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Central Statistical Office of Hungary
(Population and Housing Census 1990)

Abstracts from the publication
What the enumerators should know
(Base enumeration)
Budapest 1989

[p. 2]

1 -- Introduction

As decided by the decree No. 22 of 1998 of the Presidential Council of the Hungarian People's Democratic Republic with reference date of January 1, 1990 in the territory of Hungary population census will be held.

The present document serves as a tool for the implementation in the enumeration of the main characteristics of the population.

[part of p. 2 is omitted.]

[p. 3]

General Questions

Every dwelling in the enumeration district -- contained by the list of addresses and names or in the area of the map -- should be enumerated. That is,

-- The occupied dwellings even if the license of use has not been issued yet. The private holiday house will be enumerated as a dwelling in case at the reference date of the census at least one person has been permanently or temporarily living there;

-- The vacant (not occupied) dwellings and the dwellings used only seasonally (e.g. a cottage house);

-- The occupied (inhabited) other housing units that is the temporary, mobile and other units;

-- The institutional households (day-nurseries, children's homes, dormitories, workers' homes, old people's homes, etc.).

The following build-ups must not be enumerated:

-- The premises originally built for habitation (as a dwelling) but used at the date of the enumeration for other purposes e.g. business, recreation only, office, etc.;

-- Technically completed though not inhabited dwellings yet, not having a licence for use;

-- Dwellings under demolishing;

-- Dwellings ruined, not suitable for habitation due to elementary or other damage;

-- Vacant dwellings used formerly not for habitation.

A separate enumeration manual will be applied for the enumeration of the institutional households.

In the housing units of the enumeration district -- irrespective their actual presence -- the following persons should be enumerated:

-- Persons officially registered as permanent residents;

-- Persons officially registered as temporary residents;

-- Persons staying in the dwelling without any official registration.

The place of residence (address) should be registered according to the effective situation; while marking the answer the entry in the List of addresses and the names should not be respected. In case the person is resident in the dwelling though the official registration has not been arranged yet than the expected status (permanent or temporary resident) will be marked. This might happen in cases like

-- The persons moved in the dwelling, changed his/her dwelling without arranging the registration;

-- The person -- due to the lack of license for using the (new) dwelling -- is not entitled to let him/her registered at the authorities;

-- The person moved from the outskirt of the locality into his flat in the inner area without arranging the official registration.

[p. 4]

The factual situation should be enumerated even if the given person failed to arrange the cessation of his/her registration in a dwelling, e.g. the person while conducting the studies had been officially registered as temporary resident in a locality where his/her parents have been living and after completing the studies and returning home he/she has forgotten to annul the registration. Any divergence related to the official registration of the addresses should be marked on the list of addresses and names.

From the point of view of enumeration a person might have not more than two addresses: one of them might be the permanent while the other the temporary address.

The persons should be enumerated both in their officially registered permanent and officially registered temporary addresses.

Further the persons who are not present in their dwelling for a longer period should be enumerated too. This group of persons might cover the following persons:

-- Being absent for a shorter or longer period for visits, medical treatment;

-- Officially staying abroad (in diplomatic, commercial services, for scientific research, etc;

-- Working abroad in a work-cooperation program;

-- Studying abroad.

The persons listed staying abroad will be enumerated in their place of usual residence while as for the address of their temporary residence the name of the respective country will be marked. Their temporary address in Hungary (if any) must not be taken into account. The family members (spouse, children) of the persons above who are living outside Hungary should be enumerated as the reference person of the family.

The enumeration of the conscripts, reservists on duty as well as that of the imprisoned persons will be done primarily by the given institutions and the task of the enumerator on field is the checking of the validity of the former enumeration.

The persons deceased after the reference date of the census should while on the other hand the children born after the reference date of the census must not be enumerated. In the former case a comment on the "List of addresses" should be marked.

The foreign citizens staying in the country having a resident permit or Hungarian identity document will be registered.

The following foreign citizens will not be registered:

-- Diplomats;

-- Military personnel and their family members residing in Hungary in the frame of the Warsaw Pact;

-- Tourists, persons in medical treatment, family or other visit without resident permit.

[p. 5 is omitted.]

[p. 6]

Completing the dwelling questionnaire

Dwelling questionnaire will be completed for every dwelling and housing unit.

The dwelling is a unit of places and rooms with specific functions (living rooms, cooking places, sanitary places etc.), generally technically (architecturally) connected to each other, intended for human accommodation, stay (home) or converted into dwelling and also suitable for living at present, which has a separate entrance from a public place, courtyard or from a collectively used place inside the building (staircase, corridor etc.).

The group of technically (architecturally) adjoining places, connected with inner passages, were considered at the enumeration as one dwelling also in cases when the passages of one or several places were blocked temporarily but not walled (e.g. in the case of co-tenancy). A mostly separate place, building -- e.g. the summer kitchen of detached family house -- built as a part of the dwelling was considered as part of the dwelling if it was used by a household either living in the main building or living -- as e.g. subtenant -- in the given building.

The number of enumeration district should be copied into the Dwelling questionnaire from the "List of addresses", while the code number of the characteristic of the dwelling will entered according to the judgment of the enumerator as follows:

Code 1: Residential building (including occupied holiday house and cottage house)

Code 2: Occupied other building: public building (school, mayor's office building), business building (office building, shopping house, factory building

Code 3: Institutional building (e.g. dwellings in the buildings of a dormitory, workers' home, old people's home, and hospital)

Code 4: Occupied workshop, temporary or mobile facility, caravan, hut, hovel, trailer, etc.

1. Data on the persons living in the dwelling

The on the first page of the dwelling questionnaire will be filled in with the help of the respondent. The persons living in the dwelling will be grouped by households, within the households by families. By listing the family members the sequence should follow the family ties, or rather the family status. The printed versions at the table will help the classification of the family members. The persons belonging to the same family will be allotted by the same family number while those belonging to the same household will be marked with the same household number.

A common household is a group of persons living together in a common housing unit or in a part of it, bearing together, at least partly, the costs of living (i.e. daily expenses, meals). Subtenants, night-lodgers and co-tenants should be marked always with individual household numbers.

Consequently before starting the enumeration it has to be defined the number of households, families living in the dwelling, than the families and the households should be "set up". The next step is the fixing of the family status.

Family is formed from the following persons living in a common household:

-- Married couple with or without child(ren);

-- Persons living in consensual union with or without child(ren);
[p. 6]
-- Mother or father living with child(ren) (unless the spouse or cohabiting partner does not live in the same dwelling, while

The following persons do not live in a family:

-- The related or non-related persons (other than listed above), e.g. two siblings, three friends, etc.;

-- Lone persons.
Fixing the family status (heading "d")

One of the printed answers will be underlined:

-- "Husband (1)" or "wife(2)" in case of legally married male and female;

-- "Consensual partner (3)" in case of males and females living in consensual partnership without legal marriage;

-- "Mother or father living with at least one child (4)" in case one of the parents lives with the children);

-- "Child (5)" in case of a child (own or foster) of the previously mentioned persons irrespective of the age of the person;

-- "Ascending relative (6)" in case of parent, grand-parent, brother-in-law, father-in-law of a "husband", "wife", "consensual partner" or "lone parent with children" in case the ascending relative lives in the family without his/her spouse;

-- "Other relative (7)" in case of any non-ascending relative not forming an independent family (e.g. aunt, sibling, grandchild);

-- "Non-relative (8)" in case of a persons other than blood-related (e.g. child in state care).

In case the household consist of one person the answer is "lone person "9") while in case of several -- related and non-related -- persons not forming a family the answer is either

-- "Other relative (7)" or
-- "Non-relative (8)".

The title of use of dwelling (heading "e") should be marked in case of every person. The following title of use of dwelling can be marked: owner (including beneficiary user), tenant (including service dwelling), co-owner, co-tenant, subtenant, night-lodger, persons having family ties to the former persons (e.g. child of the owner, brother of the tenant, etc.) as well as courtesy user, inhabitant without legal rights and user upon settlement o contract for life. The right of use on family ties can be marked provided not rental fee is paid. The title of use of dwelling of those renting the entire flat is always "tenant".

If more than 8 persons live in the dwelling an additional Dwelling questionnaire will be used as a supplement.

2. Owner of the dwelling

In case privately owned dwellings are in twin-houses or attached houses (terraced houses, chain houses, and atrium houses) the answer is "family house type dwelling (1)". The building incorporating not more than three dwellings is regarded as family house type building.

The dwellings in buildings incorporating more than three dwellings in private property should be regarded as "condominium or dwelling in collectively owned building (2)" even in case no articles of incorporation have been signed by the owners. In case of transitory dwellings the proper marking is "company tenement flat, service dwelling (5)". The dwellings of the housing co-operatives must not be mixed with the dwellings owned by co-operatives in general.

[p. 8]

3. Year of construction of dwelling

In case of multi-dwelling houses it has to be checked whether the answers given by occupants of the different dwellings are the same. In this regard differences between the dwellings of the same building might be only in case of extension of the building, technical reconstruction of the building.

4. Water supply of the dwelling

In case the dwelling is supplied with water from different sources the answer representing the more convenient source will be signed. The answer "the water from the public well I the street (5)" can be signed if community piped water is available there. In case the water is supplied from a dig or drilled well or the water is distributed in plastic bags the answer is "other source".

5. Hot water supply of the dwelling

Any kind of hot water supply, even a boiler used for washing-up is accepted. In case the hot water is supplied from several sources the one used for bath should be marked.

6. Availability of flush-toilet

The answer "yes, within the dwelling (1)" will be accepted provided the dwelling is supplied with running water in the dwelling and is connected to a sewage facility.

7. Connection to the sewage facility

The answer "yes, local facility" can be marked provided the waste water is channeled into a closed desiccators. At least one of the answers should be marked.

9. Heating of the dwelling

If the heating of the dwelling different methods are applied the one used in the rooms should be marked.

10. Number of premises

Only premises provided with direct natural light and ventilation (with doors, windows), with a floor space of at least 4 m2, serving for sleeping or staying during the day (bedroom, children's room, dining-room etc.) should be marked as rooms. The hall and the eating-place having also a window, as well as the premises of room-like character used as consultation rooms, waiting rooms, offices etc. also figure among the rooms.

While counting the total surface of dwelling the floor-space covered by the built-in furniture and the premises adjoining without a door (alcove, dining area) has to be taken into account too.
The premises built and used as a bathroom is regarded as a bathroom even if there is no running water in the dwelling.

In case of one-premises dwelling the total surface should be marked as the surface of the room.
[p. 9]

Completing the personal questionnaire

The identification numbers should be copied from the "list of addresses"

1. Place of enumeration

As marked on the Dwelling questionnaire the place of enumeration is the address of the dwelling where the enumeration is taking place. The answer "officially registered here" might mean either a "permanent (1)"or a "temporary (2)" registration; the appropriate answer will be underlined. In case the person is present on the place of enumeration without any official registration the answer will be marked according to his/her (in case of a child of his/her parents') future status (i.e. if he/she is willing to be registered there as temporary resident than answer "temporary (2)" will be underlined). The person's elsewhere (officially) registered address should be marked at question 7, nevertheless it has to be taken into account that a persons can not have more than one officially registered permanent address and more than one registered temporary address at the same time.

2. First and last name

The name as registered in the personal identity document will be entered.

3. Maiden name

In case of married, widowed and widowed females the first name and name before the marriage will be marked.

6. Marital status

The legal marital status will be taken into account. The legally married person is regarded as such even though his/her spouse is not living with nevertheless the marriage had not been terminated by court. The marital status of the persons cohabiting without legal marriage should be registered according to the legal status, e.g. in case a never married female is living with a married male, their marital status will be marked as "never married" and "married" respectively.

7. Address elsewhere as the place of enumeration

Entry will be made in case the enumerated person has an address other than the place of the enumeration: In case the registered address is in Budapest the district should be marked too.
In case the official registration on the place of the enumeration is "permanent (1)", then the entry at this question should be "temporary (2)" and in case question 1 is answered by "2", then the answer here is definitely "1".

8. Year of first marriage

The question should be answered by every married, widowed or divorced person by a four digit number. The answer "Never married 90" can be marked only for males and females who have never lived in a legal marriage. The year of the first marriage should be marked even in case a person has had several marriages.

[p. 10]

9. Number of live-born children

Live-birth is the coming into the world of the fetus giving some sign of life (e.g. breathing, heart function, decisive motion of the volitional muscles, and pulsation of the umbilical cord). While answering the question all child born-alive -- living with in other household, moved, deceased -- should be marked. The foster children and the children under state care must not be registered.

10. Nationality

Every person is counted as belonging to the national group to which he/she declared to belong, free of all influences and without regard to his/her mother tongue.

11. Mother tongue

Mother tongue is the living language which one learns in one's childhood (as one's first language) and in which the person generally speaks with the members of his/her family and which one, free of all influences and true reality, declares to be his/her mother tongue. The mother tongue of the dumb and the infants unable to speak is the language in which their next of kin regularly speak.

12. Language spoken besides mother tongue

The living language besides mother tongue is the one in which the person is capable to understand and to make him/her understood by others. In case the person speaks several languages other than the mother tongue the one mostly used will be marked.

13. Educational attainment

The aim of the interrogation is to acquire information on the level of schooling of the population. Therefore the types of schools and the classes, grades completed and the qualifications obtained in other types of schools not listed in the questionnaire must not be recorded. The answer "without completed school (00)" is marked for persons who did not even complete the general (primary) school, irrespective of their illiteracy.

The highest education i.e. the highest grade completed (also in case of the students) in the general (primary) school must be registered in the respective boxes, while the other institutions of the official school system the marking is necessary if the person has completed studies.

The completed studies abroad should be classified according to the Hungarian system, qualifications obtainable.

The different types of schools are the following
[Comment of the translator: quite many of the school types refer to educational systems that no longer apply. The names of the institutions might seem not familiar for the experts in the (traditional) classification of the educational institutions]:

The general (primary) school includes -- with the exemption of schools for extensive training -- each educational institution of elementary training, popular school, schools for back warded pupils and the so called "civilian school", as well as the first four years of the grammar school of 8 grades.

[p. 11]

The boxes at the "civilian school" can be used only if persons born before 1935.

The educational attainment, i.e. the grades completed must not be converted into the present educational system, e.g. in case a persons completed the 4th class of the "civilian school" "4" should be marked in the respective box.

While answering the further questions only the completed studies will be marked. The following items are regarded as completed studies:

-- Certificate of profession obtained on the day course of the school for training skilled laborers (former apprentice schools);

-- The certificate of profession obtained on the day course of the former course as well as the examinations on professional qualification;

-- The General Certificate of Education obtained in a grammar school or other secondary school as well as the final certificate on completion of the secondary school in the years from 1974 to 1986;

-- The certificate, diploma obtained by completing the studies in a university or other higher educational institution.

The manual further gives a detailed list on the educational institutions of secondary and high level education, the translation of the individual items seems not necessary.

The following qualifications must not taken into account even in case those have been obtained in an educational institution of the regular school system: certificates obtained in course raining, certificate of profession obtained within the adult training, certificate on completing the grades of higher educational institutions, special exams passed in postgraduate training (e.g. specialized physician, specialized engineer, judge, etc.).

14. Work performance, work for material compensation (active earner)

The persons having been worked for wage, enumeration in the last week of 1989 are regarded as active earners. The category does not include those who worked besides receiving child care allowance or pension on own right. The following people belong to the group:

-- Employees, outside workers working for companies, institutions, public offices, co-operatives, business association formed by private persons;

-- Working members of agricultural, special, industrial and handicraft co-operatives;

-- Private entrepreneurs;

-- Family helper in non agricultural activities.

Irrespective the factual working activity in the last week of 1989, i.e. persons might have been absent from the work due to being on winter holidays, maternity or other unpaid holidays, illness, participating on a training course, etc.

The following persons are regarded also as active earners:

-- Persons living in the course of 1989 of work performed as causal hand (including the agricultural day-laborers);

-- Persons having performed in 1989 at least 90 (10 hours) days agricultural work as family helper (with the exemption of the same agricultural performance of the students on daily course, the persons receiving childcare allowance or pension on own right);
[p. 12]
-- Conscripts and reservist on duty provided they were active earners before the enrolment;

-- The imprisoned persons provided they were active earners before the enrolment;

-- Persons receiving invalidity pension or pension on derivative right while working actively;

-- Old age pensioners working without receiving their pension.

In case of the above persons, the answer is "yes (10)".

In case the persons can not be classified as active earner after underlining the answer "no", it should be indicated which category the given person belongs to. The answer will be marked by taking into account the following:

-- The person is on "childcare allowance leave (20)" if when taking care of the child the given person is on unpaid holidays, and till the 2nd year the child is entitled to get an allowance from the state in a defined percentage of the salary before the unpaid leave.

-- The person is on "childcare contribution (30)" if taking care of a child from 2 to 3 years of age the persons is on unpaid holidays and receives a cash contribution to the upbringing of the child. The status in case of a child with acute illness, can be prolonged till the 6th year of age. The person on childcare contribution leave -- within certain limits -- is entitled to work for cash compensation.

-- "Old age pensioner on own right (30)" , "invalidity pensioner on own right (31)" and "invalidity or other renter on own right (32)" is the person who is receiving old-age pension, invalidity pension or invalidity or other rent on own right and does not perform any working activity for compensation>

-- "Pensioner on derivative (widow's) right (33)" is the person receiving a pension on the right of the deceased spouse or other relative and he/she is not a student on day course of an educational institution and neither has a working contract, is nor working member of a co-operative or private entrepreneur.

-- The person is qualified as "never worked, looking for first job (40)" if a person, after concluding his studies is not working yet nevertheless is actively looking for an employment (e.g. contacted the labor office, placed an advertisement, have asked the help of friends to find the job, etc.).

-- The person is "unemployed looking for a job (50)" if he/she has been working before but at the date of the enumeration does not have a workplace and has already taken the steps for finding a new job.

-- The answers to questions "child in nursery (60)" and child in kindergarten (61)" are self-evident.

One of the following answers will be underlined if the person is not working for money, is not conducting his studies while receiving childcare allowance or childcare contribution but is studying on the daily course or private pupil in a

-- "General, primary school (70)";

-- "Trainee (71)";

-- "Student in a special institution of secondary level (72)";

-- "Secondary school student (73)";

-- "University (higher educational institution's) student (74)".

To ensure the unequivocal classification it should be mentioned that the pupils attending the school of the mentally handicapped are regarded as pupils in general (primary) schools, the persons studying in schools for stenographers/shorthand writers and medical assistants are regarded as secondary school attendants while those visiting the so called "special vocational schools" are regarded as trainees. The trainees attending the third grade of the special vocational school and already receiving some compensation for their work will be regarded as students. Similarly the persons studying in a high level educational institution university while receiving a bursary or performing some (usually causal) work for compensation will be regarded as students as well.

[p. 13]

The answer is "other dependent (80)" in case of children under 14 years of age not attending the day nursery or kindergarten, and in case of a person aged 15 years and over working as a housewife or family helper in agriculture performing in 1989 less than 90 days. The persons not belonging to the categories listed above and who do not have any regular income or social benefit practically maintained by the members of the family, etc. are classified into this group too. Furthermore the category includes the conscripts and the imprisoned persons not having been worked before their enrolment.

If the answer is "persons not belonging to any other category listed (90)" the source of livelihood should be always entered at the dotted line at the answer. The entry might be: living of letting their land, house, holiday house, etc., of having subtenants, night-lodgers, of selling their property, of having a life annuity contract, etc.

The base rules of answering the questions from 15 to 19 are as follows:

Question 14:

-- Persons answering "yes (10)" will give information on their main occupation.

-- Persons being on child-care leave answering "no (20)" should give should give information on their main occupation before the leave. Each person other than before should not give an answer to questions form 15 to 19.

Questions from 16 to 19:

-- Professional and civilian members of the armed forces and security bodies will not answer question 19/a.

-- Private entrepreneurs should not answer questions 17 and 19/a.

-- Family helpers should not answer questions 17, 18 and 19/a.

-- Causal workers and agricultural day laborers will skip questions from 16 to 19.

15. Scope of work (occupation)

The description of the scope of work (occupation) should give (detailed) information on the actual work performed, in case of managers on the concrete assignment. General denominations as outside worker, worker, teacher, etc. must not be accepted.

Some guidelines for marking the answers:

-- In case of persons in leading, managing positions, the concrete assignment should be marked too, e.g. head of technical department, had of section for product development, foreman of roofers, chief physician managing a hospital section, assistant professor leading a faculty, leading kindergarten teacher.

-- In case of persons working in intellectual occupations in the ministries, nation-wide organizations, offices of parties, mass organizations -- with the exemption of financial, accountancy and administrative positions -- the marking of clerk, executive, collaborator, chief collaborator, head of section, head of department is sufficient. In case of the exemptions, a more precise description is required, e.g. financial clerk, head of section of accountancy, payroll clerk, stenographer-typist, and accountant.

-- In case of persons working for transportation companies (Hungarian Railways, Hungarian Shipping Company, etc.) instead of the office rank (e.g. officer, councilor, etc.) the actual activity should be marked, such as external traffic controller, switchman, etc.
[p. 14]
-- In case of persons working as managers of a store, restaurant, service shop (hairdresser, laundry, etc.) the number of persons managed should be indicated, e.g. head of shoe shop employing three persons, etc.

-- In case of an agricultural foreman and regardless of level of competence (independent or not), the field should be entered, e.g. independent foreman of teamsters, independent foreman of fruit producers, etc.

-- In case of private traders, reference should be given to the goods traded e.g. trader in dry goods, trader in fruits and vegetables, etc.

-- In case of persons working for the armed forces or security organizations, it is sufficient to refer the respective body, e.g. employed by the M(inistry of) I(nterior), employed by the M(inistry of) J(ustice) employed by the M(inistry of) D(efense), fireman, excise officer, militiaman, etc.

-- In case of family helpers, the entry should give information on the supported person (whether is an agricultural private entrepreneur, member of an agricultural co-operative, private locksmith, etc.).

-- Agricultural causal worker or roustabout can be marked only in case the work is performed occasionally and usually not for the same employer. In this case the questions from 16 to 19 will be skipped.

16. Employment status

The answer should be given by underlining the respective answer. The following remarks should be taken into account:

-- "Employee (1)" is the person having a working contract with a company, office, institution, co-operative, private entrepreneur/private person, an organization formed by private persons (private business partnership, company of general partnership, working team of lawyers, etc.) and his working activity is compensated by a wage or salary.

-- "Member of co-operative (2)" is marked for working members of agricultural, industrial and other co-operatives;

-- "Private entrepreneur, freelancer" is the persons working on his own as agricultural farmer, artisan, trader, freighter, etc., as a commissioned renter of a productive or commercial unit, member of a working tam of private individuals, etc.;

-- "Family helper" is the person working in a shop, store, and private venture of one of his family member.

17. Staff group, assignment

The question should be answered only by the employees and the working members of co-operatives by distinguishing the intellectual and manual workers.

In case of a manual worker, the respondent should give information whether he is employed as "skilled worker (1)", "semi-skilled worker (2)" or "unskilled worker (3)".

In case of the intellectual workers, the answer should be given by underlining the appropriate answer. The assignment, i.e. "leader, manager (7)", "subordinated clerk (8)" or "subordinated administrative officer (9)", informs on the place of the person in the hierarchy of the division of labour.

[p. 15]

Special attention is needed in marking the occupation of the persons working in the health sector, where the following instructions must be taken into account:

-- Ambulance men, maternity nurse, assistant nurses, helpers in operating rooms, masseurs, anatomists, assistant anatomists are always regarded as manual workers;

-- The district and nurses as well as the nurses working in the medical cabinets of a production plant are classified always as intellectual workers;

-- The nurses in general, with the exemption of the former categories will be classified as manual or intellectual workers according to their workplace. The nurses are classified as manual workers in case they work in maternity hospitals, children's homes, old people's homes, occupational therapy establishments, as well as those working as "nurses at beds" in hospitals, other health institutions.

18. Name of the employer

The official name of company, office, institution, co-operative, private entrepreneur/private person, an organization formed by private persons (private business partnership, company of general partnership, working team of lawyers, etc.) should be marked.

19. Place of work

As an answer to the sub-question 19/a the section, plant, subsidiary of the employer should given, e.g. the weaving mill of a textile company, the retail shop of a trading company, the general (primary) school of the municipality of a given locality, etc.

In sub-question 19/b the name of the locality (in case of Budapest the district too) of the workplace should be entered. It has to be marked whether the given person is going daily for work from his/her permanent or provisional address. The address marked in case of persons working

-- On an alternate place (e.g. those working for the railways, etc.) the locality of the daily briefing;
-- For a construction company the actual place of the construction;
-- For an agricultural employer which has plants in several localities the name of the locality of the plant where the given person worked for the longest period of the year 1989;
-- Abroad the country of work is sufficient.