be used by the Supervisory Officers to record their comments and suggestions. They should particularly highlight the inconsistent data, if any, recorded in the schedule giving possible reason for such entries. This of course, has to be done after making necessary reference to the investigator concerned.

DEFINITIONS OF SOME IMPORTANT TERMS

5.14.0 Definitions of a few important terms of activity categories to be used for collection of data on employment-unemployment in the 38th Round Survey are laid down below with a view to focusing special attention to the appropriate use of the terms during the work of investigation.

5.14.1 Working with an employer under obligation/work not specifically compensated by prevalent wage/salary, usual of current activity status categories 01, 02, 03 and 04: These categories are adopted in this survey to identify the type of labour known as bonded labour and also to ascertain the socio-economic class of the population in the Indian rural scene to which such labourers are bonded. The bondage commonly found is essentially the debt bondage, the nature or type of which is inherent in terms of debt incurred by the labourer is obligated to work for the landlord, money-lender or landlord-cum-money lender in their farms and/or households till the debt is repaid in lieu of either no wage or less than the legitimate wage which they otherwise would have received for the work. Secondly, the element of bondedness is revealed in the lack of option of the labourer to work as wage labour for others of even to work on his own. In some cases, this bondedness will remain valid only for a short period (say, a particular agricultural season) while in other cases this may extent to a longer period (say several years) of time. So in eliciting appropriate information and for categorizing a person under any of the categories 01, 02, 03 or 04, the investigator is to particularly probe into the two most important aspects of this kind of work contract -- the bondedness of labour to their master. The first one is whether the person is free to work for others or for himself and the second is whether he/she is getting the prevalent compensatory wage for the work performed. If the answer is in negative to any one of the two questions, the person is to be categorized as bonded labour and the appropriate status code will be determined after identifying the class to which the person is attached.

5.14.2 Worked (self-employed) in household enterprise, usual and current status category 11: Persons who are engaged in their own farm or non-farm enterprise are defined as self-employed - the term used to designate their activity status. There are different kinds of self-employed. Some may operate their enterprise without hiring any labour. Some others may normally work on their own but occasionally hire a few labourers. There is also a third category that by and large regularly runs their enterprises by hiring labour. The first two groups of self-employed are called own=account workers and the third the employer.

It is expected that a bulk of self-employed persons in our economy can easily be identified by adopting the above definition. But in certain cases the identification will pose some problem. This problem particularly manifests itself in the (i) so called 'putting out' system prevalent in our production process in which that part of production which is put out is performed in different household enterprises (e.g., master weaver putting out jobs to different households or big biri manufacturer getting the biri produced through distribution of work to different households), (ii) the system of part of the work being done through contractors' or sub-contractors' household enterprises and (iii) there may also be cases of putting out jobs (in part or full) the terms of payment for which is just piece of time-rate.

In the first two of the above cases cited, the persons owning and operating the household enterprise or the contractors and sub-contractors are to be termed 'self-employed'.

But in regard to the third cases cited the workers engaged in the work will be categorized as 'employees' and not 'self-employed'. In so far as the first two cases illustrated above the underlying idea of categorizing them as self-employed is that all of them have some tangible or intangible means of production and their work is a kind of enterprises to them and share for their labour and (ii) the profit of the enterprise. Apart from manufacture, in the cases of persons engaged in construction, services or profession the distinction between a free-lance own account worker and an employee often becomes difficult to draw and however liberal or fill-proof definitions are formulated, there will always be some cases which will not fit-in well in the definitions and thus, there will be the problem of identification. In the NSS, therefore, besides having a working definition some conventions also are in use. An illustrative list of such conventions is given below:

A mason is to be identified as self-employed person when he works free-lance. But a mason assistant is an employee.

A barber on his round to secure work is self-employed.

(iii) A private tutor is self-employed, whereas a maid servant working for different households is not.

(iv) A master tailor or a contractor or sub-contractor tailor who does the work himself or by hiring some tailors will be identified as self-employed, though the hired tailors of the master or the contractor tailor will be identified as employees.

(v) A porter or a coolly is not self-employed but an employee.

5.14.3 Worked as helper in household enterprise, usual and current status category 21: The helpers are a category of working persons who keep themselves engaged in household enterprises, working full or part time and do not receive any cash payment in return for the work performed or any share of the family earnings from the enterprises. They are household members, a large number of them being nearly or distantly related to the household head and others may be unrelated but nonetheless they are dependant members of the household who work for the family enterprise and are given food and shelter like other members of the household. One may also come across persons in a household who do not receive any cash remuneration for their work in the household enterprise but have a share in the family earnings out of such enterprise. Such persons are not 'helper but self-employed'.

5.14.4 Worked as regular salaried/wage employees, usual and current status code 31: Persons working in others farm or non-farm enterprises (both household and non-household) and getting in return salary or wages on a regular basis (and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract) are treated as regular salaried/wage employees. The category salaried/wage employees will include not only salary and wage-earners getting time wage but also earners getting piece wage or salary and paid apprentices, both full time and part time.

5.14.5 Worked as casual wage labour in public works, usual and current status code 41 : Persons engaged in other farms or not-form enterprises (both household and non-household) are getting in return wages according to the terms of the daily and periodic work contract are trusted as casual wage labour. In the rural areas and also in the Government project sites, a type of casual labourers can be seen who normally engage themselves in public works activities which will include works taken up by the Government or local bodies for construction of roads, bunds, digging of ponds etc. as test relief measures and also for completing big projects. The causal labourers doing only such public works activities will be assigned code 41. The rest will be categorized under code 51.

5.14.6 Did not work though there was work in household enterprises, current status code 61 and did not work but had regular salaried/wage employed, current status code 71: Persons engaged in household form or non-farm enterprises of working in others farm or non-farm enterprises as salaried/wage employees but absent from work temporarily due to sickness or for enjoying leave or holiday or for other reasons will be categorized under codes 61 or 71 respectively depending on whether they are self-employed in household farm or non-farm enterprises or employed in others farm or non-farm enterprises as wage/salaried employees.

5.14.7 Attended domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods, sewing, tailoring, weaving etc. for household use, usual and current status code 93: In the rural areas in general and particularly in the tribal areas, domestic work usually will also involve lot of work for free collection of vegetables, roots, firewood etc. and also spinning and weaving of cloth for household requirement. Whenever a person is found to be spending regularly some of his/her time in performing the above mentioned activities, the status code appropriate for him/her will be 93 and not 92.

5.14.8 Contract/piece rate work: For those persons who sought or were available for work/additional work, information has to be obtained whether the work sought (or was available for) was wage/salaried employment, contract/piece rate work or self-employment. The wage/salaried employment is that work carried out for an employer for which a fixed regular remuneration is paid on monthly, fortnightly, weekly or even daily basis. Self-employment is own account work, executing the work by self alone and with the help of hired labour and using own or hired implements. The contract/piece rate work, on the other hand, is defined as the work executed as per terms of an agreed contract arrived at between the person who will execute the work and the person for whom the work is to be executed. The fees or remuneration to be received by the contractor will include, besides the normal wages for performing the work, some additional amount which may be treated as profit. The remuneration or fees, as defined above, is normally decided on the basis of the volume of work to be executed. It may, however, be noted that this category of persons will also be categorized as 'self-employed' while deciding their current or usual status in blocks 4.1 to 7.

Household industry-occupation:
Industry is the sector of economic activity in which a person works. The 'National Industrial Classification' (NIC-1970) is being used for classifying the industry of a person. NIC-1970 group together economic activities which are akin in terms of process type, raw material used and finished goods produced. The classification does not make any distinction according to type of ownership or type of economic organization and except in some cases the classification does not distinguish between large scale and small scale. The unit of classification is establishment which is an economic unit engaged in one or predominantly one economic activity. Where a single physical establishment is engaged in more than one activity, it would be desirable to treat each of the component technical units as a separate establishment. But when it is not possible to separate these units from the parent establishment, it will be classified by the major activities of the establishment measured with regard to the value added by production of different products and services, or not revenue derived from various activities, where such assessment is not possible, major activity may be decided on the basis of gross revenue attributed to the products of services of the establishment, the number of persons employed for various activities as convenient and appropriate.

The NIC-1970 classifications are presented generally in terms of 3 digit codes in which the left most digit describes the 'industry division', the left two digits together give a finer division called 'major groups' and all the three digits together pinpoints the ultimate industry group. However, for major group 19 and industry divisions 2 and 3 there is a fourth digit also denoting the sub-group.

One digit level classification (Industry Division) of NIC-1970 is as follows:

0 Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
1 Mining and quarrying
2 and 3 Manufacture
4 Electricity, gas and water
5 Construction
6 Wholesale and retail trade, and hotels and restaurants
7 Transports, storage and communications
8 Financing, insurance, real estate and business service
9 Community, social and personnel services
X Activities not adequately defined
Y Repair services
Occupation is the nature of work performed by a person. For classifying the occupation of a person 'National Classification of Occupations' (NCO-1968) is being used. In an occupational classification, the grouping of occupations has to be based on the fundamental criterion of 'type of work performed'. All the workers engaged in same type of work are grouped together irrespective of the industrial classification of establishments where they are engaged. For example, all clerical workers have been classified in the occupational group whether they are engaged in a factory, mine, government office or even a shop. Factors like materials handled, tools or machines used, standard or performance required, levels of responsibility involved, physical and social environments, industrial affiliations, etc., have not affected the classification of occupations. But factors like type of operations involved in the performance of a job, types of qualifications, vocational and professional training, status (e.g. own-account worker, employer), levels of skill, etc., are considered in classifying a person as belonging to particular occupation. Job-definitions or descriptions represent only the Job-definitions or descriptions represent only the average national picture of the various occupations.

The occupational classifications as used in the NSS are three digit codes with the left most digit denoting the broad occupation division. The left two digits together denote the occupation group and the three digits together indicate the occupation family. In addition, the NCO-1968 also provides a finer classification of actual occupations in terms of five digit codes.'

The occupation divisions are as follows:

Division 0-1: Professional, technical and related workers
Division 2: Administrative, executive and managerial workers
Division 3: Clerical and related workers
Division 4: Sales workers
Division 5: Service workers
Division 6: Farmers, fishermen, hunters, loggers and related workers
Division7-8-9: Production and related workers, transport, equipment operators and labourers
Division X: Workers not classified by occupations

Household-Industry Occupation is determined on the basis of income derived during the 365 days preceding the date of survey from the gainful occupations pursued by the normal resident members of the household during the said reference period. For determining the appropriate 'industry-occupation' of the household the following procedures are to be adopted*.

(i) List all the gainful occupations pursued during the last 365 days by all the normal members (excluding employee members and paying guests) of the household. If a member is pursuing more than one gainful occupation, all of them are to be listed irrespective of the quantum of income derived from each of them. In other words, the principal and all the subsidiary occupations of the members are to be listed. Consequently, in the household having say, six members all of them being engaged in gainful occupations, there can be more than six occupations. Having listed all the occupations, the identical occupations are to be grouped (in terms of codes) and find out the one which fetched the maximum income to the household. This will be the occupation of the household. In exceptional cases, if the household gets equal income from two or more occupations, the occupation of the senior most members (in terms of age) will be considered the household occupation. Further, if there are say, two senior members of the same age. Then the occupation which appears first in the code list will be considered,

(ii) Having thus decided the occupation of the household, list all the establishments' in which the household members are pursuing the particular occupation. The industry of the 'establishment' from which the household derived maximum income by pursuing the particular occupation will be the household industry. In case the earnings from two or more industries are equal, the industry of the senior most members pursuing the particular occupation will be the household industry;

(iii) The occupation and the industry thus determined will be the household industry-occupation.

To illustrate, the following examples may be considered.

Case I: A household is constituted of the following members:
1. Father: He is pensioner and received Rs. 3050 from State Government during the last 365 days.

2. Mother: Attends to domestic duties only.

3. Son:
(a) He is a doctor in a textile mill. The mill has no dispensary or hospital, but has employed this doctor on a full time basis, who sits in the office and attends to patients. During the last 365 days he received Rs. 18,000/- as his total emoluments.

(b) He also does private practice and during the last 365 days earned Rs. 5,800/- from that.
4. Son's son: Attends school only. For this household, father's income is from non-gainful activity. Mother and son's son are also engaged in non-gainful activities and have no income. Son is the only earner and his occupation is physician-Allopathic (Code 070). But he is pursuing this occupation in two industries i.e. Cotton Textile Mill (Industry Code 231) and medical practice (Industry Code 930). But as his occupation has fetched more income from employment in the Textile Mill, the household industry code will be 231. Thus the household industry-occupation code will be 231070.
Case II
If the physician, cited in the above example, was attached to a hospital of a dispensary which say, is run as a separate establishment, though owned by the textile mill, then the Industry Code will be that of medical and health services' (code 930). The household industry occupation code will be therefore, 930070.
Case III
A household is constituted of Husband, wife and a servant. Husband and wife get Rs. 5,000/- per month from their sons as remittances and pay Rs. 200/- per month to the servant as his salary.

For this household, the husband and wife are not pursuing any gainful activity. The servant though employed (i.e. having gainful occupation), for determining the Industry occupation of the household, his occupation will not be considered. This household therefore will be considered pursuing only no gainful activities. Naturally, there will be no industry- occupation for this household.

A note prepared and sent to us by Shri B.K. Sehgal, Superintendent, for on 'Determination of household industry-occupation' has been taken into consideration in formulating the procedures prescribed above.

SOME BROAD GUIDE LINES OF RECORDING ENTRIES IN SCHEDULE 10

5.16.1 Then codes are recorded, the investigator should be careful to see that the codes are admissible. For example, if for a particular item/column, the possible relevant codes are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9, the entered code number should only be the numbers 1-4 or 9.

5.16.2 If for a particular item/column, no entry is relevant, cross(x) is to be put in the relevant item/column.

5.16.3 When an entry is relevant, the item/column should not be left blank. If it is left blank, the reason for leaving it blank should be given in the remarks block.

5.16.4 In block 1 items 11 and 12 are relevant only for rural sample households and therefore, 'X' will be put against these items when particulars are recorded for urban sample households. Similarly items 13 and 14 are relevant only for urban sample households and therefore, 'X' will be put against these items when particulars are recorded for rural samples.

5.16.5 In block 3:

(i) For items 7-16 and 19, the entries are to be made in 2 places of decimal. Even if the reported data are in whole numbers two zeros will be put to fill up the 2 places of decimal for example, if the 'household land irrigated' is reported as 5 across the entry to be made will be 5.00.

(ii) Items 21-23 will be filled-in only if the entry against item 20 is '1'. If the entry against item 20 is '2', against items 21-23 'X' will be put.
5.16.6 In block 4.1:
(i) Columns (15)-(18) are to be filled-in for all entries 01-71 made in column (13). For codes 81, 82, 91-99 in column (13), 'X' will be put in columns (15)-(16).

(ii) Column (20) will be filled in only if the entry in column (19) is '1'. If the entry is column (19) is 2, 'X' is to be recorded in column (20).
5.16.7 In block 4.2:
(i) Entries are to be made only for migrants i.e., these persons assigned code 1 in column (19) of block 4.1. If there are no migrants, this block will be crossed.

(ii) Columns (12)-(14) will be filled-in only for those with any one of the codes 01-51 recorded in column (11) and for those with any one of the codes 81, 91- 98 recorded in column (11), 'X' will be put in columns (12)-(14).
5.16.8 In block 5:
(i) Entries are to be made for only those persons assigned any of the 'labour force' status codes according to current weekly status, i.e. any one of the codes 01-82 in column (14) of block 4.1.

(ii) Col. (5) will be filled-in for rural samples only and will be crossed for urban samples

(iii) For a person, entries in each of the columns (6)-(12) will be filled-in for rural samples only and will be either only '1.0' in any one of the lines of two '0.5' each for two activities in any two of the lines. The entries are to be made in one place of decimal.

(iv) For each person enumerated in this block, the total over columns (6)-(12) and all relevant lines will be 7.0.

(v) The entries in columns (14)-(16) are to be recorded in two places of decimal even if the 'wages' reported are in whole numbers.

(vi) Column (17) is to be filled-up only for those persons reporting as unemployed on all the seven days i.e. those with entries 1.0 in all the columns (6)-(12) and the status code 81 or 82 recorded in column (3). For others put 'X' in this column.
5.16.9 In block 6:
(i) Recording of entries is to be made for all the usual members of the household who enumerated in block 4.1 of the schedule.

(ii) Columns (3)-(6) due to be filled-in only for those for whom any one of the status codes 01-51 is recorded in column (2). For others these columns will be crossed.

(iii) Columns (7)-(11) are to be filled-in only for whom entries have been recorded in columns (3)-(6). But for those columns will be crossed. But for those for whom entries have been recorded in columns (3) - (6) and no subsidiary gainful status is reported, put dash (-) in these columns.

(iv) Columns (13)-(23) are to be filled-in for all those for whom code 1 is recorded in column (12). For persons with code 2 recorded in column (12), columns (13)-(23) will be crossed.
5.16.10 In block 7:
(i) Entries are to be made for all those for whom any one of the status codes 81, 91-93 and 95-98 in column (2) of block 6 is recorded.

(ii) Columns (4)-(8) are to be filled-in for all those for whom code 1 is recorded in column (3), For others, i.e. for those with code 2 recorded in column (3), put 'X' in column (4)-(8).
5.16.11 In block 8:
(i) Entries are to be made for all those for whom any one of the status codes 01-93 and 96 is recorded in column (2) of block 6.

(ii) Item 3 will be filled-in only for those for whom any one of the status codes 81-93 and 96 is recorded against item 2. The relevant entries are to be copied from cols. (4) and (5) of block 7. For those with any one of the status codes 01-51 recorded against item 2, this item will be crossed.

(iii) Item 4 will be filled-in only for those for whom any one of the status codes 01-51 is recorded against item 2. For others this item will be crossed.

(iv) Item 5 will be filled-in only for those for whom status code 81 is recorded against item 2. For others against this item 'X' will be put.

(v) Item 6 will be filled-in for only persons for whom status code 81 is recorded against item 2. (i.e. those with any one of the status codes 01-93 and 96 recorded against item 2). Code 1 will be recorded against this item without putting the question to the informant.

(vi) Item 7-11 will be filled-in only for those with code 1 recorded against item 6. For others, these items will be crossed.

(vii) Items 12-16 will be filled-in only for rural samples and for those for whom any one of the status codes 01-04 and 31 is recorded against item 2. For others, these items will be crossed.
5.16.12 In block 9:
(i) Entries are to be made for all those for whom any one of the status codes 92 and 93 is recorded in column (2) of block 6.

(ii) Item 4 will be filled-in for all those for whom 'yes' is recorded against item 3 and for them item 5 will be left crossed.

(iii) Item 4 will be filled-in for all those for whom 'no' is recorded against item 3 and for them item 4 will be left crossed.

(iv) Items 18 and 19 will be filled-in only for rural sample households. For urban sample households these items will be crossed. Item 19 will be filled-in only if the entry against item 18 is 1 and the recorded entries will be in whole numbers. If the entry against item 18 is 2, item 19 will be crossed.

(v) Item 21-24 are to be filled-in for all those reported entry 'yes' (code-1) against item 20. If the entry against item 20 is '2', items 21-24 will be crossed.
5.16.13 In block 10:
(i) The entries in this block are to be made only for rural labour households. For other households the block will be crossed.

(ii) The entries in column (3) of this block are to be made in whole numbers.

(iii) For a rural labour household, if there is no indebtedness to report write 'NO LOAN' in column (3).