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Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Census 2001

Instruction Manual for Enumerators and Supervisors

Hungarian Central Statistical Office

[Pages 2-9 are not presented here.]

Scope of the census

In the course of the census, each housing and holiday housing unit -- listed on the list of addresses or found on the territory of the enumeration area -- as well as those living there should be enumerated.

Housing units

The enumeration should cover:

The occupied dwellings, even if the license for use of the dwelling is not issued. The occupied dwellings and holiday houses used by foreigners (not subject to the census) should be enumerated too;

The vacant dwellings (e.g. dwellings having license for use though not occupied, or used only temporarily or as second dwelling);

The dwellings used for accommodating institutional households;

The dwellings used for other purposes (like office, medical cabinet, etc.);

The holiday and rest-houses, the parts of the collective recreation houses irrespective of whether they are used only for recreation or as usual residence;

The occupied other housing units, that is the business buildings and temporary, mobile or other buildups (store, shop, washing room, garage, warehouse, wine-press house, hut, caravan, etc.);

The institutions (the resident nurseries, children's homes, dormitories, worker's homes, hospitals, hotels, collective recreation houses, social homes, etc.) irrespective of the occupancy at the reference date of the census;

The housing units of the establishments of collective accommodation provided the inmates maintain a private household.

The enumeration must not cover:

The refurbished or converted dwellings and holiday houses used for other purposes or of which original destination is possible only after a partial or total reconstruction;

Vacant dwellings, holiday houses in construction, without license for use;

Vacant dwellings, holiday houses under demolishing or having a license for demolishing;

Ruined vacant dwellings;

The premises which were not regarded as dwellings (e.g. store, shop, warehouse, etc. formerly used as a dwelling) at the reference date of the census;

The vacant buildups used for recreation but not in conformity with the requirement s of a holiday house.


The enumeration should cover the following people being present in the enumeration district on the reference date of the census:

Hungarian citizens having an actual or registered address, or place of residence;

The foreign citizens having been in Hungary as refugees or immigrants for more than three months, asylum seekers and those having permanent or temporary residence permits in Hungary.

The following people must not be enumerated:

As from the foreign citizens:
Foreign diplomats and their family members;

The members of the armed forces and the family members stationing in Hungary upon the decision of the Parliament or the Government;

The persons temporarily present for tourism (recreation, excursion, medical treatment, business talks, etc.) and

The Hungarian citizens being temporarily present on the place of enumeration for recreation, medical treatment, or family/friendly visit.

The enumerator should enumerate every person in the given dwelling or holiday house staying at the reference date of the census as:

Usual (officially registered) resident,

Temporary (officially registered as temporary) resident or

Resident without official registration.

The persons subject to enumeration should be enumerated even if they were permanently or temporarily absent for:

Medical, treatment, recreation or tourism,

Working as Hungarian delegates (members of diplomatic corps, company delegates, etc.) or studying abroad.

The persons deceased or moved from the place of enumeration at the reference date and the day of enumeration must be enumerated, whereas the persons born or moved in during the previous period will not be enumerated.

Questionnaires completed in the course of the preliminary enumeration

The enumerator will receive from the controller completed questionnaire as follows:

1. Hungarian citizens staying abroad for work or studies:
If the address on the dwelling refers to a vacant dwelling, the dwelling questionnaire and the personal questionnaires attached to it should be copied and filed with the other dwellings according to general rules;

If the address of the dwelling refers to an occupied dwelling and the inhabitants acknowledge that the personal questionnaires attached to the dwelling questionnaire refer to registered inhabitants of the dwelling, then the personal questionnaires should be copied and filed into the personal questionnaires of the enumerated dwelling;

If the address of the dwelling refers to an occupied dwelling and the inhabitants declare that there are no persons living abroad among those registered in the dwelling, a comment "Not classifiable" should be written into the upper link part of questionnaires which will be returned to the supervisor;
2. Regarding the dwellings occupied by foreign citizens not subject to the census (e.g. members of the foreign diplomatic corps): the enumerator without visiting the dwellings should copy the data of the dwelling questionnaire, and the copied questionnaire will be filed in the documentation of the enumeration district. (If some data on the dwelling is missing, adjustment should be made by using the dwelling questionnaires of the same building);
3. Regarding the questionnaires of the holiday houses enumerated before the census: the enumerator should check the reliability of the information. If from the date of the preliminary census some changes occurred the necessary corrections should be made, then the questionnaire should be filed with the other documents of the enumeration district.

The questionnaires completed before the enumeration after being copied or marked as "Not classifiable" (and crossed with a red pencil) should be returned to the supervisor.

[A part of p.12 and p.13]

Rules of filling in the questionnaire

While performing the enumeration at the housing or holiday housing unit, the following forms are used:

Dwelling questionnaire,
Personal questionnaire, and
Auxiliary table.

Census of the institutions and of the institutes operating in dwellings

The necessary documents for the enumeration of the institutions are described in the "Supplementary instructions for the enumeration of the institutions and institutional households".

If the enumerator observes that in a given dwelling an institutional household is existing (such as for example an employer for the temporary accommodation of the employees, for the date of some ongoing works is renting a dwelling for the accommodation and offering defined services for the workers) then the enumeration should follow the rules defined in the "Supplementary instructions for the enumeration of the institutions and institutional households".

[A part of p. 13, p14 to p.18 are omitted]

Dwelling questionnaire

What is the character of the surrounding of the building?

Traditional urban zone: generally a locality's central part and its adjoining area, usually with closed rows of streets and buildings of medium height (1-6 floors). The majority of buildings are designed for human accommodation, and a part for public use (block of flats built with traditional technologies, and suite the parameters of the zone).

Building blocks, housing estates zone: group of high or medium high residential buildings built in the last decades and with modern construction technologies for habitation. Generally public places (parks, playing grounds, etc.) connect the buildings and block of flats to each-other. The layout and characteristics of the dwellings on the different levels are the same. The public utilities in the dwellings of the buildings are the same. The buildings have been built mostly with the same technology. The establishments of the social, cultural and other services are in the close proximity of the buildings.

Suburb of villas: low and medium high residential buildings, villas, or holiday houses (in some cases colonies) with a garden, generally with ordered lines of streets.

Family houses zone: low (1-2 storey) residential buildings generally at a larger distance from the centre of the settlement. These zones are typical in towns though recently a trend for establishing this type of zones started in rural areas, too.

Rural zone: houses built generally at the front of the streets, traditional residential parts of villages, external parts of villages and former rural areas attached to towns also belong to this category.

Recreation district: area built-in mainly with holiday houses, weekend-houses and/or collective buildings for recreation.

Industrial zone: colonies, barracks formerly built as auxiliary residential buildings of agricultural, industrial undertakings, and houses surrounded by industrial plants, etc.

Sparsely built outskirts: houses built mostly in outskirts generally used by employees of the agriculture and forestry (e.g. single cottage house, watch-house, and forester's lodge).

Grouped built outskirts: residential area of groups of buildings generally separated from each other by a cultivated agricultural land (e.g. group of cottage houses and farms).

Socially unsatisfactory zone: residential buildings of very poor condition, houses designed for demolition, buildings built for temporary use, hovels, line of gipsy hovels, caves, etc.

Traditional urban zone: generally a locality's central part and its adjoining area usually with closed rows of streets or with buildings of medium height (1-6 floors). The majority of buildings are designed for human accommodation, and a part for public use (Block of flats built with traditional technologies suites the parameters of the zone.)

Other zones: areas not belonging to the above categories.

The building:

Is a building incorporating several premises, covered with a roof and surrounded from each side by walls from the bottom up to the roof.

Even if one of the partition walls is connected to another house a building having independent structure, partition-wall and independent entrance will be regarded as one building.
The individual sections of the multi-sectional houses (having several entrances, staircases) -- provided they are not connected to each-other by internal doors -- are regarded as separate houses. (The emergency and service entrances are not regarded as internal doors.) Multi-sectional buildings are mainly on the real estate zones, where the staircases are separately numbered or marked.

Question 1: Type of the building?

Residential building: building where the majority of spaces are used exclusively or mostly as a dwelling. The category also covers the collective houses, which accommodate private households and the buildings used for accommodation by the seasonal workers (e.g. vacant cottage house).

Holiday house (recreation building): a building with one or more units suitable for recreation, rest rehabilitation, but sometimes even for habitation.

Occupied other building: a building incorporating premises and rooms used for other than habitation purposes, and at the same time at least one dwelling or occupied other housing unit. This building might be a school, office-house, shopping-house, industrial plant, but on the other hand dormitories, workers' accommodation houses, social homes, children's homes, day nurseries, hotels and hospitals do not belong to this category.

Building for institutional household(s) (collective housing unit): building intended for the use by persons belonging to an institutional household (dormitories, workers' accommodation houses, social homes, children's homes, day nurseries, hotels etc.).
Occupied other housing unit and building: the housing unit other than listed above, such as business building temporary (e.g. store, shop wine-press house, summer kitchen, etc.), and mobile or other building (e.g. hovel hut, caravan, cave, etc.).

Question 2: When was the building built?

The year of construction in cases of the new buildings is the year when the license for using the dwellings was issued. In cases of multi-dwelling houses, the year of the issue of the license might be different. In such cases, the year of construction is the year of the issue of the first license.

In cases of older houses where no license for the habitation had been issued, the year of construction is the year when the first occupant moved into his/her dwelling.

If of the buildings where the main elements had been substantially changed (e.g. the ceiling between the levels had been changed, etc.), the year of construction of the building is the year of completion of reconstruction works. The modernization of the dwellings, connecting transforming two dwellings into or dividing one into two dwellings is not regarded as new construction.

Question 3: What was the building made of?

Brick, stone, manual building element: this is the right answer even if the walls are made of the so called walling-block too.

The outer walls of the building should be coded as medium or large block or cast concrete if

The outer walls are prefabricated large blocks which can be placed only with a crane, the base material is light concrete, concrete, reinforced concrete, etc. or
Cast concrete, reinforced concrete or light concrete cast on site.

Panel will be marked if the parts of the walls of the building had been made in a plant for prefabricated elements, are placed mechanically, the fixing of the elements is by welding, and the base material is reinforced concrete.

If the walls are of adobe, clay or wood instead of the material of the walls it has to be marked whether the unit had a solid basement. Wooden (wood-fiber-, coarse-, shavings' panel) wall will be recognized if a proper isolation ensuring the permanent habitation is available.

The walls of the housing unit are marked as other material if there is no proper isolation, like cases of sheet iron, corrugated cardboard, tent, canvas. "Walls made of other material" is marked in case of a cave used for habitation.

Question 4: Type of housing unit

The dwelling is a unit of places and rooms with specific functions (living rooms, cooking places, sanitary places etc.), generally technically (architecturally) connected to each other, intended for human accommodation, stay (home) or converted into dwelling and also suitable for living at present, which has a separate en-trance from a public place, courtyard or from a collectively used place inside the building (staircase, corridor etc.). The dwelling gives protection against the harm caused by the weather and the environment and is suitable for permanent stay of one (or more) private households.

The group of technically (architecturally) adjoining places, connected with inner passages, will be considered at the enumeration as one dwelling also in cases when the passages of one or several places were blocked temporarily but not walled (e.g. in the case of co-tenancy). A mostly separate place, building -- e.g. the summer kitchen of detached family house -- built as a part of the dwelling should be considered as part of the dwelling if it was used by the household living in the main building. However, a summer kitchen let to a subtenant, i.e. used by an outside household, forms a separate housing unit.

The premises of the building built originally or converted into shop, restaurant, workshop, etc. are not regarded as part of the dwelling even if those can be entered directly from the dwelling.

The holiday house (holiday housing unit in a building for recreation in individual or collective ownership) practically has the same characteristics as the dwelling though usually those are not necessarily suitable for use during the entire year; those are used generally for rest, recreation, summer holidays. The building built-for-one of the former purposes will be enumerated as holiday house only if

It has at least 12 square meters total floor-space;
The walls and roof is made of durable material revisiting to the storm and bed weather;
The floor is covered with a solid material (concrete, wood, etc);
It has at least one room of total surface exceeding 6 square meters;
At least one window ensures the natural light in the premises;
Hygienic facilities are available.

The holiday house -- mostly temporarily -- might serve different purposes e.g. as temporary residence, place of stay, etc. though should be coded always as holiday house.

The buildings not suiting the above requirements (e.g. fisherman's house, common weekend house, other buildings made of non-durable materials, wine press-houses, etc.) as well as the temporary, mobile or other facilities (e.g. tool-shed, motorbus body, caravan, trailer, etc.) should not regarded as holiday houses, consequently the must not be enumerated. The respective addresses will be marked on the "List of addresses" with the code "holiday housing unit not suiting the requirements of a holiday house (08)".

Occupied other housing units are the following:
Business premises, which have been built with primary designation as shop, office, workshop, depository, washing room, garage, wine press-house, etc., and have not been transformed into dwelling, nevertheless at least one person is living there;
The building erected on the parcel of the main building, containing mostly one single premise. These facilities have been usually built for future accommodation of subtenants, night-lodgers, or for other purposes than habitation and at the reference date of the census were occupied at least by one subtenant or night-lodger.

Question 5: Use and occupancy of dwelling

Occupied as usual residence of the inhabitants: the code will be given if the dwelling was in use continuously, all year round.

Occupied but used temporarily or as second dwelling (home): the answer refers to the nature of occupancy. This type of dwellings are not used constantly but only temporarily in a given period of the year. The dwelling -- even if it was not vacant at the reference date of the census -- can be qualified as used temporarily. The group includes the dwellings used by definite laborers (e.g. in cases of persons working off home, or the cottage houses used primarily during the summer) as well as the dwellings in the proximity of the towns used generally in good weather conditions.

Occupied housing unit used by an institution: the answer will be marked provided at least five persons receiving accommodation and full board are living there. If less than five persons are living in the dwelling, the answer is not institutional household but "occupied, residence of the inhabitants".

Occupied, inhabitants not subject to the census: this is the answer if the dwellings are occupied by the members of the foreign diplomatic corps in Hungary, the foreign military personnel staying in Hungary upon the authorization of the Parliament as well as in cases of tourists, visitors, and foreigners staying in the country for medical treatment and business purposes. In such situations -- if the enumerators was not supplied before the enumeration with a completed dwelling sheet from the supervisor -- the inhabitants should not be bothered; the respective questionnaire will be completed based on the answers given by the neighbors, the janitor or on the corresponding data of the similar dwellings in the building.

Dwelling used for other purposes than habitation: the code is marked if the unit's main characteristics comply with those of a dwelling but at the reference date of the census it is not used as a dwelling (e.g. as medical cabinet, office, shop, etc.). The classification is valid only if the unit is suitable for habitation without any transformation.

Housing unit used for rest, recreation: the housing unit is used characteristically temporary rest and recreation. This is the proper answer in cases of cottage houses used for the previous purposes.

Question 6: Ownership

Question 6.1 Who is the owner?

The dwelling is property of:

A natural person if the dwelling is owned by a private person or by several persons (joint property). The majority of the holiday houses is owned by natural persons;
An undertaking, co-operative, other business organization, institution if the owner of the dwelling is an association, joint company, limited liability company, joint-stock company, co-operative, lawyer's office, private business partnership of teachers, artist's fellowship, partnership for construction, condominium, private entrepreneur, central government organization, social security organization, non-profit organization (party, association, trade union, foundation, chamber, and public utility company, etc.).

Question 6.2 What is the form of ownership?

The dwelling is in domestic property if it is owned exclusively by Hungarian natural persons(s) or inland legal person(s).

The dwelling is foreign property if it is owned exclusively by foreign (non-Hungarian) citizen(s) or foreign legal person(s).

The dwelling is a mixed property if at least one of its owners is either Hungarian or foreign citizen or legal person.

Question 7: Number of rooms

The total number of the premises -- in cases of rooms, kitchens, kitchenettes taking into account their total floor-space too -- of the dwelling (holiday house, other housing unit) should be marked in the printed boxes. While defining the total floor-space of the premises also the floor-space occupied by the built-in furniture and the adjoining parts of the dwelling -- like alcove, cubicle, and dining area -- should be taken into account. The common spaces serving different functions (e.g. cooking area and living room in common space) should be divided by the designations and should be enumerated as separate premises. In cases mansard premises, only the floor-space of the parts less than 1, 90 cm high should not be counted into the total.

Rooms are premises provided with direct natural light and ventilation (with doors, windows), with a floor space of at least 4 square meters, serving for sleeping or staying during the day (bedroom, children's room, dining-room etc.). The hall and the eating-place having also a window, as well as the premises of room-like character used as consultation rooms, waiting rooms, offices etc. also figure among the rooms.

Kitchens are spaces established and used for cooking (maybe, also for eating), of a floor space of at least 4 square meters, in general provided with direct, natural light and ventilation (with window, door). When assigning the rooms and premises for cooking by floor space, the floor space of the adjoining alcove or eating place was included into that of the respective room or kitchen.

Kitchenettes are premises of a floor space under 4 square meters, built and used for cooking. (To this group belong also tea-kitchenettes and cooking cupboards.).

If the dwelling itself does not have a kitchen or kitchenette but there is a summer kitchen which is used by the inhabitants of the main building as a kitchen it should be regarded as a kitchen. If the separate building where the kitchen was has several premises only the one used as a kitchen must be taken into account.

Bathrooms (shower-stall, wash-basin alcove) are premises used for washing in the dwelling. It is generally equipped with tap water, is connected to the sewage disposal, nevertheless the utilization is decisive, the equipment is secondary. The enumeration recorded separately the bathrooms with or without a fixed bath or shower.

In cases of occupied other housing units the premises should be recorded according to their utilization, nevertheless the other housing unit consists only of a single premises the floor-space should be counted as it was a room.

Question 8: Floor-spaces

Question 8.1 Total floor-space of living-rooms?

The total floor-space of the rooms recorded in question 7 should be entered, in square meters and rounded to whole number

Question 8.2 Total floor-space of dwelling?

The total useful floor-space of the dwelling in square meters and rounded to whole number.

In counting the total floor-space the hall, vestibule, ante-room, the internal corridors and all the storage rooms of the dwelling should be taken into account. If the summer kitchen is enumerated as belonging to the dwelling, its floor-space should be added to the floor-space of the premises of the dwelling.

While counting the total surface only the half of the total surface of the bay window, covered balcony can be taken into account.

The open balcony, terrace is not regarded as part of the dwelling consequently their total surface must not be taken into account.

Question 9: Water supply of dwelling?

A dwelling supplied with piped water from community scheme is one in which water supply is obtained through a tap connected to a community water-conduit. The answer should indicate whether the tap is:

in the dwelling,
in the building,
on the parcel of the house,
outside the parcel of the house.

A dwelling is supplied with piped water from a private source if the water pipe leads the water of the well, which is generally on the ground-plot, courtyard belonging to the building, to the tap in the dwelling.

The dwelling is supplied from a well on its parcel if there is no tap water in the building but there a (dig or drilled) well or a cistern in the yard supplies the water.

If a dwelling is supplied with water from several sources the most convenient should be marked!

Question 10: Hot running water supply of dwelling?

The answer is "Appliance supplying one dwelling" if the hot water is supplied by a water heater which is also used for heating the dwelling or by a separate water heater boiling the water by gas or electric energy. If the dwelling is supplied with warm water from several sources, devices the one used for lustration should be marked.

The answer "only water heater in the kitchen" can be marked only if this is the only possibility for getting the hot water.

Question 11: Type of gas used?

Piped gas is the answer if the dwelling is connected to the community gas network even if they do not use the gas neither for heating nor for cooking.

The dwelling where the gas is supplied from a jumbo gas-bag installed on the parcel of the house must not be regarded as supplied with piped gas. These dwellings will be classified as using bottle-gas.

Dwelling supplied with bottle gas is the dwelling where the energy is supplied by butane gas filled into gas-cylinders.

If there are alternative sources for gas supply, the one listed the first should be underlined.

E.g. if the dwelling is connected to the community gas network and at the same time the inhabitants are using bottle gas as well the correct marking is "piped gas".

Question 12: Heating?

District-, block heating: dwellings of several buildings receive the heat necessary for heating from a thermal station, heating works or from a natural thermal spring

District-, block heating dwellings of several buildings get the heat necessary for heating from a thermal station, heating works or from a natural thermal spring. Question 13 should be skipped if the answer is "District-, block or thermal water heating".

Separate boiler heating of the building (i.e. for several dwellings): the dwellings of the building receive the heat from a boiler which is situated in the building or is in connection with the building.

Separate central heating for one dwelling: the supply of heat for the premises of one dwelling (one floor) or only of a building with one dwelling (detached family house) from one heating place.

Separate heating of premises means the heating of the places of the dwelling by stoves, convectors etc.

If alternative heating is in the dwelling the one used fro the rooms should be marked. The type of heating is coded as "Separate heating of premises" if the rooms of the dwelling are heated by different appliances (one of the rooms is heated with an electric heater, the other with an oven while the third with an electric heater).

If no heating in the dwelling is available question 13 should be skipped.

Question 13: Energy used for heating?

The answer is other if the energy used for the heating is natural energy e.g. solar energy, geothermic energy (with the exemption of thermal water).

If alternative/several types of heating material are used the one used for heating the rooms should be underlined. If in doubt the mostly used material should be marked.

Question 14: Flush toilet?

The answer is "yes, in a separate premises of the dwelling" if the flush toilet is in a separate premises within the dwelling.

The answer is "yes, in other premises of the dwelling": if the flush toilet is not in independent premises but in a space used for other purposes too (e.g. in the bathroom). The precondition of the acceptance of the answer is the availability of the communal or domestic tap water in the dwelling and a direct access of the waste water to a sewage disposal.

The answer is "yes, outside the dwelling": if the flush toilet is used by the members of several families living in the building. These flush toilets are usually available by levels of the residential buildings.

Question 15: Sewage disposal from dwelling?

A dwelling is supplied with sewage connected to community sewage disposal plant if it is connected to the sewage system of public utility, respectively, of public utility type.

A dwelling is supplied with sewage connected to private sewage disposal plant if the wastewater is led through an underground drainpipe to a closed sewage storage tank a desiccators (drain tank) on the ground plot of the building or to some other place.

Data on the households

The full-scale enumeration of the person living in the dwelling is ensured by completing the table "The family status of the enumerated persons in the dwelling, title of use of dwelling" on the 4th page of the Dwelling questionnaire. If more than 10 persons are living in the dwelling the enumerator is obliged to complete a supplementary dwelling sheet.

Before starting the filling in of the table it has to be defined

the number of households living in the dwelling and
if the people living in the households constitute a family or not, the family structure of the
household as well as the number of families forming the households.

The next step is the assessment of the family status and title of use of dwelling of the persons.
Generally there is only one household living in a dwelling nevertheless there are more complicated situations too:

in a given dwelling not only one, but also several households might live and
it is not excluded that in one household several families or even persons not forming a family live together.

In solving these complicated cases the Auxiliary table could help in establishing the household and family numbers, where the base rule is:

the (serial) household number of persons belonging to the same household is the same and
the (serial) family number is the same if the persons belonging to the same family.

Definition of the household and the family

A (private) household is a group of persons living together in a common housing unit or in a part of it, bearing together, at least partly, the costs of living (i.e. daily expenses, meals). The subtenants, night-lodgers and co-tenants represent always a separate household (having independent household number), which does not automatically mean that several families can not form a household. Among the persons belonging to the same household:

The following persons form a family (will be marked with the same serial family number)

married couple (husband and wife) with or without child(ren),
persons living in consensual partnership with or without child(ren) and
one of the parents (father or mother) living with child(ren)

and the relatives and non-relatives not listed above not forming an independent household. The latter include e.g. one of the parents of the husband/wife, child under state care living with the family;

The following persons do not form a family (each person's family number is "1")

relatives and non-relatives (e.g. siblings, friends, one of the grandparent and his grandchild) and the child in state care -- if any -- living with the former persons ";
lone persons (always have independent family household).

Defining the identification numbers of the persons, households and families

Identification number of the persons living in the dwelling
It serves for the identification of the given person living in the family. Attention should be paid that the same serial number on page 4 of the dwelling questionnaire should be copied into the respective boxes on the personal questionnaire. The former assures the linking of the individual data with the dwelling data.

Identification number of the household living in the dwelling
The households will be marked with a serial number starting with "1"; the first households is marked with "1", the second with"2", etc. If there are more than 9 households living in the dwelling the household number of the 9+ households will be the same, "9". Persons belonging to the same household will be marked with the same household number.

Identification number of the family living in the household
The concept of the family in the population census differs from the generally used definition. A household consists of as many families as many

married couples with or without child(ren),
consensual partners with or without child(ren) and
lone persons with child(ren)

types so called family nucleus can be formed. In one family there might live one husband and one wife, two consensual partners or on e lone parent (father or mother). The first two couples might form a family even without children while in the lone parent type families there should be always at least one child.

A household consist of one or more family nucleus. In multifamily households the lone person should be classified into the family named by him/her. The classification of the persons should be done one by one.

The families will be marked within the household with a serial number starting with "1". The persons will have the same family number provided the household consists of one family or of members forming a family. If there are several families in the household the first family is marked with "1", the second with"2", etc. If there are more than 9 families living in the household the household number of the 9+ families will be the same, "9".

I the dwellings where more than one household lives the numbering of the families will start with "1" in every household.
Example: In the dwelling 9 persons should be enumerated: a young married couple with a child, the brother of the wife and the parents of the father. Furthermore there are living in the dwelling two friends and one lone person as subtenant.

[Table with codes is omitted]

The answers to the following questions should be entered into the line of the person having the given serial number.

What is the position of the person in the family? Family status?

  • One of the answers will be underlined; only one answer must be marked:
  • Husband, wife: legally married male and female living in a common household;
  • Partner in life: consensual partner, male and female living together without legal marriage, forming a household;
  • Father,mother: male or female living in a family with the children and without spouse;
  • Child irrespective of the age, marital status and the source of livelihood the child (adopted, foster-child, including child born outside marriage) of the husband, wife, consensual partner, or father or mother provided he/she does not form an independent household;
  • Ascending partner father or mother, grandparent, grand-grandparent, father-in-law, mother-in-law if living in the household without spouse or child (e.g. the father or mother of one of the spouses, couple living with one of the grandparents);
  • Other relative is the person other than descried above, living in the given household, relative of at lest one f the members of the household, not forming a family (e.g. sibling of one of the married couple, aunt, uncle, one of the grandparents with his grandson);
  • Child under state care living in the family is the child placed at the given family by the Children's Protection Authority (for temporarily or permanently and not adopted). In this cases the family receives a cash contribution financing the upbringing clothing and training of the child;
  • Non-relative: non-relative persons living with the family (e.g. domestic help, person supported upon life-contract) as well as the non-relative person living together in a household not incorporating any family nucleus, with other persons (e.g. friend);
  • Lone person is the person living alone in a separate household.

Status of occupancy in the dwelling?

The answer "owner" is marked if the enumerated person is sole or joint owner of the dwelling. Beneficiary user should be regarded as owner. One dwelling might be owned by several persons.

The answer is "relative of the owner" (e.g. his/her spouse, consensual partner, child, parent) if the persons is a relative of the owner of the dwelling, even if they do not live together. The "relative of the owner" can be marked only if the use of the dwelling is free of charge.

If the owner of the dwelling is not a natural person the title "owner" or "relative of the owner" must not be marked. (See the answer at question 6.1 "Data on the housing unit" on the Dwelling questionnaire).

The answer "tenant, co-tenant" will be marked if he/she is using the dwelling alone or with some other people upon paying a rental fee and the use of the dwelling is not connected to a working or service contract. (Co-tenants are using a part of the dwelling exclusively, while some premises -- e.g. the kitchen, the bathroom -- is used jointly wit an other co-tenant.

The answer "relative of tenant, co-tenant" is marked if the persons is not the tenant, co-tenant of the dwelling but is a relative of the former person (e.g. spouse, consensual partner, child, parent, and sibling).

The answer is "user of service dwelling" if the use of dwelling is connected to a working or service contract. The dwelling might be supplied free of charge or for a rental fee too.

The answer is "subtenant" if the person has an exclusive right for using at least one premises of the dwelling for paying a rental fee to the tenant of the dwelling. If the rental contract ensures the exclusive use of the whole dwelling the answer "tenant, co-tenant" should be marked.

The answer is night-lodger if the person does not use any of the premises of the dwelling with an exclusive right; he/she only rents a bed for a fee. The answer could be underlined if the dwelling is occupied by the owner, his/her relative, the tenant, co-tenant, and relative of the tenant, cotenant, or user of service dwelling.

The answer is institutional inhabitant if the person lives in a dwelling offered by an institution, and he/she is making use of the services -- lodging and full-board -- of the institution.

The answer is homeless without address if the person at the date of the enumeration lives/stays in the staircase, doorway, etc., he/she is staying in a place which can not be connected to premises (like dwelling, holiday house, other housing unit or institutional household)..

The answer is other title if the person's title of use of dwelling can not be classified as above.

Personal questionnaire

3 Question: Country of citizenship

In cases of foreigners, the country of citizenship should be entered.
In case of a person of double citizenship,

If one of the citizenship is Hungarian after marking it into the heading other country the name of the country of the second citizenship will be marked;
If none of the citizenships are Hungarian, then only one citizenship, namely the one which according to the respondent has primary significance will be marked.

In case the person does not have any citizenship, then, in other country, the term "stateless" should be entered.

Questions 4--6

While entering the information regarding the address -- questions 4-6 -- the enumerator should strictly stick to the registration of the address by the authorities. As an answer to question 4.1 only the registered permanent address while in case of question 5.1, only the registered temporary address can be marked. To mark the not-registered address only at question 6.1 is possible.

The person can be enumerated in the given dwelling

Registered permanent resident or
Registered temporary resident
Not-registered resident
consequently the place of enumeration might be the person's
Registered permanent address or
Registered temporary address or
Virtual address without registration.

Question 4.1: What is your registered permanent address?

The answer is "the place of enumeration" in cases of persons having the same registered permanent address which is marked in the heading "place of enumeration" on the first page of the dwelling questionnaire. The official registration does not necessarily means that the person lives in the dwelling effectively. This is the answer even if the given person has moved already from the dwelling though he /she did not arrange the official registration of the change in the addresses yet. (The new -- and factual -- address will be marked at question 6.1.)

If the place of enumeration is not the registered permanent address of the respondent than the name of the locality (in Budapest the district as well) of his/her registered permanent address should be entered into the framed space next to the question. The name of the locality must be entered even if the locality of the place of enumeration and the locality of the permanent registered address is the same.

If of the persons having (registered) permanent address outside Hungary the name of the country of the permanent address should be marked in the framed space on the questionnaire.

In cases of persons without registered permanent address the completion of the questionnaire will be continued by answering question 5.1.

Question 4.2: Since when have you been registered there?

The entry depends exclusively on the answer of the respondent; the address in question 4.1 is the permanent address of the person as from the date as declared (i.e. not as virtually registered).

If the person did not change his/her permanent address the marking is as from birthday.

Question 5.1: What is your registered permanent address?

The answer is "the place of enumeration" in cases of persons having the same registered temporary address which is marked in the heading "place of enumeration" on the first page of the dwelling questionnaire. The official registration does not necessarily means that the person lives in the dwelling effectively.

If the dwelling in enumeration is not the registered temporary address of the respondent (that is he/she is enumerated as registered permanent resident or virtual not registered resident) but the person has a registered temporary address, the name of the locality of the latter (in Budapest the district as well) should be marked even if the locality is the same with the locality of the enumeration.

In cases of persons working, studying abroad besides the place of residence in Hungary, the name of the country of the foreign address should be marked in question 6.1.

In cases of conscripts the locality of the military, barracks must not be marked (this will be entered at question 6.1 as factual address of residence). The same principles should be followed in cases of imprisoned persons.

Question 5.2: Since when you have been keeping it?

The entry depends exclusively on the answer of the respondent; the address in question 5.1 is the permanent address of the person as from the date as declared (i.e. not as virtually registered).
According to the legislation the official registration of the temporary address should be renewed by every second year therefore the date of the first registration should be entered.

Question 6.1: What is your usual residence?

The address should be entered where the respondent conducts his life, virtually lives, and is usually accessible, where he is going for studies or for work from, where he mostly spends the nights. The usual residence might be the registered permanent address, the registered temporary address or the non-registered factual address of the person. In the latter case:

The answer non-registered factual address, which is the place of enumeration will be marked if the person is not permanently or temporarily resident of the dwelling registered by the authorities (that is "the place of enumeration" answer is not marked neither at question 4.1, nor at question 5.1).

The answer "non-registered address, not the same as the place of enumeration, the name of the locality is" can be marked in cases of persons enumerated on the place of enumeration as registered permanent or temporary residents (in question 4.1 or 5.1 "place of enumeration" is marked) and their factual address is neither the registered address on the place of enumeration or elsewhere. In this situations the name of the locality (in case of Budapest the district as well) of the address of the factual residence of the person should be entered into the framed box.

The same will be applied in cases of conscripts, reservist on duty and imprisoned persons, i.e. the name of the locality of the military barracks or of the prison, detention establishment should be entered into the framed box.

Question 6.2: Since when you have been staying there?

The question will be answered in case at question 6.1 non-registered address is marked.

6.3 Question: If you have more addresses, which place do you consider as your permanent home?

In case of every person where at question 4--6 more, one address is marked the usual home should be indicated. This might be the registered permanent address, the registered temporary address or the non-registered factual address.

Usual home is the residence, dwelling where the given person usually returns to, the members of his/her family -- if any -- live, e.g. the dwelling of the parents in case the child is studying and living in an other locality in a dormitory, the dwelling of spouse , children of the person working abroad or in an other locality.

Questions 7.1--7.3

In case the person has several addresses and in question 6.3 the usual home is marked the should be regarded as benchmark of all the other (sub) questions, while in case the person -- having one or several addresses -- did not mark any of them as usual home than the questions from 7.1 to 7.3 should be related to the address registered at question 6.

Question 7.1: What was your previous registered permanent address?
In cases the persons lives as from his birth in the same dwelling which is regarded by him/her as the usual home, the answer "living as from the birthday on his/her present registered permanent address" should be marked.

Usual home is the one marked in question 4.1, by having several addresses in question 6.3 respectively. In case the answer in question 4.1 is "does not have a registered permanent address" and no answer is marked in question 6.3, the address entered in question 6.1 should be taken into account.

The name of the locality (in Budapest the district as well) should be marked even is the previous address had been also in the same locality meaning the given persons moved from one dwelling to the other within the locality. Meanwhile the change in the name of the street, the house (dwelling) number, or other administrative alterations (unification, cessation of localities, etc.) must not be regarded as change in the former address.

Question 7.2: What was your (mother's) registered permanent address at the date of birth?

The place of residence at birth (mother's permanent address) should be applied as described at question 7.1.

The answer "same as the present (permanent) address" is marked in cases of persons declaring as usual home the same dwelling where he/she lived (where his/her mother's usual residence was) at the date of the birth.

In all of the other cases the name of the locality will be marked where at birth of the enumerated person he/she lived (where his/her mother's usual residence was). (If the address was in Budapest the district as well, in case of a locality outside the present territory of Hungary, today's name of the country should be marked.)

In case the given person does not know, the locality of his/her address at birth than locality indicated in the extract of the parish register should be marked.

Question 7.3: What was your registered permanent address on February 1, 2000?

The definition of the place of residence (permanent address) on February 1, 2000 should be understood and applied as described at question 7.1. If the enumerated person declares that his usual home is the one he has been living one year before the enumeration, "the present residence (permanent address)" should be marked. However in case the respondent answers that his/her present usual home is not on the present address than it was a year earlier tan the correct answer is: "elsewhere, the name of the locality" (in Budapest the district as well).

Question 8: Marital status

While marking the marital status the legal state will be taken into account. The legally married person who's wife is alive and the marriage is not terminated by the court is marked as married even if he/she is not living with the spouse. The married person should be questioned if he /she is living with the spouse or separated from her/him. In fact living together or separated is a matter of personal decision. The answer marked is not necessarily the same as the family status entered on the 4th page of the Dwelling questionnaire.

The marital status of the persons living in cohabitation (as consensual partners) should be entered also according to the legal state, e.g. if a never married female is in cohabitation with a married male the family status is never married and married, not living with the spouse respectively.

Question 9.1: Number of marriages?

The number of the legal marriages of the enumerated person will be marked. (Number of cohabitations should be omitted). If the enumerated person married only once, the sub-questions (9.2--9.5) will be answered with reference to the given marriage. If a person married twice, the question regarding the last marriage refers to the second marriage. If the enumerated person has had more than two marriages, the question will be answered with reference to the marriage bound at the date closer to the reference date.

Question 9.2: Date of marriage (year, month)?

Irrespective of the cohabitation before the marriage the date of the legal matrimonial ceremony will be marked.

Question 9.3: Does the marriage still exist?

The marriage should be regarded as existing unless the spouse deceased or the court declared it void by a legal decision. If the first marriage of the enumerated person exists the following sub-question should be skipped.

Question 9.4: When did it (the marriage) end (year, month)?
The date should be entered when the spouse of the enumerated person deceased or in cases of a divorced person the date of the final judgment respectively. In cases of persons having of a family status widowed or divorced, the sub-question must be answered. In cases of married persons having had several marriages into the line referring to the first marriage the date of the termination of the first marriage will be entered.

Question 10: Do you live in cohabitation?

The denomination "living in consensual partnership" refers to persons declaring themselves as living in lasting cohabitation without legal marriage; they might live together either on the place of enumeration or not in the same dwelling. If a person is marked as consensual partner the table on the 4th page of the dwelling questionnaire, answer should be given here by marking the year and month of the commencement of the cohabitation.

Question 11: Number of live-born children

Live-birth is the coming into the world of the fetus giving some sign of life (e.g. breathing, heart function, decisive motion of the volitional muscles, and pulsation of the umbilical cord), regardless to how long he/she was in the mother's uterus and how long he/she lived. In answering the question should be taken into account also the children living with other families, are under state care or had deceased. The adopted children and foster children must not be taken into account.

The question refers to every child born in the lifetime of the enumerated person. The aim of the question is to acquire information on the number of the children and the date of birth of the children. In cases of not more than three children, the first three columns will be filled in with the data referring to them. In cases of more than three children, the last column refers to the child born the closest to the date of the enumeration.
If the enumerated person does not have a live-born child, the boxes 00 will be marked and the enumeration will be continued by answering question 12.1.

Questions on educational attainment

Question 12.1: School attendance, qualification

The question will be answered by taking into account the number of grades (classes) of the studies, attainment in the frame of the school system. The question -- irrespective of the age of the persons -- must be answered by everybody. The different courses, qualifications obtained outside the school system will not be taken into account.

If the person in question is attending the day nursery -- irrespective of the level of the day nursery attended -- the interrogation will commence with question 13. The schools for handicapped children in some cases introduce a preparatory training for the children under school-age. The children participating in that so called pre-school education should be regarded as attending the day nursery.

The answer is "does not attend the school not even one grade completed" is marked in cases of persons who had not complete even one grade of the primary (elementary) school and who do not attend any educational institution, irrespective of their literacy. In case of the latter persons, the interrogation should be continued with question 13.

That is: if a person is simultaneously attending several educational institutions or has several final educations at different levels, the answer should be given to the respective questions in the appropriate line.

The questions should be asked from every persons either attending or completed any school in the sequence as printed on the questionnaire:

In cases of persons attending an educational institution the number of the grade he/she was enrolled for the school-year 2000/2001 further.

In cases of every person the highest grade of education completed as well as
The calendar year of completing the highest grade of the given type of school.

Consequently the corresponding table contains four columns:

The former educational institutions' grades must not be converted into the grades of the contemporary educational system. Similarly it is not allowed the conversion of the grades between the day-courses and evening, correspondence, etc. courses of the different educational institutions. The marking of the highest grade completed should follow the prevailing educational system. The present educational system allots an ascending number to the grades of the schooling as from the first class till the last grade (class) of the secondary education. Taking into account that the proper knowledge of the system (especially among the elderly people) is not well known e.g. instead of marking the 11th grade of the education also the 3d grade of the secondary school is acceptable.

It is possible that an enumerated person completed his studies in a given type of education and currently is attending a school of the same type of the educational system (e.g. the person is studying for getting his second general education with profession, or even if graduate of a university he/she is conducting studies at an other university). In this case:

In case a person completed two educational institutions of the same type (e.g. the person completed formerly two universities or two professional schools), the completion of the columns should refer to the institution having had higher number of grades.

In case the enumerated person is visiting (or completed) a bilingual secondary school, the number of grades should be entered into the line corresponding to the type of school. In the past the bilingual secondary schools commenced with ("0" grade) preparatory classes; this should be marked in the respective line.

The preparatory grades ("0" semesters) of the universities, in the higher educational institutions are not part of the educational system; consequently those must not be marked on the questionnaire.

In the educational system the professional training, education might be obtained on base-, medium- and high level. The former apprentice schools do not exists anymore. In the contemporary educational system the educational institutions of professional training (specialized secondary schools, professional schools, etc.) denote the grades with two numbers separated by "/". The first number is for the grade of the professional while the second number for the grade of the general training, education. In these cases the enumerator should ask the person in question whether
What is the level (base-, medium- or higher) of the professional education,
As regards the professional education what is the grade currently visited and completed respectively and
What is the grade currently attended and completed in the general education.

E.g.: If the enumerated person answers that he is visiting the 1/11th grade of the professional secondary school, he is studying in the first grade (marked with "1") of the base professional education and in the 11th grade of the general education, meaning the latter number will be marked in the boxes showing the educational grade.

The first grade of the professional training not requiring any previous education (e.g. florist) is marked as 1/8. In this case the number '"1" marks the base professional education, while number "8" should be entered into the respective boxes at the general primary school.

Professional training lasting for less than a year corresponds to one grade of training.

Some of the secondary schools (anew) are using the denomination "technical school" in its name because it assures a training of medium level technical training or high level training of engineer assistants. The given educational establishments must not be regarded as equal to the former secondary institutions ensuring general certificate of education with secondary professional training as technician and with those which produced technicians of a high level. These establishments should be regarded as specialized schools, specialized secondary schools.

In case of higher educational institutions, universities where the passing of an exam depends on collecting the so called credit points the attendance and completion of the studies should be defined according to the credits collected

In case the person enumerated visited several educational establishment of the same type, the grades completed must not be sum up but the highest grade completed should be marked.
The classes of the extension courses completed before 1960 must not be added to the number of grades completed in the primary education.
Educational attainment acquired abroad should be classified according to the Hungarian educational system.

Question 12.2: In case you attend any of the schools above, please indicate the form of education:

The answer is "other than day-course" in case of evening, or correspondence courses and the person is studying as a so called "private student" (the latter is not obliged to visit the educational establishment, only the exams will be passed). Provided the person is studying both on the daily and not daily courses than the former should be marked.

Question 12.3: If you attend any of the schools above, indicate the locality or district where the school is :

The entry is the name of locality where the person in question is going to school, for consultation that is the school which is marked by the enumerated person in question 12.2. In case somebody simultaneously is visiting two educational establishments in two different localities (in Budapest the districts should be taken into account too), the one being on a longer distance from the dwelling will be marked.

The entry is "in the locality (in Budapest also the district) of domicile" in case the school is in the same locality (in Budapest district) as the dwelling where the enumerated person lives.
E.g.: in case somebody is visiting the Budapest faculty of the University of the Town of Eger than the respective district of the capital will be marked as locality of the school.

Questions 12.4--12.6

While in the table in question 12.1 -- by entering the corresponding numbers -- the grade of the completed studies is answered this question is devoted to get information on the profession, qualification, skills obtained in the educational institutions marked in question 12.1.

Nevertheless the skills marked in sub-question 12.6 are not necessarily in accordance with entries on the years completed in question 12.1.

If the enumerated person has completed (e.g. two certificates on G.C.E. or two diplomas), the one obtained earlier will be entered.

In every case it has to be marked the

Denomination of the faculty, professional training, skill completed,
Type and description of the qualification,
The year of obtaining the certificate, diploma.

Though in the years after obtaining a qualification the denomination might have changed always the original definition of the qualification should be marked. The qualification obtained must not be translated or converted into the denominations of our days.

Question 12.4: Secondary level qualification obtained

The respective data of the General Certificate of Education of the enumerated person should be entered. (To assist the completing of the questionnaire an additional manual lists the secondary schools.) The certificates of completed studies in the specialized secondary schools from 1974 to1986 are regarded as equivalent to the General Certificate of Education.

Even if a person parallel to General Certificate of Education obtained a certificate of technician or profession too the G.C.E. should be entered while the latter qualifications will be marked in sub-question 12.6.

While entering the denomination reference to the institution of issuance of certificate should be given, e.g. G.C.E. obtained in a grammar school, G.C.E. obtained in specialized secondary school, certificate obtained in teachers school, etc.

Question 12.4 should be completed even in case of persons completed an institution of higher education, university.

Question 12.5: High level qualification obtained in higher education or university

The answer in case the enumerated person completed extended studies in an institution of higher education, university, or obtained a specialized qualification (specialized engineer, economist, physician, etc.) in post-graduate training or the grades of PhD, DLA always should refer to the higher educational institution which issued the diploma.

The higher educational institutions training teachers for primary and secondary schools generally issue diplomas of double qualifications. In several cases one of the former qualifications has a general character, i.e. it does not authorize the person for teaching. While entering the answers a clear distinction should be made between the two types of qualifications.

While entering the qualification the level of the institution issuing the certificate should be indicated e.g. "engineer, graduate of university", "teacher of secondary school graduate of a higher level educational institution", etc.

Question 12.6: Professional qualifications obtained

In recording the professions, qualifications, certificates of professions, two answers can be entered. Only the acquired professions, qualifications will be entered. The professional qualifications already entered as answers to sub-questions 12.4 and 12.5 must not be repeated here. Qualifications obtained outside the official school system might be entered too.
Always should be entered the certificate of profession obtained in vocational training schools as well as the certificate issued by special schools of typists and stenographers, health related professions.

If a person parallel with obtaining the General Certificate of Education received a certificate of profession besides entering the G.C.E. as an answer to question 12.4, the certificate of the profession should be marked here. The same is applied in case of qualification as technician.

The qualifications obtained in post-graduate training in the higher level educational institutions, universities might be entered here too. If the denomination does not automatically show the level of training (base,-, medium- or high level), the respective reference should be marked.

Question 13: What provides your livelihood?

The enumerator should prepare himself/herself that in enumerating the sources of livelihood an increased mistrust might be felt. In case of questioning the income, revenue of the people the reservation is even stronger if the profit earning activity is not or not fully in compliance with the legislation (e.g. business activity without license, working for enumeration besides receiving unemployment benefit, etc.). Therefore it is very important that the enumerator creates a proper ambiance for conducting the questioning.

The enumerator should let it understand that the enumeration is not intended to enumerate the revenues, and especially not the amount, the size of those. The enumeration of the sources of livelihood will be used only for

Classification of the population according to the types of their source of livelihood and
Having a proper description of the unemployment in the country.

The answer to the question should refer to the week preceding the reference date of the census.

The imprisoned persons are the only exemptions; in their case the answer should refer to the situation preceding their arrest, imprisonment.

In recording the sources of livelihood it is inevitable to define all the factors contributing to the sources of livelihood of the individuals. Therefore a single answer can be marked only in case the enumerated person has only one source of livelihood; in case of multiple sources of livelihood, it is not sufficient to mark only the main source. In the case of a pensioner who worked (had a working contract) on the week preceding the reference date of the census, both sources, i.e. the pension and the work will be recorded. Not more than three sources of livelihood can be marked.

It is most important that in the case of the persons receiving compensation for work, the source of livelihood is indicated.

Income generating work is every activity -- including civil services, work performed as family helper, participation in activities of public utility, the causal, odd works -- which is compensated in cash (wage, salary) or in kind. In answering the question it is indifferent if the compensation had been or had not been already paid. While answering the question the legal frames of the work performance -- i.e. performed as employee or private entrepreneur, with or without a working contract, registered or not registered by the social insurance, with or without the working license -- are indifferent.

The following activities are not regarded as income generating work: voluntary, unpaid work (charity, etc.) for any other household, institution; construction, repair, maintenance of the house in the person's property; works performed in the household, including the works in the garden (unless the aim is to sell the products).

The employed persons -- elected or contracted civil servants, judges, prosecutors, working members of co-operatives, persons having a working contract, private entrepreneurs will be regarded people performing income generating work even if due to different reasons (illness, paid or unpaid holidays, temporary standstill of production, etc.) on the week preceding the reference date of the census did not work. The so called "childcare leave" -- which is guaranteed by the social security and the given person receives a cash compensation -- on the other hand must not be regarded as income generating activity. The persons being on childcare leave can be marked as working for income only if while receiving the childcare allowance they also perform additional paid work.

The entry is "conscript, reservist on duty" in case of persons who by allegiance serve the allotted military service as enrolled civilians or reservists on duty. The service might mean the base training, continuing drill, exercise, special service, service with or without weapons, etc. Persons not accepting the military service based on conscience are obliged to perform civilian service, which is equivalent with the enrolment into the army. Nevertheless the civilian service from the point of view of the given question will be regarded as the other civilian works that is the civilian service will be marked as income generating activity.

The parent, foster parent having a young child in the family is entitled to receive childcare allowance. The social security is paying the childcare allowance generally till the forth year of age of the newborn child nevertheless in case the child has definite deficiencies in body or mentally it is possible to prolong the payment till the age of 15th year.

Allowance for upbringing a child (gyet) is paid to the parent, foster parent in case there are at least three children and the youngest one is below the age of 9 years.

The pension, rent on own right is a regular income paid to the person on the base of his/her working activity after reaching the defined age

The pension on own right might be:
Old-age (full or partial) pension (the category includes the miner's pension, the old-age pension of some artists, the old-age pension granted by the Fund of the Hungarian Artists as well as the so called service pension),
Advanced old-age pension
The reduced advanced old age pension which is granted in case the given person acquired the right for getting the pension on the base of a reduced service period. The answer is the same in case of the pensioners of the agricultural co-operatives.

Provided the persons receives a pension on own right and pension on derivative (widow's) right too the answer is "pension, rent on own right".

Disability pension is paid to the persons who are not entitled (by their age or years of service) to get the old-age pension but due to their disability caused by an accident are not able to work. The regular subsidies paid for persons with disabilities (allowance for invalids, payments to blind people, transport/traffic contribution paid to persons disabled in body, allowances for health problems, rents for agricultural invalids) are also marked here.

The answer "pensioner on derivative right" is marked in case the persons receives pension not on his own right but based on the social security contract of his close deceased relative (spouse, parent). The payment might permanent or temporary widow's pension, support to orphans, parent's pension on the right of the child, disability pension on the right of the spouse.

Unemployment benefit or support to unemployed is payable only to persons under the retirement age. The support to unemployed is paid by the local self-government to the unemployed persons not having regular work and not receiving unemployment benefit.

In each of the cases not listed above (family allowance, bourse, subsidies for students, child protection grant, fees for nursing, etc.), the answer is "receiving other assistance, support".

The answer is "living on his property, income of other sources" if the person has an income upon a life annuity contract, from interest on deposited money, from dividends, etc.

Provided the person does not have a regular personal income his livelihood is secured by a supporter. Always should be defined whether who is the supporter of the given person. In case the supporter is one of the parents, member of the household or other relative, the answer is "supported by a private person", while in case the supporter is an organization, institution, foundation, etc., the answer is "supported by public".

The answer must be marked in case of children younger than 16 years of age, not working (due to studies, illness) children over 16 years of age and the housewife. Children under state care are regarded as institutional dependents; the same category is valid for the people living of casual grants, donations, charity benefits.

Question 14: If dependent by a private person are you enumerated with your supporter?

In case in the answer to question 13 it is marked that the given person is supported by a private person (spouse, parent, etc.) it has to be asked whether who is the supporter and whether the given person is living in the same dwelling as the enumerated person.
In case the answer is "yes", the serial number of the person will be marked in the printed boxes.
In case the answer is "no", based on the answers of the respondent the source of livelihood of the supporter should be assessed. As possible answers the alternatives listed in question 13 should be taken into account. In case the supporter has several sources of livelihood, the primary source will be marked.

Question 15.1: What is the name of the main occupation and what activities are characteristic to it?

The answer should be recorded by taking into account the work on the week preceding the reference date of the census. The characteristics of the main job should be marked in case those are different from the one performed immediately before the reference date. If a person has several jobs he should whether which is regarded as the main job. In case the person is not able to answer, the job performed in the larger part of the weekly working hours will be recorded.

The generally accepted and used denomination of the occupation, scope of activity will be marked (e.g. mechanical engineer, nurse, and barrister). An entry not indicating the effective activity -- e.g. civil servant, teacher, outside worker, entrepreneur, or office rank (like councilor, executive, post officer, etc.) -- should not be accepted. Besides the denomination of the occupation -- in case it does not define the activity -- the answer should give short summary of the main tasks of the person. This might help in defining the effective activity of the person.
E.g. in the manual occupations there are expressions which describe similar but though different activities.

A good example is the sewer. The sewer working in a factory producing ready-made clothing is performing only a rather limited part of the dressmaking. The same is in case of the sewer as outside worker. The work of the former persons is different from that of the one who is making the dress as from the cutting up to the finishing. Similar examples could be listed on the occupations/denominations as smith, mechanic, etc.

The description of the tasks while at works will show whether the activity expands to the whole process of the production or is restricted only to partial tasks such as operating the machinery, or similar (a possible entry is e.g. "assembly of different parts on a production line").
While recording the occupation a reference should be always given to the professional character of the job, e.g. pl. head of section dealing with tutelage, offence's executive, head of section of accountancy, account manager in financial institution.

In case of leaders, managers of the institutions, business organizations, and companies, the denomination i.e. the description should give guidance for defining the appropriate managerial level (e.g. schoolmaster, managing director of motor repair limited company, head of section of a trading company, chief physician of a hospital ward, university professor leading a faculty, production manager in a construction company, foeman in a weaving mill). If the denomination of the occupation does not give allow the proper distinction more detailed professional approach is required, such as e.g. economist designated with the management of a market research section, doorman assigned with supervision of the security services, physician assigned with management of the maternity section, jurist assigned for directing the legal section of the ministry, shopkeeper I shoe shop, etc.

The heads of a production unit (store, workshop, etc.) employing less than 3 persons is not a manager as manager; he/she will be recorded according to the profession (shopkeeper, auto mechanic, hairdresser, accountant, etc.).

While recording the occupation the activity and not the qualification is taken into account.
An economist working as market researcher is not an economist but a market researcher; a private detective graduate of the University of Law is not a jurist but a private detective.
In case the profession or rather the actual activity of the professional and contracted member of the armed forces (military, frontier guard) as well as of he professional member or civil servant of the security services (police, professional fire service of the municipalities, civilian security services, detention services, excise and duty offices)

Is equivalent to a civilian occupation than that will be recorded,
Has an explicit military, defense character the answer will be "employed by the armed forces" and the rest of the question will not be answered.

The enumeration of the occupation, activity of the civil servants of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defense will be performed as in general.

In case the answer in question 13 is "conscript or reservist on duty", the answer is "conscript" or "reservist on duty" and the question from 15 to 17 will be skipped.
The enumeration of the occupation of the persons in civilian services will be performed according to the general rules.

In case of causal hands and seasonal workers, it is not sufficient to enter the status but also the definite activity such as e.g. cleaning, digging in the garden, repairing the roof, wood-cutter, etc.
In case of family helpers, the description of the activity should give information whether what is the activity of the persons they are helping and what type of activity they perform (e.g. if the occupation is family helper as roustabout it has to be described that the person is family helper of a carrier).

Question 15.2: Do you have subordinated workers?

The answer should be answered by everybody not only by those working in managerial positions. The subordinated workers of a person are those laborers who are directly guided, managed by him, irrespective of the right of the. The private entrepreneurs should give the number of their employees.

Question 15.3: How many hours do you work usually?

In case of persons having a working contract (employees) the weekly hours defined in their contract will be entered into the printed boxes. In case of private entrepreneurs, the weekly hours required by their occupation, normal business operation, including the time spent for preparing the productive/service activity should be entered into the boxes.
The entry is not fixed, depending on the assignment" in case the person's weekly hours can not be exactly defined.

Question 16: What is your status in employment?
The entry is employee in case the person is working -- generally on the base of a contract -- for an employer, that means he is neither a private entrepreneur nor a working member of a co-operative or family helper, etc.

The answer is marked in case of elected and nominated civil servants, judges, prosecutors as well as in case of the professional and civilian members of the armed and security forces, organizations.

Private entrepreneur is the entry in case of persons having a license for private business in general, the working member of a one-person undertaking without or with employees (artisan, merchant, agricultural producer, free-lance intellectual).

Working member of a joint undertaking will be marked in case of a person who is co-owner of a joint undertaking (other than co-operative) with the obligation of performing work in the business.

The entry is "member of co-operative" in case the given person is a member of a (consumer's or producing) co-operative with the obligation of personal contribution by work to the business.
The entry is "family helper" in case the given person is a family helper of a private entrepreneur, member of a joint undertaking or co-operative and is contributing to the business by his own work free of charge, though as a member of the household of the supported person he/she will benefit from the undertaking.

The entry is "causal hand, day laborer" in case of persons working with or without an entrepreneur's license usually on a short-term agreement for somebody (e.g. agricultural day labor, cleaning the roads, unskilled work in a construction, etc.). The causal hand -- depending on the agreement with the employer -- either is working for a given period of time (for a day, a week, etc.) or undertakes to carry on a definite work (e.g. dig a given parcel, painting the fence, etc.). The persons who in the farm of an ad hoc assignment (not as entrepreneurs) undertake the completion of an intellectual work (e.g. translation of a study, delivering a lecture, etc.) are regarded also as causal hands.

The entry is "worker for public utility" in case the person is employed by the local government in the frame of the public utility program.

Question 17.1: Employer's

The entry is the official denomination of the business organization (undertaking, enterprise, social security establishment, non-profit organization, etc.) where the enumerated person (as employee or working member of the undertaking) works, which is marked in question 15.1 as the person's employer.

In cases of professional and civilian members, civil servants working for the armed forces -- with the exemption of the elected and nominated civil servants of the Ministry of Defense -- the entry are always "armed forces" and the questions relating to the main activity of the employer and to the actual address will not be answered.

In case of professional and civilian members, civil servants working for the security services (police, professional fire service of the municipalities, civilian security services, detention services, excise and duty offices) -- with the exemption of the elected and nominated civil servants of the Ministry of Interior -- the entry is always "security services" and the questions relating to the main activity of the employer and to the actual address will not be answered.
The elected and nominated employees of the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Interior respectively should mark the respective ministry as employer. In cases of the persons in civilian security service the workplace is the one where the given person fulfils his/her duties.
In cases of private entrepreneurs and their family helpers, the proper entry is the description of the activity of the person (e.g. repairing motorcars as private entrepreneur).
In cases of persons working for a private household (e.g. as domestic help), it is sufficient to mark "private household" and the question 17.2 (main activity and exact address of the employer) will not be answered.

In cases of institutions in the authority of the local municipalities (schools, health organizations, etc.), the employer instead of the mayor's office is the appropriate establishment (school, hospital etc.).

Main activity?
The main activity of the employer marked above is the business/production activity which ensures the highest revenue or in which activities the majority of the staff members are employed.
The main activity of the employer should be marked even in case the denomination of the company indicates it.

The entry is the address of the employer, undertaking which is marked on the official license of operation, which is acknowledged by the company registry court or -- in case of employees -- the company address in the work contract. (The correct address includes the name of the street and the building number as well.) If the respondent does not know the exact address, at least the name of the locality should be entered.

Question 17.2: Your workplace's

The workplace is the unit, section of the employer where the enumerated person actually works. The workplace (plant, shop, works, park, etc.) geographically could be elsewhere than the head offices of the employer are. In case the address of the employer and that of the working place are the same, the marking "ua." is sufficient.

If the answer in question 17.1 is "armed forces" or "security services" -- with the exemption of those working in the educational and health institutions supervised by the armed forces -- the answer is "ua."

In cases of persons working in the educational and health institutions supervised by the armed forces, the name of the employer and the main activity will be entered.

Main activity?
If the main activity of the employer and that of the place o work is the same the marking "ua." is sufficient.

In the case of the employer and the actual place of work are geographically not on the same address, the main activity of the former might be different from that of the latter (e.g. the refrigerator factory might have a commercial section i.e. a shop. In this case the main activity of the workplace of the person, working in the shop is retail trade). The main activity of the workplace should be marked in every similar case.

Question 17.3: In which locality is your workplace?

The answer is the name of the locality (in Budapest also the district) where the enumerated person is working in his profession activity marked in question 15.1. In case of persons working abroad, the entry of the country of the workplace is sufficient.

In case of persons working for the Hungarian railways or for other transportation companies as traveling staff, the place of work is in the locality where they get the daily instructions from the employer.

The entry is not fixed, working in different localities" in case the work is performed not in a single locality and the enumerated, person is obliged to work regularly in different localities.
If a person is working at home, in the building of his dwelling or in a workshop on the parcel of the building, etc. the name of the locality of the workplace is the same as that of the dwelling.

The name of the locality of the workplace should be marked only in case where it is different from the place of enumeration. In the former case, the respective answer "same as the locality of enumeration" should be underlined. If the person is living and working in Budapest, the answer can be underlined only in case the dwelling and the place of work are in the same district.

Question 17.4: How many persons, including you, are employed at your workplace?

It should be anticipated that the enumerated person does not know the exact size of the working staff. Nevertheless it is requested to clarify the number of persons working together. This has importance mainly in case of the managers and entrepreneurs because this information will be taken into account in classifying the former categories. The answer "does not know" will be accepted only in case the enumerated person is not able to give even a rough estimate on the size of staff.

Question 18.1: Did you work in agriculture in the last year?

The answer "yes" is for marking that in the year before the reference date of the census (in the year 2000) the enumerated person had performed agricultural work. In case the answer is "yes", the length (counting with working days of 10 hours) of the agricultural work should be noted.

The work performance in agriculture should be marked irrespective if the person's main job was in the agriculture or the agricultural activity was (only) a second job or had been performed by an unemployed person.

It is also indifferent whether the agricultural work was performed in the capacity of an employee, a member of a co-operative, a private entrepreneur or agricultural day laborer.

From the point of view of the agriculture the full year means the works lasting at least for 180 days (1800 hours). In case the number of days of the agricultural work performance is 180 days or more, the answer is "all the year", otherwise the number of days should be entered into the printed boxes.

Question 18.2: Did you work occasionally, seasonally or as a contributing family member during the last year?
The definition of the causal work and work of a family helper is given at question 16.
The seasonal work is an activity which can only performed in a definite part of the year e.g. the harvest in summer, the grape harvest in autumn, sheep-sharing, summer seasonal work in the catering industry, etc. From the point of view of answering the question the fact and not length of the seasonal work is important.

Question 19.1: Are you looking for a job?

The answer "yes" can be marked only in the four weeks preceding the reference date of the census the enumerated person had been actively looking for a job, that is he/she had been contacted the Labor office for having a job, contacted at least one private labor office with the same intent, had placed a respective advertisement in a publication, had answered to an offer, asked the relatives for helping him in finding some work or have made steps for commencing a private business.

If none of the former action had been made by the enumerated person or his/her actions have been made earlier than that, he/she will be asked whether further actions had been stopped due to hopelessness or for other reasons. The answer given should be marked.
In case the enumerated person -- due to any reasons -- is not looking for a job, the answers 19.2 and 19.3 will be skipped.

Question 19.2: When would you be available for work?

The person looking for a job (answer "yes" is given to question 19.1) should declare that provided at the time of the enumeration a suitable job would be offered whether-- by taking into account his possibilities, state of health -- he would be able to start working immediately or only after a longer period of time. The answer "does not know" will be marked only in case the person is absolutely unable to give information of his/her readiness for work.

Question 19.3: How long have you been looking for a job?

While answering the question, the effective length of time for looking for a job should be marked.
Use the date that person first starts looking for a job, not the date of registration as employment seeker.

Questions on the last job

In answering this question only the work performed regularly (at least for 2-3 weeks) will be taken into account.

The precondition of receiving childcare allowance, allowance for upbringing the child(ren), pension, rent on own right, unemployment benefit, regular social support and similar transfers previous work, employment is required. The persons in questions -- with some very limited exemptions -- have had been active earners. The question relates to the active period preceding the given persons receive the allowances, rents, payments mentioned above.

In case of persons working only during the school-year holidays or working occasionally or who have never worked, the further sub-questions will be skipped.

Question 20.1: When did you finish your last job?

The year of the termination of the job before pension or unemployment should be recorded. In case of the pensioners who continued their former job while receiving the pension, the date of the first pension transfer should be marked.

Question 20.2: What were the name and the main activities of your last job?

While recording the occupation and the usual tasks the instructions at question 15.1 should be taken into account.

Question 20.3: What was your status in employment?

The answer should be given according to the instructions at question 16.

Question 21.1: Do you have to travel daily to work or school?

The questions relates to the daily travel for work and into school.

If a person is not obliged to travel daily for work or for conducting studies, the questions 21.2 and 21.3 should not be answered.

Question 21.2: How do you get to work or school?

By marking the appropriate answer, the enumerated person should give information on the means of transport used by him /her to arrive at the workplace /place of studies.

If the given person is not always reaching the given destination by using the same means of transport/travel (e.g. if the weather is good he/she takes the bike, if bad or cold weather the public transport), the most characteristic, most common way should be marked.
Several -- not more than three -- means of transport/travel can be marked.

"By foot (walking)" can be marked only if

The enumerated person reaches his/her workplace or place of studies without using any means of transportation (practically everybody has to walk, i.e. the bus/tram stop or the garage should be reached in any case by foot),
The public transport used by the person is accessible only by a long (at least 15 minutes) walk.

In cases of persons working in different localities, the means of transportation is only marked if choosing the means of transportation does not depend on the destination (i.e. they are using always a motorcar or a motorbike).

Another means of transportation is, for example, the motor-bus run by the municipality in case of a school, or by the employing company.

Question 21.3: How much time does the journey to work or school take usually (including the way back home and waiting)?

The enumerated person should give in the answer the daily duration of the travel to and from his/her home and workplace/school. The time spent for reaching the public transport by foot and back as well as the time spent for waiting for the transportation means should be taken into account, while the time for shopping, entertainment, etc. must be disregarded.

In cases of persons working in the dwelling, at home, and part-time students (not visiting the school daily), no answer will be marked.

Question 22: What languages do you speak?

Every person must be asked which languages he/she can speak or be understood by other persons.

In cases of children who are unable to speak "Hungarian", the language spoken by his/her relatives should be marked.

As an answer the artificial or dead languages can be marked too.
In questions from 23.1 to 23.4 not more than three answers can be marked!

Question 23.1: Which of these nationalities do you think to belong to?

The enumerated person -- irrespective of his/her citizenship, mother tongue, knowledge of languages -- should mark without any influences the nationality he/she feels to belong to. Not more than three answers can be given.

Question 23.2: Which of these nationalities' cultural values and traditions do you feel affinity with?

Not more than three answers can be given; while marking the entries, the nationality and the knowledge of languages should not be taken into account.

Question 23.3: What is your mother tongue?

Mother tongue is the living language which one learns in one's childhood (as one's first language) and in which the person generally speaks with the members of his/her family and which one, free of all influences and true reality, declares to be his/her mother tongue.
The mother tongue of the dumb and the infants who are unable to speak is the language in which their next of kin regularly speak. Taking into account that the children in the minority groups usually speak several languages as mother tongue, marking of three languages is possible.

Question 23.4: In which languages do you speak with family members or friends?

Regarding this question the concept of family differs from that of used by the census in general; in this content the family circle is the group of persons who are regarded as such by the respondent.

Question 24: Religion, denomination?

The religion, denomination will be marked which is declared by the enumerated person that he/she is belonging to. Only one religion, denomination can be marked.

If the answer is not belonging to any religion or denomination, marking the religion in general categories (like Catholic, Christian) should be avoided. In cases of the historical religions, it is sufficient to marked as: Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Calvinist, and Lutheran while in cases of smaller religions, more detailed description of religious groups is needed, e.g. AGAPÉ Congregation, Gate to the Theory Buddhist Church, Church of Metaphysical Traditions. It is not sufficient to mark "Orthodox" but also the other characteristic such as Serbian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, and Roman Orthodox, etc.

Question 25.1: What deficiency do you have?

A person having a definite deficiency in body, mentally, or sensually hampering him/her in conducting a normal, usual, traditionally accepted conduct of life is regarded as person living with deficiency (disability).

Question 25.2: If you have more deficiencies, which one of them do you think is the most serious?

The most serious deficiency is the one hampering him/her mostly in conducting the normal, usual, traditionally accepted conduct of life. From the answers to question 25.1 the code number of the most serious one should be marked.

25.3 Question: What caused the most serious deficiency?

In cases of a single disability, the answer to question 25.1. In cases of multiple disabilities, the answer to question 25.2 is taken into account in defining whether the disability is congenital or acquired disability (caused by an accident, or illness) of the person. It has to reckon, that both the person himself and the cohabitants might not be aware of the virtual situation, therefore it is possible to give multiple answers.

[p.55 to p.59 are omitted]

List of the address codes

Dwellings and other housing units:
01 dwelling in residential building
02 dwelling used for other purposes (office, medical cabinet, etc.
03 dwelling in institutional household
04 dwelling in other (non-residential) building
05 holiday house, housing unit in holiday house, weekend house
06 other occupied housing unit
07 dwelling converted, eliminated (for addresses where a former dwelling had been merged with other dwelling or the dwelling had been converted into a premises other than dwelling)
08 other holiday housing unit not suiting the general standards of the housing authorities
Institutional households:
10 housing unit as institution
Other buildings set of buildings:
21 public building, institution, office
31 buildings for commercial and catering, hotel services
41 buildings and lands for plants, factories, business activities
Parcels, sites for construction:
51 residential building in construction
52 holiday house in construction
53 other construction in progress
Other parcels, sites:
61 empty parcel, land
62 buildings in ruins, not suitable for accommodation
63 cemeteries
64 sports ground
65 park, other green area, beach
71 other addresses (church, buildings not classifiable)
81 corner-house, corner-ground, crossing house, other entrance or side of a transit parcel
98 used only for enumeration purposes! (for marking the homeless persons)
99 not valid addresses **