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Census of Ireland, 1911

Instructions to enumerators
The enumerator, when supplied by his superintendent with the census forms, is to make himself fully acquainted with the nature of the various questions asked, and to carefully examine the pattern tables and the instructions on the forms, especially those on Form A, the family return. Upon receiving the lists of townlands or streets in his enumeration district, he is to proceed to ascertain its extent and boundaries, and should he have any difficulty as to boundaries, he is to refer to the ordinance maps in his superintendent's office.
On Monday, the 20th of march, or sooner if authorised by his superintendent, the enumerator is to commence visiting the houses in his district, and before the night of Saturday, the 1st of April, leave a form a for every distinct family in each house, and at the same time proceed to fill Form B1 and Form B2 as described at page 6 of these instructions. Where a family (including visitors and servants) consists of more than fifteen persons, the enumerator is to leave two or more copies of Form A, as the case may require. The enumerator will observe that the entries in the spaces for the number in the endorsement of Form A and in the upper right-hand corner of that form are to correspond with the number of the house in the first column of form b1.
The enumerator will carefully observe that according to the Census Act visits to the houses in his district on census business must be mad between the hours of half-past eight in the forenoon and six in the afternoon.
The enumerator shall only ask such questions as may be absolutely necessary to obtain the information required to answer the queries on the papers. Direct answers shall be accepted, and if these be clear and explicit no cross-examination shall take place.
Before leaving the forms, the enumerator is to write on the back of each the name of the county, poor law union, district electoral division, barony, parish, townland, town, street, etc., for which spaces have been left.

Form A - the family return
Each of the following classes is to be regarded as a distinct family:

A man and his wife - or a man and his wife and children living together, and having no other person residing with them - or a family such as either of the foregoing, with their relatives, servants, boarders, and visitors residing with them.
All persons occupying the same house in common, and boarding at the same table, and their servants.
A person living alone, whether occupying the whole or a part of a house, with servants, if any.
Two or more lodgers boarding together distinct from the family, and their servants if any.

On Monday, the 3rd of April, the enumerator is again to commence visiting the houses in his enumeration district, and is to continue at this branch of his duty from day to day until he shall have collected all the forms from every family within his district. On this occasion he is to see that each column in the form has been filled, and if it has not, he is then to have the required information inserted. In case the column for religious profession has not been filled, and the head of the family declines to fill it, the enumerator is to state this fact by writing in the column information refused. Should the vague term 'Protestant' have been entered, in any instance, in the column for religious profession, the enumerator is to inquire courteously the precise name of the particular church, denomination, or body, to which the person belongs, and ask that it may be inserted as suggested in the remarks at the head of the column; should there, however be any disinclination to afford this information, he shall not press inquiry into the matter, but note on the form that the fiving of further information was declined. When all the proper entries have been made in the return, it should be signed by the head of the family, or by some person authorised in his or her behalf. The enumerator is then to attach his signature to the return.
In case of a head of a family who cannot write, the enumerator is to assist such person to fill the form, and is then to require him or her to attach a mark thus (X), which he is to witness having first read all the particulars entered on the form, for the approval of the head of the family.
The enumerator is to take care that no person or family within his district be omitted form the returns, and in order further to guard against such omission he is to have with him a supply of blank copies of Form A. Should any person have gone away from a house before full particulars were obtained, the sex and probable age of such should be learned, and stated as of a person unknown.
In the case of a houseless person who are no enumerated elsewhere, the enumerator will have a form a filled for each family or person so circumstanced - column 2 of Form N being filled houseless.
Persons travelling, or out all night, are to be enumerated at the house or hotel at which they arrive on Monday, the 3rd of April; and as clubs, hotels, inns, lodging and boarding-houses, etc., change their inmates frequently, the enumerator is to visit these establishments as soon as possible after 8.30 a.m. On the 3rd of April. The owner, master, or steward of any such establishment, with his family and servants, if any, is to be returned on a separate form a as a distinct family. Each temporary resident, or traveler, who is accompanied by any member of his family, or by a servant, is, with such persons, to be regarded as a distinct family, and entered on a separate Form A.
Special forms (described further on) for enumerating persons in barracks, workhouses, hospitals, lunatic asylums, prisons, etc., are to be delivered to the barrack-masters, masters, governors, or keepers of such institutions, respectively - they being appointed by the Census Act, enumerators of the inmates of all such buildings or institutions; but the officers of public institutions and their families, together with the porters and nurses (unless when paupers in workhouses) are to be enumerated on Form A. The military, also members of the royal Irish constabulary, and the Dublin metropolitan police force, if residing in barracks, are to be enumerated on form h, the barrack return; but their respective families are to be enumerated on Form A.
The occupants of ships, vessels, or boats, in seaports, and persons engaged in river, lake, or canal navigation, are to be enumerated according to the same rule as those residing in houses. The enumerators for localities in which seamen or boatmen are to be found are to collect the returns of these classes early on the 3rd of April, lest their vessels might sail before such returns are obtained. For further instructions see Form B3, shipping return, at page 8.
In towns having municipal wards, the name of the ward, as well as that of the street in which each family resides, is to be entered in the space for barony, the pen being drawn through the latter word, and the word ward substituted. In all cases where a village contains twenty or more houses, the enumeration returns for it are to be made up into a separate file or files, as the case may require. (See paragraph 54, page 15) When a village does not contain twenty houses it is not to be noticed separately as a town, but the houses, etc., are to be treated as others dispersed over a townland.
In case of a townland or island, which is uninhabited, or which has no house or out-office thereon, at the date of the census, and enumerator's abstract, Form N, for it is to be marked nil and forwarded with the returns for the district.

Form B1 and Form B2 - House and building returns
Before or on the 20th of March, the enumerator is to commence filling Form B1 and Form B2 which are to contain the required particulars relating to each house and out-office in each townland, street, etc., in his enumeration district. (see paragraphs 14 and 54) he will be most careful to give strict attention to the instructions at the head of each column, especially those relating to inhabited houses. In towns where dwelling-houses are numbered, the houses in each street are to be entered on Form B1 in the same order, but in small towns, villages, and townlands, where the houses are not numbered, they are to be entered according to the order in which they are visited by the enumerator.
Every dwelling which has a distinct outer door shall be considered as one house, although it may be occupied by several families living in separate apartments, or what are known as tenements, under the same roof. In counting the number of rooms in a house, each apartment is to be reckoned as one room, the particulars being obtained either by observation, or through the information afforded by the occupants; thus, a cabin, within which there is no partition wall, is to be regarded as a house with one room; if one end of a cabin is partitioned off, and a means of communication maintained by an inner doorway, it is to be considered as a house having two rooms; and if a dwelling is divided by partitions into three portions, it is to be considered as a house having three rooms; and so on. If one room is occupied by more than on family, the names of the heads of families so occupying it should be bracketed together in column 13.
Wherever a school is held in any part of a house, the exact name of the school is to be given in column 3 of Form B1.
Uninhabited houses and houses in progress of building at the time of the enumeration are also to be returned on Form B1.
Out-offices, viz: barns, stables, coach-houses, cowhouses, etc., are to be returned on Form B2; but if an individual or a family live in part of an out-office, that portion is to be considered as an inhabited house, and entered as such on Form B1 according to the number of rooms occupied by such an individual or family, and the remainder entered on form b2 in the prober column.
On the occasion of his second visit, when collecting form a, the enumerator will be able to verify the particulars in Form B1 and Form B2, and to correct any errors which, on examination, he may find to exist. He shall also, when requisite, fill, or have filled, Form C for the sick. (see par. 29)
To assist the enumerator in filling Form B1 the pattern table on the opposite page has been prepared.

Form B3 - Shipping return
The instructions with respect to Form A and Form C are applicable to the enumeration of the crews and passengers of ships and boats of every kind. Form B3, shipping return, is analogous to Form B1, for houses and building.
Previous to the night of Sunday, the 2nd of April, the enumerator is to leave one or more copies of Form A with the person in charge of each vessel. Upon these forms are to be entered collectively the names, etc., of the captain, crew, and passengers; but when the captain, master, or any person on board is accompanied by his wife or family, he and his wife or family are to be enumerated on a separate form a. When leaving these forms, the enumerator is to make the necessary entries respecting the vessel and its occupants in Form B3, shipping return, which entries he can verify and complete when subsequently collecting the a forms.
When leaving Form A, the enumerator is to enter the registered number of the vessel upon the back of the form; but where vessel or boats have no such number, he is to enumerate them consecutively, making the endorsement on form a correspond with the number for the vessel in the first column of Form B3, shipping return.
On Monday, the 27th march, the enumerator is to commence to fill Form B3, shipping return; he is to cause form a to be filled for all those vessel going to sea on the 1st or 2nd of April which would not in the ordinary course reach their destination before the morning of the 3rd of April; but where a vessel remains in port up to the morning of the 3rd of April, only those persons who slept on board on the previous night, and those not enumerated elsewhere who arrive on the morning of the 3rd are to be entered upon the a form for it, as other persons belonging to the ship will have been enumerated on shore. Vessels seeking temporary shelter from stress of weather in any harbor or roadstead are to be enumerated if the happen to be there on the night of the 2nd of April. The captains or stewards of mail and packet boats plying daily or weekly between any Irish port and other ports in the united kingdom or foreign countries, are to be supplied with a sufficient number of copies of form a on which to enumerate the passengers (not enumerated elsewhere), who may arrive during the night of the 2nd of April or on the morning of the 2nd of April. The crews are to be enumerated immediately after their arrival in port.
The enumerator is to be careful not to enter British colonists as foreigners on form B3
All ships, coasting vessels, and fishing or other boats, which arrive in port on the 3rd of April or during any part of the following week, are to be enumerated in the same manner as vessels in port on the night of the 2nd of April; provided such ships or boats shall not have been previously enumerated at any other port of great Britain or Ireland; to ascertain which special inquiry is to be made.

Form C - return of the sick at their own homes
When collecting form a, the enumerator is to inquire as to all persons laboring under sickness; and in each house or family where any individual was ill on the 2nd of April he is to present Form C, with a respectful request to have it filled by the head of the family , if possible, at the moment. Should he not succeed in getting this form filled at the time of his visit, he is to leave it, and having made a mark thus (X) in the 17th column of Form B1, in order to guide him in collecting Form C afterwards, is to call for it again as convenient. When the inmates cannot fill up Form C, he is to do so for them. It is to be distinctly understood that sick persons are also to be enumerated on Form A, etc..

Form D - Return of lunatics and idiots not in institutions
It is to be expected that the local knowledge of the enumerators with regard to lunatics and idiots, not in institutions, will enable them to fill this form with accuracy, especially as regards mendicants and vagrants who are thus afflicted. Where idiots, lunatics are in the custody of their friends, the inquiries necessary to fill this form are to be made with the greatest delicacy. All these persons will, of course, have been enumerated upon form a, etc., at their respective places of abode on the night of Sunday, the 2nd of April.

Form E - Workhouse return
The enumerator is to leave the requisite number of these forms at each workhouse and auxiliary workhouse within his district, before the 2nd of April, and at the same time to call the attention of the masters of these institutions to the sections of the act of parliament printed at foot of the form. See also paragraph 12 on page 5, and instructions as to Form I on page 10, paragraph 36.

Form F - Hospital return
The required supply of these forms is to be left at all such public and charitable institutions as general and fever hospitals, infirmaries, lying-in, and other special hospitals, and wherever persons are admitted for indoor treatment, except in the case of workhouse hospitals, the inmates of which are to be enumerated on form e only. The resident officers of all such institutions, together with resident pupils, nurses, and servants are to be returned on form a, by the resident head of the establishment. Each officer whose wife or family resides with him, shall, with his wife or family, be returned on a separate Form A. See also instructions as to Form I.
The enumerator when leaving these forms is to inform the chief resident officer that the column "how long affected" refers only to the disease for which the patient is under treatment, and not to the time the deaf and dumb, the dumb only, or the blind have been afflicted with these infirmities.

Form G - College and boarding-school return
Universities, colleges, seminaries, boarding-schools, institutions for the deaf and dumb, the blind; model, industrial, and reformatory schools, and all educational establishments in which pupils reside are to be supplied with form g, and also, when necessary, with Form C. The principals or proprietors of such establishments are, with their families, to be returned on Form A.

Form H - Barrack return
This form is intended for barracks, or other building where military, police, or constabulary may be stationed at the time. Where hospitals exist within the precincts of the establishments, the barrack-master is to be supplied with the necessary number of copies of Form F; but soldiers in such hospitals are also to be accounted for on Form H. The families of all officers, non-commissioned officers, soldiers, and policemen who reside in barrack are to be enumerated on Form A and a note added that the head of the family is returned on Form H. When necessary these families are to be supplied with Form C. Permanent officials residing in barracks, such as barrack-masters, barrack-sergeants, canteen-keepers, etc., with their servants, are to be supplied with Form A and Form C. Such persons are not to be entered on Form H.

Form I - Return of lunatics and idiot in institutions
All lunatic asylums of both public and private nature are to be supplied with these forms; and as lunatics are frequently inmates of other institutions, one or more copies of this form are also to be left, where necessary, with the governor or other person appointed under the Act 10 Edw. 7 and 1 Geo. 5, Cap. 11, to act as enumerator for such institution. Such from when filled are to be attached to the ordinary returns for these institutions.

Form K - Prison return
These forms are intended for all prison, bridewells, penitentiaries, and police stations; such establishments are likewise to be supplied with Form F for their hospitals (if any), but the persons enumerated on these latter are also to be entered on Form K. The officers and servants of these establishments, with their families, are to be enumerated on Form A.

The deaf and dumb and the blind in public institutions and schools
When the returns for public institutions and schools (Forms E to K) have been collected, the enumerator shall immediately examine them, and in each case in which it appears that a deaf and dumb or blind person is an inmate of any institution or school, he is to enter the name, or the initials of the name, as the case maybe, of the afflicted person on one of the form containing questions relative to the deaf and dumb or the blind, and leave it with the chief resident officer of the establishment in which the person was enumerated, with a request that answers to the questions thereon may be inserted. The enumerator is subsequently to collect these forms and deliver them, with his other returns, to his superintendent.

Forms L1, L2, L3, and L4: College and school returns
Form L1 is to contain the number of students of pupils on the books of each college or boarding-school on any day or days of the fortnight ending the 13th May, 1911. Form L2 is for the purpose of ascertaining the number of scholars (except those returned on form l1) of all ages and classes attending school, or receiving instruction, as day or evening scholars, at public and private educational establishments, and at literary institutions of every description throughout Ireland, during the period above referred to. The heads of such institutions are to be respectfully requested to fill this form, and their attention is to be directed to the circumstance, that it is not all the names on the roll of the school which are required, but only the names of those pupils in attendance during any part of the period specified. Form L3 is intended for a return of the scholars on the roll of each college, boarding, and day school, and their actual daily attendance during each month of the year ending the 31st March, 1911. Form L4 is for the number of students on the books of the universities and university and professional colleges in Ireland. Further instructions on this subject will be forwarded with the L forms.

Forms M1, M2, and M3 - Land census
These forms are for the purpose of ascertaining the number of agricultural holdings, the area and valuation of each, the number of houses and out-offices, and the resident population on the night of the 2nd April, 1911.
In filling Form M1 the names of all the landholders in the townland, whether resident or non-resident, are to first to be inserted according to the size of their holdings, and the area and valuation of each holding are then to be entered. The enumerator is to refer to Form B1 for the same townland, from column 18 of which he will ascertain the names of all landholders on whose holding houses are situated. He is then to enter in column 5 of Form M1 the number or numbers of the house or houses on the holding, as given in column 1 of Form B1, and proceed carefully to fill in all the information regarding such house or houses, and the inmates thereof, required in the remaining columns of Form M1, according to the instructions at the head of each column.
In those cases where there is no house on the holding, the enumerator, after entering the name of the landholder and the area and valuation of the holding, is to make a stroke (----) in each of the remaining columns. The area of land not occupied, or under towns, waste, etc., is to be entered after the last holding enumerated in the townland as unalloted. (See pattern table on next page)
Form M2 is for a summary of the particulars given on Form M1 for the townlands in each electoral division, or portion of an electoral division, in the enumerator's district.
Form M3 is intended to provide for those cases where an occupier of land, resident within the enumerator's district, holds two or more farms, or has a farm which extends into two or more adjoining townlands; the enumerator is to show on this form the townland where each farm, or portion of a farm, is situated, giving the required particulars. He is to be careful to add the word adjoin in those cases where it applies, as directed in the instructions on the form. (See also pattern table on form m3)

Form N - Enumerator's abstract
One or more of these abstracts shall be prepared for each townland or street, or portion of a townland or street, as the case may require, the necessary information being extracted by the enumerator from the B1 return and the various enumeration returns, care being taken that in those cases where according to the instructions any persons are entered in more than one return, they are not entered twice in these abstracts. These forms are also to be used for the purpose of making abstracts of the shipping returns.

Form O1 - Enumerator's summary of houses and persons
When all the abstracts have been filled, as above directed, the enumerator is to make a summary of them upon Form O1, the enumerator's summary of houses and persons, entering the names of the several townlands or streets, or parts thereof, in his district, in the order in which they are arranged on Form P2. In case one Form O1 is insufficient, two or more are to be used, carrying the total of the first forward to the second, and so on, and the fact that the summary consists of more than form should be clearly noted.
In compiling the abstracts and summary, the enumerator is to be careful to see that the total of the number of males and of females entered under the head of religious profession agrees with the total number of each sex as entered under the head of persons.
Having completed this summary, the enumerator is to immediately transmit it to the superintendent of his district.

Form O2 - Enumerator's summary of houses by classes
The number of inhabited houses of each class returned in Form B1 should be entered in this form in the columns provided for the purpose, in accordance with the number of families residing in them. The total number of houses in the four classes given in the form must agree with the total number of inhabited houses. The information required for filling the columns headed "no. of dwelling" houses should be taken from Form N, and the total number of out-offices should be entered from Form B2. Where an enumerator's district extends into more than one district electoral division, or where it is partly civic and partly rural, a separate summary should be made for each portion. These summaries should be forwarded with the general returns.

Form P2 - Return of the townslands etc., in each enumerator's district
Form P2 is to be filled in duplicate according to the instructions on the form, and one copy returned to this office. The duplicate is to be preserved by the enumerator.

Form P3 - statement showing differences between number of houses and population in 1901 and 1911
The enumerator is to enter on this form all material differences between the figures for houses and population in 1901 and 1911, and to forward a nil return if there are no such differences. Further instructions are given in a special circular (no. 4), and a specimen report is given on the back of the form.

Form R - Statutory declaration by the enumerators
Each form, except those for the public institutions referred to below, should be signed by the enumerator; but it having been represented that it might be difficult to find magistrates willing to give so much time as would be necessary to receive a statutory declaration for each return separately, the statutory declaration return, Form R, has been prepared, which is to include in one declaration all the returns from each enumerator except those on Form L1, L2, and L3. One of the declaration returns, when accurately filled up by the enumerator, is to be declared by him before a justice of peace, and transmitted to his superintendent. Returns from public institutions, the inmates of which are to be enumerated by the officers of the institutions specified by the census act, are no to be included in the declaration return, Form R, and the enumerator, when collecting them, is to see that they have been duly declared as directed by the act. The enumerator will observe that the returns for colleges and boarding schools and the other institutions to be enumerated on form g (see par. 34) do no come under the head; they are to be included in his declaration return. The statutory declaration should be made before a justice of peace; but not at petty sessions. They are exempt from stamp duty, under the 54 and 55 vic, cap. 39.

Making up the returns
The Form A, E, F, G, H, I, and K, being for the direct enumeration of the people, are to be stitched together at the left-hand upper corner in files by townlands or streets, or portions thereof, as the case may be, with Form N, Form B1, and Form B2 in front, in the order here given, so that the abstract Form N will be the first form of the file.
When a townland or street is situated in two parliamentary divisions, or in more than one district electoral division or parish, or is partly within and partly without a parliamentary borough, city, urban district, town or village, a separate return should be made for each portion.
The a returns for persons on board ships should be stitched together in a separate file with Form B3 and Form N in front, as directed above for townlands, etc..
Forms C, D, and O2 are to be made up in files by enumerators' districts; also the returns (if any) containing answers to questions relative to the deaf and dumb and the blind in public institutions and schools.
The returns on Form M1 are to be arranged according to district electoral divisions, those for each district electoral division, or portion of a district electoral division in the enumerator's district, being kept in a separate file, and the summary Form M2 placed in front of the file. The returns on Form M3 for the enumerator's district are to be made up in one file.
When the above-mentioned forms have been made up in the manner directed, they are to be delivered to the superintendent of the district, who is alone authorised to inspect them, previous to their transmission to the census office.

General observations

If the enumerator finds at any time that he requires an additional supply of printed forms, and that he cannot conveniently procure them from his superintendent, or from any other enumerator in his neighborhood, he is, in order to save time, to apply for them direct by post to the secretary, census office, Charlemont house, Dublin, stating the name and letter, and the number of each form required; also the post town to which they are to be forwarded. The postage is to be left unpaid.
All unused forms remaining in the hands of the enumerator, on the completion of the enumeration, are to be returned to the superintendent for transmission to the census office.
The census commissioners are confident that in carrying the foregoing instructions into effect the enumerators will observe the greatest civility, and ask for the necessary information in a respectful manner, carefully observing the instructions in paragraph no. 4. Many people, at first view, regard census inquiries with suspicion, in proportion to their want of knowledge of the results sought to be arrived at, and there are comparatively few so fully acquainted with the objects of a census as to enable them to understand what advantage it can be to the state to possess minute information as to the social condition of any member of the community; yet it is information of this character, when properly classified, which forms the best guide to the legislator and the philanthropist in their efforts to elevate the condition of mankind.
If the enumerator finds his progress obstructed by difficulties of any kind, he is to state them to the more enlightened and influential persons in his district, and respectfully solicit their aid in removing them.
Should any instance occur in which, to the enumerator's knowledge, the forms have been incorrectly filled in any particular whatever, he is, without delay, to make a detailed report of the circumstances to the superintendent of his district, who will forward it to the census office, stating whether he consider under the circumstances, a prosecution would be advisable; but in no case is a prosecution to be undertaken under the provisions of the Census Act Edw. 7 and 1 Geo. 5, Cap. 11, without express authority from the census commissioners.
The enumerator will note the following extracts from the Census (Ireland) Act,1910:

If any enumerator makes willful default in the performance of any of his duties under this act, he shall for each offence be liable, on conviction, under the summary jurisdiction (Ireland) acts to a fine not exceeding five pounds.
If any person employed in taking the census communicates, without lawful authority, any information acquired in the course of this employment, he shall be guilty of a breach of official trust within the meaning of the Official Secrets Act, 1889, and that act shall apply accordingly.

Supplemental instructions to enumerators
Form L1 - college and boarding school return
Form L2 - return of scholars attending (day) schools
Form L3 - return of children on school roll
In accordance with paragraph 39 of the instructions to the enumerators, the above forms are now forwarded, and, as soon as possible after their receipt, Form L1 is to be left at every educational establishment in which an portion of the students or pupils reside, whether a college, seminary, boarding-school, model school, orphanage, reformatory, industrial, workhouse, or other school, and Form L3 at any of these establishments where a daily roll of attendance is kept.
Form L2 and form L3 are to be left at every other school within each enumerator's district.
A copy of accompanying circular to the principals, etc., is to be left at each educational establishment when the enumerator is leaving the forms.
The enumerator will apprise the principals or teacher in the several establishments that the returns upon Forms L1 and L2 will be called for in a fortnight after the 13th of May; and, at the expiation of that period, the enumerator will apply for the returns, and forward them to his district inspector for immediate transmission to this office.
When collecting the returns, the enumerator will see that the heading, etc., are properly filled, and that the name of the district electoral division in which a school is situated corresponds with that in his P2 return.
The enumerator will further apprise principals and teachers that the Form L3 is to be called for not later than the 1st of July. These returns, when collected, are also to be forwarded through the district inspectors to the census office.
The enumerator will include in one statutory declaration return (Form R) all the schools in his district, giving the names of the schools in the 3rd column and altering the word localities to schools in the heading, also the declaration at foot of Form R to suit the circumstances of the case. The enumerator will further proceed in the manner shown in paragraph 52 of the instructions to enumerators.
The census commissioners beg to inform the commissioners and the directors of educational boards and institutions, the principals, managers and teachers of colleges and school, the clergy of all denominations, and others interested in the condition and progress of instruction, whether public or private, that the educational census of Ireland will be taken for the fortnight ending the 13th of May next, and is intended to comprise the students or pupils who actually attended upon any day or days during that period.
In schools where a roll is kept, a return of the children on the roll, and of their actual daily attendance during each month for the year ended the 31st March, 1911, will be required, not later than the 1st July, 1911, according to the practice adopted at the last five decennial censuses.
The principals of colleges and boarding schools, and masters of all schools, are requested to furnish these statistics as accurately as circumstances will admit, and in compliance with the instructions on the forms. The commissioners look forward with confidence to the assistance of everyone connected with education in Ireland in the procurement of the fullest and most trustworthy returns.

Memorandum for the guidance of enumerators when entering details under the heading religious profession on Form N - Enumerator's abstract for a townland or street; and Form O Enumerator's summary.
Roman Catholics and Catholics should be entered under the heading Roman Catholics.
Protestant Episcopalians, church of Ireland, Irish church, Church of England, Protestant Episcopal Church of Scotland, and primitive church Methodists should be entered under the heading protestant Episcopalians.
Presbyterians (G.A. or general assembly), Presbyterians, and Establish Church of Scotland should be entered under the heading Presbyterians.
Methodists, primitive Methodists, Wesleyan Methodists, Primitive Wesleyan Methodists, and Methodists (new connexion) should be entered under the heading Methodists.
Independents and Congregationalists should be entered under the heading of independents.
Unitarians, Reformed Presbyterians, Non-subscribing Presbyterians, and United Free Church of Scotland, etc., should be entered under the heading all other persuasions.

Circular no. 1
With reference to the forthcoming census, I am directed by the registrar-general to request you will be so good as to report at your earliest convenience, in the opposite margin, whether you have a complete set of ordnance survey maps for your district, showing the townlands and streets, etc., comprised within it.
If you have not, will you be so good as to state the numbers of the sheets of these maps required by you, which can be easily ascertained on reference to an index map of the county.

Circular no. 2
I am directed by the registrar-general to request that you will be so good as to state on the opposite margin the names of the sub-districts in your constabulary district, with the poor law union or unions in which each is situate, with a view to lists showing the townlands, etc., in each union and district electoral division in which alterations in boundaries have taken place since the date of the last census being supplied for use in connection with the work of the forthcoming census.

Circular no. 3
I am directed by the census commissioners to enclose herewith a copy of the census act for Ireland, 10 Edw. 7 and 1 Geo. 5, Cap 11, from section 2 of which you will perceive that the collection of the census returns will commence on Monday, the third day of April next, and that officers and men of the royal Irish constabulary, and of the police force of Dublin metropolis, are to act as enumerators.
You will, therefore, from time to time, have delivered to you parcels, marked private, containing forms of various kinds, which are to be carefully preserved in your house or in the adjoining barracks, and are not to be opened until your receive further instructions. All other parcels will, of course, be immediately opened by you. As the very large number of forms is to be forwarded might cause great inconvenience if their transmission was not commenced at an early period, the necessity of now addressing you on this subject is manifest.
I am further directed to forward to you herewith some copies of Form P1, upon which you will state the names and stations of the various members of the force in your district whom you recommend on account of their intelligence and local knowledge for appointment as enumerators in connection with the forthcoming census; also copies of Form P2, on which you will enter the names of the townlands, etc., allotted to each enumerator. The census is to be taken by townlands, district electoral divisions, poor law unions, parishes, baronies, parliamentary divisions, and counties, and also by streets, towns or villages, urban districts, cities, and parliamentary boroughs. Sets of Form P1 and Form P2 are to be filled in duplicate; one set is to be returned to this office on or before the 16th day of February, and the other is to be retained by you for census purposes.
As special forms will be required for enumerating the various classes of the community, I am also directed to request you to state on form q, enclosed, the number of houses and of families in your district, also the number of colleges and boarding schools, barracks, workhouses, hospitals, lunatic asylums, prisons, and other establishments of a public nature within your district, with the probably number of inmates as nearly as can be estimated, in order that a sufficient supply of the appropriate forms may be sent to you.
If the sea touches your district in any part, or if navigable lakes, rivers, or canals occur in it, you will also state, as far as is in your power, on Form Q, the number of ships or boats usually within your district.
Form Q should be filled up and forwarded to this office at your earliest convenience.
Suitable envelopes for all communications with the census office and with your enumerators are forwarded herewith, and a further supply, as well as additional copies of Forms P1, P2, and Q will be sent, if necessary.

Instructions for filling up the column headed rank profession, or occupation
The titles of peers and other persons of rank to be inserted as well as any important office they may hold.
Members of parliament, magistrates, aldermen, and other important public officers, to state their profession or occupation, if any, after their official rank or title.
All persons serving in the army and navy to state their rank, and the branch of the service to which they belong. Officers to state whether on the active or the retired list; pensioners from the army and navy to state the service to which they belong.
All persons in the civil service to state their rank, and the department or branch to which they belong; those retired or superannuated to be distinguished.
Ministers of religion - clergymen of every religious denomination are requested to describe themselves according to their clerical rank or position, and to state distinctly the religious body to which they belong.
Legal profession - barrister to state whether they are in actual practice. The designation solicitor to be confined to those whose names are actually on the roll. Clerks in solicitors' offices should state whether they are solicitor's managing, articled, or general clerk. Officers of any court, to state the name of the office, and the name of the court.
Members of the medical profession to state whether they practice as physician, surgeon, dentist, oculist, general practitioner, apothecary, medical assistant etc., or are not practicing. They should also state the university or other society of which they are graduates, fellows, or licentiates.
Professors, teacher, public writers, authors, and scientific men, to state the particular branch of science or literature which they follow; artists, the art which they cultivate. Graduates should enter their degrees in this column.
Students of theology, law, or medicine, and undergraduates of any university, to be so returned.
Scholars - children or young persons attending a school or receiving regular instruction at home to be returned as scholars.
Farmers - this term is to be applied only to the occupiers of land. Sons or daughters employed at home or on the farm may be returned as farmer's son or farmer's daughter. Persons employed on the farm and sleeping the farmer's house should be described as farm servants.
Agricultural labourers, shepherds, and other employed on farms, but not living in the farmer's house, should be described as agricultural labourers, shepherds, etc..
Persons engaged in commerce, as merchants, brokers, agents etc., to state in all cases the particular branch of commerce in which they are engaged, or the commodity in which they chiefly deal. Examples such as corn merchant, member of ---- stock exchange, tea agent.
Commercial clerk, commercial traveler, shopman, always to add in what branch of business.
In trades, manufactures, or other business, masters should, in all cases, be distinguished. Example "carpenter - master".
Workers in manufactures, and generally in the mechanical arts, should distinctly state the particular branch of work, and the material, if they are not implied in the names as in brass founder, iron moulder. Where the trade is much sub-divided, both trade and branch are to be returned thus watchmaker - finisher or printer - compositor.
Miners should state the description of mine in which they work. Examples: coal miner, lead miner, copper miner etc. The term miner should never be used alone.
Engineers - civil engineers and mining engineers, to be so described. Workmen employed in works or factories are to be so distinctly described. Examples: engine smith at factory, engine fitter at works. Engine drivers, stokers, and firemen to be described in connection with the manufactory, railway, steam-vessel, etc., in which they are employed. Examples: railway engine driver, stoker in linen factory. Engineer alone is not to be used.
Artisans and mechanics should invariably state the particular branch of mechanical art or business in which they are employed.
Weaver - silk, wool, worsted, cotton, etc., should always be written before this general term, so as to express distinctly the material which he weaves; thus cotton weaver.
Domestic servants should be described according to the nature of their service, adding in all cases domestic servant. Examples: coachman - domestic servant, gardener - domestic servant, cook - domestic servant.
Labourers, porters, to be described according to the nature of their employment. Examples: railway porter, bricklayer's labourer, labourer in iron works, general labourer. See also instruction no. 12. The term labourer should never be used alone.
Person ordinarily engaged in some industry, but out of employment at the time of the census, should be so described; as bricklayer, unemployed; carpenter, unemployed.
Persons following no profession, trade, or calling, and holding no public office, but deriving their incomes chiefly from land, houses, dividends, interest of money, annuities, etc., should describe themselves accordingly. The indefinite terms, gentlemen, esquire, are not to be used. Person who have retired from business are to be entered thus. Retired farmer, retired grocer.
Women and children - the occupation of those who are regularly employed from home, or who follow any business at home, is to be distinctly recorded, but no entry should be mad in the case of those who solely engaged in domestic duties at home. See also instruction no. 10.

Extracts from the Census (Ireland) Act, 1910, 10 Edw. Vii. and 1 Geo. V, Cap. 11.
Sec. 2. (5.) Every enumerator may ask all such questions of all persons within his district respecting themselves or the persons constitution their respective families and respecting such further particulars as may be necessary for the purpose of takin the said accounts.
Sec 7. (2.) If any person refuses to answer or willfully gives a false answer to any question necessary for obtaining the information required to be obtained under this act, he shall for each offence be liable on conviction under the summary jurisdiction (Ireland) acts to a fine not exceeding five pounds; provided that no person shall be subject to any such penalty for refusing to state his religious profession.