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Census of Population, 1971
Instructions to Enumerators
Central Statistics Office
Dublin 2
February, 1971

[Table of Contents is not presented here.]
p. 5


A person appointed as an Enumerator is personally responsible for the enumeration of the area assigned to him in accordance with these instructions and any other supplementary instruction which may be issued.

An Enumerator must ensure that all persons who pass the night of 18 April, 1971within the boundary of his enumeration area are included in the Census enumeration.

[The rest of Introduction section is omitted here.]

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I. Preparation

1. Study of Instructions and Forms A, B, C, D, N and P

The Enumerator should immediately make himself thoroughly familiar with all the instructions in this book and with the Forms A, B, C, D, N and P. If there is anything not quite clear to him, he must consult his Sergeant or other immediate superior who in turn should, if necessary, consult his superior.

Form A is the basic household Census form and particulars of every person who is in the area allocated to the Enumerator on the night of Sunday, 18 April, 1971, or who arrives in the area on the morning of Monday, 19 April, 1971, not having been enumerated elsewhere, must be recorded on a Form A. The Form A being used for the 1971 Census is a bilingual form with the Irish version on one side and the English version on the other. Holes are punched in the left hand margin of the form to facilitate the lacing of the completed forms into the file covers provided.

Form N - a copy of which must be distributed with every Form A - is a leaflet containing a statement drawing attention to the more important legal requirements relating to the Census together with notes for the guidance of those who have to complete Form A. The Form N is also a bilingual form.

As the Enumerator will be responsible for giving any explanations asked for about the Form A, and will be responsible for checking the entries made in the forms collected, he should carefully study the questions on the Form A together with the notes relating to them in the accompanying Form N. He should be fully conversant with the proper manner in which each question is to be answered and be in a position to query inconsistencies in the replies to the different questions.

Form B must be filled in by the Enumerator. This form serves the dual function of summarizing the population figures from the relative Forms A and of providing a record of all permanent buildings, whether inhabited or not. In general, one or more Forms B will be completed for each Townland in rural areas and for each street in town areas, although, in certain cases, separate Forms B should be completed for portions of Townlands (See Instruction 12). Like the Forms A and N, the Form B is a bilingual Form with Irish on one side and English on the other. The Enumerator should use only one side of the Form B.

The Form C lists the Townlands and/or Streets comprising the enumeration area. Just as the completed Form B will contain a summary of the population figures shown on the relative Forms A, so the Form C will provide a summary of the household and population figures shown on the relative Forms B. This is its primary function, but it also furnishes each Enumerator with a detailed breakdown of the area for which he is responsible and provides, furthermore, a means of checking - by comparing the figures for the last and for the current Census - the completeness and accuracy of the enumeration.

The listing of areas on the Form C, together with the insertion of the figures relating to households and population returned at the last Census, is done

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beforehand in the Census Office and the forms are then forwarded to the Superintendents for distribution to the various Sub-Districts.

In addition to the Form C, a duplicate copy - Form C1 - which is printed on yellow paper, is provided. The use and purpose of the Form C1 are explained in Instructions 33 to 37, inclusive.

There are separate Irish and English versions of the Form C and of its duplicate - Form C1.

In the case of a District Electoral Division which consists, in whole or in part, of rural areas, the Townlands or parts of Townlands comprising these areas are listed first on the Form C in alphabetical order (in Column 1) while the Town(s), if any, in the District Electoral Division are shown at the end of the form. In the case of a very small Town, the townlands on which it stands are listed, in alphabetical order, immediately after the Town's name on Form C. For other towns, the streets are listed in alphabetical order, immediately after the name of the Town on Form C and are followed by the names of the Townlands - again in alphabetical order - on which the Town stands; this is done to ensure the enumeration of houses which cannot be associated with a street or road in the Town. Every effort has been made to ensure that the list of streets shown for each Town is up-to-date and complete. However, if the Enumerator observes any case in which the names of streets appearing on the Form C are no longer in current use, he should amend the form as necessary, entering the present names of the streets. He should, also, add to the list any new streets which have come into existence in the Town since the previous Census and which are not listed on Form C. If any street or portion of a street appears to have been accidently omitted from the Form C, this should, of course, also be inserted since it is most important that every person in the Town is included in the Census enumeration.

The Enumerator is required to enter in Form D particulars of shops, factories, workshops and certain other business establishments in his enumeration area. The procedure to be followed in regard to Form D is set out in Instruction 13 and in Appendix IV. Form D is a bilingual form with the Irish version on one side and the English version on the other. Only one side of the form should be used.

Form P is a personal enumeration form which is provided to facilitate the enumeration of guests in hotels and guest houses. The use and purpose of Form P are explained in Instruction 19, 29, 41 and 42. Form P, like the Form A, is a bilingual form with holes punched in it to facilitate its lacing into the file covers provided.

2. Definition of a town

For the purpose of tile Census, towns are divided into two main classes, namely:

(i) Towns with legally defined boundaries for purposes of local government. These are called "municipal towns".
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(ii) Towns without legally defined boundaries for purposes of local government. These are known as "non-municipal towns".

The former class comprises (a) the four County Boroughs and the Borough of Dun Laoghalre, (b) six Municipal Boroughs, (c) forty-nine Urban Districts, and (d) twenty-nine towns under the Towns Improvement (Ireland) Act, 1854. In these cases population figures must always be compiled for the areas within the legally defined boundaries. However, since the legally defined boundaries of many towns were drawn a long time ago, they may not coincide with present built-up areas which have often spread beyond these boundaries. In such a case, it is the practice to designate the built-up areas which lie outside the legal boundary as Suburbs if it is a big city or as Environs if it is a smaller city or town. Populations must also be compiled for such Suburbs or Environs but must be separately distinguished from the population of the legally defined or "municipal" city or town.

3. Revision of Town boundaries

The boundaries to be followed in the enumeration of non-municipal towns and the Suburbs or Environs of municipal towns at the 1971 Census have been defined as a result of a comprehensive survey of these areas which was carried out during the past eighteen months by officials of the Census Office. The survey was based on certain internationally agreed principals governing the definition of town areas and the resulting boundaries are quite different in many cases from those which were followed at the 1966 and previous Censuses. It should also be noted that, at previous Censuses, a non-municipal town was defined to be a cluster of twenty or more occupied houses whereas, for the 1971 Census, it has been decided to distinguish separately only those towns which appeared to contain 45 or more houses at the time they were surveyed.

Consequent on the revision of the 1966 boundaries of non-municipal towns and of the Suburbs and Environs of municipal towns, it has been necessary to revise, also, the population figures actually returned at the 1966 Census in respect of the town and rural areas affected. Accordingly, the population figures now shown on the Form C in respect of the 1966 Census are those as thus revised.

4. Boundaries and contents of areas to be enumerated

Upon receiving the Forms C relating to the area which he is to enumerate, the Enumerator should make himself fully familiar with the boundaries and contents, not only of the area as a whole, but also of each Townland and of each street or part of street for which he is responsible. To assist the Enumerators in this respect, each Garda Station has available a set of 6" Ordnance Survey maps covering all the areas to be enumerated from the Station. These maps show townland boundaries. In addition, every Enumerator whose enumeration area includes a town or part of the town, will be furnished with a larger scale map or with an aerial photograph of the town area he has to enumerate, showing all boundaries which he has to observe for the purpose of the enumeration. It is absolutely essential for the Enumerators concerned to study these maps or photographs most carefully before

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commencing the enumeration to enable them to plan the best route to follow in delivering and collecting the Forms A and to ensure that they are completely familiar with the precise location, at all points, of the boundaries they have to observe.

II. Distribution of forms A and N

[Sub-sections 5-9 are not presented here.]

9. Period for distributing Forms A and N

On Monday, 5 April, 1971, unless otherwise authorized by his Superintendent, the Enumerator is to commence - and before the night of Sunday, 17 April, 1971, he must have finished - the distribution of Forms A and N to all households and institutions in the area which he is to enumerate.

10. Persons who are to receive Forms A and N

(1) Persons in private households. Any one person, or group of persons (usually, but not necessarily, related) with common housekeeping arrangements, separately occupying all or part of a private house, flat, apartment or other private habitation of any kind, is regarded as a private household for Census purposes. Persons staying temporarily with the household are included. The persons who constitute a private household jointly occupy living accommodation, share the principal meals (unless prevented by, for example, working conditions) and have common provision for the basic living needs. Religious communities or other residents in institutions do not constitute private households.

One Form is to be filled up in respect of each private household unless, of course, more than one form is required for a household of more than ten persons.

In general, if a house is occupied by two or more distinct private households which keep their housekeeping arrangements separate and, in particular, have their meals separately, each of these households should receive a separate Form A.

Each of the Following classes is to be regarded as a distinct private household:-

(a) A man and his wife, a man and his wife and children, or one parent and children, living together and having no other persons residing with them or a family such as any of the foregoing with their relatives, servants, visitors or boarders residing with them.

(b) All persons occupying the same private dwelling in common and having their meals together.
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(c) A person living alone or with servants.

(d) A lodger occupying a room or rooms in a house or flat and not sharing in the housekeeping arrangements - particularly in the provision of food - with the other residents.

(e) A resident caretaker of a house, an office, shop or other business premises or of a public building, together with his family if they reside with him.

(2) Persons in non-private, i.e. persons in hotels, institutions, etc.
Persons dwelling on Census night in an establishment or institution such as those included in the following list, are to be treated as a single non-private household for which a Form or Forms A must be filled in by the person in charge of the establishment or institution:-

Hotel; club; guest house; hostel; monastery; convent; military barrack; Garda station; hospital; nursing home; convalescent home; boarding school; college; county home; orphanage; institution for the blind; institution for the deaf and dumb; prison; industrial school; reformatory school; ship, boat or barge.

If, however, the proprietor, manager, head, etc., or any member of the staff, of an establishment or institution resides with his family on the premises, that person, together with his family, is to be regarded as a distinct private household and is to receive and fill up a separate Form A for that household.

11. Procedure to be followed when delivering Forms A and N

On calling at each habitation the Enumerator must:-

(1) ascertain how many distinct households (as defined in Instruction 10) there are for whom Forms A and Forms N are to be left.

(2) write, in pencil, on the top of Form(s) A for each household the name of the head of the household who is to fill it in.

In delivering Forms A and N the Enumerator should be courteous and conciliatory. He should give any explanation which may be asked for. He should request that the Form A be ready, with the answers filled in, for collection by him on the morning of Monday, 19 April, 1971.

III Recording of information on form B

12. Permanent structures and names of heads of households

This instruction is to be read in conjunction with the example of a completed Form B shown in Appendix III.

In the spaces provided at the head of the Form B should be inserted the names of the County or County Borough, District Electoral Division or Ward, Urban District, Town, Townland or Street, etc. Such headings as are inapplicable should be struck out.

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Particulars for only one Townland or for only one Town or for only one Street are to appear on the one Form B. If a street extends into more than one Ward or District Electoral Division, the part in each Ward or District Electoral Division must be given a separate Form B. If a street is partly in an Urban District and partly in its Environs, each portion of the street must be entered on a separate Form B. Similarly if part of a Townland is inside a town - or the Suburbs or Environs of a municipal town - and the remainder is outside, a separate Form B must be completed for each part.

As the delivery of Forms A and N proceeds, the required entries, in order of route (See Instruction 6), should be made by the Enumerator in Columns 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the appropriate Forms B. He should enter in Columns 1 and 2 the required particulars of all permanent structures consisting of walls and a roof (whether or not intended for occupation and whether or not occupied on Census night) and all habitations other than permanent structures within the area being enumerated and, in Column 5, the name of the head of each household for whom a Form A has been left. Examples of permanent structures which must be recorded in Form B are:- Dwelling houses; blocks of flats; hotels; restaurants; guest houses; Garda stations; hospitals; religious institutions; hostels; railway stations; club-houses; barracks; garages and filling stations; factories; warehouses; schools; churches. Buildings of materials such as timber, corrugated iron or asbestos sheeting should be included provided they are likely to have a life of at least 10 years or provided they would furnish accommodation of a reasonable standard for occupation all the year round. The Enumerator is expected to exercise some discretion in the case of buildings made of such materials and also in the case of other uninhabited structures such as derelict buildings, E.S.B. transformer stations, etc., as to whether or not they should be recorded on Form B. In a town area, where premises must be listed on the Form B in the order in which they appear on the street, it may be preferable to include all such uninhabited structures so as to account for all the premises on the street. In rural areas, it is not necessary to record separately hayshed, barns or outhouses belonging to farm buildings while uninhabited dwelling houses should be recorded only if they appear to be fit for habitation.

If a building has a special postal number (or group of numbers) in a street or a special name for postal purposes, this should be entered in Column I. Both name and number(s) should be entered for a building which has both. If a building has neither a postal number nor a name, no entry need be made in Column I - the appropriate entry in Column 2 will suffice. Every permanent structure - as defined above - and every other dwelling must be described in Column 2. In this connection, it is important to note the examples of the kinds of description required which are given in the relevant footnote in Form B. It should be noted particularly that a building which contains a shop as well as living quarters should be described as "shop and flat" or "shop and flats" as appropriate.

Column 3 should be completed only in a Form B which relates to a street or part of a street in a non-municipal town or in the Suburbs or Environs of a municipal town (See Instruction 2). With the aid of the maps and aerial photographs being made available to Enumerators dealing with town areas, it should be a simple matter in most cases to identify the townland in which a premises is situated. Where the whole street is in one townland, it will suffice to write the

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name of the townland only once in Column 3. Where a number of premises which are listed in sequence on Form B are in the same townland they may be bracketed together and the name of the townland written only once in Column 3.

Any house or other dwelling which contains more than one household will, of course, require more than one line in Column 5 of Form B. Accordingly, the names of the heads of households in such cases must be entered in Column 5 before any entry is made in Column 1 or 2 in respect of the next building or premises encountered on the route. In this connection, it should be noted that the name appearing in Column 5 of Form B must always be that of the first person listed on the relevant Form A.

No entries should be made in any of the Columns 4 or 6 to 9 of Form B at this stage; these Columns will be completed at or after the collection of the completed Forms A. The Enumerator should make no entry in Column 10 which is intended for Office use only.

IV. Recording of information on Form D

13. Business establishments

As each house or building is visited in the course of the enumeration, the particulars in respect of each Retail Shop, Wholesale Premises, Factory or Workshop and certain kinds of establishments engaged in the provision of services, located in that house or building, should be entered on Form D. The types of business to be included are described in detail in Appendix IV, Part 1. Part 2 of this Appendix indicates certain types of business which are not required on Form D. When the Enumerator is in doubt as to whether or not a particular business should be listed on Form D, he should include it. The Enumerator should take particular care to include all relevant businesses in buildings containing more than one business concern. Both lock-up businesses and those attached to dwellings should be listed. Particulars should be entered whether or not the premises are inhabited on Census date.

Enter in Column (a), in capital letters, the name of the proprietor or the trading name of the establishment, whichever is appropriate. In Column (b) record - again in capitals - the Townland or Street and Postal Number in which the establishment is situated. These latter entries should be made on the dotted line in the centre of the appropriate row. Do not write underneath the dotted line as this space is required for office use. Enter in Column (c) a description of the business carried on in the establishment. In the case of Retail Shops, Wholesale Trading Premises and Import/Export and Manufacturing Agents the description of business should be along the lines laid out in Appendix IV, Part 3. If the indications are that the business carried on is mainly Wholesale, then this information should be entered as part of the business description, e.g. Grocery (Wholesale), Wines and Spirits (Wholesale), etc; if the business is manufacturing or repair, this should also be indicated e.g. Clothing (manufacturing), Electrical repair workshop, etc.

Business premises which are under construction or temporarily vacant at the time of the enumeration should be entered on Form D and marked "Under Construction" or "Vacant". Where there is any indication of ownership or type of proposed business, this information should be recorded.

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The Enumerator should complete one or more Forms D to correspond to each Form C or set of Forms C for his enumeration area. The particulars of businesses in several townlands or streets may be entered on the one Form D but the townlands or streets should be arranged in the same order as on the Form(s) C. Where, however, the District Electoral Division contains all or part of a town - or of the Suburbs or Environs of a municipal town - a separate Form D should be completed for this portion of the District Electoral Division.

V. Collection of Forms A

[Subsections 14-15 are not presented here.]

16. Date of commencement of collection of Forms A

The Enumerator must begin to collect Forms A early on Monday, 19 April, and finish the collection as quickly as possible. The Statistics (Census of Population) Order, 1971, under which the Census is being taken, provides that the enumeration must be completed by 30 June, 1971.

17. Priority to be given to collection of Forms A for hotels, hospitals, etc.

Forms for hotels, guest houses, hospitals, ships, itinerant families, etc., should be collected first as, otherwise, guests, patients, etc., may have left the district and it may be impossible to get accurate particulars regarding them.

18. Entries on Forms A and B at time of collection

The Enumerator must collect a Form A for every head of a household whose name he has entered in Column 5 of Form B provided the household was still in his enumeration area on Census night or returned on the following morning not having

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been enumerated elsewhere.

On the Form A he must, at this stage, complete Box B at the top of the form, by inserting an "X" in one of the spaces provided to show whether the form relates to a private or non-private household (see Instruction 10). The name (if any) in the case of a non-private household should also be entered in Box B at this time. In Column 4 of Form B the Enumerator should enter the number of distinct households enumerated in each premises.

19. Provision for guests in hotels and guest houses to make separate returns on Form P

The Form(s) A for an hotel or guest house must contain, in Columns 1, 2 and 3, respectively, the name, sex and relationship to head of household of every person who passes the night of 18/19 April, 1971 in the establishment or who is admitted on the following morning, not having been enumerated elsewhere. However, it is appreciated that the person in charge of such an establishment - especially one with a large number of guests - may experience considerable difficulty in collecting, within the time available, all the particulars necessary to complete the other columns of Form A in respect of his guests and, also, that some guests may be reluctant to furnish him with the information he requires for this purpose. In such circumstances, in order to facilitate the persons in charge of hotels and guest houses as well as those guests who are reluctant to furnish them with the required information regarding their private affairs, separate returns on Form P may be accepted from guests in such establishments. Supplies of Form P (and accompanying envelopes) together with an explanatory letter regarding its use, have been distributed direct, through the post, to managers of the principal hotels and guest houses throughout the country. A small additional supply of the forms and envelopes and of the explanatory letter will be sent to each Garda Station to meet cases where an hotel or guest house was inadvertently missed in the postal distribution or where extra copies of the form are required.

20. Inability to contact persons to whom Forms A were delivered

If a household, in respect of which a Form A was delivered, is found to have left the premises before the date of the Census, the Enumerator must delete the occupier's name from Column 5 of Form B. In the case of a household which has moved after the date of the Census and before collection of the Form A, the Enumerator should endeavour to ascertain the address to which the household has moved and should inform the Census Office immediately of the facts. If, for any other reason, the Enumerator is unable, despite repeated calls, to make contact with a person to whom a Form A has been distributed or to collect the completed form, he should report the circumstances, through the Superintendent, to the Census Office. If no return has been received from such a household at the stage when the Forms A are being assembled into the file cover, and in order to avoid delay, a Form A should be constructed for this household containing the address, name of head and as much other information as it is possible to ascertain.

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21. Necessity for visiting habitable premises previously noted as vacant

The Enumerator should visit any habitable premises which he noted previously as vacant, so as to ensure the enumeration of persons who may have taken up residence since his previous visit. If in any such case he receives from the new resident a return upon a Form A which was delivered to the resident by the Enumerator for the District where he previously resided, the Enumerator should, of course, accept it. However, the Form should be retained by him only if the person or household concerned was residing in his district on Census night. In this case, he must be careful to correct the entries made by the other Enumerator in Box A at the top of the Form. If the person or household concerned moved into his district after Census night, he should return the Form A immediately to the Census Office.

22. Forms A lost or omitted to have been supplied

Should it happen that an occupier has not received Form A or that the Form A delivered has been lost or mislaid, he must be supplied with one by the enumerator and requested to fill it up at once. If necessary, the Enumerator must himself fill up the form, obtaining the information requisite for the purpose by inquiry.

23. Persons in caravans, tents, etc.

The Enumerator must enumerate persons in caravans, tents, barns or sheds and must account for them on Form B. Persons and groups of persons living in such circumstances are almost always classified as private households (see Instruction 10) and Box B in Form A should be completed accordingly.

24. Persons on ships and boats

The Enumerator must enumerate and make the required entries in Form B in respect of persons on board every ship, vessel, or boat in a seaport or on a river, lake, or canal within the area to be enumerated by him. Persons in ships etc., may be either private or non-private households.

[The rest of the section (sub-sections 25-28) is not presented here.]

VI. Duties after collection of forms A

29. Second examination of forms A and P

Each day, on return to his headquarters after collection of Forms A and P the Enumerator must again, very carefully, and adhering strictly to the instructions set out in Appendix 1, examine each form for completeness arid accuracy. If, after this

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second examination, he thinks the return in the form is defective he should make further inquiries but, if he is satisfied that the form is correctly and completely filled in, he should sign it immediately. He should also, at this time enter the name of the District Electoral Division or Ward in the box containing his signature on each Form P.

30. Forms A or P torn or soiled

If any Form A or P is torn, soiled or badly written, the Enumerator should copy the contents into a blank form, which should be clearly marked "Copy" and substituted for the original. The original should then be destroyed.

31. Count of number of persons in household

After the second examination of the Forms A, and provided he is satisfied that the entries in Columns 1 and 2 of the form are complete and correct, the Enumerator should complete Box C at the top right-hand side of the form for each household. If there is more than one Form A for a household this box should be completed only on the form on which the name of the head appears.

The Enumerator must first count the number of males and the number of females listed on the Form(s) A for each household and enter the results on the appropriate lines in Box C. He must then count the total number of persons, listed on the Form(s), irrespective of sex, and enter this result also, on the line provided in the box ensuring, at the same time, that this latter figure agrees with the sum of the figures for males and females already entered.

[The rest of the section (sub-sections 32-45) is not presented here.]

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Appendix I
Method of examination of Forms A and P to ensure completeness and accuracy

The proper examination of Form A and P at the time of collection and later at the Garda Station is of the utmost importance as it is on this that the accuracy of the Census largely depends. In order that this examination may be effective, the Enumerator should be thoroughly familiar with the questions on the forms and with the notes relating to certain of these questions which are contained in Form N. It is possible that some forms may contain answers which are obviously incorrect and that the Enumerator, from his own knowledge, may be in a position to make a correct entry. In such cases, the Enumerator may make a suitable amendment to the form without further reference to the respondent.

The following notes have been prepared for the guidance of Enumerators in carrying out the scrutiny of the Forms A and P. They should also study carefully the samples of completed Forms A in Appendix II.

Question 1 - Name and surname.
Experience of previous Censuses has shown that babies and young children are sometimes omitted from the enumeration. Accordingly care should be taken to ensure that all persons, regardless of age, are included in accordance with the relevant Note in Form N.

Question 2 - Sex and Question 3 - Relationship to head of household. Both the sex and the relationship to head of household entered for each person must be consistent with one another and with the name of the person as entered in Column 1. In the case of a Form A completed in Irish, note that "F" should be used for a male and "B" for a female in Column 2. The description "Visitor" must be used in Column 3 for a person whose usual residence is elsewhere (see Column 4) even though he is related to the head of the household.

Question 4 - Usual residence and Question 5 - Usual residence one year ago.
Where an address in Ireland is given, it is necessary to ensure that it is given in full in accordance with the relevant Note in Form N. In the case of a foreign address, only the name of the country need be stated. As it is a common practice to include the name of the postal town when writing a rural address, it is most important to ensure as far as possible that, where an address includes the name of a town, the residence in question is actually situated within that town and the Enumerator should ask any questions necessary to enable him to establish the true position in this regard. Where an address is given which purports to be in the same town as that in which the person is being enumerated, the Enumerator should check that the address is, in fact, within the town boundary to be followed for Census purposes, as shown on the relative aerial photograph or large-scale Ordnance Survey map -see Instruction 4.

Question 6 - Place of birth.
The country of birth is required for every person born in Ireland (Thirty-two counties). County Boroughs should, for this purpose, be regarded as falling within their adjoining county, e.g. if a person was born in Dublin County Borough, the entry should be "Dublin" in Column 6. Only the name of the country is required for persons born outside Ireland.

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Question 7 - Date of birth.
The exact date of birth (day, month and year) must be entered in Column 7. The dates of birth of all persons in a private household on a Form A should be compared with one another, bearing in mind their relationships. In particular, parents' ages and children's ages should be consistent with one another and with any relevant date of marriage entered in Column 9.

Question 8 - Marriage.
An entry is required in this column for all persons. For children under 14 years of age "Child" should be written. The entries in this column should not be inconsistent with those in Columns 3 and 7.

Questions 9 and 10.
The Enumerator should refer back to Columns 2 and 8 to ensure that the particulars in respect of present marriage to be entered, in Columns 9 and 10 are given for all married women and for no other persons. Thus, these particulars are not required for widows. The year of present marriage should be consistent with the year of birth. In Column 10 should be stated the total number of children born alive (i.e. excluding stillbirths) to the woman's present marriage. This figure should include all such children born alive even if they have since died. If there were no children born alive, "none" should be written: the space should not be left blank.

Question 11 - Religion.
The precise denomination should be given for every person. The term "Protestant" is not sufficiently precise; the particular religious body should be specified, e.g. Church of Ireland, Presbyterian, Methodist, Society of Friends. Considerable tact must be exercised if it is found necessary to question a householder on this point and as already stated in Instruction 28 the Enumerator should not press the matter if the respondent refuses to answer any of his questions on this subject.

Question 12 - Irish language.
An entry should be made in this column only in respect of a person who can read or speak Irish. A person who can speak Irish is one who is able to carry on an ordinary conversation in Irish and those whose knowledge of Irish is not sufficient to converse in Irish should not be returned as able to speak the language.

Question 13 - Transport to work or school.
An answer is required to this question only in respect of persons who are working for payment or profit or who are attending a school or college etc. full-time. The column should be left blank far all other persons, e.g. persons who are out of work (see Column 15), persons engaged in home duties, or retired or not yet at work (see Column 14), children not yet at school etc. Information is sought only in respect of the outward journey; information regarding the return journey should not be included.

The Enumerator should check that, within his knowledge, there is no inconsistency between the answers in this column and those given in Columns 4, 14 and 16.
Questions 14, 15 and 16 are the most difficult and require the most careful scrutiny. Question 14 should be answered for all persons aged 14 years or over, while questions 15 and 16 should be answered for persons who have a job or who are out of work.

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Question 14 - Principal occupation.
This question should be answered for all persons aged 14 years or over.

The Enumerator should study the relevant Notes in Form N with particular care as they cover most of the usual difficulties in regard to the statement of principal occupation. The heading of Column 14 refers to a person "Working for payment or profit" and this means, in effect, any person with a job. Thus, a person who is mainly engaged in assisting a relative on a farm, in a shop or in any other commercial enterprise should be regarded as having a job, even if he receives no payment, or no regular payment. On the other hand, a housewife, who assists in the family business, but who is mainly engaged in housework, should be entered as "Home duties". A member of a religious body should be considered as having a job, even if he or she receives no payment.

The Enumerators should ensure that the description of occupation given is precise, Following are examples of terms which are not sufficiently precise in themselves and of possible correct descriptions which should be entered in Column 14 in such cases:-

Incorrect entry

Civil Servant
Factory worker
Possible Correct Entry
Chartered Accountant
Manufacturer's agent
Shop Assistant
Ticket Checker
Civil Servant-Clerical Officer
Stores Clerk
Rent Collector
Building Contractor
Sales Director
Lorry Driver
Civil Engineer
Hosiery machine Operator
Gas Fitter
Garage Foreman
Maintenance Inspector
Dock Laborer
Drilling Machine Operator
Restaurant Manager
Furniture Manufacturer
Motor Mechanic
Gate Porter
Medical Secretary
Laboratory Technician
p. 25

If in doubt as to how a particular occupation should be described it is better to give a detailed description rather than to omit particulars which may be essential for purposes of statistical classification.

Question 15 - Employment status.
This question should be answered for persons aged 14 years or over with a job or who are out of work. Note that the term "Employee" should be used for a person receiving a fixed wage or salary, even if he is assisting a relative. If, however, he is assisting a relative without receiving a fixed wage or salary he should be described as "Assisting relative". Members of religious orders should be described as "Employees". Persons without any paid employees, even though assisted by relatives who are not receiving fixed wages, should be described as "self employed without employees". Persons in partnership in a firm not having paid employees should be described as "self employed, without employees", while persons in partnership in a firm having paid employees should be described as "self employed, employs others". Persons employed to manage commercial concerns should be described as "Employee".

Question 16 - Employer and employer's business.
This question, which should be answered for all persons aged 14 years or over who have a job or who are out of work, is required for the purpose of classifying persons to the industry or service with which their work is connected. What is required here is the nature of the business carried on by the firm or undertaking for which they are working. If the employer has several different businesses the one required is that in which the person carries on the occupation stated in Column 14. For example, in the case of a Clerk employed by C.I.E. it is important to distinguish whether he is in Rail Transport, Road Transport, in a Garage or Workshop or in an Hotel. The address to be stated is that at which the person is actually working. Column 16 must be completed in respect of all self-employed persons - whether with or without employees - the type of business carried on being stated. Particular care should be taken to ensure that, in the case of farmers, the area and valuation of the farm on which working is inserted. In the case of other farm workers, the area - but not the valuation - of the farm is required.

Question 17 - Education.
Entries in this section of the form are required only in respect of persons who have ceased full-time education and should relate only to the full-time education received. No entries are required for children who are still at school or college or for persons attending universities or day courses in vocational schools or business colleges. For a person who has ceased full-time education, the age at which he or she ceased receiving full-time education should be inserted in the first column. In the other columns should be entered the number of years spent in full-time attendance at the type of school, college etc. "None" should be entered if the particular type of school etc. was not attended full-time. It should be particularly noted that the information required is in respect of type of school or college etc. attended, regardless of whether or not certificates or qualifications were obtained. In the case of a person with a job, who is attending a technical school or university part-time, no entry in respect of this part-time education should be made; the particulars entered should be in respect of the educational establishments which that person had attended full-time.

Question 18 - Scientific or technological qualifications.
If there is an entry at (a) in this column, there should also be an entry at (b). The Enumerator should check for any apparent inconsistency between tile entries in this column and

p. 26

those relating to the date of birth, occupation and full-time education in Columns 7, 14 and 17 respectively,

Answers should be furnished to Questions 19 to 28, inclusive, in respect of all private household (except those in mobile dwellings) and in respect of the houses, flats, or rooms occupied by such households.

Question 19 - Agricultural holdings.
The area given should be the total area of the holdings of all persons usually resident in the household. Accordingly, land held by persons temporarily absent - and, therefore, not listed on Form A - should be included. Only rated occupiers of agricultural land are to be included. The valuation figures should cover land and dwellings. The Enumerator should be satisfied that the acreage return is given in statute acres. (Approximately 5 statute acres = 4 Cunningham acres or 3 Irish acres). Land held under the eleven months system or in conacre or in commonage should not be included but land which is let to others should be included.

Question 20 - Nature of occupancy.
The Enumerator should check that on "X" has been inserted in one and only one of the spaces provided. Cases will sometimes be met of two distinct households occupying a single house and, in accordance with Instruction 10, a separate Form A will be completed for each household. While the First household might own the house (so that an "X" would be written in space 5), the second household might be renting portion of the house from the first household (so that on their Form A the "X" should be written in space 2 or 3, as appropriate) or living free of rent (when the "X" should be written in space 6).

Question 21 - Rent.
The Enumerator should see that a rent is inserted in the case of each dwelling marked 1, 2 or 3 in reply to Question 20 and that the appropriate rental period is indicated by striking out the periods which do not apply. While it is desirable that rents should be expressed in decimal currency, entries in the old form (£ s d) should not be converted. If the dwelling is marked "2" in reply to Question 20, there must be an appropriate entry ("Yes" or "No") to indicate if the letting commenced before 1961.

Question 22 - Year in which house was built.
This question may give considerable difficulty, particularly in the case of the older dwellings, but it is important that at least an approximate date be obtained. If, therefore, the householder is unable to give any indication of the period in which the dwelling was built, the Enumerator should assign the dwelling to one of the age categories, having regard to its general appearance and to any knowledge he may possess or be able to ascertain regarding the age of houses in the neighborhood.

Question 23 - Rooms.
In the case of a house, shared between two households, only the rooms occupied by each household should be entered on its Farm A. If the kitchen is shared, it should be counted only on the form for the main tenants.

Question 24, 25 and 26 - Water supply, bath or shower and sanitary facilities. The Enumerator should check that entries have been made in the appropriate spaces in Boxes 24 and 26 and in Box 25 and that they are consistent with his own knowledge of the district. In particular, there should be appropriate entries ("Yes" or "No") in relation to the sharing of a bath or shower, to the situation of the sanitary facilities and to the sharing of the sanitary facilities.

p. 27

Question 27 - Electricity.
The answer "Yes" should be given to this question only if one or more of the living rooms in the dwelling is lit by electricity whether from the E.S.B. or from a private supply.

Question 28 - Motor cars.
This box should not be left blank; if no cares are used, "None" should be written. Note that only cars taxed as private vehicles should be included.

[Appendices II and III - Examples of completed Form A and Form B on p. 28-30 are not presented here.]

Appendix IV
Completion of form D

1. Include every business of the following type:

Trading Establishments (giving additional description as indicated at 3 below)

Retail shops
Wholesale Trading Establishments
Manufacturers' Agents
Import/Export Agents
Fuel Merchants
Electricity and Gas Showrooms
Vehicle Servicing and Hire
Repair and Service Garages
Filling Stations
Motor Dealers
Vehicle-Hire (including self-drive)
Drinking and Eating Establishments
Public Houses, Bars
Restaurants, Cafes, Ice-Cream Parlours
Fish and chip saloons
Sports Clubs (e.g. Golf, Football etc.) where meals and/or refreshments are on sale
Certain Other Services
Shoe Repairers
Cinemas, Theatres
T.V., Radio Rentals
Hairdressers, Barbers,
Beauty Shops, etc.
Manufacturing and Repair Establishments (excluding Builders and Contractors)
All Industrial establishments such as:-

Factories (specify type- e.g. plastics, canning, furniture etc.)
Breweries; Distilleries, Woollen Mills
Sawmills, Joinery Works, Boatyards
Workshops, whether engaged in manufacturing or repair (specify type, e.g. furniture, electrical, etc.)
Printing establishments.

2. Exclude any business not mentioned in the above list such as:-

Accountants', Solicitors' and Brokers' Offices
Architects' and Engineers' Offices
Banks, Insurance Offices, Finance Houses, etc.
Doctors' and Dentists' Premises
Bookmakers, Turf Accountants
Government and Local Authority Offices
Auctioneers and Estate Agents
Advertising Agencies
Builders and Contractors
Laundries, Launderettes and Dry Cleaning Establishments
Travel and Tourist Agencies
Hotels, Guesthouses, Lodging and Boarding Houses
Dance Halls
p. 32

2. Exclude (contd.)

Photographic Studios
Livestock Marts
Post Offices where no other business is carried on
Hawkers, Street Sellers.

Note. If the Enumerator is in doubt about the correct treatment of a particular business, he should include that business on Form D.

2. In the case of Retail shops, wholesale trading establishments, import/export and manufacturers' agents, a description of the type of business carried on should be given by indicating the type of commodities generally handled. The following list which covers most of the usual business descriptions, indicates the type of entry that should be made.

Retail Shops

Grocery and Public House
Wines and Spirits (but not Public House)
Bread and Flour Confectionery
Milk and Dairy Products (Dairy)
Butcher (including Pork Butcher)
Fish and Poultry
Fruit and Vegetables
Sweets, Tobacco, Newspapers, or some combination of these
General Drapery
Men's and Boys' wear
Women's and Girls' wear
Books and Stationery
Radio, T.V. Sets, Electrical Goods
Cycles (including Motorcycles, Mopeds etc.)
Furniture and Carpets
Fancy Goods
Sports Goods
Department Store
Variety Store
Wholesale Establishments and Agents
Egg and Poultry Merchants
Wool, Skin, Leather Merchants
Coal, Turf, etc. Merchants (Wholesale)
Builders' Merchants and Providers
Grain, Forage Merchants
Grocery, Provisions (Wholesale)
Tea, Coffee, Sugar (Wholesale)
Wines, Spirits (Wholesale)
Fruit Merchants (Wholesale)
Footwear (Wholesale)
Clothing and Textile (Wholesale)
Chemist (Wholesale)
Electrical Goods (Wholesale)

[A copy of enumeration form D is reproduced here, which is not presented.]