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Census of Population, 1996

Enumerators' Manual
Central Statistics Office
Dublin 6.

[Table of contents is omitted here.]

Chapter 1

1.1 The Enumerators' Manual

*The convention she, (or her) is used throughout this manual.

This Enumerators' Manual provides instructions to each Census Enumerator* for carrying out the enumeration (i.e. count) of all persons in her assigned area.

This manual is divided into seven chapters followed by eighteen appendices.

The remainder of Chapter 1 sets out the responsibilities of the job of the Enumerator along with confidentiality aspects which must be adhered to while you are in the course of your duties. In Chapter 2 an outline is given of the main forms; these include the Census Form (Form A) and other essential forms which must be completed in order to ensure you have carried out your enumeration correctly. In addition Chapter 2 provides a list of household and geographical definitions.

Chapter 3 begins the actual instructions. It covers the preparatory work which you must do before setting out to enumerate your area. In Chapter 4 instruction is given for the first phase of the enumeration. This is called the Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A. This phase of the enumeration must be completed by Wednesday 24 April 1996. Chapter 5 sets out the collection phase. You are instructed in Chapter 5 regarding the procedure which must be followed for collecting all copies of Forms A which you delivered to households or institutions. This work must be completed by Wednesday 8 May 1996. Chapter 6 covers the ordering of Census forms and the associated summarisation work. Finally, in Chapter 7 we set out the procedure you should adopt for returning your Census material and making work returns.

The appendices are an essential part of this manual. They provide examples of the type of work you will be expected to carry out in the course of your duties as a Census Enumerator. You should consider each appendix carefully at the appropriate stage of your instruction.
Because of the detail involved you are advised to read it through once to initially familiarise yourself with the structure, timing and main tasks involved in enumeration. Then, as each phase of the enumeration arises study the relevant chapter in detail before beginning that phase. Your Field Supervisor will train you thoroughly in all aspects of your duties. When you are doing your enumeration you will find it worthwhile to refer to this manual regularly. U sing the manual as a reference while your work proceeds is essential to ensure you are carrying out the enumeration accurately and effectively.

[Sections 1.2 (Role of the Enumerator) and 1.3 (Confidentiality) of the original document are not presented here.]

[p. 5]
Chapter 2
Main Forms, Household Definitions and Geographical Definitions

2.1 Main Forms
1. Forms to be completed by households or individuals.

Form A
This is the Census form, also called a Schedule. One or more copies of this form must be delivered to every household or institution in your EA before Census Day. English and Irish versions of this form are available.
You must ask each householder whether he/she would prefer the English or Irish version of the form. Persons who prefer the Irish version must be provided with it.
The back leaf of Form A is detachable and contains detailed instructions for completing the form. The Enumerator should explicitly draw the attention of the householder to this detachable list of instructions.
The Census Form comprises 24 questions. Questions 1 - 14 should be answered by all persons while questions 15 - 24 relate to persons aged 15 years and over. Appendix 2 explains each of the questions in detail.

Form A(P) - Personal Form
This form is a copy of Form A used for completion by:

  • persons in certain institutions (e.g. hotels and guesthouses) who are giving
  • their personal details.
  • a member of a household (normally a visitor) who may not wish to provide his/her personal details to the head, or joint head of that household.

The envelope COPI must be given to each person completing Form A(P).
Explanatory notes on the completion of Form A(P) are given in Form PR, see
Appendix 3.

2. Forms to be completed by the Enumerator.
Book of Forms D
The book of Forms D is used to record the results of the Visual Enumeration of the EA which is carried out before Census day (see Chapter 3).

Form B
The number of males, females and persons in each household or institution is summarised on this form (see Chapter 6).

Form C
The total number of males, females and persons summarized on each Form B is transcribed onto Form C (see Chapter 6).

2.2 Definitions of Households and Business Units
Dwelling Unit
A dwelling unit is living accommodation which is occupied or, if vacant, is intended for occupation, by one or more households. The following are some examples:
1. Family home.
2. Family home on a farm.
3. A separate flat or bed-sit.
4. Caravan.

Private household
A private household comprises either one person living alone or a group of
people (not necessarily related) living at the same address with common
housekeeping arrangements - that is, sharing at least one meal a day or
sharing a living room or sitting room.
Note : All persons staying with the household on Census night are included
as members of the household.
Any person absent from the household on Census night is excluded.

1. A person living alone.
2. A single parent living together with his/her children.
3. A husband and wife (or couple) living together and having no children.
4. A husband and wife (or couple) living together with their children.
5. A husband and wife (or couple) living together (with or without
children), and with other relatives, (e.g. grandparents), or other persons,
(e.g. visitors, servants, boarders), staying on Census night.
6. A group of related or unrelated persons sharing a house or flat.
7. A resident caretaker (and family) of a house or office.
8. One or more persons or a family living in a caravan or encampment.

Non-private household
The following are examples of non-private households (i.e. establishments or institutions).

Hotels, Country Clubs, Guest Houses, Bed and Breakfasts Boarding Houses (see notes below), or Hostel.
Seminary, Monastery or Convent.
Hospital, Nurses' Home, Nursing Home, County Home, Orphanage Boarding School, Garda Stations, Military Barracks.

Notes: Where the entire establishment or institution makes up one single non-private household, Forms A for that establishment or institution should be filled in by the person in charge (e. g. manager or administrator).
For Boarding Houses (i.e. 'digs') with less than five boarders, the Boarding House should be treated as a private household.
A proprietor, manager, head or any member of staff who resides on the premises with his/her family must be regarded as a distinct private household and must receive a separate Form A.
Staff of an institution (e.g. hospital) who are working a night-shift or on night duty on Census night, and who return to their own homes the following morning should be enumerated at home.

Business Unit
A business unit is an undertaking in which some or all of the activities listed below are taking place:

  • Commercial activity (e.g. auctioneers, insurance firms, banks).
  • Service activity (e.g. hotels, restaurants, cafes, Bed and Breakfasts, transport companies,
  • torage companies, travel agents, taxi firms, shops, supermarkets, garages,
  • building/DIY stores, hospitals, garda stations and military barracks).
  • Manufacturing or mining activity (e.g. factories, mines, quarries in current
  • production) .
  • Non family farms (e.g. large farms operated as a limited company).

2.3 Geographical Definitions

Different types of EAs
For Census purposes EAs are divided into two main groups - urban EAs and rural EAs. The former is mainly built up areas while the latter is mainly rural in character. Sometimes a rural EA may include all or part of a small town and in this case the EA may be termed mixed urban/rural.

The Townland is the smallest territorial unit distinguished for census purposes. Townlands were formerly used for administrative purposes in the country. It should be noted that Townland boundaries are generally not observed within Municipal Towns. However, in the case of a very small Town, the Townlands on which it stands are listed, in alphabetical order, immediately after the Town's name on Form C so as to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road, (see Section 6.7).

The Street is a group of adjacent properties (e.g. houses, shops, businesses) having the same address within a built up area. For Census purposes, the population is compiled on a street basis within towns.

District Electoral Division or Ward
The District Electoral Division (DED) or Ward is the smallest administrative area for which population statistics are regularly published. Outside Municipal Towns, DEDs generally consist of a number of complete Townlands. A Municipal Town is usually comprised of one or more complete DEDs or Wards.
Different types of towns and their suburbs/environs.
All of the following are called Municipal Towns

  • The five County Boroughs (Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford and
  • Galway) and the Borough of Dun- Laoghaire.
  • The five Municipal Boroughs (Clonmel, Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo and
  • Wexford).
  • The forty nine Urban District (e. g. Arklow, Athlone).
  • The thirty two towns with Commissioners (e. g. Greystones,
  • Mullingar)

Note: All of the above have legally defined boundaries which must be strictly
observed during the course of the enumeration.

Non-Municipal Towns are those which do not have legally defined boundaries.
They are sometimes called Census towns.
The built-up areas which lie just outside the legal boundary of a Municipal Town are termed ""Suburbs" in the case of a County Borough or the Borough of Dun Laoghaire and "Environs" in the case of the other Municipal Towns. The CSO has pre-assigned boundaries to the non-Municipal Towns, the Suburbs of the County Boroughs and the Borough of Dun Laoghaire and Environs of Municipal Towns. These boundaries must be meticulously observed in carrying out the enumeration.

Chapter 3
Description of Form D and preparation for Visual Enumeration

[Sections 3.1 (Introduction) and 3.2 (Description of Form D) of the original document are not presented here.]

[p. 10]

1. Column (1) - Form D Serial number
Each dwelling unit, business unit or other building must be recorded on Form D with a unique Serial Number.
The numbering sequence should commence with '1' except where the Field Supervisor specifically directs otherwise.
Normally, one line on Form D is given to each serial number. However, in some cases because of the length of entries in Columns (2) through (13) more than one line may be used.
Gaps may be left in the Form D serial numbers. Thus the sequence 100, 101, 110 is acceptable. The sequence 100, 110, 101 is NOT acceptable.
If you are unable to make contact with the household, you should leave a gap in the sequence of serial numbers. This household must be re-visited at a later time during your Visual Enumeration.
Duplicate serial numbers are not allowed. If, by mistake you use a duplicate serial number you should correct the error by using the next unused number in the sequence for the duplicate number. Thus, for example, the sequence 1, 2, .... 100, 101, 101, 102, .... 192 should be replaced by 1, 2, .... 100, 101, 193, 102, .... 192. Make a note of the reason for the break in sequence in Column (11).
Note: You must NOT use letters to correct an error. Thus the sequence 1, 2, .... 100, 101, lOlA, 102, .... 192 is not acceptable.
A second book of Forms D can be obtained from your Field Supervisor should this be required. The numbering sequence in the second book should begin where you finished in the first book. Thus, if Book 1 ends with serial number 551, Book 2 should begin with 552. Where a second book is used, write the figure ' l' on the front cover of Book 1 and the figure '2' on the front cover of Book 2.

2. Column (2) - Address
The complete address for every dwelling etc. should be written in Column (2).
In cases where you find it difficult to give the address of the building, you should give an indication of the building's location. Examples may include something similar to the following...... at the rear of 27 Main Street or .... in a lane way off High Street.
Flats: the address of the building in which the flat is located should be given in Column (2) along with the number of the flat, if any.
Two or more families living at the same address, (i.e. house or flat), should be treated as one household living in that dwelling unit if they:

1. have common house-keeping arrangements;
2. share their meals;
3. share a common living or sitting room.

This is a multi-family household. One serial number only should be used for this dwelling unit.
Separate families NOT sharing house-keeping arrangements etc. in a house and living at the same address should be treated as separate households. Each of these dwelling units should be separately listed on Form D, given their own serial number and a note inserted in Column (11) regarding the household arrangements in the house. This situation is likely to occur where a conventional house has been converted into two or more flats.
A dwelling etc. without a name situated in a rural area may not have any specific address. In this case Column (2) can be left blank but the Townland should be entered in Column (4).

3. Column (3) - Description of Premises
The precise description of each building etc. should be recorded in this column.
The following are some examples:
Dwelling house
Office building
Nursing home
Office block
Where a building contains several flats not identified by number, each flat's location within the building should be indicated, for example: garden flat, first floor flat, front flat, etc.
Where a house is not suitable for human habitation indicate in Column 3 whether it is :

  • run-down or dilapidated;
  • being renovated;
  • under construction.

If a house is habitable, but unoccupied state whether it is

  • an old house; or
  • a new house awaiting its first occupier.

4. Column (4): Townland
Where appropriate the townland in which the premises is located should be given in Column 4. In a continuous series of premises from the same townland it is sufficient to write the townland name on the first relevant line and the double quote symbol thereafter until the next page.

5. Column (5): DED or Ward
The DED or Ward name in which the premises is located should be recorded in Column (5). Use the double quote symbol if the DED name is repeated on successive lines of Form D.

6. Column (6): Person responsible for making the return

  • The name of the head, one of the joint heads or any other adult member of the household who is providing the information should be entered in Column (6).
  • For a residential dwelling unit which is unoccupied, the word 'Vacant' should be entered in this column.
  • For a non-residential premises (e.g. offices, factories) this column should be left blank.
7. Column (7): Date of Delivery
The date on which you delivered Form(s) A to the household must be entered in this column. If two or more visits are necessary to deliver Form A, only the date of the last visit should be entered.

8. Column (8): Date of Collection of Completed Form A
The date on which you collect the Form(s) A from the household must be entered in this column. You must ensure that all copies of Form A delivered are collected. Thus, each delivery date in Column (7) should be matched by a collection date in Column (8).

9. Columns (9-11): Occupancy status of Private Dwelling Units
The figure 1 should be entered in relevant column in respect of all private dwelling units as follows:

  • if the dwelling unit will be occupied on Census night, (Col. 9).
  • if all the occupiers will be absent on Census night, (Col. 10).

Where a dwelling unit is likely to be vacant on Census night you should insert one of the following codes as appropriate:
Description- Code
Habitable Houses- HH
Habitable Flats/apartments- HF
Holiday Home- HOL
Non-habitable Houses
Under Construction- UC
Run Down- RD
Other Non-habitable Houses- NH
Non-habitable Flats- NF

Note: Columns (9-11) should be left blank for non-private households, (i.e. institutions).

10. Column (12): Full Name of Business Unit
The complete name for every business unit must be entered in this column. When more than one business unit occupies the same building you should separately record each one. Similarly, in the case of shopping centres and industrial estates you must make a separate entry for each business in Form D.

11. Column (13): Notes
Notes which might assist you in identifying dwelling units, business units or buildings should be entered in this column. Special features which will assist you to identify buildings and dwelling units when you collect the Form(s) A might also be entered here. Examples such as "green front door", "white pillars with black gate", etc. may be used.
Note: You should reference the page in your notebook if you have used the notebook to record any special features of the dwelling etc.
[Sections 3.3 (Maps and Colour coding), 3.4 (Identifying your EA), 3.5 (Suggested methods for Route Planning) are not presented here]


3.6 Preparation of Forms A before you set out.
1. First check that the forms assigned to you are fully printed and whole.
2. The following entries should be made in Panel A in the bottom left-hand corner
on Page 1 of Form A:

  • County or County Borough.
  • DED or Ward.
  • EA number.

This information can be obtained from Form C.

[Section 3.7 (Articles to be carried during the Visual Enumeration) are not presented here]

[p. 18]

Chapter 4
Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A

In the Visual Enumeration each Enumerator is required to record on Form D all permanent structures consisting of walls and a roof in her EA. The examples below list structures which should be included in the Visual Enumeration and also those structures which should not appear on Form D or your map.
Note: During the Visual Enumeration stage you will also be delivering the Census form (Form A) to each household or institution in your EA which is listed in Form D.

1. Examples of structures which should be recorded on Form D and your map:
a. Permanent
Dwelling houses
Military barracks
Garda stations
Blocks of flats
Separate blocks in large hospitals
Garages and filling stations
Offices etc.
Religious institutions
b. Non-permanent
Travelling family's encampment
Mobile homes
Camper vans
Garda stations
Ships and house boats
Lorries with sleeping accomodation parked in lay-bys
Note: Other kinds of vessels such as small boats used for pleasure or sporting
purposes should be listed only if they are being used as living accommodation at
the time of the Census.

2. Examples of structures which should NOT be recorded on Form D or your map:
Structures not to be recorded
Ancient monuments
Telephone kiosks
Dressing rooms
ESB sub-stations
Very badly run-down Buildings,
(i.e. some walls and roof missing)
Milking parlours
Domestic outhouses
Street traders' stalls
Bus shelters
Water towers
Sports stadia
Garden sheds
Domestic garages
Public toilets
Rain shelters
Spectator stands
Religious shrines
Religious grottoes
Note: Every premises used for human habitation, even one of those listed above, must be recorded in Form D and on the map.

3. Some buildings are not easily visible. To ensure that no dwelling, business unit or other building has been overlooked you must cover every length of public thoroughfare in your EA. You must see all buildings for yourself and not take the word of somebody that there is no dwelling in a secluded area or one which is difficult to reach.
Examples of buildings which require extra vigilance include:

  • flats over shops;
  • houses in alleyways or down narrow lanes;
  • caravans or mobile homes in back gardens;
  • outhouses converted into living accommodation;
  • isolated houses not visible from the roadway etc.
Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A
The Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A in your EA should begin on Tuesday, 9 April 1996 and be completed by Wednesday, 24 April 1996.

4.1 Approach to household.

[The first portion of this section on manners to have when approaching a household is not presented here.]


1. Beginning at your chosen starting point on the map and working consistently according to your map you must compile a complete list of all dwelling units, business units and other buildings in your EA on Form D.

2. As you encounter each dwelling etc. during the Visual Enumeration you must enter on Form D the details of that dwelling unit, business unit or other building. Form D entries must be made in precisely the same order as they are encountered in the course of the Visual Enumeration. Ensure that every dwelling/building etc. which is likely to be inhabited on Census night is listed on Form D. Each identifiable dwelling unit and each building (or part of a building) containing an identifiable dwelling unit must be listed in Form D and given a separate Form D serial number.

3. The dwelling units, business units or other buildings must then be marked on the map(s) supplied and the corresponding Form D serial number entered at that mark on the map(s). This should be done immediately after the dwelling etc. has been listed on Form D.

4. When a dwelling etc. has been listed on Form D and marked on the map you
must enter the Form D serial number for the dwelling etc. in Panel D of Form A. Remember to use the same Form D serial number if more than one Form A is needed for that dwelling/building unit. In Panel A in the lower left-hand comer of Form A:
1. enter the town name if required.
2. enter the number (or name) of the house.
Note: Panels A and D need only be completed on the first and last forms for a large institution.
It is essential that the Form D serial number is entered correctly on the map.
It pinpoints the location of each Form A on that map(s).

5. Deliver one or more Forms A, as required, to the dwelling, business, building or
institution as follows:

  • Present yourself to the householder and identify yourself as a Census Enumerator (ideally this should be to the head of the household). Always show your Census ID card.
  • For multi-dwelling buildings (blocks of flats, bed-sits etc.) ask the first householder you encounter the number of households in the building.
  • Ask the householder which version (i.e. English or Irish) of Form A he/sherequires an Irish name or persons living in the Gaeltacht might indicate that the householder has a preference for an Irish form.
  • Ask the householder how many people live in the household. If there are more than 7 persons in a private household make sure 2 (or more) Forms A are given to the householder. Put a RED LINE through line 1 on the second form. This line should run across pages 2 through 6.

Note: For institutions (e.g. hotels, hospitals or prisons) do not mark out line 1 on the second and subsequent forms. All 7 lines on every form should be used for enumerating persons in institutions.

  • Ask the householder his/her name.
  • Write the householder's name in Column (6) of Form D
  • Write the householder's name in the top right corner of page 1 on Form A. The name should be placed to the right of Central Statistics Office
  • Give Form A and the explanatory brochure to the householder.
  • Inform the householder that you will return to collect the completed version of Form A as soon as possible after Census night, Sunday 28 April 1996.
  • Thank the householder and proceed to the next household.
  • Record the date of delivery of Form A in Column (7) of Form D.

8. If after having made three previous attempts to contact the householder you are
still unable to make contact, you should:

  • complete a copy of Form CEN l (see Appendix 5).
  • complete Panels A and D on Form A.
  • place CEN 1, Form A and the explanatory brochure into an envelope and drop it through the letter box.

b. For Institutions (e.g. hotels, hospitals, prisons), you must:

  • Ask your Field Supervisor to make contact with the administrator or manager to obtain permission to enumerate the institution.
  • For small institutions present yourself to the administrator/manager and outline to him/her the procedure to be followed in enumerating the institution. Generally, enumeration should commence a few days before Census day.
  • Where possible present yourself to each person in the institution as the Census Enumerator. Ask the person his/her name and enter it on the next available line on Form A. Tick the appropriate box under Question 2 to identify the sex of the person.
  • On a copy of Form A(P) write the person's name and sex in the appropriate boxes. Complete Panels A and D on Form A(P).
  • Give the person a copy of Form A(P), Form PR and an envelope. Instruct the person to complete Form A(P) on Census night and to seal the completed form in the envelope.
  • Inform the person to leave the envelope with the manager/administrator on the morning after Census day for collection by you.
  • In the unlikely event that a person is unwilling to return the form to the enumerator, he/she should be given an envelope in which to return his/her Census form directly to CSO. The person should be instructed to write freepost on the outside of the envelope.

Note: This practice is a last resort and in general should be discouraged.
c. For traveller encampments enter in your notebook the number of forms you distribute. Attempt to find out whether each particular household will be there on Census night and on the following morning Monday 29 April 1996.
d. Your enumeration should be completed by Wednesday 24 April 1996. However, ports and harbours containing seagoing ships and boats should be covered one or two days before Census date.
e. If you think that you may not be able to complete the distribution of the Forms A by the completion date you must notify your Field Supervisor immediately.

4.2 Special Cases (vacant dwelling, multi-dwelling buildings etc.)
1. If the dwelling, business or building will definitely not be inhabited on Census night you should not deliver a Form A.

2. The dwelling etc. should be listed on Form D and marked on the map regardless of whether a Census form has been delivered to that dwelling, business or building etc.

3. If the occupants of a house or flat do not fit the usual family pattern (e.g. father, mother and children with/without relatives) you should inquire about housekeeping arrangements - that is, as outlined on the front of Form A.

4. If you find out that a household intends to move from the dwelling unit before Census night, either temporarily or permanently, you should:

  • not leave a Form A.
  • enter the words 'likely to be absent' or 'likely to be vacant', as appropriate, above the name of the head of the household in Column (6) of Form D.
  • make a note of the situation in your notebook, giving where possible, the number of persons in the household and the address at which they expect to spend Census night.
  • enter '1' in Column (10) or (11), as appropriate, on Form D.

5. For multi-dwelling buildings and apartments, work systematically through the building, from floor to floor. List each flat or 'bed-sitter' in Form D as well as any remaining parts of the building used for non-residential purposes (e.g. as shops or offices).
Inform your Field Supervisor of any apartment block developments in your EA. Contact with individual households in the apartment block may be difficult so special arrangements may be necessary to gain access.
6. For partly non-residential and partly residential buildings such as a shops with flats above or an office block containing a caretaker's flat, the living accommodation should be listed first and given a serial number. The remaining portion(s) of the building should be listed separately, given their own serial number(s). The nature of the business should be written in the notes, Column (13) on Form D.

7. Groups of structurally separate buildings such as:

  • blocks in a hospital
  • factory blocks
  • ?blocks in a school

should be given only one serial number in Form D. However partly or wholly residential buildings must be separately listed on Form D and on the map,
Examples are:

  • gatekeeper's house
  • caretaker's house or flat
  • nurses' home
  • nuns' or religious brothers' residence

8. A caravan or mobile home should be listed separately in Form D except where:

  • it is parked in the grounds of a private house and is NOT occupied by a separate household.
  • there is one or more unoccupied caravans in a caravan park. These should be given one listing only in Form D with a note of the total number of caravans unoccupied.
  • one or more unoccupied caravans are being displayed for sale or hire. One listing only should be made on Form D.
  • note the total number of caravans in Column (13) of Form D.
  • two or more caravans are occupied by a single household. One listing only should be made in Form D in this case.

9. Granny-flats should be separately identified on Form D. A separate copy of Form A should be given to the occupant(s).
10. For large institutions (e.g. hospitals, prisons), the following procedure should be followed:

  • Arrange with your Field Supervisor to make contact with the administrator or manager to obtain permission to enumerate the institution.
  • Your Field Supervisor will arrange with you the appropriate time to commence the enumeration of any large institution in your EA. Generally, enumeration should commence on the Friday before Census day and proceed through Saturday until all persons have been contacted.
  • Present yourself to each person in the intuition as the Census Enumerator. Ask the person his/her name and enter it on the next available line on Form A. Tick the appropriate box under Question 2 to identify the sex of the person.
  • On a copy of Form A(P) write the person's name and sex in the appropriate boxes. Complete Panels A and D on Form A(P).
  • Give the person Form A(P), Form PR and an envelope. Instruct him/her to complete Form A(P) and to seal the completed form in the envelope for collection.
  • Inform the person that you will return on Monday 29 April to collect the form.

[Sections 4.3 (Annotation of the maps) and 4.4 (Duplicate Forms D) of the original document are not presented here.]


Chapter 5
Collection of Complete Forms A

[Sections 5.1 (Articles to be carried when collecting Form's A), 5.2 (Places to visit immediately after Census day), 5.3 (Form A Collection Procedure) and 5.4 (Procedure for dealing with the Householder at the Doorstep) of the original document are not presented here.]


5.5 Completing Panel C on Form A
Panel C on page 1 of the Census form should now be completed. Tick the appropriate box and:
1. Box 3 should be ticked if the household consists of travelling people. In these cases ensure insofar as possible that the total number of forms delivered to the encampment agrees with the total number you collect. If you are missing any forms try to locate them. If the household has moved try to find out the intended destination from a neighbour. This information should be included in your Form E report to your Field Supervisor (see Section 5.12).
2. Specify the details in the case of an institution (i.e. when box 5 is ticked).
3. Where 2 or more forms have been delivered to a household box C should only be completed on the first form for that household or institution.

5.6 Collecting forms from Institutions
1. Small institutions (small hotels, guesthouses, Bed and Breakfasts etc.)
Make contact with the manager/administrator to collect all completed Census forms. Ask the manager/administrator for permission to view the register for Sunday night 28 April 1996. List every person on the register on Form A. Use all available lines on each copy of Form A before using a subsequent form. Make sure to complete Panels A and D on the first Census form used to list all persons on the register.
2. Large institutions (hospitals, prisons etc.)
You must commence the collection of all Forms A(P) on the morning of Monday 29 April 1996 . Your Field Supervisor may arrange the assistance of another enumerator or may directly assist you should this be necessary. Visit every person in the institution in exactly the same order as you did during your Visual Enumeration. Present yourself to each person to whom you delivered a Form A(P) and ask him/her to return the completed form to you in the envelope. If you encounter a person not covered in the Visual Enumeration ascertain his/her details on a separate Form A(P). When you return to your home add these persons to the end of the persons listed on Forms A for the institution. When you have visited all persons check with the manager/administrator (or staff nurse in the case of a hospital ward) to ensure no new persons have been missed. In a small number of cases a person or persons, to whom a Form A(P) was handed out during Visual Enumeration, may not be present in the institution on Census
night. This may arise, for instance due to the discharge of a patient or inmate or to the death of a patient in hospital. In such cases the uncompleted Census form should be collected from the person in charge of the institution.

5.7 Personal Returns - Form A(P)
When you are collecting Forms A, check the entries in Column 13 of the Book D to identify cases where you delivered Forms A(P). In these cases you must ensure the following:

  • The head of the household must list all the household members (including those making Personal Returns) on Form(s) A.
  • Collect a completed Form A(P) in respect of each person concerned.
  • If any are missing, confirm that they have been passed on to the Field Supervisor.
  • No details regarding the Forms A(P) should be disclosed to the head of the household.
5.8 Dwelling Units missed at delivery stage
If you discover a dwelling unit which you missed during your Visual Enumeration you must:
1. Contact the household.
2. Make the entry on Form D - ensure to continue in sequence from the last serial number used (i.e. add it in at the end of the list of Form D serial numbers).
3. Make the entry on your map.
4. Check that the dwelling unit was occupied on Census night.
5. If the dwelling was occupied fill in the Form D number on the Census Form and get the householder to complete it.
6. Check any caravans or mobile homes (including those in caravan parks) which were not listed separately on Form D because they were not occupied at delivery stage. If these were in fact occupied on Census night follow steps 1 to 5 above.
Note: Where possible, always try to get the Census Form completed during the course of your visit to save returning again to that household.

5.9 Dwelling Units noted as 'Vacant' or 'Absent'
1. Any dwelling units noted as 'Vacant' or 'Absent' on Form D must be revisited to check their actual status on Census night.
2. If you find the house etc. was not vacant on Census night you must:

  • insert the necessary details on Form A (i.e. Boxes A and D).
  • get the householder to complete a copy of Form A.
  • amend entries in Columns (6), (7), (10) and (11) of Form D.

Note: Where possible, always try to get the Census form completed during the course of your visit to save returning again to that household.

[Sections 5.10 (Arrival of new households since Visual Enumeration), 5.11 (Households which are difficult to contact), 5.12 (Households which have left the EA -- Form E), 5.13 (A further detailed check on Forms A and Forms A(P), 5.14 (Form H procedure), and 5.15 (Refusal to fill in Form A) of the original document are not presented here.]

[p. 37]

Chapter 6
Completion of Forms A, B, C and D

[Section 6.1 (Ordering of Forms A) of the original document is not presented here.]

6.2 Completing Forms A.
Place the folios on a table and separate into individual DED (Ward) stacks.
Make sure the folio with the lowest street/townland code is on top if there are two or more folios in that DED. Taking each stack in tum, remove the first folio, open it at the first Census form, then:
1. Panel A: Ensure all details are filled out correctly. Ensure the street/townland code is entered on each Form A. This code should be taken from the folio divider identifying that street/townland.

2. Panel B: Write in schedule number '1' on the first form, '2' on the second form and so on, on every form in that D ED stack. If there are two or more . DEDs (i.e. stacks) start at number 1 for each DED and number consecutively within that DED (Ward).

3. Panel C: This should have been completed earlier at the doorstep. If you neglected to do so consult the Form D entry for this dwelling (i.e. the dwelling with the same Form D serial number) to obtain the necessary details. If you find you have no Form D entry for this dwelling you must return to the dwelling to collect the details and amend Book D and your map as appropriate.

4. Panel D: This should be completed before you handed Form A to the householder. If it is not, repeat the previous instruction relating to Panel C.

5. Panel E: Open Form A on page 2. Count the number of males and females.
The total number of males plus the total number of females should equal the number of lines completed on page 2. Where they do not agree examine Question 1 on page 2 looking for reason(s) to explain the difference. Explanations might include some or all of the following:
1. cases where 2 people are entered on the one line.
2. babies included on a line with another person.
3. additional lines added on at the bottom of the form to accommodate more than 7 persons.
Note: In exceptional cases you may be unable to explain the difference.
If there is one form only for the household enter the number of males, females and total persons in the Males, Females and Total boxes provided in Panel E.
If there are 2 or more forms relating to a household or institution count all males and all females on all forms for the household or institution. Enter the number of males, females and persons on all forms in Males, Females and Total boxes on the first form only for that household or institution.
Note: In general the number of males and females on each individual Form A for an institution should equal the number of Forms A(P) enclosed inside of that Form
A. Check this to ensure you have accounted for all Forms A(P) returned to you. Be especially careful when dealing with large institutions.

6. Panel F: The following numbers (1-4) should be used to complete Panel F:
1. An English form is completed in English.
2. An English form is completed in Irish.
3. An Irish form is completed in English.
4. An Irish form is completed in Irish.
7. You must sign the declaration on page 6 of each Form A stating the return is complete and correct insofar as possible.

6.3 Certification of Forms D and completion of Form D2
When collection stage is complete recheck the book of Forms D to make sure all Forms A have been accounted for. When you are satisfied all Forms A are collected, you should complete the Summary of D Book Page Totals that is Form D2 (see Appendices 13 and 18). Sign the summary page (i.e. Form D2) in the bottom right comer.

6.4 Completion of Form B
The purpose of the Form B is to summarise the number of males, females and total persons in each household or institution by street or townland. An example of a completed copy of Form B is given in Appendices 10 and 15. Particulars for one street or townland only should be entered on Form B. A separate Form B should be used for each part of a streetltownland in the following cases:

  • Where the streetltownland is in more than one DED.
  • Where part of the townland is in an urban area (e.g. town) and part in the rural hinterland.

1. Form B Headings
Fill in all details on the top of Form B (i.e.) County or County Borough, DED(Ward), EA number and Townland or Street. The street/townland should be copied from the folio divider placed before the first form relating to a street/townland. Headings which do not apply should be struck out. Enter the name of the Postal town if it applies (i. e. where the street/townland is not in a town or in the suburbs or environs of a town).

2. Columns 1 to 7 on Form B
In general one line on Form B should be completed for every household.
Exceptions arise where 2 or more forms are used for a household (i.e. 8 or more persons).

  • In column 6 enter the name and surname of the head of the household as listed on line 1 of Form A for that household or institution.
  • Note: In some cases this name may be different to that given in Column 6 of Form D.
  • In Column 1 enter the Form D serial number for that household (these numbers may be out of sequence).
  • In Column 7 enter the Schedule No. for the household.
  • Note: The schedule number is given in Panel B on Form A. If you have done your work correctly as set out in Section 6.2 above these will follow in sequence.
  • In Column 2 enter the postal number or name of the premises as given under 'Street etc., Number and Name of House' in Panel A of Form A for that household.
  • Note: Give the number of the house etc. only. You should NOT give the full address in this column.
  • In Column 3 enter the number of households occupying the dwelling. In most cases this number will be '1'. However for houses, flats or hotels etc. that may have more than 1 household occupying the house, flat or hotel etc., enter the appropriate number.
  • Note: If the number of households is greater than '1' then the number of households in Column 3 should be filled in on the first line only of Form B. All other lines summarising details for the remaining household in that dwelling should be left blank.
  • Transcribe the figures from Panel E of Form A to the males, females and total sub-columns of Column 5.
6.5 Totals Using the figures on the Form B
Totals for Columns 3 and 4 should be entered at the bottom of the page and carried forward where appropriate. You must ensure that the totals for 'private' and 'non-private' in Column 4 tally with the total number of households given at the bottom of Column 3.
Separately total the males, females and total sub-columns of Column 5 carrying them forward where appropriate. Finally, check the overall total of the males and females combined equals the overall total of the "total" sub-column. If not, you should re-check your work.

[Section 6.6 (Ordering Forms B) of the original document is not presented here.]

6.7 Completion of Forms C
Form C provides you with a street and townland listing for each DED in your EA. An example of a completed copy of Forms C is given in Appendix 11 and 16. Some new streets and very recent housing developments may not be listed on Form C so you should be especially careful to include these at the end of the list. The Form C list is supplied in duplicate. Do not separate it until all summarisation work outlined in this section is complete.
1. The list of Streets and Townlands
Column 1 of Form C contains a list showing the street and townland names in your EA. You should notice that a separate Form C has been supplied to you for each DED(Ward) in your EA. Thus each DED or part of a DED in your EA must have a corresponding Form C. If you notice that you are either short a Form C or that you have too many Forms C notify your Field Supervisor immediately. In Columns 2 and 3 on Form C the number of households and total persons for that street/townland from the previous (1991) Census is preprinted. You must not
amend these in any way whatsoever.

At the end of the Form C listing you will find lines which are blank except for the street/townland code. On these lines you should enter the details of all new streets which are not listed on Form C. The street/townland code for each new street begins with X. You should assign the next available street/townland code to each new street and ensure that each Form A associated with that street has that code assigned in Panel A (see Section 6.1, item 3 above). Also ensure that the code and street name are placed on the Folio Divider (Form FL2) for that street.

2. Areas on Form C
Each Form C relates to all or part of an individual DED(Ward) within your EA. The ordering of areas listed on Form C will generally follow one, or a combination of the patterns below:

  • If a DED which consists, in whole or in part, of rural areas, the townlands or parts of townlands comprising these areas are listed first in the Form C in alphabetical order (in Column 1) while the town(s), if any, are listed last.
  • For very small towns, the town should be listed first, immediately followed by townlands (in alphabetical order) on which it stands.
  • For other towns, the streets are listed in alphabetical order and are sometimes followed by the names of the townlands (in alphabetical order) on which the town stands; this is done to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road in the town.
  • If you find that the list of streets provided is not accurate or complete you must:

a) Cross out streets no longer in use by drawing a line through name(s) but do not alter the 1991 figures.
b) Add to the list any new streets which have come into existence since the last Census or existing streets that have been omitted from Form C. Use the lines at the end of Form C which have street/townland codes beginning with X.
c) You may come across a housing estate listed as one entry, for example 'Oakfield Estate' which actually consists of named streets and roads such as 'Oakfield Drive', 'Oakfield Crescent',
'Oakfield Grove' etc. You should add each of these individual roads to the end of Form C and enter the relevant 1996 population details for them. A note to the effect that 'Oakfield Estate' now corresponds to Oakfield Drive, Cresent and Grove should be added in RED on Form C. If you run out of codes beginning with X write in the street names at the end of the list in alphabetical order. Do not attempt to devise your own street/townland codes.

6.8 Entering details in Columns (4 - 8) and listing of Areas in Form C
In Columns 4, 5, 6 and 7 you must record the number of households, males, females and total persons respectively on each street/townland listed on each Form C. These numbers are transcribed from the Total Line on each Form B for a Street/townland within a DED (Ward).
1. Transfer the total figures from Columns 3 and 5 of Forms B to the appropriate lines (i.e. street or townland listed) in Columns 4, 5, 6 and 7 respectively for each street or townland.
2. Add up the numbers in Columns 4, 5, 6 and 7. Place the totals in the space provided at the bottom of Form C.
3. The totals for males and females must tally with the total for persons. Where there is more than one Form C (i.e. one page of a streetltownland listing) for a DED(Ward), you will have to carry forward the sub-totals the subsequent page on Form C.
4. Check to see if there is any obvious discrepancies between the figures for households and total population for the current and previous Census. If there are discrepancies furnish a factual explanation in (Column 8) (e.g. new hospital opened since 1991).
Note: This is a very important phase of the enumeration as it represents a first quality assessment to be carried out on the 1996 figures. It is of the utmost importance therefore that valid explanations are furnished where unexpected increases or decreases take place since the previous census.
5. When you are satisfied that the Form(s) C for your EA are complete and correct you should sign and date each one.

[Section 6.9 (Returning Form C) of the original document is not presented here.]

[Chapter 7 (Returning your Census Material and Completing Work Returns) of the original document is not presented here.]

[Appendix 1 (Relevant sections of the Statistics Act 1993) of the original document is not presented here.]


Appendix 2
Method of Examination of Forms A and A(P) to ensure completeness and

The accuracy of the Census depends largely on the thorough examination of the Forms A and Forms A(P) at the time of collection. It follows therefore, that this examination is of the utmost importance. In order that the examination be effective, you should be thoroughly familiar with the questions on Form A and with the associated Explanatory Notes*. If it is found necessary to ask for further information or to check entries on the Forms, this should be done with courtesy and tact.
The following instructions have been prepared for your guidance in carrying out the scrutiny of the forms.

Questions which cover all persons

Q.l: Name and Surname
Experience of previous Censuses indicates that babies and very young children are sometimes omitted from the enumeration. Accordingly care should be taken to ensure that all persons, regardless of age, are included.

Q.2: Sex and Q.3: Relationship to Head of Household
The answers to these Questions for each person must be consistent with one another and with the name of the person as entered at Question 1.
Note that any adult member (male or female) of a private household, present on Census night may be returned as Head or Joint Head as the household members consider appropriate.

Q.4: Date of Birth
The exact date of birth (day, month and year) must be entered numerically for this Question. The year of birth of all persons in a private household should be compared with one another, bearing in mind their relationships. In particular, parents' and childrens' ages should be reasonably consistent with one another.

*The Note(s) referred to throughout this Appendix are the Explanatory Notes - pages 7 and 8 - of Form A.

Q.5 and Q.6: Marital Status
For children under 15 years of age (i.e. born after the 28 April 1981) these questions should be left blank. An entry is required at Question 5 for all persons born on or before 28 April 1981. Question 6 seeks information on the present actual marital status regardless of legal status. Thus, for example, a deserted wife although legally married should tick box 5.

Q.7: Place of Birth
The county of birth is required for every person born in any part of Ireland (including Northern Ireland). If a person was born in a County Borough, the county name should be entered. The name of the country is sufficient for persons born outside Ireland.

Q.8 and Q.9: Usual Residence - Now and One Year Ago
Where the address given is the same as that in which the person is being enumerated, you should write in RED HERE (Question 8) or SAME (Question 9).
Otherwise, where the address stated is in any part of Ireland (including Northern Ireland) it is essential that it is given in full. The name of the country is sufficient in the case of a foreign address.
As it is common practice to include the name of the postal town when writing a rural address, it is most important to ensure as far as possible that where an address includes the name of a town, the residence in question is actually situated within that town. You should ask any questions necessary to enable you to establish the true location of residence.

Q.10 and Q .11: Previous Residence in Another Country
These questions should be answered by persons who are now usually resident in Ireland (Republic) and
1. Those who previously lived elsewhere (outside the 'State) for a continuous period of 12 months or more; or
2. Those who were born abroad (outside the State) and were brought to live here before their first birthday.
Please note that Northern Ireland should be separately identified.

Q.12 and Q.13: Travel to Work, School or College
These Questions should be answered in respect of every person who is at work, or attending a school or university full time. The questions should be left blank for all other persons (e.g. persons who are Unemployed, on Home duties, Retired or Children not yet at school). Information should be supplied for the outward journey only; the return journey should not be included. One box only should be ticked at Question 12 identifying the principal means of travel. In Question 13 the information required is the total outward distance travelled using all means of transport.

Questions which cover persons 15 years and over

Q.15: Education Received
This question relates to all persons aged 15 years and over regardless of whether they have completed their education. Students should tick the box which indicates the highest level of education completed to date.

Q.16: Scientific or Technological Qualifications
If there is no entry in respect of a person who you have reason to believe possesses qualifications of the type covered by this Question, (e. g. a Medical Doctor) you should ask the respondent to complete the details.

Q.17: Age Education Ceased
The age (in years) at which a person ceased to receive full-time education should be inserted at Question 17. This question should be left blank for those who are in full time education at the time of the Census, including mature students who have returned to full-time education after pursuing other career options.

Q.18: Present Status
The person's principal economic status is required so only one of the listed categories should be ticked. A person who is mainly engaged as an 'assisting relative' on a farm, in a shop or in any other commercial enterprise, should be regarded as 'at work' even if he/she receives no payment or no regular payment. Priests, nuns and brothers should be regarded as at work' except
where they are retired or permanently sick. Housewives assisting in the family business, but mainly engaged on housework should tick 'home (or domestic) duties'. If a person on FAS or other training courses/employment schemes require assistance in deciding his/her status, consult the information given in Appendix 4 as a guide.

Q.19: Occupation
The Occupation must be provided for every person who ticks boxes 1,3 or 6 at Question 18. Housewives (i.e.) those who ticked (box 5 at Q.18) often answer this question by writing 'Home (or Domestic) Duties' as their occupation. Although inappropriate, no attempt should be made to alter this response.
You should ensure that the description of the Occupation is precise. In the list below some examples of correct and inadequate occupation descriptions are given:
Inadequate Entry
Process worker
Machine operator
Possible Correct Entry
Secretary /receptionist
Child minder
Food process worker
Chemical plant operator
Retail store/shop manager
Computer systems manager
Garage manager
Trainee chartered accountant
Wood Machinist
Laboratory technician
Electronic technician
Builder's labourer
Dock worker
Electrical engineer
Civil engineer
Software engineer
Gas fitter
Garage foreman
Ticket checker
Motor mechanic
If in doubt as to how a particular occupation should be described, it is better to give a full and detailed description. Particular care should be taken to ensure that, in the case of farmers or farm workers and regardless of present status, the area of the farm is inserted.

Q.20: Employment Status
An answer is required here for persons who ticked boxes 1,3 or 6 at Question 18. Note that the term 'Employee' should be used for a person receiving a fixed wage or salary, even if he/she is assisting a relative. However, if a person is assisting a relative without receiving a fixed wage or salary, he/she should tick box 4. Priests, nuns, brothers etc. should be described as 'Employees'. Persons in partnership in a firm not having paid employees should tick box 2. Persons in partnership in a firm having paid employees should tick box 1. Persons employed as managing directors should tick box 3.

Q.21: Employer and Employer's Business
This Question should be answered for every person who ticked 1 or 3 at Question 18. Persons should specify the nature of the business (i.e. what is being made or what service is being provided) by the firm or undertaking for which the person is working. If the employer has several different business activities such as a transport company, a hotel and shops the actual activity the person is engaged in should be stated as well as the name of the firm or company.

Q.22: Address of Place of Work, School or College
This Question should be answered in respect of every person who is at work or at school or college. The full address at which a person is actually working should be given.

Q.23: Type of Work
This Question should be answered in respect of persons aged 15 years or over who are at work (i.e. who ticked box '1' in Q.18). The persons own assessment of whether his/her usual principal occupation is full-time or part time is required.

Q.24: Duration of Unemployment
This Question should be filled in by unemployed persons (i.e. those who ticked box '3' in Q .18). They should enter the month and year their previous principal employment ended.

Appendix 3
Census of Population, 1996
Form PR
Explanatory note about the 'Personal Return' Procedure - Form A(P)

[Section 1 (Legal Position) of the original document is not presented here.]

2. Purpose of the 'Personal Return' procedure
Cases may arise where there is reluctance on the part of some persons to provide the information about themselves which is needed for completing Form A on the grounds that it is confidential. In such circumstances, in order to facilitate the person charged with the responsibility of completing Form A as well as those persons who do not wish to furnish him/her with information about their personal affairs, individual returns on Forms A(P) may be accepted from the persons concerned. These forms are called Personal Returns.

3. Distribution of Forms A(P)
The Forms A(P) for making Personal Returns may be given by the Enumerator directly to the persons concerned or to the head of the household for distribution to them. The Enumerator will enter in the top margin of each form the name of the person who is to complete it, if this is known at the time. Envelopes will also be provided in which the forms may be sealed on completion. The name of the person who is to be the subject of the Personal Return should be entered on the outside of the back flap of this envelope by the Enumerator or the head of the household at the time of distribution.

4. Treatment of Family Groups making Personal Returns
Particulars of only one person may be entered in the Form A(P). In the case of a family group (e.g. man and wife; man and wife and children, or one parent and children) which is staying on Census Night in a hotel, guest-house, etc. Forms A(P) for the whole group may be completed by a responsible member of the group.

[Section 5 (Collection of Personal Returns) of the original document is not presented here.]

6. Information required in Form A in respect of persons making Personal

The operation of the Personal Return procedure does not absolve the head of the household from the obligation to make a return in Form A in respect of all persons - including those making Personal Returns - who form part of the household for Census purposes. Thus, Question 1,2 and 3 in the Form A for the household must be answered in respect of members of the household who are making Personal Returns. Question 4 to 24 in Form A should be left completely blank in respect of such persons but the letters 'P.R.' should be entered after each person's name in Question 1 of Form A.

[Section 7 (Personal Returns to be ready on Monday, 29 April 1996) of the original document is not presented here.]

[Section 8 (The Personal Return procedure is a concession) of the original document is not presented here.]

[Section 9 (Further information) of the original document is not presented here.]

[Appendix 4 (Guidelines on Training Schemes etc.) of the original document is not presented here.]
[The rest of this form is not presented here.]