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[Ireland]
Census of Population, 1991

Confidential: Instructions to enumerators

Central Statistics Office Dublin 6

[Table of contents is omitted here]

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Part I: Introduction
This instruction manual for Census Enumerators is organized in six parts as follows:

1. Part I is a general introduction
2. Part II sets out the necessary preparatory work to be undertaken by enumerators
3. Part III deals with the visual enumeration and distribution of Census schedules (Forms
A)
4. Part IV covers the collection of completed Forms A
5. Part V lists the various duties to be carried out by enumerators after Forms A have been collected (i.e., checking, summarizing, transcribing certain details, etc.)
6. Part VI contains the various Appendices referred to in the text.

1. Main responsibility of enumerators
A person appointed as an enumerator (the convention "He" is used for enumerator throughout this manual) is personally responsible for the enumeration of the Census in the area assigned to him in accordance with the instructions in this manual and any other supplementary instructions which may be issued. This responsibility implies that none of the tasks to be performed by the enumerator may be delegated or sub-contracted to a third party.
The enumerator must ensure that all persons who pass the night of 21 April, 1991 within the assigned area or arrive in the area on the morning of 22 April, 1991, not having been enumerated elsewhere, are included in the Census enumeration. The area assigned to an enumerator is called an Enumeration Area (EA). Occasionally an enumerator may be called on to perform work in more than one EA.

2. Confidentiality
All the information obtained by an enumerator relating to individuals or households for the purpose of the Census enumeration must be treated as strictly confidential. On appointment, each enumerator becomes an Officer of Statistics as defined in the Statistics Act, 1926 and is duly bound by the conditions of that Act, in particular the provisions of Sections 14 and 15 which are reproduced as follows:
"Section 14 (1): Save for the purpose of a. prosecution for an offence under this Act, no officer of statistics shall publish or disclose to any person, other than another officer of statistics concerned with the matter in the course of his duties as such officer the contents or any part of the contents of any individual schedule, form, or other document filled in or otherwise completed by any person in pursuance of a requisition made under this Act... or any verbal information or answer given relating to any individual person, business or concern.

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Section 14 (2): Every officer of statistics who shall publish or disclose the contents or any part of the contents of any such individual schedule, form, or other document as aforesaid or any such record or document as aforesaid or any verbal information or answer given relating to any individual person, business or concern in contravention of this section shall be guilty of an offence under this section and shall be liable on summary conviction thereof to a fine not exceeding 50 Pounds or, at the discretion of the court, to imprisonment for any term not exceeding 6 months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

Section 15: Every officer of statistics who in the pretended performance of his duties as such officer obtains or attempts to obtain by any means from any person on any occasion any information which he is not lawfully entitled to obtain by that means from that person on that occasion shall be guilty of an offence under this Section and shall be liable on summary conviction thereof to a fine not exceeding 50 Pounds or, at the discretion of the court, to imprisonment for any term not exceeding 6 months or to both such fine and such imprisonment".

Each Enumerator is provided with a special box for the safe storage of the completed Census returns. While the returns are in the possession of the enumerator they must be kept locked in this box at all times except when the enumerator has them with him in the field or is actually working on them. Failure to comply with this instruction will be regarded as a very serious breach of the Conditions of Service applying to the post of enumerator. Enumerators are warned that they are obliged to ensure that nobody, apart from their Field Supervisor, Regional Supervisor or Census Liaison Officer or an official of the Central Statistics Office, has access to the completed returns. They must guard particularly against members of their own households seeing the returns. Because of the risk of theft, they must also ensure that Census documents are not left unattended in cars.

Enumerators also provided with satchels in which they are required to keep their supplies of forms, maps, completed returns etc. when at work in the field. It is essential that all Enumerators should carry and use their satchels for this purpose and any failure to do so will be regarded in a very serious light.

Enumerators are warned that they must not discuss the contents of any Census return, or other information given to them for Census purposes, with anybody other than their Supervisors or an official of the Central Statistics Office. They should be careful not to make any remarks (even of a casual nature) especially in other households, about a household or any of its members with whom they have come in contact in the course of the Census Enumeration.

3. Credentials
Every enumerator will be issued with a certificate of appointment as an Officer of Statistics.
This certificate must be produced on demand to any person who asks for evidence of identity o authority to act as Enumerator (it should be as a matter of course produced when establishing contact with members of a household, institution etc.).

4. Contact with the public
Enumerators' duties must be carried out at all times, and irrespective of circumstances, with courtesy and consideration. Several hundred people will be met in the course of the Census.

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Inevitably, there will be a number of persons who will need assistance in completing the form and occasionally also there may be cases of uncooperative, rude and obstructive behavior on the part of some members of the public. Enumerators must on no account allow themselves to be provoked into displays of impatience or bad temper by such behavior.

The remainder of this manual will deal with the main duties of an enumerator as set out in the first paragraph.

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Part II Preparation

5. Training
5.1 Briefing by Field Supervisor
Your Field Supervisor will thoroughly brief you in all aspects of the duties of your post and you will have to satisfy him that you are competent to carry out these duties before being allowed to commence work in the field. You will be required to attend all training sessions whether or not you have been employed on a previous Census.

5.2 Study of manual, forms and other instructions
In preparation for this course of training, you should immediately set about making yourself thoroughly familiar with all the instructions in this manual together with any supplementary instructions which may be issued. You should also study the various forms which are to be used in carrying out the enumeration.

6. Principal forms used in the Census enumeration
Five principal Forms are used in carrying out the Census enumeration, viz. Form A, Form A(P), Form B, Form C and Form D. Form A is to be filled in by the head of each household, Form A(P) is for completion by an individual member of a household in certain circumstances,
Forms B and D are completed by the enumerator and Form C is filled in partly by the Central Statistics Office and partly by the Enumerator.

6.1 Form A
This is the basic Census Household schedule and particulars of every person who is in the Enumeration Area (EA) on the night of Sunday 21 April 1991, or who arrives in the EA on the morning of Monday 22 April 1991, not having been enumerated elsewhere, must be recorded on a Form A. The 1991 Household schedule is in booklet Form with a detachable section at the back, containing detailed instructions for completing the form. There are separate English and Irish versions of Form A.

Enumerators will be responsible for giving any explanations which may be sought about the Form A and will have to check the entries made in the Forms when collecting them. You should therefore study the Form A (see Appendix 1 for method of examination of forms A and A(P) to ensure that they are accurately completed) carefully so that you will be fully conversant with the way in which each question should be answered.

6.2 Form A(P)
This form is for completion by a member of a household who is unwilling to provide the head of the household with the information required in Form A or from whom the head is unable, or is justifiably reluctant, to obtain this information. The questions in Form A(P) correspond

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to those in respect of individuals in the Form A. Form A(P) is a bilingual (English and Irish) form.

6.3 Form B
The purpose of this form is to summarize the population figures from the relative Forms A. In general, the Enumerators will complete one or more Forms B for each Townland (see Instruction 8.2 on page 6) in rural areas and for each street in town areas, although, in certain cases, separate Forms B should be completed for portions of Townlands (see Instruction 31.1 on page 34).

6.4 Form C and yellow Form C
Form C lists the Townlands and/or Streets in each District Electoral Division (DED) or ward (see Instruction 8.3 on page 6) in the EA. Just as the completed Form B will contain a summary of the population figures shown in the relative Forms A, the Form C will provide a summary of the household and population figures shown in the relative Forms B. This is its primary function but it also furnishes each enumerator with a detailed breakdown of the EA and provides, furthermore, a means of checking (by comparing the figures for the 1986 and for the current Census) the completeness and accuracy of the enumeration.
Forms C are furnished to the enumerators in duplicate, the first copy being colored white and the duplicate copy yellow. The use and purpose of the yellow copy of Form C is explained in Instruction 32.5 et seq. on page 37.

6.5 Book of Form D
Each Enumerator is supplied with a Book of Forms D in which to record the results of the Visual Enumeration of the EA and the delivery of the Forms A to the households to be enumerated.
The forms in the Book of Forms D are colored white and green alternately. By the use of carbon paper, a duplicate (green) copy of each completed Form D will be made. The use and purpose of the duplicate Forms D are explained in Instruction 15.1 on page 13.

7. Treatment of towns
7.1 Municipal and non-municipal towns
Municipal towns have legally defined boundaries for purposes of Local Government. They
comprise:

1. five county boroughs (Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Galway) and the borough of Dun Laoghaire
2. five municipal boroughs
3. forty nine urban districts
4. thirty two towns under the towns improvement (Ireland) Act, 1854 (i.e., towns with town Commissioners)
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In all these cases, population figures must always be compiled for the area within the legally defined boundary even though this may not coincide with the present built-up area which has often spread beyond that boundary. Non-municipal towns do not have legally defined boundaries.

7.2 Suburbs and environs of towns and town boundaries
The built-up areas which lie just outside the legal boundary of a municipal town are termed
"Suburbs" in the case of a county borough or the borough of Dun Laoghaire and "Environs" in the case of the other municipal towns. For the purpose of the 1991 Census, the Central Statistics Office has assigned boundaries to the non-municipal towns and to the suburbs or environs of municipal towns and these boundaries must be meticulously observed in carrying out the enumeration.

8. Areas to be distinguished in the enumeration
8.1 Need for separate Forms B and Forms C
In the Census enumeration, streets, townlands and District Electoral Divisions (DEDs) or -- in the county boroughs -- the wards have to be distinguished separately. Thus, the enumerator has to prepare a separate Form B for each street or townland in the EA and is furnished with a separate Form C for each DED or ward, or part thereof, in the EA.

8.2 Townlands
The townland is the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in the country.
It should be noted that, for Census purposes, townland boundaries are generally not observed within municipal towns. However, in the case of a very small town, the townlands on which it stands a.re listed, in alphabetical order, immediately after the town's name on Form C so as to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road.

8.3 District Electoral Divisions or wards
The District Electoral Division (DED) or ward is the smallest administrative area for which population statistics are regularly published. Outside municipal towns, DEDs generally consist of a number of complete townlands. A municipal town is usually comprised of one or luore complete DEDs or wards.

9. Different types of Enumeration Areas
9.1 Urban EA and rural EA
EA are divided into two groups: urban EA and rural EA. A rural EA may include all or part of a non-municipal town or of the environs of a municipal town as well as territory which is wholly rural in character.

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9.2 EA with more than one boundary
In the great majority of cases an EA consists of an area within one clearly defined boundary.
An exception to this general rule is where an EA consists of all or part of the environs of a municipal town comprising geographically separate clusters of houses around the municipal boundary. Another exception is where a town, which has been designated as one or more urban EA is completely surrounded by a rural EA. In such a case, the rural EA has, of course, both an outer and an inner boundary. Finally a small number of EA in the larger cities may consist of two or more distinct smaller areas which are geographically separate.

10. Enumerator's Maps
10.1 Scale of the maps
In addition to the Form C, which list the streets and townlands in their EA, the enumerators are also furnished with maps which give complete coverage of the EA. A simple "key" is provided with each set of maps to show how they should be assembled to give a composite map of the whole EA. In general the maps supplied are on a scale of 6" to the mile for rural areas and 25" to the mile for town areas. For some of the more densely populated EA in the larger cities, maps of a scale larger than 25" may be used (sometimes in combination with 25" maps). If a rural EA contains a town or part of a town (see Instruction 9.1 above), the enumerator will be furnished with a 6" map covering the rural portion of the EA, or a 25" or larger scale map for the portion in the town.
While the maps supplied are the most recent available, many of them are considerably out of date. However, they have been updated where possible by annotating them in pencil to show the location of known extensive building development not appearing on the original maps.

10.2 Use of colour coding in the maps
Colour-coding is used to distinguish boundaries and other features in the various maps as follows:
Colour coding scheme for maps

EA Boundary
Continuous purple line
DED boundary which is not also EA boundary
Continuous red line
Townland name
Underlined in blue
Townland boundary which is not also a DED or EA boundary
Broken blue line
Municipal town inside EA but not included EA
Outlined in green and cross-hatched in black
Non-Municipal town or environs of municipal town the boundary of which is not also an EA or DED boundary
Outlined in pink and if not part of the EA cross-hatched in black

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11. Boundaries of the Enumeration Area
11.1 General
Upon receiving the Form(s) C and map(s) relating to your EA you should make yourself thoroughly familiar with the boundaries and contents, not only of the EA as a whole, but also of each townland and each street for which you are responsible. If you observe any apparent contradiction between the map and the Form C; or if you have any queries about the boundary of your EA you should raise the matter immediately with the Central Statistics Office through your Supervisors.

11.2 Consultation with enumerators for adjoining EA
As EA are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (i.e., they do not overlap and together they account for the whole country) it is particularly important that you become familiar with the precise location at all significant points of the boundaries you have to observe. In this connection, it is essential that you consult through your Field Supervisor with those enumerators whose EA adjoin yours with a view to avoiding any misunderstanding on either side as to the location of the boundary between the EA. Field Supervisors will also have consultations with their colleagues in adjoining Districts and will advise the enumerators concerned accordingly.

12. Planning your route
12.1 General
[Information on enumerator's route omitted]

13. Use of the notebooks supplied
13.1 Proper use of notebooks is essential
If they are to carry out their duties with maximum efficiency, enumerators must make full use of their notebooks as recommended throughout these instructions. For ease of reference, the pages of the notebook should be numbered either before use or according as they are used. Each enumerator is also required to enter, on the front cover of the notebooks, his name and

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employee number together with particulars of the assigned EA -- i.e., the name or reference number of the county or county borough and the EA number.

13.2 Confidentiality of information recorded in notebooks
Some of the information entered in the notebooks is likely to be of a confidential nature and enumerators are, therefore, obliged to exercise the same degree of care in regard to safeguarding the notebooks as in the case of the Census returns themselves.

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Part III: The visual enumeration and distribution of forms A

14. General issues relating to visual enumeration
14.1 Publicity campaign
An intensive publicity campaign, designed to enlist the active co-operation of the public in the taking of the Census will be launched about the time the distribution of the Census forms is due to commence. Both the national and provincial press, as well as television and radio, will be used in this campaign which will also provide for the extensive display of posters relating to the Census in suitable locations such as post offices, Garda stations, central and local government offices, public libraries, schools, etc. throughout the country. In addition, a special explanatory brochure will be distributed with the Census forms and will also be made widely available to the public through other channels.

14.2 Definition of dwelling unit
For Census purposes, a "dwelling unit" is defined as living accommodation which is occupied or, if vacant, is intended for occupation, by one household. Note that, under this definition, there is a dwelling unit for each separate household you encounter (see Instructions 17.2 and 17.3 for the definitions of "household") irrespective of the conditions in which the household is living or the type of accommodation it occupies. Thus, a single room in a dwelling house which is let as a "bed sitter" is a dwelling unit as is also a makeshift encampment on the side of the road occupied by a' travelling family.
In the case of vacant accommodation, if it is intended for occupation by one household, it should be regarded as a dwelling unit. Thus, for example, two vacant rooms in a dwelling house which the owner has for letting as "bed sitters" should be treated as two separate dwelling units.

14.3 Definition of business unit
For Census purposes a business unit is defined as any undertaking (excluding farms) in which economic activity is taking place. Such units will be listed in the Forms D as part of the visual enumeration process and subsequently extracted to Forms R to enable a register of businesses to be compiled in order to code details of place of work (Q 23 of Form A).
The following types of units will be covered: mines and quarries (in current production); factories; workshops; repair garages; shops; supermarkets; fuel merchants, builders providers, DIY stores and other retailers, wholesalers; hotels, guest-houses and bed and breakfast [establishments] (operating as such at Census time); restaurants and cafes; transport companies (including bus operators and private taxi companies); travel agents; storage companies; banks; insurance companies; offices etc.

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14.4 Articles to be carried during the visual enumeration
When carrying out the visual enumeration and delivering the Forms A, you should bring with you in the satchel provided, the following articles:

1. Sufficient supplies of Form A (both English and Irish versions) and Forms A(P)
2. A sufficient supply of the explanatory Census brochures
3. Your book of Forms D with interleaved carbon paper
4. Your clipboard
5. The map(s) covering your EA
6. A black pencil (for making entries in Forms D, A, etc.)
7. An eraser
8. A red biro for marking the map(s). Do not use a felt pen
9. A supply of envelopes for persons who wish to make Personal Returns (see Instruction 21.1 on page 21) or to return their Forms by post (see Instruction 21.2 on page 22)
10. A supply of Forms PR (see Instruction 21.2)
11. Your enumerator's manual
12. Your certificate of appointment enumerator (i.e., your appointment card)
13. Your notebook
14. A pencil sharpener

14.5 Scope of the visual enumeration
The purpose of the visual enumeration is to compile in Form D a comprehensive list of all dwelling units, business units and other buildings in the EA while, at the same time, identifying their location in the map(s) supplied.
You should enter the particulars required on the outside of the front cover of the book of Forms D before commencing the visual enumeration. Entries should be made in the Forms D themselves as you carry out the visual enumeration. It is Inost important to note that, as far as possible, entries should be made in Form D in precisely the same order as that in which the premises in question are encountered in the course of the visual enumeration. In particular, you should not delay listing a dwelling unit in Form D because you have not been able to deliver Form A to the household concerned on the occasion of your first visit. All entries in Form D should be in pencil.

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14.6 Forms A to be distributed during visual enumeration
As far as possible, the distribution of the Forms A (see Section 20 on page 20) must be carried out in conjunction with the visual enumeration. As you visit each dwelling unit in the course of the visual enumeration you should deliver the Form(s) A for completion in respect of the household residing in that dwelling unit. Forms A should be delivered following personal contact with a household member and should not be left in a letterbox except in the circumstances outlined in Section 23.3 on page 24. Repeat visits will be necessary if, for example, you find nobody at home on your first call. In any such case you should keep a record in your notebook of each repeat visit you made for the purpose of delivering Form A. Ultimately you will have to record the date of delivery of Form A in Column (8) of Form D.

14.7 Explanatory brochure to be distributed with Form A
As indicated above (see Instruction 14.1 on page 10), this brochure, which gives a concise explanation of the nature and purpose of the Census and the benefits which derive from it, should be given, as a matter of course, to every household with the Form A. It should also be distributed with each Form A(P) (see Instruction 21.1 on page 21).

14.8 What to record in Form D
You are required to record in Form D all permanent structures consisting of walls and a roof (with certain exceptions which are given below) in your EA. All habitations which are not permanent structures must also be recorded.

INCLUSIONS
Examples of permanent structures for which details must be recorded are: dwelling houses, blocks of fiats, hotels, restaurants, military barracks, Garda stations, hospitals, religious institutions, railway stations, theatres, cinemas, club-houses, garages or filling stations, factories, warehouses, schools, churches, offices etc.
Habitations other than permanent structures include caravans, mobile phones, ships and house-boats: these should be recorded in Form D even if they appear to be untenanted at the time you visit them. Other kinds of vessels (e.g., small boats used for pleasure or sporting purposes) should be listed only if they are being used as living accommodation at the time of the Census. A travelling family's encampment should of course, be recorded in Form D.
Buildings which are not habitations and which are built of materials such as timber, corrugated iron or asbestos sheeting should be included if they are likely to have a life of at least 10 years.

EXCLUSIONS
The following structures should not be recorded in Form D: barns and outhouses (e.g., stables, hay-sheds, milking parlours, etc.) on farms; garden sheds, green-houses, domestic outhouses and garages which are attached to, or stand within the grounds of the parent houses, street traders' stalls; ESB sub-stations; public conveniences; telephone kiosks; badly run-down buildings which, though still roofed or partially roofed, lack doors and/or windows; bus shelters; rain shelters (e.g., in parks, golf courses, beauty spots, etc.); dressing rooms and spectator stands in sports fields and stadia; wayside religious shrines and grottoes; water

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towers; ancient monuments such as round towers etc.; isolated structures of small size (i.e., measuring less than 36 sq. ft. in floor area).
Remember, however, that any premises, even one of the foregoing, must be recorded in Form D if it is being used as living accommodation.

14.9 Buildings which are not easily visible
While carrying out the visual enumeration and Distribution of Forms A, you must watch out particularly for buildings and for habitations other than buildings which are not easily visible, e.g. houses in alleyways, caravans or mobile homes in back gardens, outhouses which have been converted into living accommodation, flats over shops, isolated houses not visible from the roadway etc. Since practically every building must have an access on to some thoroughfare, the best way to ensure that you achieve complete coverage is to traverse every length of public thoroughfare in your EA -- streets, roads, lanes, alleys, rights-of-way, etc. -- no matter how narrow or inconspicuous. It must be stressed that the essential factor in the Visual Enumeration is that you go and see for yourself; you must not, for example, just take the word of somebody that there is no building down a narrow laneway.

15. Making entries in Form D
15.1 Duplicate Forms D
You will note that the Forms D are duplicated, the top copy being white and the duplicate green. Before commencing to record details in a Form D (see examples of completed forms D in Appendix 3) you should interleave a sheet of carbon paper between the white and the green forms. As each Form D is completed in the course of the visual enumeration, you should detach the duplicate (green-coloured) copy of the Form from the book for transaction as soon as possible to your Field Supervisor who will retain it for the purpose of checking your work and for use in the event of the book of Forms D being lost or destroyed.

15.2 Column (1): Allocation of Serial Numbers
Subject to the exceptions given below, each identifiable dwelling unit and each building (or part of a building) not containing an identifiable dwelling unit, listed in Form D is allocated a separate serial number. You will have to enter the serial numbers in Column (1) of Form D. (Normally, one line should be given to each serial number but it is permissible to allow more than one line to a serial number where this is desirable because of the length of the entries to be made in any of the Columns (2) to (11) in respect of the premises in question). While it is permissible to leave gaps in the Form D numbering sequence it is essential that there be no duplicated Form D numbers within an EA. Should you find that you have inadvertently duplicated a Serial Number in Form D do not try to rectify the situation by the addition of a letter of the alphabet after the number (e.g., "128A" is not a permissible entry). Instead, you should substitute the next unused number in the sequence for the duplicated number.
The numbering sequence should commence with "1" except where the Field Supervisor specifically directs otherwise. If one book of Forms D does not suffice for all the listings to be made in your EA, you should use a second book of Forms D. In the second book, the numbering sequence should, of course, commence where you left off in the first book. Where a second book

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is used, write the figure "1" on the front cover of the first book and the figure "2" on the front cover of the second book.

15.3 Column (1): Treatment of flats
Each flat is, of course, a separate dwelling unit and must be allocated a separate line and Serial Number in Column (1) of Form D. This applies whether or not the flats are purpose-built. Thus, in the case of a conventional house which is let out in flats or "bed-sitters", each one is given a separate number in Column (1) whether vacant or not.

15.4 Column (1): Treatment of partly non-residential premises
If a building is partly non-residential and partly residential -- e.g., a shop with flats above or an office block containing a caretaker's flat, the living accommodation should be listed first and the next Serial Number(s) given to the listing for all the remaining portion(s) of the building, which should include an indication of what it comprises.

15.5 Column (1): Establishments consisting of separate buildings
Conversely, there are cases in which groups of structurally separate buildings should be given only one Serial Number in Form D. Examples of these are hospitals which have wards or, schools which have classrooms in a number of separate buildings standing in the same grounds. Factories also often consist of groups of separate buildings. However, any part of a school, hospital or factory complex which is purely residential in character must be listed separately even if vacant. Thus, a gatekeeper's house, a caretaker's house or flat, a nurses' home or a nuns' or religious brothers' residence must be listed in a separate line from that devoted to the rest of the establishment of which they form part.

15.6 Column (1): Treatment of caravans and mobile homes
Caravans and mobile homes are other exceptions to the general rule that each dwelling unit is given a separate line and Serial Number in Column (1) of Form D. The procedure for dealing with these is as follows:

1. A caravan or mobile home parked in the grounds (eg front garden or driveway) of a private house, should be included with the listing for the private house unless it is occupied by a separate household (see Instruction 17.2 on page 18), in which case it should, of course, be listed separately.
2. Any occupied caravan(s) or mobile homes in a caravan park should be listed separately and the remaining unoccupied caravans etc. in the park should be given only one listing in the Form D with a note of the total number of caravans etc. involved.
3. Groups of unoccupied caravans or mobile homes being displayed for sale or for hire should also be given only one listing in Form D with an indication of the number of caravans etc. in the group.
4. Two or more caravans which are occupied by only one household (see Instructions 17.2 and 17.3) should be given only one listing in Form D as they constitute a single dwelling unit.
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5. In all other cases, caravans and mobile homes should be listed separately in Form D.

15.7 Column (1): Treatment of blocks of private garages
Blocks of private garages such as are sometimes to be found in housing schemes or beside blocks of flats should be recorded in Form D with one Serial Number only. You should check, however, whether economic activity is being carried out.

15.8 Column (2): Address
In this column you should give the complete address for every building, etc. that is individually addressable. In some cases, however, (for example, an ordinary dwelling house which is occupied by two separate households) you may find that, while the house has an address, the individual households do not have separate addresses. A premises without a name which is situated in a purely rural area may also not have any address which could be entered in this column - although the name of the Townland in which the premises stand must be shown in Column (4) (see Instruction 15.11).
In the case of a flat, the address of the building in which it is located should be given in Column (2) together with the number of the fiat, if any.
In cases where you find it difficult to give the address of a building, you may find it possible to give an indication of where it is located -- e.g., "At the rear of 27 Main Street", "In a laneway off High Street" etc.

15.9 Column (3): Description of premises
You should record in this column a precise description of each building etc. listed in Column
(2) using such terms as: dwelling house, flat, hotel, shop, factory, warehouse, church, hospital, nursing home, theatre, cinema, office block, office building, caravan, tent, house-boat, etc.
If a building contains a number of fiats not identified by number, each flat's location within the building should be indicated -- e.g., "garden flat", "first floor flat, front", etc.

15.10 Column (3): Treatment of unoccupied dwelling houses
In the case of an unoccupied dwelling house it is necessary to describe in Column (3) the condition of the premises. You must indicate whether the house is habitable or not and, if not, whether it is (1) an existing house in a run-down condition, (2) an existing house being renovated or reconstructed, or (3) a new house not yet completed. If an unoccupied house is habitable, you should indicate whether it is an old house or a new house awaiting its first tenant.

15.11 Column (4): Townland
For EAs where Townland names and boundaries are marked in blue on the EA maps the name of the Townland in which the premises are situated should be entered in this column.

15.12 Column (5): DED or ward
If your EA stands on more than one DED or Ward you should record in Column (5) of Form D the DED or ward in which the premises are located.

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15.13 Column (6): Head of household etc.
If the dwelling unit is occupied, the name of the head of the household (ie the person responsible for making the Census return) is to be entered in Column (6). For a non-residential premise, this column should be left blank. If a house, flat or other dwelling unit is unoccupied, the word "Vacant" should be entered in this column (see also Instruction 20.4 on page 20 regarding the procedure to be followed in a case where a dwelling unit is occupied but the household concerned is likely to have left the dwelling before Census night).
(Note: Any address which contains more than one household will require a separate line in Form D in respect of each household. Accordingly, the appropriate names for the households in such cases must be entered in Column (6) before any entry is made in Columns (2) to (5) in respect of the next address encountered on the route. If you cannot contact anyone at a dwelling, you should leave some blank lines and serial numbers if you have reason to suppose that there is more than one household living there. It does not matter if subsequently you do not find sufficient households to take up all the lines and serial numbers which you have left for the dwelling).

15.14 Column (7): Occupancy of private dwelling units
This column should be entered in respect of all private dwelling units (see Instructions 14.2 and 17.2). You should enter the figure "1" in sub-column (a), (b) or (c) according to whether the occupiers of the dwelling unit will be present on Census night, the occupiers will be absent on Census night, or the dwelling unit will be unoccupied. The column should be left blank for non-private (ie institutional) households (see Instruction 17.3 on page 18).

15.15 Column (8): Date of delivery
In this column you must enter the date on which you delivered Form(s) A to the household. If two or more visits are necessary to deliver the Form A it is the date of the last visit which is required.

15.16 Column (9): Date of collection of completed Form A
You should enter in this column the date on which you collected the completed Form A from the household. If a Form A was delivered (as indicated by the corresponding entry in column (8)) you should ensure that it is collected when duly completed.

15.17 Column (10): Full name of business unit
In this column you should give the complete name for every business unit identified bearing in mind that a business unit is considered to be any undertaking (apart from farms) in which economic 'activity is taking place (see Instruction 14.3 on page 10 for definition). These details will subsequently have to be transferred to a special Form R (see Section 25 on page 25).
The objective of listing each business premises encountered is to be able to compile a register of business units so that the responses to Q.23 on Form A relating to place of work can be accurately coded.
In the case where a name plate is affixed outside the office or the location at which the company carries on its business you should also accurately record these details. Where more than one business unit occupies the same building you should separately record each of these.

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Similarly, in the case of shopping centers and industrial estates you must make a separate entry for each business in Form D.

15.18 Column (11): Notes
Column (11) is intended for any notes which might assist you in carrying out your duties, such as circumstances requiring special action or the time of an appointment you have made for the purpose of collecting the completed Form A. Additional descriptive information which would facilitate the subsequent positive identification of the building and dwelling unit might also be entered here. The use of such terms as "green front door", "white pillars with black gate" etc. should be used if necessary. It is likely that in purely rural areas such descriptions will often be helpful as house numbers or names do not exist in most cases.
If the space available in Column (11) is inadequate in any case you should make the notation in your notebook instead (making sure to quote the relative Form D Serial Number) and insert a reference to the notebook entry in column (11) to serve as a reminder that you should consult your notebook at the appropriate time.

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17. Who should receive Forms A?
17.1 General
The household is the basic unit for the purpose of the Census enumeration and a separate return on Form A must be made in respect of every household in the State by the head, or other person acting as the head, of the household.
For Census purposes, households are divided into two categories: private households and non-private households (i.e., institutions). It is absolutely essential that you know and understand thoroughly the following definitions of the two categories of household before you commence to work in the field.

17.2 Definition of private household
Anyone person, or group of persons (usually, but not necessarily, related) with housekeeping arrangements, separately occupying all or part of a private house, fiat, apartment or other private habitation of any kind, is regarded as a private household for Census purposes. Persons staying temporarily with the household are included but persons temporarily absent on Census night are excluded. The persons who constitute a private household jointly occupy living accommodation, share the principal meals (unless prevented by, for example, working conditions) and have common provision for the basic living needs. Each of the following is regarded as one private household:

1. A husband and wife (or couple); a husband and wife (or couple) and children, or one parent and children -living together and having no other persons residing with them - or a family such as any of the foregoing with their relatives, servants, visitors or boarders (not exceeding four in number - see Instruction 17.3) residing with them.
2. All persons occupying the same private dwelling and normally having their meals together.
3. A person living alone or with servants.
4. A lodger occupying a room or rooms in a house or fiat and not sharing in the housekeeping arrangements-particularly in the provision of food - with the other residents.
5. A resident caretaker of a house, office, etc., whether living alone or with his family if they reside with him.

17.3 Definition of non-private household
For persons passing Census night in an establishment or institution such as those included in the following list the entire establishment or institution is to be treated as a single non-private household for which a form(s) must be filled in by the person in charge: hotel; club; guest house; boarding house; hostel; monastery; convent; hospital; nurses' home; military barracks; Garda station; nursing home; county home; orphanage; prison; boarding school, etc.
Note that, [for boarding house], in the case of a private household with less than five boarders residing in it, the boarders do not constitute a separate non-private household but are to be regarded as members of the private household.

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It is most important to note, however, that if the proprietor, manager, head etc. or any member of the staff resides on the premises with his/her family, they are not to be regarded as part of the establishment or institution for Census purposes. Such a person, together with his/her family is to be regarded as a distinct private household and is to receive and fill up a separate Form A for that household. With regard to what should be recorded as separate institutions, please refer to Instruction 15.5 on page 14.
Members of the staff of an institution, who live outside the institution but are working a night-shift or on night duty on Census night, should be enumerated in their homes provided they return to them on the following day.

18. Preparation of the forms A
First check that the forms assigned to you are fully printed and whole.

18.1 Completing Sections A and D of Form A
Before delivering a Form A, it is essential to complete Section A in the bottom left-hand corner of Page 1 of the Form, striking out the names of areas which do not apply. You will probably find it convenient to enter at least the name of the county or county borough and the EA number in each form before you set out and add the remaining information as you deliver the forms.
You should also complete Section D of Form A before delivery by inserting the relative Form D Serial N number.
Sections A and D need not be completed on all the Forms A for a large institution; it will suffice to do so on the first and last forms.

18.2 Name of head
The name of the person designated as head of the household or other person who is to complete the Form A should be written in pencil in the space immediately above the words "Census Day" at the top of Page 1 of the Form. You must also ensure that the address is accurately recorded in Section A.

19. When should Forms A be delivered?
19.1 General
Unless specifically instructed otherwise by your Field Supervisor, you should commence this stage of the enumeration on Tuesday 2 April, 1991 and complete it by Wednesday 17 April, 1991. However, ports and harbours containing seagoing ships and boats should not normally be covered until one or two days before Census date so as to avoid unnecessary entries in Form D. If visited too early, many of the ships etc. recorded in Form D may have sailed again before Census date.

19.2 If delivery unlikely to be completed in time
If, at any time during the progress of the work you foresee that you may not be able to complete the distribution of the Forms A by the target date you must immediately notify your Field Supervisor so that alternative arrangements can be made in good time.

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20. Procedure for delivering Forms A
20.1 Version of Form A
Find out the number of households and which version of Form A they require. On calling at each building etc. you must (1) find out how many distinct households of each type (as defined in Instructions 17.2 and 17.3) there are for whom Forms A must be delivered and (2) decide which language version of the Form A should be tendered to each household. Wherever possible, you should speak to the head or some other responsible member of each household, and, having ascertained the name of the head or other adult responsible for making the Census return, enter it in Column (6) of Form D as well as on the top of the Form A for the household (see Instruction 15.13 on page 16). The householder should also be asked whether the English or Irish version of the Form A is preferred. Where you fail to make contact with the householder the English version should normally be distributed unless you have any reason to think that the householder may wish to have the Irish version (for example where the name of the head of the household is given in Irish). Enumerators should carry a sufficient number of the Irish version of the form to cater for situations of this kind. Where you fail to make contact with the householder in Gaeltacht areas the Irish version should normally be distributed. It is possible that some householders may ask for both versions of the form and the Enumerators should accede to such a request.
In the case of an institution, you must make sure to leave a sufficient supply of Forms A to cover all the persons likely to be present on Census night and you must also find out if it contains any private households (e.g., members of the staff residing on the premises with their families), who should get separate Forms A.

20.2 Inquiries about housekeeping and catering arrangements
When you encounter a situation where the occupants of a house or flat do not conform to the usual family pattern, you will probably have to inquire about housekeeping and catering arrangements to establish how many households there are in that house or flat.

20.3 Households containing more than 8 persons
The Form A caters to only 8 persons. It is most important, therefore, that you establish the number of persons in the household and take special care to leave two or more Forms A, as appropriate, for a household containing more than 8 persons.

20.4 Household likely to have left dwelling unit before Census night
If you learn that a household is likely to have left the dwelling unit, whether temporarily or permanently, by Census night you should not leave a Form A but should enter the words "Likely to be absent" or "Likely to be vacant", as appropriate, above the name of the head of the household in Column (6) of Form D. You should also make a note of the situation in column (11) (or in your notebook) giving, if possible, the number of persons in the household and the address at which they expect to spend Census night. As already stated in Instruction 15.14 on page 16, you should also enter "1" in sub-column (b) or (c), as appropriate, of Column (7) of Form D. The position in regard to such households will have to be clarified at an early stage during the collection of Forms A (see Instruction 27.3 on page 27).

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20.5 Multi-occupied buildings
The purpose of the Census is to enumerate the entire population of the State so it is of vital importance that you discover all the households in your EA. The main difficulties likely to be encountered in achieving this arise in dealing with multi-occupied buildings and particularly with houses originally intended for occupation by one household but now occupied by two or more households. Quite often, very little or no modification will have been made to the original building to adapt it to its new function. If you encounter such a situation, you should try to find out from the first person you meet the number of flats or "bed-sitters" in the building and their location on each floor. Working systematically through the building, from floor to floor, list each flat or "bed-sitter" in Form D as well as any remaining part of the building used for non-residential purposes (e.g., as shops or offices). Please inform your field supervisor of any apartment block developments in your EA (where contact with individual households can be difficult to arrange), so that arrangements can be made through consultation with a caretaker or management company representative for the distribution and collection of Census forms.

20.6 Completed Forms A to be ready on Monday 22 April 1991
When delivering the Form A, you should impress on the person with whom you are dealing the importance of having the form completed on the morning of Monday, 22 April, 1991. It is recommended that you should make an appointment to collect the form or, at least, try to ascertain the most convenient time of day to call to collect it. Be sure to note in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) any appointments you made to collect Forms A or the results of any inquiries about the best time to call for this purpose.

21. Personal returns
21.1 Use of Form A(P)
You may come across cases where the head of the household is unable or reluctant to collect information from persons in the household or where members of the household are unwilling to give the information required to the head to enable her to complete Form A. Difficulties of this kind occur most often in hotels, guest houses, boarding houses etc.
In these cases, you may accept separate Personal Returns in Form A(P), completed by the household members concerned or, in the case of a family group, by one responsible member of that group. The Forms A(P) for making these returns may be given directly to the persons concerned or to the head of the household for distribution to them. You must complete Sections A and D in each Form A(P) before distribution and you should also write clearly at the top of each form the name of the person who is to complete it, if you can find this out. With each form you should deliver one of the special envelopes provided (No. COP 1 bearing your Employee No. in the bottom left-hand corner) in which the form may be sealed on completion and also a copy of the explanatory brochure (see Instruction 14.1 on page 10). (A person taking a Personal return may leave it in the sealed envelope with the head of the household for delivery to you or may deliver or post it directly to you. In the event that the person concerned is unwilling to let you see the Form A( P) special arrangements must be made to have the form posted to the Field Supervisor). Where necessary you should affix a postage stamp to the envelope COP 1.
The name of the person who is to be recorded in the Form A(P) should also be written by the enumerator, on the outside of the back-flap of the envelope accompanying the form if it is

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known to him. Otherwise, the head of the household should be instructed to do this.
In any case where you distribute a Form A(P) (for the making of a Personal return) directly to the person who is to complete it, you must make sure to inform the head of the household of your action. You should also try to make a definite arrangement for the collection or return of the form after Census date.

21.2 Form PR
In all cases where the "Personal return" procedure is to be employed, you must furnish the head of the household with a copy of Form PR (please see Appendix 4) which sets out the details of the procedure. As indicated in the Form PR, the head of the household is not absolved from his/her legal responsibility to account for all members of the household on the Form(s) A for the household. Accordingly, the head must complete Questions (1) to (3), inclusive, in the Form(s) A in respect of each person who is to make a Personal return and should write "PR" in large capitals after the person's name in the first column of the form.
Every Form PR which you distribute should bear, in the spaces provided in the form, your own name, address and telephone number (if any) and those of your Field Supervisor. You may find it convenient to prepare the Form PR in advance.
While the heading in Form PR makes it clear that it is intended primarily for heads of households, you should, if requested, furnish a copy to an individual member of a household who has expressed a desire to make a Personal return.
Paragraph 8 of Form PR draws attention to the fact that the Personal return procedure is a concession which should be employed only in certain clearly defined situations. As it gives rise to a considerable amount of extra work at a subsequent stage, enumerators should be on their guard to see that the concession is not widely used when this is not justified. The greatest need for the use of the procedure is usually to be found in hotels and similar establishments although, of course, it is also justified in any case where a household member has refused to give the head the information needed to complete Form A.

21.3 Necessity to note "Personal return" cases in Form D
You should make a note in column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) when you deliver Form (s) A(P) for Personal return(s), indicating, where possible, the names of the persons concerned and any arrangements you have made to collect the form(s). In this connection, note also that you should keep a check on your use of the envelopes COP 1 and be able to account for them to your Field Supervisor. The cost of stamps used with these envelopes will be reimbursed.

21.4 Form A(P) not to be used for one-person households
Note that Form A(P) is intended to be filled in by an individual member of a multi-person household. On no account should this form be used for a one-person household.

22. Return of completed Forms A by post
22.1 General
Forms A returned by post generate considerable extra work both for the Central Statistics
Office and for the field staff (see for example Section 22.5 below). Accordingly it should be

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regarded as a procedure of last resort to be used sparingly. The following paragraphs illustrate some instances for which postal returns are acceptable.

22.2 Households leaving the EA before the enumerator calls
In accordance with the instructions set out in the section entitled "Collection of completed forms" on Page 1 of Form A, a family which is present on Census night but which is going on holidays, moving to a new address, or leaving the residence unoccupied for any other reason after Census date and before the enumerator calls to collect Form A, should post the Form to the Director, Central Statistics Office, Census of Population Division, Ardee Road, Dublin 6.

22.3 Other reasons for posting Form A
There are other cases in which the person completing Form A may prefer, or may be asked, to return the completed form by post. For example, the person may be reluctant to have you examine the form or to leave it where it might be seen by another resident of the building. Sometimes it may prove difficult or impossible for you to collect a form because the dwelling is unoccupied for most of the day. (The latter circumstances are particularly likely to arise in the case of one-person households).
In any of these cases, you may issue the person concerned with one of the special envelopes provided (No. COP 2) in which the Form A can be posted, preferably to you, otherwise to your Field Supervisor or direct to the Central Statistics Office. You should pre-address the envelope and also write your Employee Number in the bottom left-hand corner of the envelope before issue. You should also affix a postage st8.lUP to the envelope COP 2 and claim a refund of any cost incurred.

22.4 Noting Form D
In every instance where you issue an envelope to enable the Form A to be returned by post, you should make an appropriate note in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) so that you will not make further unnecessary visits to the dwelling to collect the form. This will also help you to keep a check on the use of your stock of these envelopes. You should be able, in due course, to account for this stock to your Field Supervisor.

22.5 Early posting essential
You must impress on any person who wishes to return Form A or Form A(P) by post that the Forms should be posted, if possible, on Monday 22 April, 1991 and, in any event, not later than Thursday 25 April, 1991. In every case you should also make it clear to the person concerned that she has not discharged the obligation to furnish a Census return until the form is actually received. If you have not received the form - or have not been notified of its receipt in the case of a Form posted to the Field Supervisor or the Central Statistics Office within a reasonable time (not exceeding 2 weeks), you should return to the dwelling and ask that person to complete a fresh return.

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23. The need for tact and courtesy
23.1 General
When delivering the Forms A you must take pains to be courteous and tactful in dealing with the people you meet. In particular you should be aware that some people may have genuine difficulty in understanding and completing the Form. You must do your best to give any explanation you are asked for and you should thank anyone who renders you assistance in carrying out your work.

23.2 Refusal to accept delivery of Form A
If anyone refuses to accept delivery of the Form A, you should try to find out the reason for this. Usually, you will find that there is some misunderstanding about the nature and purpose of the Census and that your explanations will resolve the difficulty. It is anticipated also that the explanatory Census brochure will be a considerable help in this regard. In a case of persistent refusal, you should on no account adopt a militant or threatening attitude but should tactfully draw the person's attention to the fact that there is a legal obligation to complete the Census form. If this fails to achieve the desired result you should not press the matter but should inform the person that you must report the refusal to your Field Supervisor. Make a note of the situation in Column (11) of Form D (and in your notebook) and furnish a detailed written report on what transpired to your Field Supervisor as soon as possible.

23.3 Form CEN. 1
This form is intended for use, at the delivery stage, only as a last resort when repeated efforts to establish personal contact with the household have failed. At least two abortive calls should have been made to the address in question. Naturally, the Enumerator must be satisfied that there is, in fact, a household at the address before delivering a form CEN. 1. You must complete sections A and D of Form A (delivered with form CEN. 1.)

24. Recording time worked and reporting progress
24.1 General
You are required to maintain a careful record in your notebook of all the time you spend working on the Census, including time spent in studying instructions etc., attending training sessions and familiarising yourself with your EA. It is most important that this record be complete and accurate as you will need to consult it when preparing the prescribed weekly progress reports for your Field Supervisor (see Instructions 24.2 and 35.2).

24.2 Form WR 1
At the end of each week (ending Friday) during the period of your employment you must furnish your Field Supervisor with a progress report on Form WR 1. The first such report should be for the week ending Friday 8 March 1991 and should be made on Saturday 9 March 1991. Reports for subsequent weeks ending Friday should be made on the following day (Saturday) in each

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case except in the case of the final report which should be made as soon as possible after you have completed your Census enumeration duties.
All of your reports on Form WR 1 should be completed in quadruplicate (using interleaved carbon paper). You should forward the top three copies to your Field Supervisor and retain the bottom copy for yourself (see Instruction 35.2 on page 40).

25. Completion of Forms R
As the visual enumeration proceeds, particulars relating to each and every business unit will be recorded by you in your Form D book. Subsequently, (or concurrently, if circumstances permit) you should transfer the appropriate details to Form R. In practice, this is best done at the conclusion of each day's enumeration. The details required are:

1. Form D serial number
2. Address of premises
3. Description of business unit
4. DED or ward
5. Full name of business unit

The details supplied in Form R will be keyed in order to create a register of "Place of work". Accordingly, it is important that every effort is made to ensure that the details are clearly and unambiguously entered on Form R. As an aid in this regard, four (4) lines are provided for each address and you are expected to parse each address such that the separate lines are availed of.
It is not necessary to indicate the county/county borough in the address as this will already have been indicated at the top of the form. In the case of rural districts, the nearest town should be indicated together with the postal town, if different. The nearest town is retained in preference to the postal town in cases where elements of the address are dropped by reason of insufficient lines available.
For the Description of business unit, you should confine the description (where possible) to one of the relevant headings specified in the definition of "Business unit" in Instruction 14.3 on page 10.
Your completed Forms R should be returned at the same stage as your Forms D, etc. (see Instruction 36.2 on page 40).
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Part IV: Collection of completed Forms A

26 General Issues
26.1 Articles to be carried
When collecting the Forms A, you should carry with you in the satchel provided the following articles:

1. The book of Forms D
2. A supply of Forms A (both English and Irish versions) and Forms A(P)
3. A supply of the explanatory Census brochure
4. Your clipboard
5. The map(s) of your EA
6. A black pencil
7. An eraser
8. A red and a blue (or black) biro
9. A supply of envelopes
10. Some Forms PR
11. Your enumerator's manual
12. Your certificate of appointment as enumerator
13. Your notebook
14. A pencil sharpener.

26.2 Date of commencement
You must begin to collect the Forms A early on Monday 22 April 1991, and finish the collection as quickly as possible.

26.3 Forms for hotels, etc. to be collected first
Forms for hotels, guest-houses, ships, travelling families, etc. should be collected first as, otherwise, you may find that the guests etc. have left the district before you call to collect the forms and it may be impossible to get accurate particulars about them.

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27 Procedure to be followed when collecting Forms A
27.1 General
You must collect a Form A for every household for which there is a name entered in Column (6) of Form D, provided the household was still in your EA on Census night or returned on the following morning, not having been enumerated elsewhere. Remember to record the date of collection of completed Form A in column (9) of Form D.

27.2 Dwelling Units missed at the delivery stage
If, at the collection stage, you discover a dwelling unit whose existence you had not noted at the delivery stage, you should, of course, arrange to have a Form A completed (if the dwelling unit was occupied on Census night) and make all the necessary entries in Form D in respect of the dwelling unit, continuing in sequence from the last Serial No. used at the delivery stage. If the newly discovered dwelling is part of a premises already noted in Form D, you should insert appropriate cross-references in Column (11) of the Form D. Remember that the Form D Serial Nos. for any newly discovered dwelling units should also be inserted in the relative lap and, where necessary, their location should be marked in red in the map.

27.3 Dwelling Units noted as "Vacant" or "Absent"
During the collection stage of the Census, you must visit again any dwelling units which you had noted at the delivery stage as "Vacant" or from which the occupants were likely to be absent on Census night, to ensure that they were not, in fact, occupied on that night. In any case where a dwelling unit noted as "Vacant" or "Absent" in Form D at the delivery stage is found to have been occupied on Census night, a Form A (with Sections A and D completed) must be delivered to the household concerned for immediate completion and the appropriate entries made in Columns (6), (7), (8) and (9) of Form D.

27.4 New resident in EA
Should you receive from a new resident in your EA a completed Form A, the blank version of which was originally delivered to that resident by the enumerator for the EA in which she previously resided, you should, of course accept it. However, you should retain the form only if the person or household concerned was residing in your EA on Census night. In this case, you must be careful to amend the entries made by the other enumerators in Sections A and D at the bottom of the form. If the person or household concerned moved into your EA after Census night, you should give the form immediately to your Field Supervisor with a note of the circumstances.

27.5 Caravans and mobile homes
At the collection stage you should also check on any caravans or mobile homes (including those in caravan parks etc.) which you had not listed separately in Form D because they were not occupied at the delivery stage (see Instruction 15.6 on page 14). If you find that such a caravan or mobile home was, in fact, occupied on Census night, you should follow the procedure laid down in Instruction 27.2 on page 27 for dealing with dwelling units missed at the delivery stage.

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27.6 Households which were not present at time of Census
If you find that a household in respect of which you delivered a Form A was not present in the EA during the time of the Census, you must draw a line through (but not erase) the name of the household head in Column (6) of Form D. If the household was only temporarily absent from the residence, you should enter the word "Absent" over the original entry in Column (6). If the household has moved permanently away from the residence, leaving it vacant at the time of the Census, you should enter the word "Vacant" over the original entry in Column (6). In either case, you must find out if possible, the number of persons (male and female) in the household and the address at which the household spent Census night and note these particulars in Column (11) of Form D, or in your notebook. (You will be required, at the end of the enumeration to furnish a special report in Form E in respect of any household to which Form A was distributed but which was absent from the EA at the time of the Census - see Instruction 29.2 on page 32). In these cases, of course, you should also mend the entry in Column (7) of Form D by erasing the original entry in sub-column (a) and inserting "1" in sub-column (b) or (c), as appropriate. If the dwelling unit was occupied by another household on Census night, you must, of course, deliver a Form A (sections A and D completed) to the household concerned for immediate completion.

27.7 Refusal to fill up Form A
Should anyone refuse to fill up Form A or to answer questions which you may find it necessary to put for the purpose of carrying out the enumeration in accordance with these instructions, you should tactfully try to find out why the person is adopting this attitude and furnish any explanations which may seem to be required to resolve the matter. If a person persists in refusing to co-operate, you must be at pains to avoid giving any impression of being militant or threatening but should courteously point out that there is a legal obligation under the Statistics Acts, to complete the Census form or to furnish the required information. IT this fails to achieve the desired co-operation, you should not press the matter further but should inform the persons that you must report the refusal to your Field Supervisor. As soon as possible after the interview you should furnish a full report on what has transpired to the Field Supervisor. This report should indicate clearly the precise questions you put to the persons concerned and the nature of the information which was refused. Remember that this report may be used in subsequent legal proceedings.

27.8 Personal returns in Form A(P)
When collecting the Forms A you should check the entries in Column (11) of Form D to identify the cases in which you delivered Form A(P) for the purpose of Personal returns (see Instructions 21.1 et seq. on page 21). In these cases, you must ensure that (1) the head of the household has listed all the household members (including those making Personal returns) in the Form(s) A for the household and (2) you collect a completed Form A(P) in respect of each person concerned or verify that the' form has been forwarded to your Field Supervisor. You should, of course, be careful not to disclose to the head of the household any information contained in a Form A(P) which was collected by or delivered to you in a sealed envelope.

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27.9 Inability to contact household
If you are unable, despite repeated calls, on different days and at different times of day, to make contact with a household for the purpose of collecting Form A, you should report the circumstances in writing to your Field Supervisor. If the Forms CEN. 3 and CEN. 4 (see Instructions 27.16 and 27.17 on page 31) have been used and no return has been received from such a household at the stage when you are preparing the relative Form B (see Instruction 31.3 on page 34), you should construct a provisional Form A for the household containing the address, the name of the head, the number of persons (males and females) in the household and as much other information as it is possible for you to ascertain. Write the word "Constructed" in large block letters in the space on the top right-hand corner on Page 1 of each constructed Form A and also complete Sections A and D on Page 1 of the form. Note: You may construct a Form only when there is no reasonable possibility of making contact with the household and after you have reported the matter to your Field Supervisor and received appropriate instructions.

27.10 Assisting householders to complete Form A
A householder who has not filled in the Form A by the time you call to collect it should be asked to do so right away and you should either wait until this is done or arrange to collect it later that day. You should render any assistance needed in completing the form and, where the householder appears to be incapable of doing so (see Section 23.1), you should fill in the form yourself, asking whatever questions are necessary to enable you to do so.

27.11 Examination of Form A or Form A(P) on collection
When collecting a Form A or Form A(P), you should, whenever possible, examine it thoroughly for correctness and completeness so as to avoid as far as possible the necessity for additional visits to households.
The proper examination of the return at the time of collection is of the greatest importance as the accuracy of the enumeration largely depends on it. You must not contact a household (or any Member of a household) by telephone in order to check entries or seek further information.

27.12 Incomplete or inaccurate returns
If an entry on a Form A is obviously incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate, ambiguous or illegible, you have the right and the duty to ask any questions necessary to enable you to complete or correct it but you must do this in a courteous and tactful manner. If additional non-essential information is given on the form do not delete it. In the case of an apparently inaccurate or incomplete return in a Form A(P) (see Instructions 21.1 et seq. on page 21) you should immediately seek an interview with the person concerned with a view to remedying the position. You must be particularly careful to be courteous and tactful when conducting such an interview. (see 27.7 on page 28).

[p.30]

27.13 Making corrections in Form A or Form A(P)
When making a correction on a Form A or Form A(P) a line should be drawn through the wrong entry and the correction written legibly. No erasures should be made.

27.14 Completing Section C of Form A
Section C on page 1 of Form A should be completed at the time of collection. In Section C, check the appropriate box to show whether the Form relates to:

1. a private household resident in a house
2. a private household in a flat or bed-sitter (this includes purpose built apartment blocks)
3. a private household in a caravan, mobile home, etc. (this includes private households in temporary dwellings such as demountable wooden dwellings and homeless persons sleeping rough on Census night)
4. a non-private household.

In the case of No 4 the name of the establishment (if any) should also be entered in Section C
of Form A. If there is more than one Form A for a household, Section C should be completed on the first form only. When completing Section C of Form A, it is important to bear in mind the definitions of private and non-private households given in Instructions 17.2 and 17.3 particularly in relation to private households living in institutions. You might inquire at convents, etc. as to whether there are any homeless persons in your EA.

27.15 Completing Section F of Form A
Section F (page 6) of Form A should also be completed at the time of collection. The purpose of this section is to identify the Type of Building which contains the dwelling unit occupied by the household concerned.

Category 1 (conventional house, containing one dwelling) covers detached/semi-detached/terraced houses and duplex blocks (a three-storey building with apartments on the ground floor and two-storey townhouses/duplex units on the two upper floors ... each dwelling unit has its own external entrance) provided they each contain only one dwelling unit regardless of whether vacant or not. In general, such units will be in their original purpose built state and will have an unshared entrance and a unique address.

Category 2 (one dwelling building, partly non-residential) typically covers a caretaker's flat in an office block, a lone flat above a shop, a lone flat in a conventional house where the remainder is being used as office or other business accommodation. It is important to note that this Category does not apply if more than one private dwelling unit, whether vacant or not, is in the building ... Category 3 applies in such circumstances.

Category 3 (multi-dwelling building) includes apartment blocks (and purpose built blocks of flats, private or Local Authority) and former conventional houses which now contain two or more dwelling units.

[p.31]

27.16 Use of Forms CEN. 2, CEN. 3
These Forms (see appendix 6) are to be used only as a last resort when repeated efforts to establish contact with the household have failed. The Form CEN. 2 should not be used unless at least three abortive calls have been made at different times of the day for the purpose of collecting a Form A.
In no circumstances should a Form CEN. 3 be delivered to an address unless the Form CEN.2 has already been used without success. Normally, at least a week should be allowed to elapse between the delivery of the CEN. 2 and the use of CEN. 3. Ensure that Sections A and D of Form A which is delivered with the CEN. 3, are completed.

27.17 Use of Form D CEN. 4
The Form CEN. 4 (see appendix 7) is a letter, bearing the signature of the Director of the Central Statistics Office. The enumerator should not sign the Form CEN. 4 but should initial the form in the bottom left hand corner before delivery. The other information regarding the appropriate regional office should of course be added. Normally, at least four (4) days should be allowed to elapse between the delivery of the Form CEN. 3 and the use of the Form CEN. 4.
As the CEN. 4 Form offers the householder the option of leaving the completed Form A at any convenient Garda Station, the enumerators and Field Supervisors, as soon as the issue of the Forms CEN. 4 has begun, must carry out frequent checks at all local Garda Stations with a view to collecting, without delay, any completed Forms which may have been left there.
Forms A received in Regional Offices as a result of the use of the CEN. forms need not be subjected to the Form H procedure (see Instruction 30.6 on page 34) unless there is a reason to believe that the person who completed the Form A did not wish the enumerator to see it. Accordingly, they may be passed on to the enumerator for incorporation with the other forms collected by him.

[p.32]

Part V: Duties after collection of Forms A

28. Certification of Forms D

[Sections 28.1 - 30.4 omitted here]

30.5 Procedure for counting number of persons in household
Past experience has shown that a surprising number of errors can be made in carrying out this apparently simple operation. To minimise the risk of error, the following procedure should be followed: from the entries in Question (2) of Form A, first count the number of males and enter the result in Section E. Next count the number of females from Question (2) and record this figure in Section E. Finally, count, from Question (1) of the Form A, the total number of persons in the household and enter the result in Section E, ensuring at the same time that this total figure equals the sum of the figures for males and females already entered.

[p. 34]

[Section 30.6 is omitted here]

31 Preparation of Forms B
31.1 General
The purpose of the Form B is to summarise the entries in the Forms A relating to a street or townland. Particulars for only one street or one townland should be entered in the same
Form B (see examples of completed form B in appendix 8. these accord with the examples of completed forms D set out in Appendix 3). If a street extends into more than one DED or ward, the part in each DED or ward must be given a separate Form B. Similarly, if part of a townland is in a town -- or the environs of a municipal town -- and the remainder is outside, a separate Form B must be completed for each part.

31.2 Form B headings
In the spaces provided at the head of the Form B should be inserted the names of the county or county borough, DED or ward, EA number and townland or street. Inapplicable headings should be struck out. There is also provision at the top of the form for entering the name of the postal town, if the form relates to a townland which is rural in character. It is essential that the name of the postal town be entered in every Form B which relates to any townland or part of a townland which is not in a town or in the Suburbs or environs of a municipal town.

31.3 Putting Forms A in order
Before you start to enter the particulars from the completed Forms A for a street or townland in Form B, the Forms A (and any relevant Forms H received from your Field Supervisor) should first be arranged in the order in which the premises to which they relate were visited in the course of the visual enumeration and distribution of Forms A. This will generally be apparent from the Form D Serial No. entered in Section D of each Form A. However, in carrying out this instruction, you should ensure that the Forms A relating to all dwelling units in the same building are arranged consecutively notwithstanding the fact that the relative Form D Serial Numbers may not be in sequence for one reason or another, (see relevant example in the specimen Form B relating to "High Street (part)" in Appendix 8). The detachable section of each Form A containing the notes on completion should be detached at this stage (if not already done) along the perforated line provided for this purpose.

31.4 Entries in Columns (1) to (7) of Form B
When the Forms A (and Forms H, if any) have been assembled in correct order, you should enter the required particulars from these forms in Columns (1) to (7), inclusive, of the Form(s)

[p.35]

B, allotting one line of the Form B to each household (whether private or non-private). You should make no entry at this stage in Column (8) of Form B.
Note that the required entry in Column (6) of Form B is the complete name and surname listed in the first line of the relative Form(s) A. This is usually, but not necessarily, the same name as that entered in Column (6) of Form D. In Column (3) of Form B, you should enter the number of separate households occupying each premise. As the great majority of dwelling units is comprised of complete houses and purpose-built flats, the usual entry in this column will be "1". The principal exceptions will be houses or fiats containing more than one household - especially houses let out in flats or bed-sitters -- and certain establishments (such as hotels, guest houses, boarding houses, hospitals, boarding schools, etc.) which often contain numbers of separate households. In such a case the number of households in the premises should be entered in Column (3) of Form B on the line relating to the first household and Column (3) should be left blank for the other households in the premises. In Column (4) you should indicate whether the household is Private (Codes 1-3) or non-private (Code 4), as shown in Section C on Page 1 of the relative Form A. The entry should consist of a "1" in the appropriate sub-column.

Where you have more than 20 entries for a townland or street, you will have to carry forward the sub totals from the preceding page to each succeeding Form B. When doing this, you should strike out the words "Totals" opposite the figures which are being carried forward to the next page. The figures which have been brought forward should be entered on the first line of succeeding Forms B, preceded by the words "Brought forward". You should, of course, strike out the words "Carried forward" at the bottom of Form B when entering the total figures for a street/townland (or part of either).

31.5 Totaling the figures entered in Form B
According as you enter Form B, you should add up the figures relating to households in Columns (3) and (4) and number of persons in Column (5) and enter the resultant figures in the spaces provided at the bottom of the form, making sure, as you do so, that the sum of the figures for private and non-private households in Column (4) is the same as that for Number of households in Column (3) and that, in Column (6), the sum of the figures for males and females agrees with the figures for persons.

32 Completion of Forms C
32.1 Putting Forms B in order
When all the Forms B for each DED or ward have been totaled, they should be placed in the same order as the townlands or streets (or parts of either) to which they refer are listed in the relative Form(s) C which have been updated where necessary, (see Instruction 32.3 below).

32.2 Entries in Columns (4) to (7) of Form C
You should now transfer the total figures from Columns (3) and (5) of the Forms B to the appropriate lines in Columns (4) and (5) - (7), respectively, of both the original (white) and the duplicate (yellow) copy of the Form C (see examples of completed form C in appendix 9.: these are based on the relevant Forms B in appendix 8.). When you have done this for all the townlands and

[p.36]

streets listed in the Form C, you should add up the entries in the four columns in question on both copies of the Form C and enter the results in the spaces provided at the foot of the Forms, ensuring at the same time that the figures arrived are the same for both the original and the duplicate copy of the Form C and also that the sum of the figures for males and females agrees with the figures for persons. Where there is more than one Form C for a DED or ward, you will have to carry forward to the second and each succeeding Form C the sub-totals from the preceding form.

32.3 Listing of areas in Form C
The listing of areas in the Form C, together with the figures for households and population returned for these areas at the 1986 Census, is done beforehand in the Central Statistics Office, the enumerator being responsible for recording the figures for households and population returned for each area in the EA at the current Census.
In the case of a District Electoral Division (DED) which consists, in whole or in part, of rural areas, the townlands or parts of townlands comprising these areas are listed first in the Form C in alphabetical order (in Column 1) while the town(s), if any, in the DED are shown at the end of the form.
In the case of a very small town, the townlands on which it stands are listed, in alphabetical order, immediately after the town's name on Form C. For other towns, the streets are listed in alphabetical order in Form C and are sometimes followed by the names of the townlands -- again in alphabetical order -- on which the town stands; this is done to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road in the town.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the list of streets shown for each town is up-to-date and complete. However, if you observe any case in which the names of streets appearing in the Form C are no longer in current use, you should amend the form as necessary, by drawing a line through the out of date entry and entering the present names of the streets. You should also add to the list any new streets which have come into existence since the previous Census and which are not listed on Form C. If any street or portion of a street appears to have been accidentally omitted from the Form C, as originally prepared, this should, of course, also be inserted since it is most important that every person in the EA be included in the enumeration.
Cases may arise in which you find that a housing development which is shown as only one listing in Form C (e.g., "Oakfield Estate") actually consists of named streets and roads (e.g., "Oakfield Drive", "Oakfield Crescent", "Oakfield Grove", etc. ). In such a case you should add the names of the individual streets and roads to the Form C but make no alteration in the figures for Total number of households and Total persons for 1986 in Columns (2) and (3) of the form.

32.4 Completion of Column (8)
You should examine the entries in the Forms C to detect any obvious discrepancies between the figures for households and for total population for the last Census and for the current Census or between the number of males and females for the current Census. The purpose of this examination is to check that there has been complete and accurate coverage of the area in question.
You should now furnish in Column (8) of both copies of Form C a brief explanation of any significant difference between the number of households in any street or townland as shown

[p.37]

for the last Census in Column (2) and for the current Census in Column (4). Such explanations should be factual and based on actual knowledge rather than mere assumptions.

32.5 Purpose of duplicate (yellow) Form C
It is very important that preliminary figures of population in respect of the more important statutory areas should be available as soon as possible after Census date. The duplicate (yellow) copy of Form C, which is to be furnished to the Central Statistics Office in advance of any of the other Census Returns, has been introduced for the purpose of expediting, as far as possible, the production of the Preliminary Report of the Census.
Accordingly, as soon as you have totaled and examined the Form(s) C relating to a DED or ward, you should sign and date the duplicate copy and send it immediately to the Central Statistics Office in the special envelope provided.

32.6 Necessity to furnish duplicate Form C speedily
It is a matter of prime importance that you furnish the duplicate Form C to the Central Statistics Office with the least possible delay. This operation should not, therefore, await the signature of all the relevant Forms A (see Instruction 30.1 on page 32) or the numbering of these Forms (see Instruction 33.2 below). Neither should the transmission of a duplicate Form C be delayed until the completion of the Forms C for other DEDs or wards in your EA. Do not, however, furnish a duplicate Form C based on all incomplete count of the population in the area covered by the form. Figures of the number of persons (males and females) in every household in the area must be obtained before the form is completed and forwarded.

32.7 Notification of errors in duplicate Forms C
If, subsequent to the dispatch of a duplicate Form C, you discover that there was an error in any of the entries in Columns (4), (5), (6) or (7) of the Form, you should make the necessary amendments in the original copy of the Form. Should there be a difference in absolute terms, in excess of 20 or, in relative terms, in excess of 5 per cent, between the final total in any of the latter three columns in the original Form C and the corresponding total which appeared in the duplicate copy, the fact should be reported immediately to your Field Supervisor.

32.8 Signature of original Forms C
When you are satisfied that the original (white) Form(s) C for your EA are correct and complete you should sign and date each form.

33 Inserting Schedule Numbers in Section B of Forms A
33.1 Separate numbering series for each DED or ward
You must use a separate numbering series for each DED or Ward in your EA starting with "1" in each case.

[p.38]

33.2 Procedure to be followed
When all the Forms A -- with their accompanying Forms A(P), if any -- for a DED or ward have been satisfactorily completed and you have signed them, you should place them, together with any relevant Forms H, in the same order as that in which the corresponding heads of households are listed in the relative Forms B. (The latter form will already have been placed in the order in which the townlands and streets to which they relate are listed in Form C (see Instruction 32.1 on page 35). The Forms A (and Forms H, if any) should now be numbered consecutively -- commencing with the form which is uppermost -- in Section B of the form. For example, the Forms A for the first townland or street might be numbered 1 to 11, the second 12 to 27 and so on. When there are two or more Forms A for a household - whether private or non-private - each form should receive a separate Schedule No. If a Form H relates to a household containing more than 8 persons it must be given two or more Schedule Numbers, as appropriate.
In each Form A(P), you should enter in Section B the Schedule Number you have assigned to the relative Form A. You should already have entered the relative Form A Line number in this Section of the Form A(P) (see Instruction 30.3 on page 33).

33.3 Accuracy essential in numbering Forms A
It is absolutely essential that the foregoing instructions regarding the numbering of Forms A be strictly adhered to as any mistakes in this phase of the enumeration could lead to serious complications subsequently when the Census data are being processed. It is particularly important to guard against duplication or omission of any number in the sequence and to ensure that the sequence commences with the first Form A for the first Townland or Street (or part of either) listed in the relative Form C.

33.4 Insertion of Schedule Numbers in Column (8) of Form B
When all the Schedule Numbers have been entered in the Forms A (and Forms H, if any), it is necessary to complete Column (8) of the Form B by inserting the relative Schedule Numbers( s) opposite the name of the head of each household listed on that form. The Form B is now complete and you should sign the certificate to this effect at the bottom of the form.

34 Binding Forms A - Use of file covers
[Sections 34.1-34.3 are omitted here]

34.4 Summary Form B1
A set of Forms B1 (see examples of completed Form B1 in Appendix 10 -- these are based on the relevant Form B details as set out in Appendix 8) must be completed for each DED/ward within an EA. The population summaries for completion of Form B1 are entered from the Census Form A. First complete the details required at the top of the Form B1 (County, EA, DED). One line is to be completed for each household. Enter in the first column the Schedule Number (from Section B of Form A) and in columns (2), (3) and (4) the numbers of males, females and persons (from Section E of Form A). The age classification is obtained by counting the males and females according to year of birth and entering the figures in the columns provided. Total the figures for males and females (separately) for all age groups and ensure the totals correspond with those entered in columns (2) and (3) of Form B1. Total the figures on each page of Form B1, [and] carry forward the totals and enter the "brought forward" totals on the first line of the second and subsequent pages. The final page will contain the total figures for the DED (or part). The Forms B1 should then be page numbered.
Forms B1 should be returned immediately to the Central Statistics Office in the special envelope provided.

34.5 Filing Forms Band C
When you have filed the Forms A, you should securely fasten together the Forms B for each District Electoral Division etc. in your EA -- in the order shown in the relative Form(s) C -- and place them together with the original (white) Form(s) C inside the front cover of the file of Forms A. If there is more than one file of Forms A for a District Electoral Division, etc. in your EA, the Forms Band C should be placed in the first file -- i.e., the one containing Schedule No. 1.

35 Recording time worked and reporting progress

[Sections 35.1-35.2 are omitted here]

36 Final duties

[Sections 36.1-36.3 are omitted here]

[p.41]

Appendix 1
Method of examination of Forms A and A(P) to ensure completeness and accuracy
(The Note(s) referred to throughout this Appendix are the Explanatory Notes -- pages 7 and 8 of Form A)

The accuracy of the Census depends largely on the thorough examination of the Forms A and Forms A(P) at the time of collection and later at home. It follows therefore, that this examination is of the utmost importance. In order for the examination to be effective, you should be thoroughly familiar with the questions on the Forms A and with the associated Explanatory Notes. It is possible that some forms may contain answers which are obviously incorrect and that, from your own knowledge, you may be in a position to make a correct entry. In such cases, unless specifically instructed to the contrary, you may discreetly make a suitable amendment to the form without further reference to the respondent.
Any amendments or corrections which are made by you ill Form A or Form A( P) should be entered in red (use another colour, if the original entries are in red). Do not erase or obliterate any of the original entries.
If it is found necessary to ask for further information or to check entries on the Forms, either at the time of collection or subsequently, this should be done with courtesy and tact.
The following instructions have been prepared for your guidance in carrying out the scrutiny of the forms.

Q.l: Name and surname
Experience of previous censuses indicates that babies and very young children are sometimes omitted from the enumeration. Accordingly care should be taken to ensure that all persons, regardless of age, are included in accordance with the relevant Note.

Q.2 Sex and Q.3: Relationship to head of household
The answers to these Questions for each person must be consistent with one another and with the name of the person as entered at Question 1. Note that any adult member (male or female) of a private household, present on Census night may be returned as head according as the household members consider appropriate. If the term "Joint head" is used accept this without questioning provided the relationship with the other members is clear. The description "Visitor" must be used at Question 3 for a person whose usual residence is elsewhere (see Question 11) although she may be related to the head of the household.

Q.4: Date of birth
The exact date of birth (day, month and year) must be entered numerically for this Question. The year of birth of all persons in a private household should be compared with one another, bearing in mind their relationships. In particular, parents' and children's ages should be reasonably consistent with one another. If this question has not been answered and you have been unable to obtain the information by questioning the householder, you should enter your own best estimate of the year of birth. The note above regarding entering such amendments in red should be adhered to.

Q.5 and 6: Marital status
For children under 15 years of age (i.e., born more recently than 21 April, 1976) these questions should be left blank. An entry is required at Question 5 for all persons born on or before 21 April, 1976. Question 6 seeks information on the present actual marital status regardless of the legal status. Thus, for example, a deserted wife, although legally married, should choose box 5.

[p.42]

Q.7: Place of birth
The county of birth is required for every person born in any part of Ireland (including Northern Ireland). County boroughs should, for this purpose, be regarded as falling within the county of the same name -- e.g., if a person was born in Dublin County Borough, the entry should be "Dublin". Only the name of the country is required for persons born outside Ireland.

Q.8: Religion
Do not make any amendment to the reply given to this Question. Neither should you take any action where no reply is given to the Question other than ensuring that the question has not been inadvertently overlooked.

Q.9: Ability to speak the Irish language
This Question should be answered only for persons aged three years and over (i.e., born on or before 21 April, 1988). An entry should be made in this column only in respect of a person who can read or speak Irish. A person who can speak Irish is one who is able to carry on an ordinary conversation in Irish. Those whose knowledge of Irish is not sufficient to converse in Irish should not be returned as able to speak the language.

Q.10 and Q.11: Usual residence now and one year ago
[If] the address stated is in any part of Ireland, (including Northern Ireland), it is essential that it is given in full in accordance with the relevant. Note: Only the name of the country need be stated in the case of a foreign address.
As it is a common practice to include the name of the postal town when writing a rural address, it is most important to ensure as far as possible that where an address includes the name of a town, the residence in question is actually situated within that town and you should ask any questions necessary to enable you to establish the true position in this regard.
Where an address is given which purports to be in the same town as that in which the person is being enumerated, you should check that the address is, in fact, within the town boundary to be followed for Census purposes.

Q.12 and Q.13: Previous residence in another country
These questions should be answered by persons who are now usually resident in the Ireland (Republic) and who:
(i) previously lived elsewhere (outside the State) for a continuous period of 12 months or more; or
(ii) were born abroad (outside the State) and were brought to live here before their first birthday.
Please note that Northern Ireland is to be separately identified.

Q.14 and Q.15: Travel to work, school, or college
An answer is required to these questions in respect of every person who is at work or who is attending a school or university, etc. full time (in this connection, check the answer to Question 19). The columns can be left blank for all other persons -- e.g., persons whose Present status is described at Question 19 as "Unemployed", "Home duties", "Retired", "Children not yet at school", etc. Information is sought only in respect of the outward journey; information regarding the return journey should not be included. Only one of the boxes 1 to 11 should be ticked at Question 14. If more than one has been ticked clarify which is the principal means of travel and delete the other entries. In Question 15 the information required is the total distance travelled.
You should check that, to the best of your knowledge, there is no inconsistency between the answers to these questions and those given in respect of "Usual residence now" (Question 10) and Address of place of work etc. (Question 23).

[p.43]

Q.16 and Q.17: Education received
Entries in this section of the form are required for persons aged 15 years or over who have ceased full-time education. No entries are required for persons who are still at school/college or who are fulltime students at universities or who are attending day courses in vocational schools or business colleges. The age (in years) at which a person ceased to receive full-time education should be inserted at Question 16. Only one box should be chosen at Question 17 and that should reflect the highest level of education completed (general criterion of completion: "Exam sat for" below third level; diploma/certificate/degree received at third level) irrespective of whether it was on a full-time or part-time basis. In the case of a person with a job who is attending a technical school or university part-time, no entry in respect of this part-time education should be made; the particulars entered should be ill respect of the highest level of education which that person has completed (full-time or part-time). You should ensure that you are thoroughly aware of the content of the Notes relating to these questions in particular.

Q.18: Scientific or technological qualifications
You should not make any amendment in a reply to this question. If, however, there is no entry in respect of a person who you have reason to believe possesses qualifications of the type covered by this question, (e.g., a medical doctor), you should seek an interview with the respondent with a view to rectifying the situation.

Q.19 through Q.23: Employment
The questions on the person's position in regard to employment (Questions 19-23) are the most difficult to check and require the most careful study. These questions should be answered for all persons aged 15 years and over (i.e., born on or before 21 April, 1976). Answers in respect of persons aged younger than 15 should be ignored.

Q.19: Present status
Note that it is the person's principal status which is required and only one of the listed categorie should be ticked. A person who is mainly engaged as an "Assisting relative" on a farm, in a shop or in any other commercial enterprise, should be regarded as "At work" even if he or she receives no payment or no regular payment. A member of a religious body (other than a member who is retired or permanently unable to work owing to illness, etc.) should be regarded as "At work" even if he or site receives no payment. A housewife however who assists in the family business, but is mainly engaged on housework should be entered as on "Home (or domestic) duties". If category 8 is ticked, the precise status should be described in the same provided. If persons on FAs or other training courses/employment schemes require assistance in deciding their status, please use the information given at Appendix 11 as a guide.

Q.20: Occupation
You should study the relevant Notes with particular care, as it covers most of the usual difficulties experienced in answering this question. The occupation must be given for every person in Category 1, 3, or 6 at Question 19. The type of educational establishment being attended should be stated for a person in Category 4 at Question 19. You may observe apparent discrepancies between the answers to Questions 19 and 20 (e.g., an occupation stated at Question 20 for a person categorized as "School student" at Question 19) but you need not take any action in this regard. Note however, that there is a tendency for housewives to be described as "Home (or domestic) duties" in reply to the question on Occupation. Such an entry is a valid one only when it relates to a domestic servant and it should be struck out if it is given for a housewife.

[p.44]

You should ensure that the description of the Occupation is precise. Detailed below are examples of terms which are not sufficiently precise in themselves together with a corresponding example of a possible correct description which should have been entered in each case.
Inadequate entry

Accountant
Agent
Assistant
Checker
Civil servant
Clerk
Collector
Contractor
Director
Driver
Engineer
Factory worker
Fitter
Foreman
Inspector
Labourer
Machinist
Manager
Manufacturer
Mechanic
Merchant
Porter
Printer
Secretary
Technician
Possible correct entry
Chartered accountant
Manufacturer's agent
Shop assistant
Ticket checker
Civil servant - clerical officer
Stores clerk
Rent collector
Building contractor
Sales director
Lorry driver
Civil engineer
Hosiery machine operator
Gas fitter
Garage foreman
Maintenance inspector
Dock labourer
Drilling machine operator
Restaurant manager
Furniture manufacturer
Motor mechanic
Shopkeeper
Gate porter
Compositor
Medical secretary
Laboratory technician

If in doubt as to how a particular occupation should be described, it is better to give a detailed description rather than to omit particulars which may be essential for purposes of valid statistical classification. Particular care should be taken to ensure that, in the case of farmers or farm workers and regardless of present status, the area of the farm is inserted.

Q.21: Employment status
An answer is required here for persons in Category 1, 3, or 6 at Question 19. Answers for other persons should be ignored. The answers supplied should relate to the Occupation given at Question 20. Note that the term "Employee" should be used for a person receiving a fixed wage or salary, even if she is assisting a relative. If, however, she is assisting a relative without receiving a fixed wage or salary, s/he should be described as "Assisting relative". Members of religious orders should be described as "Employees". Persons without any paid employees, even though assisted by relatives who are not receiving fixed wages, should be described as "Self employed, without employees". Persons in partnership in a firm not having paid employees should also be described as "Self employed, without employees", while persons in partnership in a firm having paid employees should be described as "Self employed, employing others". Persons employed to manage commercial concerns should be described as "Employee" (thus, a person whose occupation is "Managing director" is an "Employee").

[p.45]

Q.22: Employer and employer's business
The answer should relate to the occupation given at Question 20. This question should be answered for every person in Category 1 or 3 at Question 19. Answers for other persons should be ignored. The information is required for the purpose of classifying persons to the industry or service with which their work is connected. What is needed here is the nature of the business carried on by the firm or undertaking for which the person is working.
If the employer has several different businesses, the one required is that in which the person carried on the Occupation stated at Question 20. For example, in the case of a clerk employed by CIE, it is important to distinguish whether he is in "Rail transport", "Road passenger transport", or a hotel, etc. This question must be completed in respect of all self-employed persons -- whether with or without employees -- the type of business carried on being stated.

Q.23: Address of place of work, school or college
This question should be answered in respect of every person who is at work or at school or college. The address given should be that at which the person is actually working. Furthermore, please ensure that the details are full and exact.

Q.24: Farming activity
This question attempts to identify all persons engaged in farming on their own behalf regardless of their principal occupation. Accordingly, there should be a "Yes" entry here (option 1 chosen) in all cases where the occupation "Farmer" is entered at Question 20 and category 1 chosen at Question 19. For other combinations of Questions 19 and 20 either option 2 or 3 is valid. In particular, a farm labourer who does not farm in his spare time for himself should choose option 3.

Details of the dwelling
Answers should be furnished to Questions 25 to 33 inclusive, in respect of all private households (except those in mobile dwellings) and in respect of the houses, flats or rooms occupied by such households.

Q.25: Nature of occupancy of house, flat, or rooms
You should check that a check has been inserted in one, and only one of the spaces provided. Cases will sometimes be met of two distinct households occupying a single house and a separate Form A will be completed for each household. While the first household might own the house (so that a check should be inserted in box 5 or 6), the second household might be renting portion of the house from the first household (so that on their Form the check should be in box 2 or 3, as appropriate), or living free of rent (when the check should be in box 7).

Q.26: Rent
You should ensure that a figure for rent is inserted in the case of each dwelling in Category 1, 2 or 3 at Question 25 and that the appropriate rental period is indicated by checking the period which applies. Check that there is a reasonable concurrence between amount of rent and the period indicated.

Q.27: Rooms
In the case of a house shared between two or more households, only the rooms occupied by each household should be entered on the Form A relating to that household. If the kitchen is shared, it should be counted only on the form for the main tenant.

[p.46]

Q.28: Year in which the house was built
This question may give considerable difficulty, particularly in the case of the older dwellings, but is is important that at least an approximate date be obtained. If, therefore, the householder is unable to give any indication of the period in which the dwelling was built, you should assign the dwelling to one of the age categories, having regard to its general appearance and to any knowledge you may possess or be able to ascertain regarding the age of similar houses in the neighborhood.

Q.29 through Q.31: Water supply, bath, shower, sanitary facilities
You should check that entries have been made in the appropriate spaces for these questions and that they are consistent with one another and with your own knowledge of the district. In particular, you should ensure that the questions relating to the possession of a water tap inside the building, the sharing of a bath or shower, the situation of the sanitary facilities and the sharing of sanitary facilities are answered.

Q.32: Household heating in winter
You should check that only one of the options has been chosen under each of the two categories and that neither has been left totally blank.

Q.33: Motor cars
The number of motor cars used exclusively by persons usually resident in the household (including company cars kept at home) should be entered here. If there is none, insert "None".

[p.47 - 48, including Appendix 2 with illustrations of the built area covered in visual enumeration, are omitted here]

[p.49 - 61, including example Form D, are omitted here]

[p.62]

Appendix 4

Explanatory note about the "Personal return" procedure: Form A(P)
1. Legal position
There is a legal obligation on the head, or other person acting as the head, of each household, (including each person in charge of an institution and the master or other person in charge of a vessel in waters within the jurisdiction of Ireland at midnight on the night of Sunday, 21 April, 1991) to ensure that a return is made in Form A in respect of every person who passes the night of Sunday 21 April, 1991 in the household, institution or vessel or who arrives on the morning of Monday 22 April, 1991, not having been enumerated elsewhere.
There is a legal obligation on the part of every person who is to be enumerated in Form A to furnish any information which may be required for that purpose.

2. Purpose of the "Personal return" procedure
It is appreciated that cases may arise where the person responsible for completing Form A will experience considerable difficulty in collecting all the particulars to be entered in the form. This can happen particularly in situations where there are a large number of persons to be enumerated, or where there is reluctance on the part of some persons to provide the information about themselves, which is needed for completing Form A on the grounds that it is confidential. In such circumstances, in order to facilitate the person charged with the responsibility of completing Form A as well as those persons who do not wish to furnish him/her with information about their personal affairs, individual returns on Forms A(P) may be accepted from the persons concerned. These forms are called Personal returns.

3. Distribution of Forms A(P)
The Forms A(P) for making Personal returns may be given by the enumerator direct to the persons concerned or to the head of the household for distribution to them. The enumerator will enter in the top margin of each form the name of the person who is to complete it if this is known at the time. Envelopes will also be provided in which the forms may be sealed on completion. The name of the person who is to be the subject of the Personal return should be entered on the outside of the back flap of this envelope by the Enumerator or the head of the household at the time of distribution.

4. Treatment of family groups making personal returns
Particulars of only one person may be entered in the Form A(P). In the case of a family group (e.g., man and wife, man and wife and children, or one parent and children) which is staying on Census night in a hotel, guest-house, etc., Forms A(P) for the whole group may be completed by a responsible member of the group.

5. Collection of Personal returns
It is assumed that, in most instances, the person making a Personal return will give the completed form -- in the envelope provided, either sealed or open -- to the head of the household from whom it will be collected by the Enumerator with the Form(s) A relating to that household. However, the form may be handed direct or posted to the enumerator.

6. Information required in Form A in respect of persons making Personal returns
The operation of the Personal return procedure does not absolve the head of the household from the obligation to make a return in Form A in respect of all persons -- including those making Personal returns -- who form part of the household for Census purposes. Thus, Questions 1, 2, and 3 in the Form A for the household must be answered in respect of members of the household who are making Personal

[p.63]

returns. Questions 4 to 24 in Form A should be left completely blank in respect of such persons but the letters "P.R." should be entered after each person's name in question 1 of Form A.

7. Personal returns to be ready on Monday 22 April, 1991
The head of the household has the obligation to ensure that all completed Personal returns forms are either ready for collection by the enumerator on the morning of Monday 22 April, 1991 or are posted to the enumerator on that day.

8. The Personal return procedure is a concession
It must be stressed that the Personal return procedure is a concession which should be resorted to only where, by reason of the large number of persons to be enumerated or the reluctance of some of them to furnish information required for the completion of Form A, the head of the household is unable to complete the Form(s) A for the household ill the time available.

9. Necessity to get sufficient supplies of Form A(P) and envelopes for Personal returns
Where it is foreseen that the Personal return procedure will be employed, the head of the household should make sure to obtain from the enumerator a sufficient supply of Forms A(P) and envelopes for this purpose.

10. Further information, etc.
Further information about the Personal return procedure or additional supplies of Forms A(P) or envelopes may be obtained from the Census enumerator or the Census Field Supervisor shown here under:

Name and address of Census enumerator
________ Name:
________ Address:
________ Telephone no.
Name and address of Census Field Supervisor
________ Name:
________ Address:
________ Telephone no.

[Pages 64 - 82 are omitted here]

[p.83]

Appendix 11

Procedure to be followed when assistance is required in completing question 19 (present status)
What is required at Question 19 (Present status) is the subjective view of the person as to his/her present principal economic status. At any one time there are at least 20,000 persons on the various training or other employment schemes and if such persons, being unsure as to which status to indicate, ask for the assistance of the Enumerator, the following guidelines should be followed.

A. Persons on the following schemes should be treated as being "At work" (Box 1)

1 Teamwork/grant scheme for youth employment: This scheme is operated by FAS, where grants are paid to voluntary bodies to employ young unemployed people for a period of 6 to 12 months on projects beneficial to the community.
2 Apprentice training: Apprenticeships in designated industries are the responsibility of FAS and apprentices are often supported/ sponsored by an employer. The majority of apprentices spend the first year of their course in an off-the-job training centre.
3 Employment incentive scheme: The scheme, which is operated by FAS, provides a subsidy to employers who take on additional staff for jobs of at least 6 months duration. Many young people may not even know that they are being supported under this scheme.
4 Social employment scheme (SES): This scheme was launched in 1985 and is designed to help long-term unemployed people in the over 25 age group. The scheme offers part-time work (a 40-hour fortnight) for up to 52 weeks, on projects sponsored by either public bodies or voluntary organizations.
Enterprise scheme: This scheme is mainly an integration of the following two programmes.
5 Enterprise training programme: This FAS programme is designed to aid individuals in setting up their own business. Under Question 21 (Employment status), such persons should be self employed [and should be] coded 1 or 2 as appropriate.
6 Community enterprise programme: Under this programme FAS provides assistance to local groups, many co-operatives, setting up production or service-type business enterprises.
7 CERT craft/management courses: The courses intended here are not full-time and are organized on a day/block release basis. These courses provide training for school-leavers in bar, kitchen, dining room and reception skills. Some participants receive a training allowance from CERT in the initial part of the course and are paid by a sponsor during the later (work experience) part.
8 NRB sheltered employment: The National Rehabilitation Board provides sheltered employment and participants should be regarded as being employed.
9 NRB employment support scheme: The ESS is designed to enable substantially disabled people, whose work productivity is assessed at between 50-80% of standard, to work alongside their able-bodied colleagues in open employment.
10 BIM - Training in the fishing industry: Courses are offered to young persons wishing to take up a career in fishing. Four months is spent at a training centre and nine months on board a trawler.

B. Persons on the following schemes should be treated as being either 'seeking regular work for the first time (Box 2) or 'Unemployed' (Box 3):

11 Adult training courses: These short-duration courses, run by FAS, are designed to prepare unemployed people for a wide range of occupations at skilled and semi-skilled level.
12 Community training workshops: This programme, conducted by FAS, provides basic training in community-based workshops, mainly for early school-leavers and travelling people. The programme revolves to a high degree around educational and personal development.
13 CERT unemployed training programme: These short-duration courses aim to provide basic skills to unemployed persons in cooking food and bar service.

C. YOUTH REACH: This programme, administered by FAS, is aimed at unqualified
early school leavers and is of two year duration.

14 Youthreach: Those on the Foundation programme (First year) are classified as being "Unemployed" or "Seeking work for the first time" as are those taking part in the Specific skills courses and the Community youth training programme (Second year). Those in "Temporary employment" or in "Job Subsidies" (Second year) are classified as "At work" while those who follow into mainstream education should be classified as "At school".

D. TEAGASC courses.

15 The Certificate in Agriculture (general agriculture) course is of 9 months duration through an agricultural college. The Certificate in Fanning is of 3-year duration and has 6 programme options: General agriculture, Horse production, AgriForestry, Pig production, Poultry production, and Commercial horticulture. Persons on such courses should be regarded as being students (Box 4).
Farm apprentices should be regarded as "At work".
Short term training courses are run for practicing farmers and horticulturists. Persons on such courses are clearly "At work".