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[Ireland]
Census of Population, 1981
Confidential instructions to enumerators
Central Statistics Office
Dublin 6.

[Table of Contents is omitted here]

[p.1]

Instructions to Enumerators

Introduction

General
A person appointed as an Enumerator is personally responsible for the enumeration of the Census in the area assigned to him/her in accordance with these instructions and any other supplementary instructions which may be issued.

The Enumerator must ensure that all persons who pass the night of 5 April, 1981 within the assigned area or arrive in the area on the morning of 6 April, 1981, not having been enumerated elsewhere, are included in the Census enumeration. The area assigned to an Enumerator is called an Enumeration Area (or E.A.). Occasionally an Enumerator may be called on to perform work in more than one E.A.

Confidentiality
All the information obtained by an Enumerator relating to individuals or households for the purpose of the Census enumeration must be treated as strictly confidential. On appointment, each Enumerator becomes an Officer of Statistics as defined in the Statistics Act. 1926, and is duly bound by the conditions of that Act. Sections 14 and 15 of this Act are reproduced hereunder.

"Section 14.-(1) Save for the purpose of a prosecution for an offence under this Act, no Officer of Statistics shall publish or disclose to any person, other than another Officer of Statistics concerned with the matter in the course of his duties as such officer the contents or any part of the contents of any individual schedule, form, or document filled in or otherwise completed by any person in pursuance of a requisition made under this Act ____ or any verbal information or answer given relating to any individual person, business or concern.

(2) Every Officer of Statistics who shall publish or disclose the contents or any part of the contents of any such individual schedule, form or other document as aforesaid or any such record or document as aforesaid or any verbal information or answer given relating to any individual person, business or concern in contravention of this Section shall be guilty of an offence under this Section and shall be liable on summary conviction thereof to a fine not exceeding £50 or, at the discretion of the Court, to imprisonment for any term not exceeding 6 months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.
Section 15.- Every Officer of Statistics who in the pretended performance of his duties as such Officer obtains or attempts to obtain by any means from any person on any occasion any information which he is not lawfully entitled to obtain by that means from that person on that occasion shall be guilty of an offence under this Section and shall be liable on summary conviction thereof to a fine not exceeding £50 or at the discretion of the Court to imprisonment for any term not exceeding 6 months or to both such fine and such imprisonment".
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Each Enumerator is provided with a special box for the safe storage of the completed Census returns. While the returns are in the possession of the Enumerator they must be kept locked in this box at all times except when the Enumerator has them with him in the field or is actually working on them. Failure to comply with this instruction will be regarded as a very serious breach of the Conditions of Service applying to the post of Enumerator. Enumerators are warned that they are obliged to ensure that nobody apart from their Field Supervisor or Regional Supervisor or an official of the Central Statistics Office, has access to the completed returns. They must guard particularly against members of their own households seeing the returns. Because of the risk of theft, they must also ensure that Census documents are not left unattended in cars.
Enumerators are also provided with satchels in which they are required to keep their supplies of forms, maps, completed returns etc. when at work in the field. It is essential that all Enumerators should carry and use their satchels for this purpose and any failure to do so will be regarded in a very serious light.
Enumerators are warned that they must not discuss the contents of any Census return, or other information given to them for Census purposes, with anybody other than their Supervisors or an official of the Central Statistics Office. They should be careful not to make any remarks (even of a casual nature) especially in other households, about a household or any of its members with whom they have come in contact in the course of the Census Enumeration.

Credentials
Every Enumerator will be issued with a certificate of appointment as an Officer of Statistics. This certificate must be signed by the Enumerator on receipt and must be produced on demand to any person who asks for evidence of identity or authority to act as Enumerator.

Contact with the Public
Enumerators' duties must be carried out at all times, and irrespective of circumstances with courtesy and consideration. Several hundred people will be met in the course of the Census. Inevitably, there will be a number of persons who will need assistance in completing the form and occasionally also there will be cases of uncooperative, rude and obstructive behaviour on the part of some members of the public. Enumerators must on no account allow themselves to be provoked into displays of impatience or bad temper by such behaviour.

Main duties of Enumerator
The main duties of an Enumerator fall roughly into four stages:-

I Preparation
II The Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A (i.e. the Household Schedules)
III Collection of completed Forms A
IV Duties after collection of Form A (i.e. checking, summarisation, etc.)

A separate chapter is provided in this book of instructions for each

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I Preparation

1. Training
1.1 Briefing by Field Supervisor: You will receive a thorough briefing from your Field Supervisor in the duties of your post and you will have to satisfy your Field Supervisor that you are competent to carry out these duties before being allowed to commence work in the field.

1.2 Study of Instructions, forms etc: In preparation for this course of training, you should immediately set about making yourself thoroughly familiar with all the instructions in this Book together with any supplementary instructions which may be issued and with the various forms which are to be used in carrying out the enumeration.

2. Principal forms used in the Census enumeration
2.1 General: Five principal forms are used in carrying out the Census enumeration. viz. Form A, Form A(P), Form B, Form C and Form D. Form A is to be filled in by the head of each household, Form A(P) is for completion by an individual member of a household in certain circumstances, Form B and D are completed by the Enumerator and Form C is filled in partly by the Central Statistics Office and partly by the Enumerator.

2.2 Form A: This is the basic Census Household Schedule and particulars of every person who is in the E.A. on the night of Sunday, 5 April 1981, or who arrives in the E.A. on the morning of Monday, 6 April, 1981, not having been enumerated elsewhere, must be recorded on a Form A. Instead of the kind of large single-page form used at all previous Irish Censuses, the 1981 Household Schedule is in booklet form with a detachable section at the back, containing the detailed instructions for completing the form. There are separate English and Irish versions of Form A.
As you will be responsible for giving any explanations asked for about the Form A, and will have to check the entries made in the forms when collecting them, you should study the Form A carefully so that you will be fully conversant with the way in which each question should be answered.

2.3 Form A(P): This form is for completion by a member of a household who is unwilling to provide the head of the household with the information required in Form A or from whom the head is unable, or is justifiably reluctant, to obtain this information. The questions in Form A(P) correspond to those in respect of individuals in the Form A. Unlike the Form A, Form A{P) is a bilingual (English and Irish) form.

2.4 Form B: The purpose of this form is to summarize the population figures from the relative Forms A. In general, the Enumerator will complete one or more Forms B for each Townland (see Instruction 4.2) in rural areas and for each Street in town areas, although, in certain cases, separate Forms B should be completed for portions of Townlands (see Instruction 26.1)

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2.5. Form C: The form C lists the Townlands and/or streets in each District Electoral Division (D.E.D) or Ward (see Instruction 4.3) in the E.A. Just as, the completed Form B will contain a summary of the population figures shown in the relative Forms A, so the Form C will provide a summary of the household and population figures shown in the relative Forms B. This is its primary function but it also furnishes each Enumerator with a detailed breakdown of the E.A. and provides, furthermore, a means of checking - by comparing the figures for the 1979 and for the current Census - the completeness and accuracy of the enumeration.

2.6 Listing of areas in Form C: The listing of areas in the Form C, together with the figures of households and population returned for these areas at the 1979 Census, is done beforehand in the Central Statistics Office, the Enumerator being responsible for recording the figures of households and population returned for each area at the current Census.
In the case of a District Electoral Division (D.E.D.) which consists, in whole or in part, of rural areas, the Townlands or parts of Townlands comprising these areas are listed first in the Form C in alphabetical order (in Column 1) while the Town(s), if any, in the D.E.D. are shown at the end of the form. In the case of a very small Town, the Townlands on which it stands are listed, in alphabetical order, immediately after the Town's name on Form C. For other Towns, the streets are listed in alphabetical order in Form C and are sometimes followed by the names of the Townlands-again in alphabetical order-on which the Town stands; this is done to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road in the Town. Every effort has been made to ensure that the list of streets shown for each Town is up-to-date and complete. However, if you observe any case in which the names of streets appearing in the Form C are no longer in current use, you should amend the form as necessary, entering the present names of the streets. You should also add to the list any new streets which have come into existence since the previous Census and which are not listed on Form C. If any street or portion of a street appears to have been accidentally omitted from the Form C, as originally prepared, this should, of course, also be inserted since it is most important that every person in the Town be included in the enumeration.

Cases may arise in which you find that a housing development which is shown as only one listing in Form C (e.g. "Oakfield Estate") actually consists of named streets and roads (e.g. "Oakfield Drive", "Oakfield Crescent", "Oakfield Grove", etc.). In such a case you should add the names of the individual streets and roads to the Form C but make no alteration in the figures for Total Number of Households and Total Persons for 1979 in Columns (2) and (3) of the form.

2.7 Duplicate Form C: The Forms C are furnished to the Enumerators in duplicate, the first copy being colored white and the duplicate copy yellow. The use and purpose of the yellow copy of Form C are explained in Instructions 27.4 to 27.6 inclusive.

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2.8 Form D: Each Enumerator is supplied with a Book of Forms D in which to record the results of the Visual Enumeration of the E.A. and the delivery of the Forms A to the households to be enumerated.

2.9 Duplicate Forms D: The forms in the Book of Forms D are coloured white and green alternately. By the use of carbon paper, a duplicate (green) copy of each completed Form D will be made. The use and purpose of the duplicate Forms D are explained in Instruction 11.1.

3. Treatment of Towns

3.1 Municipal Towns: These are Towns with legally defined boundaries for purposes of Local Government. They comprise (a) the four County Boroughs (Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford) and the Borough of Dun Laoghaire, (b) six Municipal Boroughs, (c) 49 Urban Districts and (d) 29 Towns under the Towns Improvement (Ireland) Act, 1854 (i.e. Towns with Town Commissioners). In these cases, population figures must always be compiled for the area within the legally defined boundary even though this may not coincide with the present built-up area which has often spread beyond that boundary.

3.2 Non-Municipal Towns and Suburbs or Environs of Municipal Towns: A non-Municipal Town is a Town without local government of its own and, therefore, without a legal boundary. The built-up areas which lie just outside the legal boundary of a Municipal Town are termed "Suburbs" in the case of a County Borough or the Borough of Dun Laoghaire and as "Environs" in the case of the other Municipal Towns. For the purpose of the 1981 Census, the Central Statistics Office has assigned up-to-date boundaries to the non-Municipal Towns and to the Suburbs or Environs of Municipal Towns and these boundaries must be meticulously observed in carrying out the enumeration.

4. Areas which must be separately distinguished in the Census enumeration
4.1 Necessity to prepare separate Forms B and Forms C: In the Census enumeration, Streets, Townlands and District Electoral Divisions (D.E.Ds.) or - in the County Boroughs - the Wards have to be separately distinguished. Thus, the Enumerator has to prepare a separate Form B for each street or Townland in the E.A. and is furnished with a separate Form C for each D.E.D. or Ward, or part thereof, in the E.A.

4.2 Townlands: The Townland is the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in the country. It should be noted that, for Census purposes, Townland boundaries are generally not observed within Municipal Towns - but see Instruction 2.6 regarding the listing of townlands in Forms C relating to Town areas to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road.

4.3 District Electoral Divisions or Wards: The District Electoral Division (D.E.D.) or Ward is the smallest administrative area for which population statistics are published. Outside Municipal Towns, D.E.Ds. generally consist of a number of complete Townlands. A Municipal Town is usually comprised of one or more complete D.E.Ds. or Wards.

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5. Different types of Enumeration Areas
5.1 Urban E.As. and Rural E.As.: E.As. are divided into two main groups - Urban E.As. and Rural E.As. A Rural E.A. may include all or part of a non-Municipal Town or of the Environs of a Municipal Town as well as territory which is wholly rural in character.

5.2 E.As with more than one boundary: In the great majority of cases an E.A. consists of an area within one clearly defined boundary. An exception to this general rule is where an E.A. consists of all or part of the Environs of a Municipal Town comprising geographically separate clusters of houses around the Municipal boundary. Another exception is where a town, which has been designated as one or more Urban E.As. is completely surrounded by a Rural B.A. In such a case, the Rural E.A. has, of course, both an outer and an inner boundary. Finally a small number of E.As. in the larger cities may consist of two or more distinct smaller areas which are geographically separate.

6. Enumerator's maps
6.1 Scale of the maps; In addition to the Forms C, which list the streets and Townlands in their E.As., the Enumerators are also furnished with Ordnance Survey maps which give complete coverage of the E.As. A simple "key" is provided with each set of maps to show how they should be assembled to give a composite map of the whole E .A. In general, the maps supplied are on a scale of 6" to the mile for rural areas and 25" to the mile for town areas. For some of the more densely populated E.As. in the larger cities, maps of bigger scale than 25" may be used. If a Rural E.A. contains a Town or part of a Town (see Instruction 5.1) the Enumerator will be furnished with a 6" map covering the Rural portion of the E.A. and a 25" map relative to the portion which is in the Town.

While the maps supplied are the most recent available, many of them are considerably out of date. However, they have been up-dated, where necessary by annotating them in orange colored ink to show the location of buildings identified in the 1979 Census enumeration which do not appear on the original maps. Conversely, buildings shown in the original maps which have since disappeared or become very badly run-down, have been identified by the letter "D" in black ink.

6.2 Use of color coding in the maps: E.A. boundaries are shown on the 6" maps by means of a continuous purple line and on the larger scale maps for town areas by means of a continuous black line. Color-coding has also been used to distinguish other boundaries and features in the maps as follows:-

D.E.D boundary which is not also E.A. boundary

Continuous red line

Townland name

Marked in blue

Townland boundary which is not also D.E.D. or E.A.

Broken blue line

Municipal Town inside E.A. boundary but not included in E.A.

Outlined and cross-hatched in green
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Non-municipal Town or Environs of Municipal Town the boundary of which is not also E.A. or D.E.D. boundary

Outlined and (if not part of the E.A.) cross-hatched in black

Road, Streets, Laneways, etc.

Marked in yellow

Due to lack of local knowledge on the part of the Central Statistics Office staff, the marking of the roads, streets, etc. may occasionally be incomplete or inaccurate and it should not, therefore be taken as definitive but merely regarded as aid to the Enumerator in readings the maps.

7. Study of the boundaries and contents of the Enumeration Area
7.1 General: Upon receiving the Form(s) C and map(s) relating to your E.A. you should make yourself thoroughly familiar with the boundaries and contents, not only of the E.A. as a whole, but also of each Townland and each Street for which you are responsible.

7.2 Consultation with Enumerators for adjoining E.A.s: It is particularly important that you become familiar with the precise location at all significant points of the boundaries you have to observe. In this connection, it is essential that you consult with those Enumerators in your Field Supervisor's District whose E.A.s adjoin yours with a view to avoiding any misunderstanding on either side as to the location of the boundary between your E.A.s. Field Supervisors will have similar consultations with their colleagues in adjoining Districts and will advise the Enumeration concerned accordingly.

8. Planning your Route
8.1 General: For the purpose of the next stage of the work - the Visual Enumeration and the distribution of the Forms A, you will have to visit every building and other habitation in your E.A. To ensure that you cover the whole E.A., missing no building or habitation, while, at the same time, keeping your travelling to a minimum, it is essential that you plan your route in advance, using the map(s) supplied.

8.2 Suggestions on how best to plan your route: If you are dealing with an urban area it is suggested that you divide it into "blocks" and complete one block before passing on to the next. The sketch map in Appendix II provides an example of this. If your E.A. is rural in character, a convenient way to plan your route might be to identify where the E.A. boundary intersects one of the principal roads leading into it and to work systematically inwards from that point. Alternatively, you might take as your starting point an easily identifiable landmark - such as an important road junction - in or about the middle of the E.A. and using this as the centre divide the whole area roughly into segments which can then be dealt with separately like the "blocks" in an urban area.
[p. 8]

9. Use of the notebooks supplied
9.1 Proper use of notebooks is essential: If they are to carry out their duties with maximum efficiency, Enumerators must make full use or their notebooks as recommended throughout these instructions. For ease of reference, the pages of the notebook should be numbered either before use or according as they are used. Each Enumerator is also required to enter, on the front cover of the notebooks, his/her name and Appointment Number together with particulars of the assigned E.A. - i.e. the name or reference number of the county or County Borough and the E.A. number.

9.2 Confidentiality of information recorded in notebooks: Some of the information entered in the notebooks is likely to be of a confidential nature and Enumerators are, therefore, obliged to exercise the same degree of care in regard to safeguarding the notebooks as in the case of the Census returns themselves.

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II The visual enumeration and distribution of Forms A

10. General
10.1 Publicity campaign: An intensive publicity campaign, designed to enlist the active co-operation of the public in the taking of the Census will be launched about the time the distribution of the Census forms is due to commence. Both the national and provincial press, as well as television and radio will be used in this campaign which will also provide for the extensive display of posters relating to the Census in suitable locations such as Post Offices, Garda Stations, Central and Local Government Offices, Public Libraries, Schools etc. throughout the country. In addition, a special explanatory brochure will be distributed with the Census forms and will also be made widely available to the public through other channels.

10.2 Definition of a Dwelling Unit: For Census purposes, a "dwelling unit" is defined as living accommodation which is occupied or, if vacant, is intended for occupation, by one household. Note that, under this definition, there is a dwelling unit for each separate household you encounter (see Instructions 13.2 and 13.3 for the definitions of "household") irrespective of the conditions in which the household is living or the type of accommodation it occupies. Thus, a single room in a dwelling house which is let as a "bed sitter" is a dwelling unit as is also a makeshift encampment on the side of the road occupied by an itinerant family.

In the case of vacant accommodation, if it is intended for occupation by one household, it should be regarded as a dwelling unit. Thus, for example, two vacant rooms in 3 dwelling house which the owner has for letting as "bed sitters" should be treated as two separate dwelling units.
10.3 Articles to be carried: When carrying out the Visual Enumeration and delivering the Forms A, you should bring with you in the satchel provided, the following articles:-

(1) Sufficient supplies of Form A and Forms A(P) (both English and Irish versions).
(2) A sufficient supply of the explanatory Census brochure.
(3) Your Book of Forms D with interleaved carbon paper.
(4) Your clipboard.
(5) The map(s) covering your E.A.
(6) A black pencil (for making entries in Forms D and Forms A etc.)
(7) An eraser.
(8) A red pen for marking the map(s).
(9) A supply of envelopes (for person who wish to make Personal Returns - see Instructions 17.1 to 17.4, inclusive - or to return their forms by post - see Instruction 18.2).
(10) A supply of Forms P.R. (see Instruction 17.2).
(11) Your copy of these instructions.
(12) Your appointment as Enumerator.
(13) Your notebook.
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10.4 Scope of the Visual Enumeration: The purpose of the Visual Enumeration is to compile in Form D a comprehensive list of all dwelling units and of other buildings in the E.A. while, at the same time, identifying in the map(s) supplied the location of each dwelling unit etc. listed in the Form D.

You should enter the particulars required on the outside of the front cover of the book of Forms D before commencing the Visual Enumeration. Entries should be made in the Forms D themselves as you carry out the Visual Enumeration. It is most important to note that, as far as possible, entries should be made in Form D in precisely the same order as that in which the premises in question are encountered in the course of the Visual Enumeration. In particular, you should not delay listing a dwelling unit in Form D because you have not been able to deliver Form A to the household concerned on the occasion of your first visit. All entries in form D should be in pencil.

10.5 Forms A to be distributed while carrying out the Visual Enumeration: As far as possible, the distribution of the Forms A must be carried out in conjunction with the Visual Enumeration, i.e. as you visit each dwelling unit in the course of the Visual Enumeration you should deliver the Form(s) A for completion in respect of the household residing in that dwelling unit. Sometimes, of course, repeat visits will be necessary if, for example, you find nobody at home on your first call. In any such case you should keep a record in your notebook of each repeat visit you made for the purpose of delivering Form A. This record is necessary to enable you to complete Column (9) of Form D (see Instruction 11.17).

10.6 Explanatory brochure to be distributed with Form A: As indicated above (see Instruction 10.1), this brochure, which gives a concise explanation of the nature and purpose of the Census and the benefits which derive from it, should be given, as a matter of course, to every household with the Form A. It should also be distributed with each Form A(P) (see Instruction 17.1).

10.7 What to record in Form D: You are required to record in Form D all permanent structures consisting of walls and a roof (with certain exceptions which are given below) in your E.A. All habitations which are not permanent structures must also be recorded. Examples of permanent structures for which details must be recorded are:-

dwelling houses, blocks of flats, hotels, restaurants, military barracks, Garda stations, hospitals, religious institutions, railway stations, theatres, cinemas, clubhouses, garages or filling stations, factories, warehouses, schools, churches, etc.

Habitations other than permanent structures include caravans, mobile homes, ships and house-boats: these should be recorded in Form D even if they appear to be untenanted at the time you visit them. Other kinds of vessels (e.g. small boats used for pleasure or sporting purposes) should be listed only if they are being used as living accommodation at the time of the Census. An itinerants' encampment should, of course, be recorded in Form D.

[p. 11]

Buildings which are not habitations and which are built of materials such as timber, corrugated iron or asbestos sheeting should be included if they are likely to have a life of at least 10 years.
The following buildings should not be recorded in Form D:-

barns and outhouses (e.g. stables, hay-sheds, milking parlours, etc) on farms; garden sheds, green-houses, domestic outhouses and garages which are attached to, or stand within the grounds of, the parent houses, street traders' stalls; E.S.B. sub-stations; public conveniences; telephone kiosks; badly run-down buildings which, though still roofed or partially roofed, lack doors and/or windows; bus shelters; rain shelters (e.g. in parks, golf courses, beauty spots, etc.); dressing rooms and spectator stands in sports fields and stadia; wayside religious shrines and grottoes; water towers; ancient monuments such as round towers etc.; isolated structures of small size (i.e. measuring less than 36 sq. ft. in floor area).

Remember, however, that any premises, even one of the foregoing, must be recorded in Form D if it is being used as living accommodation.

10.8 Buildings which are not easily visible: While carrying out the Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A, you must watch out particularly for buildings and for habitations other than buildings which are not easily visible, e.g. houses in alleyways, caravans or mobile homes in back gardens, outhouses which have been converted into living accommodation, flats over shops, isolated houses not visible from the roadway etc. Since practically every building must have an access on to some public thoroughfare, the best way to ensure that you achieve complete coverage is to traverse every length of public thoroughfare in your E.A. - streets, roads, lanes, alleys, rights-of-way etc. - no matter how narrow or inconspicuous. It must be stressed that the essential factor in the Visual Enumeration is that you go and see for yourself; you must not, for example, just take the word of somebody that there is no building down a narrow laneway.

11. Making entries in Form D (See also examples of completed forms in Appendix 3)

11.1 Duplicate Forms D: You will note that the Forms D are duplicated, the top copy being white and the duplicate green. Before commencing to record details in a Form D you should interleave a sheet of carbon paper between the white and the green forms. As each Form D is completed in the course of the Visual Enumeration, you should detach the duplicate (green-coloured) copy of the form from the book for transmission as soon as possible to your Field Supervisor who will retain it for the purpose of checking your work and for use in the event of the book of Forms D being lost or destroyed.

11.2 Column (1): Allocation of Serial Numbers: Subject to the exceptions given below, each identifiable dwelling unit and each building (or part of a building) not containing an identifiable dwelling unit, listed in Form D is allocated a separate serial number. You will have to enter the serial numbers yourself in Column (1) of Form D. (Normally, one line should be given to each serial number but it is permissible to allow more than one line to a serial number where this is desirable because of the length of the entries to be made in any of the Columns (2) to (11) in respect of the premises in

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question). While it is permissible to leave gaps in the Form D numbering sequence it is essential that there be no duplicated Form D numbers within an E.A. Should you find that you have inadvertently duplicated a Serial Number in Form D do not try to rectify the situation by the addition of a letter of the alphabet after the number (e.g. "128A" is not a permissible entry). Instead, you should substitute the next unused number in the sequence for the duplicated number.

The numbering sequence should commence with "1" except where the Field Supervisor specifically directs otherwise. If one book of Forms D does not suffice for all the listings to be made in your B.A., you should use the loose forms provided to extend the book or - if the number of extra listings is considerable - use a second book of Forms D. In the loose sheets or in the second book, the numbering sequence should, of course, commence where you left off in the first book. All completed loose forms should be firmly secured, in their proper order inside the back cover of the book when you have completed the Visual Enumeration. Where a second book is used to write the figure "1" on the front cover of the first book and the figure "2" on the front cover of the second book.

11.3 Column (1): Treatment of Flats: Each flat is, of course, a separate dwelling unit and must be allocated a separate line and Serial number in Column (1) of Form D. This applies whether or not the flats are purpose-built. Thus, in the case of a conventional house which is let out in flats or "bed-sitters", each one is given a separate number in Column (1).

11.4 Column (1): Treatment of partly non-residential premises: If any building is partly non-residential and partly residential, e.g. a shop with flats above or an office block containing a caretaker's flat, the living accommodation should be listed first and the next Serial Number given to the listing for all the remaining portion of the building, which should include a brief indication of what it comprises.

11.5 Column (1): Treatment of establishments which consist of a number of separate buildings: Conversely, there are cases in which groups of structurally separate buildings should be given only one Serial number in Form D. Examples of these are hospitals which have wards or schools which have classrooms in a number of separate buildings standing in the same grounds. Factories also often consist of groups of separate buildings. However, any part of a school, hospital or factory complex which is purely residential in character must be listed separately even if vacant. Thus, a gatekeeper's house, a caretaker's house or flat, a nurses' home or a nuns' or religious brothers' residence must be listed in a separate line from that devoted to the rest of the establishment of which they form part.

11.6 Column (1): Treatment of purpose-built shopping centres and industrial estates: These are other cases in which one listing and serial number in Form D will suffice for a group of structurally separate buildings. It will, of course, be necessary, when dealing with one of these shopping centres or industrial estates, to ascertain if it contains any dwelling units which should be listed separately and the occupants of which should receive Form A. Where this is the case, the dwelling unit (s) should be listed first, followed one listing for all the other premises comprising the shopping centre or industrial estate.

[p. 13]

11.7 Column (1): Treatment of caravans and mobile homes: Caravans and mobile homes are other exception to the general rule that each dwelling unit is given a separate line and Serial Number in Column (1) of Form D. The procedure for dealing with these is as follows:-

(1) A caravan or mobile home parked in the grounds (e.g. front garden or driveway) of a private house, should be included with the listing for the private house unless it is occupied by a separate household (see Instruction 13.2), in which case it should, of course, be listed separately.

(2) Any occupied caravan or mobile homes in a caravan park should be listed separately and the remaining unoccupied caravans etc. in the park should be given only one listing in the Form D with a note of the total number of caravans etc. involved.

(3) Groups of unoccupied caravans or mobile homes being displayed for sale or for hire should also be given only one listing in Form D with an indication of the number of caravans etc. in the group.

(4) Two or more caravans which are occupied by only one household (see Instructions 13.2 and 13.3) should be given only one listing in Form D as they constitute a single dwelling unit.

(5) In all other cases, caravans and mobile homes should be listed separately in Form D.

11.8 Column (1): Treatment of blocks of private garages: Blocks of private garages such as are sometimes to be found in new housing schemes or beside blocks of flats should be recorded in Form D with one Serial Number only.

11.9 Column (2): Address: In this column you should give the complete address for every building etc. which is individually addressable. In some cases, however, (for example, an ordinary dwelling house which is occupied by two separate households) you may find that, while the house has an address, the individual households do not have separate addresses. A premises without a name which is situated in a purely rural area may also not have any address which could be entered in this column - although the name of the Townland in which the premises stand must be shown in Column (4) (see Instruction 11.12).
In the case of a flat, the address of the building in which it is located should be given in Column (2) together with the number of the flat, if any.
In cases where you find it difficult to give the address of a building, you may find it possible to give an indication of where it is located - e.g. "at the rear of 27 Main Street", "in a laneway off High street" etc.

11.10 Column (3): Description of Premises: You should record in this column a precise description of each building etc. listed in Column (2) using such terms as:-
dwelling house, flat, hotel, shop, factory, warehouse, church, hospital, nursing home, theatre, cinema, caravan, tent, houseboat, etc.

[p. 14]

If a building contains a number of flats not identified by number, each flat's location within the building should be indicated - e.g. "garden flat", "first floor fIat, front" etc.
In the case of a building occupied by a single business concern, you should give a brief indication of the nature of the business. This is not necessary in the case of an address which contains a number of business concerns.

11.11 Column (3): Treatment of unoccupied dwelling houses: In the case of an unoccupied dwelling house it is necessary to describe in Column (J) the condition of the premises. You must indicate whether the house is habitable or not and, if not, whether it is (1) an existing house in a run-down condition, (2) an existing house being renovated or reconstructed or (3) a new house not yet completed. If an unoccupied house is habitable, you should indicate whether it is an old house or a new house awaiting its first tenant.

11.12 Column (4): Townland: In this column should be entered the name of the Townland in which the premises are situated. However, as Townland boundaries are not observed in Municipal Towns no entry need be made in Column (4) by an Enumerator whose E.A. is in such a town.

11.13 Column (5): D.E.D. or Ward: If your E.A. stands on more than one D.E.D. or Ward you should record in Column (5) of Form D the D. E.D. or Ward in which the premises are located.

11.14 Column (6): Head of Household etc.: If the dwelling unit is occupied, the name of the head of the household (i.e. the person responsible for making the Census return) is to be entered in Column (6). For a non-residential premises this column should be left blank. If a house, flat or other dwelling unit is unoccupied, the word "Vacant" should be entered in this column. (See also Instruction 16.4 regarding the procedure to be followed in a case where a dwelling unit is occupied but the household concerned is likely to have left the dwelling before Census night).

(Note: Any address which contains more than one household will require a separate line in Form D in respect of each household. Accordingly, the appropriate names for the households in such cases must be entered in Column (6) before any entry is made in Columns (2) to (5) in respect of the next address encountered on the route. If you cannot contact anyone at a dwelling, you should leave some blank lines and serial numbers if you have reason to suppose that there is more than one household living there. It does not matter if subsequently you do not find enough households to take up all the lines and serial numbers which you have left for the dwelling).

11.15 Column (7): Occupancy of Private Dwelling Units: This column should be entered in respect of all private dwelling units (see Instructions 10.2 and 13.2). You should enter the figure "1" in sub-column (a), (b) or (c) according to whether the occupiers of the dwelling unit will be present on Census night, the occupiers will be absent on Census night, or the dwelling unit will be unoccupied. The column should be left blank for non-private (i.e. Institutional) households (see Instruction 13.3).

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11.16 Column (8): Date of Delivery: In this column you must enter the date on which you delivered Form(s) A to the household. If two or more visits are necessary to deliver the Form A it is the date of the last visit which is required.

11.17 Columns (9) and (10): Number of calls made: Enter in these columns the number of visits you made to each dwelling unit at the Delivery and the Collection stages, respectively. The entries should be made immediately after the last visit in each case. For the purpose of completing these two columns, you should make a note of each repeat visit in your notebook.

11.18 Column (11): Notes: Column (11) is intended for any notes which might assist you in carrying out your duties, such as circumstances requiring special action or the time of an appointment you have made for the purpose of collecting the completed Form A. Additional descriptive information which would facilitate the subsequent positive identification of the building and dwelling unit might also be entered here. The use of such terms as "green front door", "white pillars with black gate" etc. should be used if necessary. It is likely that in purely rural areas such descriptions will often be helpful as house numbers or names do not exist in most cases.

If the space available in Column (11) is inadequate in any case you should make the notation in your notebook instead (making sure to quote the relative Form D Serial Number) and insert a reference to the notebook entry in Column (11) to serve as a reminder that you should consult your notebook at the appropriate time.

12. Annotation of the maps
12.1 Updating the maps: This must be done in the field, according as the Visual Enumeration proceeds. As already stated (see Instruction 6.1), the maps supplied have been up-dated -in orange ink-to show the location of buildings not appearing in the original maps, which were identified in the 1979 Census enumeration. However, due to the greatly accelerated pace of new building development in recent years, you may find in the course of the Visual Enumeration some buildings which are not shown on the maps. Conversely, you may find that buildings shown on the maps no longer exist or have become so run down that they no longer satisfy the definition of a "permanent structure" given in Instruction 10.7. When you find a building - or other habitation - that is not shown in the map, you are required to mark its position on the map as accurately as possible in red ink. This applies also to temporary habitations such as caravans, itinerants' encampments etc. If you are marking in a large group of new buildings such as a new housing scheme or estate, it will suffice to outline the location of the development and give an indication of the number of houses it contains. Its name, if known, should also be given.

You should indicate by means of the letter "D" in black pencil on the map, where a building has disappeared or become totally run-down. If you find that a building identified in the 1979 enumeration is incorrectly located in orange ink on the map, you should draw an arrow in ink from the orange marking to the correct location of the building in question. If you can find no building at all corresponding to an orange mark on the map, note the map accordingly in black pencil.

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Where one Form D serial number is assigned to the shops, factories, etc. in a large purpose-built shopping centre or industrial estate (see Instruction 11.6), the precise area on which the shopping centre or industrial estate stands should be clearly outlined in red ink on the map.

12.2 Inserting Form D Serial Numbers in maps: Except in areas of continuous or dense building development, you are required to insert the Form D Serial No. in red ink opposite each building etc. shown in the map, including, any new buildings or other habitations which you have marked in yourself. Where the building development is continuous or dense (e.g. in a city street), it will suffice to indicate the range of Serial Nos. which apply. This will suffice also, in the case of a single building which contains a number of dwelling units or households (e.g. a block of flats).

13. Persons who are to receive Forms A: Persons who are be returned on Forms A.
13.1 General: The household is the basic unit for the purpose of the Census enumeration and a separate return on Form A must be made in respect of every household in the State by the head, or other person acting as the head, of the household.

For Census purposes, households are divided into two categories - private households and non-private households (i.e. institutions). It is absolutely essential that you know and understand thoroughly the following definitions of the two categories of household before you commence work in the field.
13.2 Definition of private household: Any one person, or group of persons (usually, but not necessarily, related) with common housekeeping arrangements, separately occupying all or part of a private house, flat, apartment or other private habitation of any kind, is regarded as a private household for Census purposes. Persons staying temporarily with the household are included but persons temporarily absent on Census night are excluded. The persons who constitute a private household jointly occupy living accommodation, share the principal meals (unless prevented by, for example, working conditions) and have common provision for the basic living needs. Each of the following is regarded as one private household:

(a) A man and his wife; a man, his wife and children, or one parent and children, living together and having no other persons residing with them - or a family such as any of the foregoing with their relatives, servants, visitors or boarders (not exceeding four in number - see Instruction 13.3) residing with them.
(b) All persons occupying the same private dwelling and having their meals together.
(c) A person living alone or with servants.
[p. 17]
(d) A lodger occupying a room or rooms in a house or flat and not sharing in the housekeeping arrangements - particularly in the provision of food - with the other residents.
(e) A resident caretaker of a house, office, etc., whether living alone or with his family if they reside with him.

13.3 Definition of non-private household: For persons passing Census night in an establishment or institution such as those included in the following list the entire establishment or institution is to be treated as a single non-private household for which a form or forms must be filled in by the person in charge:-

Hotel; club; guest house; boarding house;* hostel; monastery; convent; hospital; nurses' home; military barracks; Garda Station; nursing home; county home; orphanage; prison; boarding school, etc.

It is most important to note, however, that if the proprietor, manager, head etc. or any member of the staff resides on the premises with his/her family, they are not to be regarded as part of the establishment or institution for Census purposes. Such a person, together with his/her family is to be regarded as a distinct private household and is to receive and fill up a separate Form A for that household. With regard to what should be recorded as separate institutions please refer to Par. 11.5.

14. Preparation of Forms A before delivery
14.1 Completing Sections A and D of Form A: Before delivering a Form A it is essential to complete Section A in the top right-hand corner of Page 1 of the Form, striking out the names of areas which do not apply. You will probably find it convenient to enter at least the name of the County or County Borough and the E.A. No. in each form before you set out and add the remaining information as you deliver the forms.

You should also complete Section D of Form A before delivery by inserting the relative Form D Serial Number.

Sections A and D need not be completed on all the Forms A for a large institution; it will suffice to do so on the first and last forms.

14.2 Name of head: The name of the person designated as head of the household or other person who is to complete the Form A should be written in pencil in the space immediately above the words "Census Day" at the top of Page 1 of the Form.

15. Period for carrying out the Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A.
15.1 General: Unless specifically instructed otherwise by your Field Supervisor you should commence this stage of the enumeration on Monday, 16 March, 1981 and complete it by Wednesday, 1 April, 1981. However,

*Note that, in the case of a private household with less than five boarders residing with it, the boarders do not constitute a separate non-private household but are to be regarded as members of the private household.

[p. 18]

ports and harbours containing seagoing ships and boats should not normally be covered until one or two days before Census date so as to avoid unnecessary entries in Form D. If visited too early, many of the ships etc. recorded in Form D would be found to have sailed again before Census date.

15.2 If delivery unlikely to be completed in time: If, at any time, during the progress of the work you foresee that you may not be able to complete the distribution of the Forms A by the target date you must immediately notify your Field Supervisor so that alternative arrangements can be made in good time.

16. Procedure for delivering Forms A
16.1 Ascertain number of households and which version of Form A is required: On calling at each building etc. you must (1) ascertain how many distinct households of each type (as defined in Instructions 13.2 and 13. 3) there are for whom Forms A must be delivered and (2) decide which version of the Form A should be tendered to each household. While the English version should normally be distributed, in cases where you have any reason to think that the householder may wish to have the Irish version (for example, where the name of the head of the household is given in Irish), the householder should be asked which version is desired. Enumerators should carry a sufficient number of the Irish version of the form to cater for situations of this kind. In Gaeltacht areas, however, the Irish version should normally be distributed unless the householder specifically asks for the English version. It is possible that some householders may ask for both versions of the form and the Enumerators should accede to such a request.

In the case of an institution, you must make sure to leave a sufficient supply of Forms A to cover all the persons likely to be present on Census night and you must also find out if it contains any private households (i.e. members of the staff residing on the premises with their families), who should get separate Forms A. Wherever possible, you should speak to the head or some other responsible member of each household, and, having ascertained the name of the head or other person responsible for making the Census return, enter it in Column (6) of Form D as well as on the top of the Form A for the household. (See Instruction 14.2).

16.2 Inquiries about housekeeping etc. arrangements: When you encounter a situation where the occupants of a house or flat do not conform to the usual family pattern, you will probably have to inquire about housekeeping; and catering arrangements to establish how many households there are in that house or flat.

16.3 Households containing more than 8 persons: At previous Censuses, the Form A provided for 10 persons but, on this occasion, it caters for only 8 persons. It is most important, therefore, that you take special care to leave two or more Forms A, as appropriate, for a household containing more than 8 persons.

16.4 Household likely to have left dwelling unit before Census night: If you learn that a household is likely to have left the dwelling unit, whether temporarily or permanently, by Census night you should not leave a Form A but should enter the words "Likely to be absent" or "Likely to be vacant", as appropriate, above the name of the head of

[p. 19]

the household in Column (6) of Form D. You should also make a note of the situation in Column (11) (or in your notebook), giving if possible, the number of persons in the household and the address at which they expect to spend Census night. As already stated in Instruction 11.15, you should also enter "1" in sub-column (b) or (c), as appropriate, of Column (7) of Form D. The position in regard to such households will have to be clarified at an early stage during the collection of Forms A (see Instruction 22.3).

16.5 Multi-occupied buildings: The purpose of the Census is to enumerate the entire population of the State so it is of vital importance that you discover all the households in your E.A. The main difficulties likely to be encountered in achieving this arise in dealing with multi-occupied buildings and particularly with houses originally intended for occupation by one household but now occupied by two or more households. Quite often, very little or no modification will have been made to the original building to adapt it to its new function. If you encounter such a situation, you should try to find out from the first person you meet the number of flats or "bed-sitters" in the building and their location on each floor. Working systematically through the building, from floor to floor, list each flat or "bed-sitter" in Form D as well as any remaining part of the building used for non-residential purposes (e.g. as shops or offices).

16.6 Completed Forms A to be ready on Monday, 6 April, 1981: When delivering the Form A, you should impress on the person with whom you are dealing the importance of having the form completed on the morning of Monday, 6 April, 1981. It is recommended that you should make an appointment to collect the form or, at least, try to ascertain the most convenient time of day to call to collect it. Be sure to note in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) any appointments you made to collect Forms A or the results of any inquiries about the best time to call for this purpose.

17. Provision for making Personal Returns in certain cases
17.1 Use of Form A(P): You may come across cases where the head of the household is unable or reluctant to collect information from persons in the household or where members of the household are unwilling to give the information required to the head to enable him/her to complete Form A. Difficulties of this kind occur most often in hotels, guest houses, boarding houses etc.

In these cases, you may accept separate Personal Returns in Form A(P), completed by the household members concerned or, in the case of a family group, by one responsible member of that group. The Forms A(P) for making these returns may be given direct to the persons concerned or to the head of the household for distribution to them. You must complete Sections A and D in each Form A(P) before distribution and you should also write clearly at the top of each form the name of the person who is to complete it, if you can ascertain this. With each form you should deliver one of the special envelopes provided (No. C.O.P.1) bearing your Appointment No. in the bottom left-hand corner) in which the form may be sealed on completion. (A person making a Personal Return may leave it in the sealed envelope with the head of the household for delivery to you or he/she may deliver or post it direct to you. In the event that the person concerned is unwilling to let even you see the Form A(P) special arrangements may be made to have the form posted to the Field Supervisor).

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The name of the person who is to be recorded in the Form A(P) should also be written by the Enumerator on the outside of the back-flap of the envelope accompanying the form if it is known to him. Otherwise, the head of the household should be instructed to do this.

In any case where you distribute a Form A(P) for the making of a Personal Return direct to the person who is to complete it, you must make sure to inform the head of the household of your action. You should also try to make a definite arrangement for the collection or return of the form after Census date.

17.2 Form P.R.: In all cases where the ''Personal Return" procedure is to be employed, you must furnish the head of the household with a copy of Form P.R. which sets out the details of the procedure. As indicated in the Form P.R., the head of the household is not absolved from his/her legal responsibility to account for all members of the household on the Form(s) A for the household. Accordingly, he/she must complete Questions (1) to (3), inclusive, in the Form(s) A in respect of each person who is to make a Personal Return and should write "P.R." in large capitals after the person's name in the first column of the form.

Every Form P.R. which you distribute should bear in the spaces provided in the form, your own name, address and telephone number (if any) and those of your Field Supervisor. You may find it convenient to prepare the Forms P.R. in advance.

While the heading in Form P.R. makes it clear that it is intended primarily for heads of households, you should, if requested furnish a copy to an individual member of a household who has expressed a desire to make a Personal Return.

Paragraph 8 of Form P.R. draws attention to the fact that the Personal Return procedure is a concession which should be employed only in certain clearly defined situations. As it gives rise to a considerable amount of extra work at a subsequent stage, Enumerators should be on their guard to see that the concession is not widely used when this is not justified. The greatest need for the use of the procedure is usually to be found in hotels and similar establishments although, of course, it is also justified in any case where a household member has refused to give the head the information needed to complete Form A.

17.3 Necessity to note "Personal Return" cases in Form D: You should make a note in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) when you deliver Form(s) A(P) for Personal Return(s), indicating, where possible, the names of the persons concerned and any arrangements you have made to collect the form(s). In this connection, note also that you should keep a check on your use of the "Official Paid" envelopes (C.O.P.1) and be able to account for them to your Field Supervisor.

17.4 Form A(P) not to be used for one-person Households: Note that Form A(P) is intended to be filled in by an individual member of a multiple-person household. On no account should this form be used for a one-person household.

18. Provision for return of completed Forms A by post
18.1 Households leaving the E.A. before the Enumerator calls: In accordance with the second last paragraph of the notes on Page Form A, a family which is present on Census night but which is going on holidays, moving to a new address, or leaving the residence unoccupied

[p. 21]

for any other reason after Census date and before the Enumerator calls to collect Form A, should post the form to the Director, Central Statistics Office, Ardee Road, Dublin 6.

18.2 Other reasons for posting Form A: There are other cases in which the person completing Form A may prefer, or may be asked, to return the completed form by post. For example, the person may be reluctant to have you examine the form or to leave it where it might be seen by another resident of the building. Sometimes it may prove difficult or impossible for you to collect a form because the dwelling is unoccupied for most of the day. (The latter circumstances is particularly likely to arise in the case of one-person households).

In any of these cases, you may issue the person concerned with one of the special envelopes provided (No. C.O.P.2) in which he/she can post the Form A to you, or to your Field Supervisor or, if preferred, direct to the Central Statistics Office. You should pre-address the envelope and also write your Appointment Number in the bottom left-hand corner of the envelope before issue.

18.3 Noting Form D: In every instance where you issue an envelope to enable the Form A to be returned by post, you should make a note in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) accordingly so that you will not make further unnecessary visits to the dwelling; to collect the form. This will also help you to keep a check on the use of your stock of these envelopes. You should be able, in due course, to account for this stock to your Field Supervisor.

18.4 Early posting essential: You must impress on any person who wishes to return Form A or Form A(P) by post that he/she should post the form, if possible, on Monday, 6 April, 1981 and, in any event, not later than Thursday, 9 April, 1981. In every case you should also make it clear to the person concerned that he/she has not discharged the obligation to furnish a Census return until the form is actually received. If you have not received the form - or been notified of its receipt in the case of a form posted to the Field Supervisor or the Central Statistics Office - within a reasonable time (not exceeding 2 weeks), you should return to the dwelling and ask that person to complete a fresh return.

19. Exercise of tact and courtesy when delivering Forms A
19.1 General: When delivering the Forms A you must take pains to be courteous and tactful in dealing with the people you meet. You must do your best to give any explanation you are asked for and you should thank anyone who renders you assistance in carrying out your work.

19.2 Refusal to accept delivery of Form A: If anyone refuses to accept delivery of the Form A, you should try to ascertain the reason for this. Usually, you will find that there is some misunderstanding about the nature and purpose of the Census and that your explanations will resolve the difficulty. It is anticipated also that the explanatory Census brochure will be a considerable help in this regard. In a case of persistent refusal, you should on no account adopt a militant or threatening attitude but should tactfully draw the person's attention to the fact that there is a legal obligation to complete the Census form. If this fails to achieve the desired result you should not press the matter but should inform the person that you must report the refusal to your Field Supervisor. Take a note of the situation in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook) and furnish a detailed written report on what transpired to your Field Supervisor as soon as possible.

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20. Recording time worked and reporting progress
20.1 General: You are required to maintain a careful record in your notebook of all the time you spend working on the Census, including time spent in studying instructions etc., attending training sessions and familiarising yourself with your E.A. It is most important that this record be complete and accurate as you will need to consult it when preparing the prescribed weekly progress reports for your Field Supervisor (see Instructions 20.2 and 30.2).

20.2 W.R.1: At the end of each week (ending Saturday) during the period up to Census night you must furnish your Field Supervisor with a progress report in Form W.R .1. You should complete the form in duplicate, retaining one copy for reference purposes.

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III collection of completed Forms A

21. General
21.1 Articles to be carried: When collecting the Forms A, you should carry with you in the satchel provided the following articles:-

(1) The Book of Forms D
(2) A supply of Forms A and Forms A(P) (both English and Irish versions)
(3) A supply of the explanatory Census brochure
(4) Your clipboard
(5) The map(s) of your E.A.
(6) A black pencil
(7) An eraser
(8) A red pen
(9) A supply of envelopes
(10) Some Forms P.R.
(11) Your copy of these instructions
(12) Your Certificate of appointment as Enumerator
(13) Your notebook

21.2 Date of commencement: You must begin to collect the Forms A early on Monday, 6 April, and finish the collection as quickly as possible.

21.3 Forms for hotels etc. to be collected first: Forms for hotels, guest-houses, ships, itinerant families, etc. should be collected first as, otherwise, you may find that the guests etc. have left the district before you call to collect forms and it may be impossible to get accurate particulars regarding them.

22. Procedure to be followed when collecting Forms A
22.1 General: You must collect a Form A for every household for which there is a name entered in Column (6) of Form D, provided the household was still in your E.A. on Census night or returned on the following morning, not having been enumerated elsewhere.

22.2 Dwelling Units missed at the delivery stage: If, at the collection stage, you discover a dwelling unit whose existence you had not noted at the delivery stage, you should of course, arrange to have a Form A completed (if the dwelling unit was occupied on Census night) and make all the necessary entries in Form D in respect of the dwelling unit, continuing in sequence from the last Serial No. used at the delivery stage. If the newly discovered dwelling is part of a premises already noted in Form D, you should insert appropriate cross references in Column (11) of the Form D. Remember that the Form D Serial Nos. for any newly discovered dwelling units should also be inserted in the relative map and, where necessary, their location should be marked in red ink in the map.

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22.3 Dwelling Units noted as "Vacant" or "Absent" at the delivery stage: During the collection stage of the Census, you must visit again any dwelling units which you had noted at the delivery stage as "Vacant" or from which the occupants were likely to be absent on Census night, to ensure that they were not, in fact, occupied on that night. In any case where a dwelling unit noted as "Vacant" or "Absent" in Form D at the delivery stage is found to have been occupied on Census night, a Form A must be delivered to the household concerned for immediate completion and the appropriate amending entries made in Columns (6), (7) and (8) of Form D.

22.4 New resident in E.A.: Should you receive from a new resident in your E.A. a return upon a Form A which was delivered to that resident by the Enumerator for the E.A. in which he previously resided, you should, of course accept it. However, you should retain the form only if the person or household concerned was residing in your E.A. on Census night. In this case, you must be careful to amend the entries made by the other Enumerator in Section A at the top of the form. If the person or household concerned moved into your E.A. after Census night, you should give the form immediately to your Field Supervisor with a note of the circumstances.

22.5 Caravans and mobile homes which were unoccupied at the delivery stage: At the collection stage you should also check on any caravans or mobile homes (including those in caravan parks etc.) which you had not listed separately in Form D because they were not occupied at the delivery stage (see Instruction 11.7). If you find that such a caravan or mobile home was, in fact, occupied on Census night, you should follow the procedure laid down in Instruction 22.2 for dealing with dwelling units missed at the delivery stage.

22.6 Households to which Forms A were delivered but which were not present at time of Census: If you find that a household in respect of which you delivered a Form A was not present in the E.A. during the time of the Census, you must draw a line through (but not erase) the name of the household head in Column (6) of Form D. If the household was only temporarily absent from the residence, you should enter the word "Absent" over the original entry in Column (6) If the household has moved permanently away from the residence, leaving it vacant at the time of the Census, you should enter the word "Vacant" over the original entry in Column (6). In wither case, you must ascertain, if possible, the number of' persons (male and female) in the household and the address at which the household spent Census night and note these particulars in Column (11) of Form D (or in your notebook). (You will be required, at the end of the enumeration to furnish a special report in Form E in respect of any household to which Form A was distributed but which was absent from the E.A. at the time of the Census - see Instruction 24.2). In these cases, of course, you should also amend the entry in Column (7) of Form D by erasing the original entry in sub-column (a) and inserting "1" in sub-column (b) or (c), as appropriate.

If the dwelling unit was occupied on Census night. you must. of course. deliver a Form A to the household concerned for immediate completion.

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22.7 Refusal to fill up Form A or to answer inquiries: Should anyone refuse to fill up Form A or to answer questions which you may find it necessary to put for the purpose of carrying out the enumeration in accordance with these instructions, you should tactfully try to find out why the person is adopting this attitude and furnish any explanations which may seem to be required to resolve the matter. If a person persists in refusing to co-operate, you must be at pains to avoid giving any impression of being militant or threatening but should courteously point out that there is a legal obligation under the Statistics Act, 1926, to complete the Census form or to furnish required information. If this fails to achieve the desired cooperation, you should not press the matter further but should inform the person that you must report the refusal to your Field Supervisor. As soon as possible after the interview you should furnish a full report on what has transpired to the Field Supervisor. This report should indicate clearly the precise questions you put to the persons concerned and the nature of the information which was refused. Remember that this report may be used in subsequent legal proceedings.

22.8 Personal Returns in Form A(P): When collecting the Forms A you should check the entries in Column (11) of Form D to identify the cases in which you delivered Form A(P) for the purpose of Personal Returns (see Instructions 17.1 to 17.3, inclusive). In these cases, you must ensure that (1) the head of the household has listed all the household members (including those making Personal Returns) in the Form(s) A for the household and (2) you collect a completed Form A(P) in respect of each person concerned or verify that the form has been forwarded to your Field Supervisor. You should, of course, be careful not to disclose to the head of the household any information contained in a Form A(P) which was collected by or delivered to you in a sealed envelope.

22.9 Inability to contact household: If you are unable, despite repeated calls, on different days and at different times of day, to make contact with a household for the purpose of collecting Form A. you should report the circumstances in writing to your Field Supervisor. If no return has been received from such a household at the stage when you are preparing the relative Form B (see Instruction 26.3), you should construct a provisional Form A for the household containing the address, the name of the head, the number of persons (males and females) in the household and as much other information as it is possible for you to ascertain. Write the word "Constructed" in large block letters in the space above Section A on Page 1 of each constructed Form A and also complete Sections A and D on Page 1 of the form.

22.10 Assisting householders to complete Form A: A householder who has not filled in the Form A by the time you call to collect it should be asked to do so right away and you should either wait until this is done or arrange to collect it later that day. You should render any assistance needed in completing the form and, where the householder appears to be incapable of doing so, you should fill in the form yourself, asking whatever questions are necessary to enable you to do so.

22.11 Examination of Form A or Form A(P) at the time of collection: When collecting a Form A or Form A(P), you should, whenever possible, examine it thoroughly for correctness and completeness so as to avoid as far as possible the necessity for additional visits to households.

[p. 26]

The proper examination of the return at the time of collection is of the greatest importance as on it the accuracy of the enumeration largely depends. The detailed instructions regarding the examination of Form A are contained in Appendix I.

22.12 Incomplete or inaccurate returns in Form A or Form A(P): If an entry on a Form A is obviously incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate, ambiguous or illegible, you have the right and the duty to ask any question necessary to enable you to complete or correct it but you must do this in a courteous and tactful manner. If additional nonessential information is given on a form do not delete it. In the case of an apparently inaccurate or incomplete return in a Form A(P) (See Instructions 17.1 to 17.3, inclusive) you should immediately seek an interview with the person concerned with a view to remedying the position. You must be particularly careful to be courteous and tactful when conducting such an interview. (See Para. 22.7)

22.13 Making corrections in Form A or Form A (P) : When making a correction on a Form A or Form A (P) a line should be drawn through the wrong entry and the correction written legibly. No erasures should be made.

22.14 Completing section F of Form A: As you collect the Forms A, you should complete section F in each form by entering the date on which you collected it. if there is more than one Form A for a household. Section F should be completed on the first from only. It is necessary to record using three digits only the day and the month in that order: for the latter, use the appropriate number: thus "9th April" should be entered as "09/4" "1st May" as "01/5" etc.

22.15 Completing Section C of Form A: Sections C and G of Form A should also be completed at the time of collection. In Section C, tick the appropriate box to show whether the form relates to (1) a private household resident in a house or flat (2) a private household in a caravan or other type of mobile dwelling or (3) a non-private household. In the case of (3), the name of the establishment (if any) should also be entered in Section B of Form A. if there is more than one Form A for a household, Section C should be completed on the first form only.

When completing Section C of Form A, it is important to bear in mind the definitions of private and non-private households given in Instructions 13.2 and 13.3 particularly in relation to private households living in institutions.

22.16 Section G of Form A: In Section G, what is required is to identify the type of building containing the dwelling unit occupied by the household by ticking the appropriate box. Category 1 (Conventional house containing one dwelling) covers detached, semi-detached, terraced and "town" houses and Forms A for households occupying such houses should be ticked in Box 1, provided there is no other dwelling unit in the house. if a conventional house contains two or more dwelling units the tick in Section G should be in Box 3. - "Multi-dwelling building". This applies even when only one of the dwelling units contains a household on a Census night. Examples of cases in which the tick should be in Box 2 in Section G (One dwelling building, partly non-residential) are a caretaker's flat in an office block; a single flat above a shop; a single flat in a conventional house, the remainder of which is being used as office accommodation. Note that where there is more than one private dwelling unit in a building which is partly non-residential the tick should not be in Box 2, but in Box 3. As in the case of the conventional house, this rule applies irrespective of whether the dwelling units are occupied or not on Census night.

[p. 27]

IV Duties after collection of Forms A

23. Certification of Forms D
23.1 Checking Forms D for completeness: When you have completed the collection stage of the enumeration, the entries in your book of Forms D should be in final form. You should now check the book carefully to make sure that this is so and al so that you have not inadvertently omitted to collect any Form A.

23.2 Certification of Forms D: When you are satisfied that the entries in your book of Forms D are complete and correct, you should fill in and sign the certificate to this effect on the inside of the back cover of the book.

24. Households which have left the E.A.
24.1 General: To ensure the accuracy and completeness of the Census enumeration, it is necessary to confirm, whenever possible, that households recorded in Form D, which left the E.A.'s in in which they had been residing - whether temporarily or permanently - and were thus absent from their E.A.'s on Census night, were enumerated in the E.A.'s in which they spent Census night. This is the reason for the requirement (see Instructions 16.4 and 22.6) that Enumerators should make a note of the number of persons in these households and the addresses at which they spent Census night.

24.2 Completion of Forms E: As soon as you have completed the collection of Forms A in your E .A., you should prepare a Form E (in duplicate) in respect of each such household in the E.A. All the original and duplicate Forms E for your E.A. should be made up in separate bundles, arranged in order of Form D Serial No., secured with pins or paper fasteners, and furnished without delay to your Field Supervisor.

25. Further entries in Forms A and Forms A(P): Signature of Forms A
25.1 Second examination of Forms A: As soon as possible after collection, you should again check each Form A and Forms A(P) for completeness and accuracy, adhering strictly to the instructions set out in Appendix I. If you find that the return in the form is defective in any way, you should make any further inquiries necessary from the household to correct it. When you are satisfied that the return is correct and complete you should sign the form in the box provided for this purpose.

25.2 Soiled, torn etc. Forms A: Occasionally, you may collect a Form A which is badly torn, soiled, or very badly written. In these cases, you should copy the contents onto a blank form which should be clearly marked "copy" and substituted for the original. The originals of such Forms A should be parcelled separately for surrender, with the other returns to your Field Supervisor in due course (see Instruction 31.2 )

[p. 28]

25 .3 Dealing with "Personal Returns" in Forms A(P): These forms should be associated with the relative Forms A and arranged in the same order as the persons to whom they relate have been listed in Form A. The relative Form A Line No. in each case should be entered in Section B of Form A(P). At a later stage, when you have numbered the Forms A (see Instruction 28.2), the relative Form A Schedule No. should also be entered in Section B of Form A(P).

You must now carefully copy the answers to Questions 4 to 22 inclusive, from each Form A(P) onto the appropriate line in the relative Form A. When this is done, the Forms A(P) should be securely fastened in their correct order, to the back of the Form A. When doing this, ensure that the perforations in the Forms A and Forms A(P) are in alignment so as to facilitate the subsequent binding of the forms into their file-covers (see Instruction 29.2)

25.4 Completion of Section E of Form A: When you are satisfied that Columns (1) and (2) of Form A have been correctly completed, you should complete Section E at the top of the form by entering the number of persons, distinguishing males and females in the household. (You can do this even though there is some outstanding error or omission in some other part of the form which may require a further visit to the household concerned). If there is more than one Form A for a household, Section E should be completed only in the first form but should of course, cover all persons in the household.

25.5 Procedure to be followed in counting number of persons in household: Past experience has shown that a surprising number of errors can be made in carrying out this apparently simple operation. To minimise the risk of error, the following procedure should be followed:-

From the entries in Column (2) of Form A, first count the number of males and enter the result in Section E. Next count the number of females from Column (2) and record this figure in Section E. Finally, count, from Column (1) of the Form A, the total number of persons in the household and enter the result in Section E, ensuring at the same time that this total figure equals the sum of the figures for males and females already entered.

25.6 Forms A sent to your Field Supervisor: Use of Form H: Your Field Supervisor will retain any Forms A delivered by you which were returned direct to him/her by the householder concerned. However, so that you will be able to complete your summarisation work in the absence of these Forms A, the Field Supervisor will advise you in Form H of the population figures (Males: Females: Total) for each such household.

26. Preparation of Forms B: Entries in Columns (1) to (7)
26.1 General: The purpose of the Form B is to summarise the entries in the Forms A relating to a Street or Townland. Particulars for only one street or one Townland should be entered in the same Form B. If a Street extends into more than one D.E.D. or Ward, the part in each D.E.D. or Ward must be given a separate Form B. Similarly, if part of a Townland is in a Town - or the Environs of a Municipal Town - and the remainder is outside, a separate Form B must be completed for each part.

[p. 29]

26.2 Form B headings: In the spaces provided at the head of the Form B should be inserted the names of the County or County Borough, D.E.D. or Ward, Townland or Street and the E.A. Number. Inapplicable headings should be struck out. There is also provision at the top of the form for entering the name of the Postal Town, if the form relates to a Townland which is rural in character. For the purpose of other statistical inquiries, the Central Statistics Office frequently has to communicate by post with persons listed in the Forms B and for this reason, it is essential that the name of the Postal Town be entered in every Form B which relates to any Townland or part of a townland which is not in a Town or in the Suburbs or Environs of a Municipal Town.

26.3 Putting Forms A in order: Before you start to enter the particulars from the completed Forms A for a street or Townland in Form B, the Forms A (and any relevant Forms H received from your Field Supervisor) should first be arranged in the order in which the premises to which they relate were visited in the course of the Visual Enumeration and Distribution of Forms A. This will generally be apparent from the Form D Serial No. entered in Section D of each Form A. However, in carrying out this instruction, you should ensure that the Forms A relating to all dwelling units in the same building are arranged consecutively notwithstanding the fact that the relative Form D Serial Numbers may not be in sequence for one reason or another. (See relevant example in the specimen Form B relating to "High Street (part)" in Appendix 4). The detachable section of each Form A containing the notes on completion should be detached at this stage (if not already done) along the perforated line provided for this purpose.

26.4 Entries in Columns (1) to (7) of Form B: When the Forms A have been assembled in correct order, you should enter the required particulars from these forms in Columns (1) to (7), inclusive, of the Forms) B, allotting one line of Form B to each household (whether private or non-private). You should make no entry at this stage in Column (8) of Form B. Column (9) is intended to be used during the processing of the returns in the Census Office; Enumerators should not make any entry in this column.

Note that the required entry in Column (6) of Form B is the complete name and surname listed in the first line of the relative Form(s) A. This is usually, but not necessarily, the same name as that entered in Column (6) of Form D. Column (3) (Townland) should be entered only in a Form B which relates to a Street in a non-Municipal Town or in the Suburbs or Environs of a Municipal Town. In Column (4) of Form B, you should enter the number of separate households occupying each premises. As the great majority of dwelling units is comprised of complete houses and purpose-built flats, the usual entry in this column will be "1". The principal exceptions will be houses or flats containing more than one household - especially houses let out in flats or bed-sitters-and certain establishments (such as hotels, guest houses, boarding houses, hospitals, boarding schools etc.) which often contain numbers of separate households. In such a case the number of households in the premises should be entered in Column (4) of Form B on the line relating to the first household and Column (4) should be left blank for the other households in the premises.

[p. 30]

In Column (5) you should indicate whether the household is Private or non-Private, as shown in Section C on Page 1 of the relative Form A. The entry should consist of a "1" in the appropriate sub-column.

Where you have more than, one Form B for a Townland or Street, you will have to carry forward to the second and to each succeeding Form B, the sub-totals from the preceding form. When doing this, you should strike out the words "Totals" opposite the figures which are being carried forward to the next form. The figures which have been brought forward should be entered on the first line of the second and succeeding Forms B, preceded by the words "Brought Forward". You should, of' course, strike out the words "Carried Forward" at the bottom of Form B when entering the total figures for a Street or Townland.

26.5 Totalling the figures entered in Form B: According as you enter Form B, you should add up the figures relating to households in Columns (4) and (5) and Number of Persons in Column (7) and enter the resultant figures in, the spaces provided at the bottom of the form, making sure, as you do so, that the sum of the figures for Private and Non-Private Households in Column (5) is the same as that for Number of Households in Column (4) and that, in column (7), the sum of the figures for Males and Females agrees with the figure for Persons.

27. Completion of Forms C
27.1 Putting Forms B in order: When all the Forms B for each D.E.D or Ward have been totalled, they should be placed in the same order as the Townlands or Streets to which they refer are listed in the relative Form(s) C.

27.2 Entries in Columns (4) to (7) of Form C: You should now transfer the total figures from Columns (4) and (7) of the Forms B to the appropriate lines in Columns(4) and (5)-(7), respectively, of both the original (white) and the duplicate (yellow) copy of the Form C. When you have done this for all the Townlands and Streets listed in the Form C, you should add up the entries in the four columns in question on both copies of the Form C and enter the results in the spaces provided at the foot of the Forms, ensuring at the same time that the figures arrived at are the same for both the original and the duplicate copy of the Form C and also that the sum of' the figures for Males and Females agrees with the figure for Persons. Where there is more than one Form C for a D.E.D. or Ward, you will have to carry forward to the second and each succeeding Form C the sub-totals from the preceding form.

Special care is required when transferring the totals from Column (7) of Form B to Columns (5)-(7) of Form C as the sequence of the relevant entries differs in the two forms (i.e. the order in Form n is Males: Females : Persons and in Form C is Persons : Males : Females).

27.3 Examination of entries in Forms C: Completion of Column (8): You should examine the entries in the Forms C to detect any obvious discrepancies between the figures for households and for total population for the last Census and for the current Census or between the number of Males and Females for the current Census. The purpose of this examination is to check that there has been complete and accurate coverage of the area in question.

[p. 31]

You should now furnish in Column (8) of both copies of Form C a brief explanation of any significant difference between the number of households in any street or Townland as shown for the last Census in Column (2) and for the current Census in Column (4). Such explanations should be factual and based on actual knowledge rather than mere assumptions.

27.4 Purpose of Duplicate Form C: Signature of Duplicate Forms C: It is very important that preliminary figures of population in respect of the more important statutory areas should be available as soon as possible after Census date. The duplicate (yellow) copy of Form C, which is to be furnished to the Central Statistics Office in advance of any of the other Census Returns, has been introduced for the purpose of expediting, as far as possible, the production of the Preliminary Report of the Census.

Accordingly, as soon as you have totalled and examined the Form(s) C relating to a D.E.D. or Ward, you should sign and date the duplicate copy and send it immediately to your Field Supervisor.

27.5 Necessity to furnish duplicate Form C as soon as possible: It is a matter of prime importance that you furnish the duplicate Form C to your Field Supervisor with the least possible delay. This operation should not, therefore, await the signature of all the relevant Forms A (See Instruction 25.1) or the numbering of these Forms (see Instruction 28.2). Neither should the transmission of a duplicate Form C be delayed until the completion of the Forms C for other D.E.Ds. or Wards in your E.A. Do not, however, furnish a duplicate Form C based on an incomplete count of the population in the area covered by the form. Figures of the number of persons (males and females) in every household in the area must be obtained before the form is completed and forwarded to the Field Supervisor.

27.6 Notification of errors in duplicate Forms C: If, subsequent to the dispatch of a duplicate Form C to your Field Supervisor, you discover that there was an error in any of the entries in Columns (4), (5), (6) (7) of the Form, you should make the necessary amendments in the original copy of the Form. Should there be a difference in absolute terms, in excess of 10 or, in relative terms, in excess of 5 percent, between the final total in any of the latter three columns in the original Form C and the corresponding total which appeared in the duplicate copy, the fact should be reported immediately to your Field Supervisor.

27.7 Signature of original Forms C: When you are satisfied that the original (white) Forms(s) C for your E.A. are correct and complete you should sign and date each form.

28. Insertion of Schedule Numbers in Section B of Forms A: Final entries in, and certification of Forms B:
28.1 Separate numbering series for each D.E.D. or Ward: You must use a separate numbering series for each D.E.D. or Ward in your E.A. starting with "1" in each case.

28.2 Procedure to be followed: When all the Forms A - with their accompanying Forms A(P), if any - for a D.E.D. or Ward have been satisfactorily completed and you have signed them, you should place them together with any relevant Forms H, in the same order as that in which the corresponding heads of households are listed in the relative Forms B. (The latter forms will already have been placed in the order in which the Townlands and Streets to which they relate are listed in Form C - See Instructions 27.1). The Forms A

[p. 32]

(and Forms H, if any) should now be numbered consecutively - commencing with the form which is uppermost - in Section B of the form. For example, the Forms A for the first Townland or Street might be numbered 1 to 11, the second 12 to 27 and so on. When there are two or more Forms A for a household - whether private or non-private - each form should receive a separate Schedule No. if a Form H relates to a household containing more than 8 persons, it must be given two or more Schedule Numbers, as appropriate.

In each Form A (P), you should enter - in Section A the Schedule Number you have assigned to the relative Form A. You should already have entered the relative Form A Line Number in this Section of the Form A (P) - See Instructions 25.3.

28.3 Accuracy essential in numbering Forms A: It is absolutely essential that the foregoing instructions regarding the numbering of Forms A be strictly adhered to as any mistakes in this phase of the enumeration could lead to serious complications subsequently when the Census data is being processed. It is particularly important to guard against duplication or omission of any number in the sequence and to ensure that the sequence commences with the first Form A for the first Townland or Street listed in the relative Form C.

28.4 Insertion of Schedule Numbers in Column (8) of Form B: Certification of Form B: When all the Schedule Numbers have been entered in the Forms A (and Forms H, if any), it is necessary to complete Column (8) of the Form B by inserting the relative Schedule Number(s) opposite the name of the head of each household listed on that form. The Form B is now complete and you should sign the certificate to this effect at the bottom of the form.

29. Binding Forms A etc.: Use of file covers
29.1 Identifying Streets and Townlands: You should now place one of the large blank sheets of paper provided on top of the completed Forms A (and Forms H, if any) relating to each Street or Townland in each D.E.D. or Ward in your E.A. You should write the name of the Street or Townland across the face of this blank sheet which should be perforated to correspond to the holes in the Form A.

29.2 Lacing Forms A etc. into file covers: A separate file cover must be used for each D.E.D. or Ward. The forms A (and Forms H, if any), with the sheet of paper bearing the Street or Townland names interleaved in their appropriate places, should now be assembled in strict numerical order of Schedule Number for lacing into the file cover. This should be done by passing one end of the lace down through the topmost hole of the cover and of the forms and up through the second hole from the bottom; one end of a-second lace should be passed through the bottom hole end up through the second hole from the top. The two ends of each lace should then be securely tied together using a bow knot. When the forms have been laced in, you should fill in the space headed "To be filled in by Enumerator" on the outside of the file cover.

[p. 33 is omitted here.]

[p. 34]

Appendix I

Method of examination of Forms A and A(p) to ensure completeness and accuracy
(The notes referred to throughout this Appendix are the Explanatory Notes appended to Form A)

[Since the following four paragraphs including questions 1 and 2 are illegible in the original document, they are not presented here.]
Q.3: Relationship to head of household
Note that any adult either male or female of a private household, present on Census night may be returned as head answering as the household members consider appropriate. Of the term "joint head" is used accept this without questioning provided the relationship with the other members is clear. The description "Visitor" must be used at Question 3 for a person whose usual residence is elsewhere (see question 11) even though he/she may be related to the head of the household.
Q.4: Date of birth
The exact date of birth (day, month and year) must be entered numerically for this question. The year of birth of all persons in a private household should be compared with one another, bearing in mind their relationships. In particular, parent's age and children's ages should be reasonably consistent with one another.

[p. 35]

If this question has not been answered and you have been unable to obtain the information by questioning the householder, you should enter your own best estimate of the year of birth. The note about entering such amendments in red should be borne in mind.

Q.5: Marital status
An entry is required to this Question for all persons. For children under 15 years of age (i.e. born on or after 6 April, 1966), "Child" should be ticked. The entries for this question should not be inconsistent with those for Relationship and Date of Birth. If in some cases additional information is inserted by respondents who opt for the category "other status", accept it without question.

Q.6: Place of birth
The county of birth is required for every person born in any part of Ireland (including Northern Ireland). County Boroughs should, for this purpose, be regarded as falling within the county of the same name, e.g. if a person was born in Dublin County Borough, the entry should be "Dublin". Only the name of the country is required for persons born outside Ireland.

Q.7: Religion
Do not make any amendment to the reply given to this Question. Neither should you take any action where no reply is given to the Question other than ensuring that the Question has not been inadvertently overlooked.

Q.8: Irish language
This Question should be answered only for persons aged three years and over (i.e. born on or before 5 April 1978). An entry should be made in this column only in respect to a person who can read or speak Irish. A person who can speak Irish is one who is able to carry on an ordinary conversation in Irish and those whose knowledge of Irish is not sufficient to converse in Irish should not be returned as able to speak the language.

Q.9 and Q.l0: Fertility of marriage
These Questions should be answered for all married women.
The information required on the number of children born alive relates to the present marriage only; children born to a previous marriage should not be included in the total. The figures given should cover children who may have died and children alive but not in the household on Census night, irrespective of age.

Q.11 and Q.12: Usual residence now and usual residence one year ago
Where the address stated is in any part of Ireland, (including Northern Ireland) it is essential that it is given in full in accordance with the relevant Note. Only the name of the country need be stated in the case of a foreign address (with the exception of Great Britain, for which the county or shire is required).

[p. 36]

As it is a common practice to include the name of the postal town when writing a rural address, it is most important to ensure as far as possible that, where an address includes the name of a town, the residence in question is actually situated within that town and you should ask any questions necessary to enable you to establish the true position in this regard. Where an address is given which purports to be in the same town as that in which the person is being enumerated, you should check that the address is, in fact, within the town boundary to be followed for Census purposes.

Q.13 and Q.14: Travel to work, school or college
An answer is required to these Questions in respect of every person who is at work or who is attending a school or university, etc. full time (in this connection, check the answer to Question 15). The columns can be left blank for all other persons e.g. persons whose Present Status is described at Question 15 as Unemployed, Engaged in Home Duties, Retired, Children not yet at School, etc. Information is sought only in respect of the outward journey; information regarding the return journey should not be included.

Only one of the boxes 1 to 11 should be ticked. If more than one has been ticked clarify which is the principal means of travel and delete the other entries. In Question 14 the information required is the total distance travelled.

You should check that, within your knowledge, there is no inconsistency between the answers to these Questions and those given in respect of Usual Residence now (Question 11) and Address of Place of Work etc. (Question 19).

Q.15 to Q.19:
The Questions on the person's position in regard to employment (Questions 15-19) are the most difficult to check and require the most careful study. These Questions should be answered for each persons aged 15 years and over. (i.e. born on or before 5 April, 1966). Answers in respect of persons aged under 15 should be ignored.

Q.15: Present status
Note that it is the persons principal status that is required and only one of the listed categories should be ticked. A persons who is mainly engaged as an assisting relative on a farm, in a shop or in any other commercial enterprise, should be regarded as "at work" even if he or she receives no payment or no regular payment. A member of a religious body (other than a member who is retired or permanently unable to work owing to illness, etc.) should be regarded as "at work" even if he or she receives no payment.

A housewife however who assists in the family business, but is mainly engaged on housework should be entered as on "home (or domestic) duties".

If category 8 is ticked, the precise status should be described in the space provided.

[p. 37]

Q.16: Occupation
You should study the relevant Note with particular care as it covers most of the usual difficulties experienced in answering this Question. The Occupation must be given for every person in Category 1, 3 or 6 at Question 15. The type of educational establishment being attended should be stated for a person in Category 4 at Question 15. You may observe apparent discrepancies between the answers to Question 15 and 16 (e.g. an Occupation stated at Question 16 for a person categorised as "at School Student" at Question 15) but you need not take any action in this regard. Note however, that there is a tendency for housewives to be described as "Home (or Domestic) Duties" in reply to the question on Occupation. Such an entry is a valid one only when it relates to a domestic servant and it should be struck out if is given for a housewife.

You should ensure that the description of the Occupation is precise. Following are examples of terms which are not sufficiently precise in themselves and of possible correct descriptions which should be entered in such cases:-

Inadequate entry
Accountant
Agent
Assistant
Checker
Civil Servant
Clerk
Collector
Contractor
Director
Driver
Engineer
Factory Worker
Fitter
Foreman
Inspector
Labourer
Machinist
Manager
Manufacturer
Mechanic
Merchant
Porter
Printer
Secretary
Technician

Possible Correct Entry
Chartered Accountant
Manufacturer's Agent
Shop Assistant
Ticket Checker
Civil Servant - Clerical Officer
Stores Clerk
Rent Collector
Building Contractor
Sales Director
Lorry Driver
Civil Engineer
Hosiery Machine Operator
Gas Fitter
Garage Foreman
Maintenance Inspector
Dock Labourer
Drilling Machine Operator
Restaurant Manager
Furniture Manufacturer
Motor Mechanic
Shopkeeper
Gate Porter
Compositor
Medical Secretary
Laboratory Technician

If in doubt as to how a particular occupation should, be described, it is better to give a detailed description rather than to omit particulars which may be essential for purposes of valid statistical classification.

[p.38]
Q.17: Employment status
An answer is required here for persons in Category 1, 3 or 6 at Question 15. Answers for other persons should be ignored. The answers supplied should relate to the occupation given at Question 16. Note that the term "Employee" should be used for a person receiving a fixed wage or salary, even if he assisting a relative. If, however, he/she is assisting a relative without receiving a fixed wage or salary, he/she should be described as "Assisting Relative". Members of religious orders should be described as "Employees". Persons without any paid employees, even though assisted by relatives who are not receiving fixed wages, should be described as "Self Employed, Without Employees". Persons in partnership in a firm not having paid employees should also be described as "Self employed, Without Employees", while persons in partnership in a firm having paid employees should be described as "Self Employed, Employing Others". Persons employed to manage commercial concerns should be described as "Employee". (Thus a person whose occupation is "Managing Director is an Employee.)

Q.18: Employer and employer's business
The answer should relate to the occupation given at Question 16. This Question should be answered for every person in Category 1 or 3 at Question 15. Answers for other persons should be ignored. The information is required for the purpose of classifying persons to the industry or service with which their work is connected. What is needed here is the nature of the business carried on by the firm or undertaking for which the person is working.
If the employer has several different businesses, the one required is that in which the person carried on the occupation stated at Question 16. For example, in the case of a clerk employed by C.I.E. it is important to distinguish whether he is in Rail Transport, Road Passenger Transport, or a Hotel, etc. This question must be completed in respect of all self-employed persons - whether with or without employees - the type of business carried on being stated. Particular care should be taken to ensure that, in the case of farmers, the area of the farm on which working is inserted. In the case of other farm workers, the area of the farm on which working is also required.

Q.19: Address of place of work, school or college
This Question should be answered in respect of every person who is at work or at school or college. The address to be stated is that at which the person is actually working.

Q.20: Agricultural holdings
The entries given are meant to cover all agricultural holdings for which the person is the actual occupier irrespective of the location of the holdings and of the occupation of the person. Land held under the eleven months' system or in conacre or in commonage should not be included.

There should be an entry here in all cases where the occupation "farmer" is entered at Questions 16 or 18. If not clarify that the land farmed is entirely taken.

[p. 39]

Q.21: Full time education received
Entries in this section of the form are required for persons aged 15 years or over who have ceased full time education ad should relate only to the full-time education received. No entries are required for persons who are still at school or college or full-time students at universities or persons attending day courses in vocational schools at business colleges.

For a person who has ceased full-time education, the age at which he or she ceased receiving full-time education should be inserted in the first column. In the other columns should be entered the number of years spent in full-time attendance at each type of school, college etc. specified. "None" should be entered in the particular type of school etc., that was not attended full-time. It should be especially noted that the information required is in respect of the type of school or college etc. attended, regardless of whether or not certificates or qualifications were obtained. In the case of a person with a job who is attending a technical school or university part-time, no entry in respect of this part-time education should be made; the particulars entered should be in respect of the educational establishments which that person had attended full-time.

Q.22: Scientific or technological qualifications
You should not make any amendment in a reply to this Question. if however, there is no entry in respect of a person who you have reason to believe possessed qualifications of the type covered by this Question, (e.g. a medical doctor) you should seek an interview with the respondent with a view to rectify the situation.

Details of the dwelling
Answers should be furnished to Questions 23 to 30, inclusive, in respect of all private households (except those in mobile dwellings) and in respect of the houses, flats or rooms occupied by such households.

Q.23: Nature of occupancy of house, flat or rooms
You should check that a tick has been inserted in one, and only one of the spaces provided. Cases will sometimes be met of two distinct households occupying a single house and a separate Form A will be completed for each household. While the first household might own the house (so that a tick should be inserted in Space 5 or 6), the second household might be renting a portion of the house from the first household (so that on their Form the tick should be in Space 2 or 3, as appropriate) or living free of rent (when the tick should be in Space 7).

Q.24: Rent
You should ensure that a figure for rent is inserted in the case of each dwelling in Category 1, 2 or 3 at Question 23 and that the appropriate rental period is indicated by ticking the period which applies. Check that there is a reasonable concurrence between amount of rent and the period indicated.

[p. 40]

Q.25: Rooms
In the case of a house shared between two households, only the rooms occupied by each household should be entered on the Form A relating to that household. If the kitchen is shared, it should be counted only on the form for the main tenant.

Q.26: Year in which the house was built
This question may give considerable difficulty, particularly in the case of the older dwellings, but it is important that at least an approximate date be obtained. If, therefore, the householder is unable to give any indication of the period in which the dwelling was built, you should assign the dwelling to one of the age categories, having regard to its general appearance and to any knowledge you may possess or be able to ascertain regarding the age of similar houses in the neighbourhood.

Q.27, Q.28, Q.29: Water supply, bath or shower and sanitary facilities
You should check that entries have been made in the appropriate spaces for these questions and that they are consistent with one another and with your own knowledge of the district. In particular, you should ensure that the questions relating to the possession of a hot water tap, the sharing of a bath or shower, the situation of the sanitary facilities and the sharing of sanitary facilities are answered.

Q.30: Household heating
You should check that a tick has been inserted in one and only one of the spaces provided for "Type of fuel". If the dwelling has Central Heating make sure that "Yes" or "No" as appropriate, has been ticked in reply to the question as to whether it is the principal method used for heating the dwelling.

[p. 41 - 62 omitted here]