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Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Population and Housing Census 1980

I. Preparation

The census was executed upon the Statutory Law No. 29 of 1977 of the Presidential Council of the Hungarian People's Republic.

The reference date of the census is midnight between 31st December, 1979 and 1st January, 1980.

The preparatory period -- including the training of the enumerators, the necessary consultations, the preliminary visits of the addresses -- starts on 10 December, 1970.

The census started on 2d January 1980 and closed on 13th January 1980 the latest. The enumerator was obliged to submit the completed documents to the supervisor by 15th January 1980.

II. Scope of the census

A Dwelling questionnaire Sheet A/ will be filed in on each housing unit in the given enumeration area, as such the enumeration covers

1. The occupied dwellings;
2. The vacant dwellings, respectively the dwellings used seasonally (e.g. the cottage houses);
3. The vacant (unoccupied) holiday houses;
4. The inhabited parts of the business, the temporary and other build-ups as well as the
5. Institutional households (enumerated on sheets A/1 and A/2 used for the institutions).

The dwellings originally built for habitation though used at the reference date of the census for other purposes (e.g. as an office) or those under construction or dissociation (ruined) -- the dwellings already or not yet inhabited must not be enumerated.

The dwelling or a private holiday unit is regarded as inhabited in case at the reference date of the census at least one person as permanent or temporary resident was registered there by the authorities.

Personal questionnaires (sheet A/) will be completed on the following persons in each housing unit of the given enumeration area.

1. Persons officially registered by the authorities as permanent inhabitants of the dwelling even if having a temporary registered dwelling elsewhere;

2. Persons officially registered by the authorities as temporary inhabitants even if having a permanent address elsewhere and

3. Persons living in the dwelling at the reference date of the census even without official registration.

The enumeration of the enlisted men, reservists being in service and the detained and imprisoned persons are enumerated in the respective institutions; the enumerator will receive in advance and complete the files of the dwelling with the Personal questionnaires of the persons concerned

The enumeration of the professional and civilian employees of the armed forces will be performed by the respective national organs (Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Justice, State Command of the Civilian Army, State Command of the Fire Departments, State Command of Customs Services). The Personal questionnaires of the respective persons will be handed over to the enumerators in advance for completing the files of the given dwellings.

The retired (former) members of the armed forces are enumerated according to the general instructions.

Enumeration of the foreign citizens: Only the foreign citizens having a (permanent or temporary) resident permit are enumerated.

The following foreign citizens must not be enumerated:

1. Members of the foreign diplomatic corps;

2. The military personnel (and their relatives) stationing in Hungary in the frame of the Warsaw Pact;

3. Tourists, guests on the reference day of the census having been without resident permit in hotels, hospitals, other health establishments, in private households.

Enumeration of the holiday houses

Each person enumerated in the enumeration area will be asked whether he/she has an inbuilt parcel for recreation, a holiday house or holiday housing unit used exclusively for recreation anywhere in the country. The persons giving a positive answer should be asked according to sheet A/ (Questionnaire on holiday houses).

III. Instructions for filling in the questionnaires

Documents should be filled in with black ink or ball pen, legibility is a must.

Area data:

in order to guarantee the univocal identification of the place of enumeration on each of the questionnaires, additional questionnaires accurate and detailed area data should be marked. In case of Budapest and city of Miskolc the districts of the cities will be marked with Roman literals.

Regarding the street, etc. names and the house numbers the List of addresses will be used with the following amendments:

In case of buildings with the same house number but having separate entrances, staircases with separate identification letter or number as well as in case of the shared dwellings the different distinctive marks should be fixed too (e.g. Ó street 4/C. II. staircase, I. floor 3/b).

In case the buildings incorporating housing unit(s) of the same house number (topographical number, being on the territory of the same cottage)-- starting as form the entrance of the real estate -- the buildings should be marked with ascending numbers (e.g. New street 8/I, 8/II).

The levels of the building are marked (counted) according to the main entrance; the floors are marked with Roman literals. If the answer is not printed the following abbreviations could be applied:

Dwellings in the vault or basement "alags.";
Mezzanine "mfszt.";
Mezzanine-floor "félem.";
Attic (mansard) dwellings "manz.".

The level of the dwelling as well as the door number should be marked in case of the family houses incorporating only a single dwelling.

The way of answering the questions might be as follows:

1. Underlining the variant printed with italic letters;
2. Entry into the dotted line or into the empty space;
3. Entry the definite number into the printed quad (one number into one quad).

With the exemption of questions 10 and 11/c of the Personal questionnaire, one question only single answer should be given to the question.

The questions not related to the person (housing unit) asked should let blank.

In the answers abbreviations -- with the exemption of those used and known nationwide -- must not be used. This applies also to the abbreviations known locally.

A. / Filling in the Dwelling questionnaire -- sheet A/

Type of building: the type of building should be marked on the first page on the dwelling questionnaire into the quads printed in the line with the address as follows:

1. Residential building (including vacant cottage farms)

2. Holiday house (privately owned)

3. Inhabited (occupied) other building: public building (e.g. school, town hall) business building (e.g. office building, business house, factory building)

4. Institutional building (e.g. child-care institution, dormitory, worker's home, social welfare establishment, hospital, clinic, hotel and the buildings of similar establishments

5. Occupied business (farming) build-up (e.g. wine-press house)

6. Occupied temporary, mobile or other facility

Filling in part "Overall Data"

1. Designation of dwelling

In cases of other occupied housing units, the primary designation as well as the information on the occupancy should be marked (e.g. "inhabited store", "inhabited workshop", "inhabited depository", "inhabited washing room", "inhabited tow", and "inhabited hovel").

2. Kind of ownership

Dwellings owned by social organizations, associations -- with the exemption of the dwellings of the housing co-operatives -- are classified as "flats in state ownership" (code "4").

"Flats of other ownership" (code 5) are dwellings owned by churches and foreign legal entities (foreign states, companies).

3. Title of right for using

The answer should refer to the use of the entire dwelling (housing unit). The categories "subtenant" and "night-lodger" must not be marked. The tenant is the person who rents the entire dwelling. E.g. in case a dwelling is taken via a broker company the title of right for using will be enumerated upon the person officially registered in the dwelling (even if he/she is not present), that is the title might be "owner" or "tenant". The title of use of the person temporarily renting the dwelling is marked as subtenant in the 5th cell of table "Data on persons enumerated in the dwelling". If the owner is not officially registered as usual resident in the dwelling the effective user of the dwelling will be regarded as "tenant" even is the lease contract was mediated by a broker.

The title of use if a lessee is "Owner (1)", while in case of a service flat, "Tenant (2)".

If "Other (4)" is underlined the subsequent explanation should be indicated. E.g. the explanation might be as "resident without legal right", or in case of a person being a relative of the owner and using the dwelling without any fee "user by a matter of courtesy".

In case of vacant dwellings and vacant holiday houses (coded with "2" and "3" in question 1.) the title of right of using will not be marked.

4. Year of construction

The year of construction of the dwellings set up by partitioning a larger dwelling is the year of issuing the license for use of dwelling.

As year of construction of dwelling in case of dwellings used without license for use or occupied parts of dwellings under construction is the year of moving in.

Filling in part "Premises"

The size of premises of dwellings (housing units) will be enumerated by their number and their total floor-space in m2.

The floor-space of the built-in furniture will be added to the total of the premises.

6. Room

Rooms should be entered in descending order of the floor-space (e.g. 20, 16, 8 m2).

If the dwelling has more than six rooms the further rooms and their floor-space will be written into the box "Comments of the enumerator" (e.g. 6/14, 7/10), than the sum of the 6+ rooms (in our case 24 m2) will be entered into the heading "6th and more".

The roomette, dining corner must not be entered as a separate premises though their floor-space will be added to the adjoining room.

The premises of at least 4 m2 floor-space, having natural lighting and ventilation will be regarded as separate room.

Only the half of the total floor-space of the rooms in the attic should be taken into account. Furthermore these rooms will be regarded as rooms provided the half of their total surface exceeds 4m2.

7. Cooking room (summer kitchen)

In cases where there is no kitchen in the dwelling but a separate or attached, so called summer kitchen is used for cooking or eventually for dining, this, depending on its floor-space, will be enumerated as kitchen or kitchenette.

Provided its characteristics suits the concept of a room the premises originally built for using as a kitchen will be enumerated as a room.

In cases where there is a kitchen for regular use and also a summer kitchen is used seasonally, the latter will be enumerated as "other premises". The classification will be the same even if the summer kitchen is used by a subtenant not only for cooking but also for habitation.

Kitchen used by occupants of several dwellings will be enumerated only once.

8. Bathroom

The premises used for wash in case no proper equipments (bath-tube, shower or basin) are installed must not be regarded as bathroom; this will be enumerated as "other premises".

Bathroom used by occupants of several dwellings will be enumerated only once.

9. Other premises

The single-premises dwelling's premises and its floor-space must be enumerated as other premises, and the questions 6-8 in part "Premises" will be blank.

11. Room with packed soil floor

Number and total floor-space of rooms having packed soil floor registered in question 6 above will be entered here.

Filling in part "Equipment"

13. Water supply

In cases where the water is supplied from several sources, the one representing the higher comfort will be marked (e.g. in case both piped water and a well is available the tap water will be marked).

15. Heating

In cases of alternative means of heating in the dwelling, only the one supplying the larger part of the dwelling will be marked.

If several heaters (oven, tile stove, fireplace, furnace, etc.) and heating materials are used only the most applied (coal, wood, heating oil, etc.) will be marked. If sawdust used the answer is "wood (7)" while "other (9)" comprises corn-stalk, reed, straw, paper or other wastes.

The answer "No heating (0)" should be used in cases of dwellings without chimney.

16. Toilet

Flush toilet "within the dwelling (1)" should be marked only in cases where the dwelling is connected either to the community drainage or to a local cesspool.

A. / Filling in the Personal questionnaire -- sheet B/

Last (family) name, name

In case of a married woman using the husband's last (family) name the maiden name should be entered too. In case of a married woman or a woman living in consensual partnership also the name of the spouse/partner should be entered in brackets.

1. Personal identity number

In cases of persons aged 14 years and over, the personal identity number (to be found in the identity document of the person concerned) while for those under 14 years of age and being under interdiction the PIN marked on the respective personal document. In absence of the PIN no entry in the heading is required. The PIN should be entered even if the given person was supplied with after the reference date of the census.

[Questions 2 to 19 are asked to all the persons aged 14 and above]

2. Marital status

While entering marital status, legal state is taken into account even if the partners live together without having been married; e.g. if a never married female partner is cohabiting with a married male partner, the correct entry is: "single (1)" and "married (2)" respectively.

3. Family status

While defining the family status, the reference person is in case of married couple type families the husband, in case of lone parent with child(ren) families the father or the mother respectively.

If married couple type families "husband (1)" and "wife (2)" is the correct entry, even if the partners live in consensual partnership.

"Father (or) mother (3)" should be marked if only one of the parents live with the child(ren). The answer is "child (4)" if children of persons marked with family status "husband (1)", "wife (2)" or "father, mother (3)". Family status of adopted children and nurslings is "child (4)" too.

"Ascending line relative (5)" is the family status of the parents, grandparents and great-grandparents of persons classified as "husband (1)", "wife (2)" or "father, mother (3)".

"Other relative (6)" is the code for the persons not listed above (siblings of husband/wife, spouse of sibling's of husband/wife, etc.). In case blood-related persons not forming a family live together (e.g. three siblings) each person should be coded as "other relatives (6)".

The code "non-relative (7)" is marked if non-relatives living with the family (e.g. person in state care, boarder or person supported upon contract.

"Person living alone (8)" code is entered in case a person lives alone. The category includes the non-relatives living together (e.g. two friends).

For private households, the code "living in institutional household" must not be used.

4. Wedding(s)

In cases of never married persons, the printed quads remain blank.

If a person having had more than four marriages the date of the further marriages will be marked in the part "Comments of the enumerator".

4. Number of live-born children

In cases of females born in 1965 and later, the printed quads remains blank, the same is applied in cases of males.

In case the female person did not give birth to any child "00" will be entered into the quads.

5. Presence on the place of enumeration

The place of enumeration is the address of the dwelling where the given persons are living.

If on the reference day of the census the person was present in the dwelling the code "yes (1)", if he/she was not present code "no (2)" will be entered.

Persons working or traveling on the night of the enumeration will be enumerated on their destination.

Enlisted men, reservists on duty as well as persons being in prison will be enumerated as present on their officially registered permanent address, and as absent on their officially registered temporary address.

Professional and civilian employees of the armed forces -- even if absent at the reference day of the census -- must be enumerated as present on their registered usual address that is "yes (1)" will be marked.

The questions 5, 6 and 7 of the Personal questionnaire in case of pensioners formerly members of the armed forces will be filled in according to the general rules.

6. Officially registered permanent address

The officially registered permanent address is the address registered in the identity card of the given person.

In case a person is living abroad for a longer period (e.g. for studies or work) the resident address in Hungary will be recorded.

The registered permanent address of the professional and civilian members of the armed forces is the place of enumeration; consequently the answer is marked as "the place of the enumeration (1)".

7. Officially registered temporary address

The officially registered temporary address of a person might be

1. The dwelling (institutional households, e.g. worker's home) registered in his/her identity card;

2. The temporary place of residence (dormitory, children's home, etc.) of children living during the year elsewhere than the parents, even if they are at home for the winter holidays;

3. The foreign address of the persons working, studying abroad having a permanent address in Hungary.

The enlisted men and persons in prison will be enumerated on their temporary address as well as those not being present.

The professional or civilian member of the armed forces -- at least according to the rules of the census -- does not have a temporary address; the person can be enumerated only on the permanent address, consequently the answer is "no (1)".

The foreign address of a person must contain only the name of the country of residence.

8. Nationality

The answer given to the question without any influence and disregarding of the mother tongue will be entered.

9. Mother tongue

The mother tongue is the language first taught as a child and generally spoken with the family members and declared freely, without any intervention by the respondent. The mother tongue of the dumb and the infant is the language spoken by their relatives. As mother tongue only one language must be entered.

10. Language spoken besides mother tongue

The modern language -- other than the mother tongue -- on which the enumerated person is able to understand and let him understood by other persons will be marked here. The first entry must be the one used most frequently.

If the person speaks only the mother tongue the squad will be empty.

11. Educational attainment

The number of the completed grade in each of the types of schools listed in sub-question 11/a will be entered into the quads in sub-question 11/b and the qualification obtained will be underlined at sub-question 11/c. The educational attainment should be enumerated according to the prevailing educational system.

Qualifications obtained at specialized courses must not be entered. The former statement does not valid in cases of specialized courses if the respective legislation is specifying that by taking some state exams the given qualification will be equivalent with a completed secondary or higher education. To accept i.e. to enter the answer to questions 11 and 12 is possible only if all the required exams had been taken by the respondent.

11/b Class (grade) completed

The completed grade is the one which might be confirmed by a certificate. In case the respondent had visited several schools of the same type the classes completed must not be summarized but the highest grade completed should be marked. In case a person born before 1973 did not attend school or at the reference date of the census is at the first grade of the primary school "0" will be entered into the quad at inscription "general, primary" and the other quads remain empty. In each of the cases after the last completed year "0" is entered and the following quads remain blank.

Schools for mentally defective persons are treated as general (primary) schools.

11/c Final education completed

"Certificate of profession" will be underlined in cases of persons who obtained their certificate authorizing them to work as skilled workers in educational institutions (earlier in apprentice, industrial or commercial schools) for training professional workers.

"Certificate of professional school" must not be underlined in cases of persons who completed only a specialized course.

"General certificate" will be underlined also in case of persons who completed the secondary school without passing the closing exam.

11/d Year of completing the studies

With the exemption of first two lines the year of completion will be marked in every line provided heading b) is not blank or marked with "0".

In case the person did not complete the given type of education (the answer in sub-question 11/c is not underlined) the year of completing the highest grade, while in case of completing the studies (the answer in sub-question 11/c is underlined) the year of acquisition of the certificate, diploma will be marked. In case of completed studies in different types of the same level, the one closer to the occupation of the respondent will be marked.

12. Highest education obtained

The question must be answered by persons who in sub-question 11/c-- with the exemption of the "certificate of profession" -- gave a positive answerIf several levels are underlined the highest level will be taken into account.

In cases where the answer "certificate of profession" is underlined, the respective answer will be entered in question 13.

12/a Name of the educational institution

The full name and address -- as used at the date of the issue of the certificate, diploma -- must be entered.

Persons who completed military higher educational school, academy or police academy without completing any other higher educational institution are classified as graduates of "Military higher educational institution". The place, faculty, specialization of the institution will not be entered.

In cases of persons who completed several secondary school or higher educational institution respectively, the one closer to his/her occupation will be marked. If the person completed several higher educational institutions and each of them is close to his/her profession, the institution with a higher rank will be taken into account (e.g. the university has a higher rank than the high school, the latter has a higher rank than the higher level secondary technical school.

12/b Faculty, specialization, profession

The faculty, specialization, profession -- if possible -- should be recorded in case of every educational institution.

In cases of specialized secondary schools issuing certificate of profession, the concrete occupation is regarded as specialization. The denomination of the occupation should be entered at sub-question 13/a.

In cases of secondary school of arts, the specialization will also be given (e.g. specialized in playing on piano).

In cases of universities of sciences, besides marking the faculty (science, natural science) whether the given person obtained a diploma as a schoolmaster, e.g. master in Hungarian literature -- master of English language; master of Hungarian language -- philosophy, other than teacher must also to be recorded

In cases of persons who obtained the certificate as engineer-economist, economic engineer, master engineer the previously attained specialization should be given by adding the appropriate secondary qualification, e.g. chemist engineer-economist, economic engineer in production of textiles, etc.

The specialization obtained after completing the university -- e.g. specialized physician, lawyer, judge, etc. -- must not be recorded.

13. Certificate(s) of profession

In cases where the person obtained a certificate of profession (other than military) the answer "yes" will be underlined. This is valid for the following:

1. Person having a certificate of profession, journeyman's certificate;

2. Person having a qualification as machinist, locomotive engineer, professional driver, tractor or combine-harvester driver, etc.
13/a Denomination of profession

Two professions can be entered. The sequence of the entry should be as follows:

The profession same as/ closer to the actual occupation of the given person;
Professional certificate obtained after 1960 in a school for vocational training;
Professional knowledge (certificate) obtained before 1960;
If the former not clear the chronology of acquisition.
13/b Way of acquisition

The answer "in specialized secondary school" is valid only for those who obtained a general certificate too (see sub-question 11/c).

14. Is the person (active) earner?

Provided not receiving pension, rent on own right and not being on leave for childcare allowance the answer "yes" should be underlined in the following cases:

1. Persons employed (including part-time employees and outside workers) in the last week of December 1979;

2. Members of co-operatives (agricultural, industrial, etc. co-operatives) in the last week of December 1979;

3. Agricultural or non-agricultural own-account workers;

4. Family helpers of non-agricultural own-account workers;

5. Odd job workers, day laborers in agriculture;

6. Persons in transition from job to the other, temporarily unemployed;

7. Persons on sickness leave, maternity leave;

8. Enlisted men, reservists on duty and imprisoned persons provided having worked before their enrolment.

In cases of pensioners on derivative rights classifiable into the first three categories above, the answer "yes" should be underlined.

After underlining the answer "yes" the question 15 follows.

In cases of persons underlining the answer "no," the following questions will be answered:

Inactive earner is the person who is earning money without working activity.

The "person on child-care leave (20)" is not the same as the one being on maternity leave.
The person is regarded as "pensioner, renter on own right (30)" in case he is receiving a pension, even if having been paid for work within the legal limits.

The "pensioner on derivative right (31)" is receiving the pension or rent upon the decease of his/her relative (spouse, parent) who at the same time is not a student on a daily course, and does not have a stable working contract.

"Other inactive earner (32)" is the person who
1. Is renting his land, property, dwelling, etc;

2. Has an income from a subtenant, night-lodger;

3. Having an income from a life-annuity contract or similar,

though he/she does not have any income from any other sources mentioned above.

Dependent is the person who is supported either by private person(s) or by an institution.

Code "child not attending a school (40)" can be given only for persons aged 0-13 years that is born between 1966 and 1979.

The answers
1. "Primary school attendant (41)"
2. "Secondary school attendant (42)"
3. "Vocational school attendant (43)"
4. "Vocational secondary school attendant (44 "
5. "Student in higher education (45)"
shall be underlined if the given person is studying on a day course though has an income as inactive earner or being on child-care allowance leave.

"Person seeking for first employment (47)" answer should be underlined in cases of enlisted men and imprisoned persons if before enrolment or arrest have never worked and are not pre-enrolled into an institution of higher education.

"Disabled mentally or by body (47)" is underlined only in cases of persons 14 years and over (born in 1965 and earlier).

"Other dependents" are the persons not belonging to the categories above aged 14 years and over (born in 1965 and earlier), e.g. housewives, family helper of agricultural own-account workers, seasonal worker, pre-enrolled student of a higher educational institution serving as a conscript.
Hours worked in 1979 by the other dependents

Each of the "other dependents" must be asked whether they have performed some agricultural or non-agricultural work in the course of 1979 (housekeeping is not regarded as "work"). If "yes" the number of hours worked should be asked and add together. If no work performed the quads remains blank. The work performance in days are calculated in the agriculture by 10 hours a day, in non-agricultural activities hours per day, that is to count the days in the respective sector the total number of hours should be divided either by 10 or by 8.

Was the dependent enumerated with the supporter person?

The framed part o the right side at question 14 must be filled in on every dependent who had not worked in the course of 1979 more than 90 days.
In cases of dependents enumerated in the same dwelling as the supporter the answer (1) must be underlined and after resuming the enumeration "the person's number in the dwelling" shall be copied into the box at the top of the Personal questionnaire of the supporter.

If the other dependent was not enumerated with the supporter than the answer "public institution (6)" will be underlined in cases of
1. Children in state care (living in institution or with a family);
2. Inhabitants other than pensioners of the social homes;
3. Every person receiving regular social assistance.

15--18 Occupation, general instructions

The recording of the occupational data depends on the answer given to question 14 as follows, if

1. The answer "yes": based on the last occupation;
2. The person on child-care allowance leave: based on occupation before the leave;
3. Pensioner, renter on own right: the occupation before retirement;
4. Pensioner, renter on derivative right: last occupation of the deceased relative;
5. Conscript, reservist on duty and imprisoned persons: occupation before enrolment;
6. Other inactive earner: the source of livelihood marked in question 15 will be copied, questions 15-18 will not be answered;
7. Other dependents who worked in 1979 more than 90 days: the working activity during the year in general; in case both agricultural and non-agricultural work had been performed and the agricultural activity did not last for more than 90days questions 15-18 will be filled in according to the non-agricultural work performance. E.g. in case during 1979 an "other dependent" worked for 50 days in a canning factory while 80 days in the agriculture as family helper, the information on the occupation will be based on the work performed in the canning factory;
8. In cases of dependents not living with the supporter, the occupation of the supporter.

15. Occupation, scope of work

In answering the question detailed and accurate description of the occupation, scope of work is needed. The main considerations are as follows:

1. In marking the scope of activity general descriptions -- such as unskilled worker -- outside worker, official, teacher, etc. must not be used;

2. In cases of persons performing leading-managing activity, the specification should also be marked e.g. head of department for product development, head of section in human resources;

3. In cases of ministries, state organizations, local administrative bodies, parties and social organizations, the categories head of department, head of section, independent group manager (and the deputies), chief official, official will be entered in general, while in cases of persons working in the accounting, financial and administrative fields of the former organizations the actual occupation will be marked, (e.g. accountant, finance officer, manager in accounting, typist, etc.);

4. In cases of transportation companies (Hungarian railways, Hungarian Shipping Co, etc.) and the Hungarian Post Co., instead of the given rank (e.g. officer, councilor, etc.) the actual job should be marked;

5. In cases of managers and their deputies in shops, warehouse departments, restaurants, and service units (barber shop, laundry), the number of persons employed should be indicated too;

6. In cases of foremen in agriculture, it has to be asked whether the occupation is independent and if "yes" this should be marked in brackets e.g. "(independent) foreman of working ploughs", "(independent) foreman for tractor-drivers ", "(independent) foreman in fruit cultivation";

7. In cases of private merchants, the description should refer to the definite trade, e.g. vegetable and fruit trader, merchant in dry goods, etc.);

8. In cases of family helpers, the description should contain information primarily on the person "helped" (e.g. member of agricultural co-operative, person working in industry though having agricultural activity as secondary source of income, private farmer, private locksmith, private merchant, etc.) and secondly if possible on the scope of the actual activity. E.g. "family helper working in animal husbandry helping a member of agricultural co-operative", "family helper working in crops production helping a private farmer", etc;

9. The category of "agricultural day laborer" or "casual laborer" can be applied only in cases of persons working in agriculture or outside only occasionally and generally not for the same employer;

10. In cases of outside workers, the denomination of the actual occupation should be
attributed as "outside worker", e.g. "underwear maker, outside worker", "draughtsman, outside worker";

11. Occupation of the professional members of the armed forces -- in case no Personal questionnaire was given to the enumerator -- will be marked as "employee of the HM" (HM=Ministry of Defense), "employee of the BM"(BM= Ministry of the Interior) "militiaman", "fireguard", "excise man", while the civilian members of the armed forces will be marked with their actual civilian occupation;

12. In cases of retired members of the armed forces, the mark is "employee of the HM" , "employee of the BM ", "militiaman", "fireguard", "excise man";

13. In cases of "other inactive earners," the source of livelihood will be marked and no answers for questions 16-19 will be entered;

14. The occupation in cases of "institutional dependent" will be as "institutional dependent" and the questions 16-19 will not be answered.

Annex 3 contains examples for registration of the occupation and related entries.

17. Staff group, function

This question must not be asked of the following persons:

1. Own account workers (private entrepreneurs);

2. Family helpers;

3. Professional and retired members of the armed forces.

In cases of manual workers (blue collars), the staff group ("skilled worker", "semi-skilled worker" or "unskilled worker") will be marked. (The actual staff group of the person is defined by his/her employer.)

In cases of agricultural day laborers and casual laborers, the answer "unskilled worker (3)" will be underlined.

In cases of the non-manual workers (white-collars), the respective answer should be underlined.

18. Employer, place of work

The question must not be answered in case the answer to question 16 is either "own-account worker (5)" or "family helper 6-9"

18/a Employer

The official name and address (at least the locality, in Budapest also the district) of the employer should be registered. The employer is where the given person is working in an occupation marked in question 15.

Exemptions:

1. In cases of own-account workers and their employees, family helpers the correct entry might be e.g. "private farmer", "own-account locksmith", "own-account fruit and vegetable merchant", "private person" (in case of domestics), etc.;

2. In cases of causal laborers or agricultural day laborers the correct entry is "occasional employer" or "private farmers";

3. In cases of professional and civilian members of the armed forces -- if no Personal questionnaire received by the enumerator -- the entry is always "HM", "BM", "BV" (BV=Ministry of Justice), Militia, Fireworks).

In cases of the latter two categories the sub-questions 18/b, c will not be answered.

18/a Place of work

As place of work the section, shop, educational, health, social or welfare unit (kindergarten, nursery, recreation house, et.) of the employer, that is the workplace where the given person is going to for work daily will be marked.

18/c Where the respondent does go for work?

If the answer to question 14/b is "yes" than the address (at least the locality, in Budapest also the district) of the workplace marked in question 18/b will be given here.

In cases of persons having a traveling job (railways, travel companies, etc.) and of those working for transport, service, repair and similar companies, the address is the site where the daily person's daily work is commencing. In their cases the answer "not fixed" must not be accepted.

In cases of persons working for construction companies, the place of work is the actual construction site where at the reference date of the enumeration the respondent worked.

In cases where the cultivated land and the estates of an agricultural company are expanding to several localities, the workplace of the person working for the agricultural company is not the address of the company, but the locality where during 1979 the enumerated person regularly or mostly worked.

If a person works abroad, only the name of the country should be marked.

19. Working for payment while receiving pension

The question should be answered only by those persons who answered the question as "pensioner, rentier on own right (30)" or "pensioner, rentier on derivative right (31)"

The answer is "yes" in case the person besides receiving his/her pension -- as permitted by the legislation (for 840 hours, 1260 hours or without limits) -- has been working on the base of a working contract, assignment or as own account worker.

In case the respondent besides receiving the pension had been working only without any working contract (e.g. in his private farm or as a causal laborer) or did not work at all the answer is "no".

19/a Hours worked

The total number of hours worked in the course of 1979 should be given in working days of 8 hours.

In cases of persons working without time limits the answer "all the year round" should be underlined.

19/b Occupation

The occupation of the person working while receiving a pension should be described as detailed as requested in question 15.

19/c Employer

The name of the employer where the activity described in question 19/b had been performed, furthermore the place of work should be registered too if the person had been working in educational, health, social or welfare institution (school, nursery, kindergarten, recreation house, etc.).

C. / Filing in the table "Data on the persons enumerated in the dwelling" (headings 1-5) of the Dwelling questionnaire

After filling in the Dwelling questionnaire and the Personal questionnaires of the persons enumerated in the dwelling, still on the site of the enumeration the headings 1-5 of the respective table should be completed by the enumerator. A list should be given by grouping the households, within the households the families composing the household, afterwards the persons forming the family, according to their family status. In case more than one household is living in the dwelling the members of the different households must be grouped separately; the listing of the second household should follow the firs one. The number of rows filled in will be equal to the total number of persons enumerated in the dwelling.

If within a family several persons are having the same family status (e.g. child) the persons will be listed in the descending order of their age.

The sequence i.e. the frame must not be changed even if a relative or non-relative living with the family is the tenant or the owner of the dwelling.

In cases where in the dwelling a tenant (owner) and subtenant or night-lodger is enumerated the above list should start with the tenant (owner). The subtenant or night-lodger must be regarded always as a separate household!

1. Serial number of household

Members of the same household will be allotted by the same household number; the latter should be entered also into the heading of the Personal questionnaire.

2. Serial number of person in the dwelling

The "serial number of the person in the dwelling" in case of every person will be the printed number in 2d heading of the table, which should be copied too into the respective cells of the Personal questionnaire.

In cases where a dependent person is enumerated with his/her supporter its serial number in the table (i.e. within the household) should be copied into the question 14 of the Personal questionnaire of the same dependent person.

5. Title of right of using the dwelling

Title of right of using the dwelling of a family will be marked only once, in cases of a married couple type family in the respective cell I the row of the husband, in cases of a lone parent with child(ren) family in the row of the parent. The subsequent cells at the other members of the family will remain blank. In cases of households of relatives and/or non-relatives not forming a family the title of right of using the dwelling will be marked at the person having a right of using the dwelling only.

The title of using the dwelling might be also other than printed on the questionnaire, such as using the dwelling upon courtesy, using the dwelling without legal right.

In cases the first person of the family (husband, father, etc.) does not have a right of using the dwelling than into the respective heading his relation to the person having the right of use will be entered (e.g. son-in-law of the owner, child of the tenant, supporter of the owner, etc.).

D. / Filling in the Questionnaire on holiday houses -- sheet D)

Sheet D) should be filled in -- irrespective of the Dwelling questionnaire -- upon interrogating every person enumerated in the enumeration area. The respondent is obliged to declare whether he has on the country one or more privately owned real estate used for recreation (holiday unit, un-built parcel) or a similar immovable received from the state for a permanent use.

The scope of enumeration covers every un-built holiday parcel of private property or received from the state for permanent use, the holiday housing units in an individual or collective holiday house, the weekend houses, anglers camps and other build-ups, that is those real estate other than those for business or similar purposes which must not be enumerated by using the Dwelling questionnaire.

In a dwelling as many Holiday house questionnaires should completed as many of the above mentioned real estates are in the possession of the persons enumerated in the dwelling.

The real estates designated for holiday, recreation purposes should be enumerated also in case those are being leased temporarily or permanently to private individuals or to legal persons.

In cases where at the reference date of the census at least one person was -- not for recreation purposes -- officially registered in the holiday house no Holiday house questionnaire will be completed.

The questions of the Holiday house questionnaire will be answered as follows:

1. Denomination

In case "un-built holiday parcel (1)" is underlined only the questions 2-6 must be answered

the holiday parcel is the piece of land which has been classified by the competent authorities as designed for building holiday houses. The parcels reserved for building residential buildings, the land used for agricultural activities e.g. small (so called closed) gardens, orchards, parcels used for agricultural production.

In case "holiday housing unit" is underlined all questions but question 6 must be answered.

holiday housing unit is the housing unit either in private or collective ownership designed for recreation, weekend rest, not being inhabited by at least one person officially registered there and using it as a dwelling. The category includes also the other build-ups (weekend houses, wooden houses without solid basement, angler camps) used for recreation, the build-ups used formerly for productive purposes (e.g. wine-press houses) and converted without any technical alterations into facilities ensuring a kind of rest, the build-ups which by taking into account the given facilities, structure can not be classified as holiday houses, in most of the cases even the heating is missing.

3. Type of ownership

1. "Owned by one person (couple) (1)" is marked for holiday units owned by a married (consensual) couple. Provided the marriage is active or the consensual partnership has at least 6 month history only one questionnaire will be completed on the name of the husband (male partner).
2. "Other part-ownership (3)" is marked and separate questionnaires will be completed in case the holiday unit is a joint property.
3. "Family part-ownership (2)" is marked in case the owners are relatives of the respondent (sibling, parent, child, brother-in-law or other relative).

5. Family or other joint ownership

The share of property of the respondent in percentages should be recorded.

6. Under construction

"Yes" should be underlined.

7. Type of holiday unit

1. It should be recorded if it was a twin-house;
2. The wooden houses in case of having a solid basement (brick, stone, concrete) should be regarded as family house type, if without solid basement will be regarded as other buildings;

10. Use in winter

The answer is "yes" provided the outer walls have a depth of at least 25 cm; the windows have a double isolation; heating possible, etc.

Data on premises will be enumerated according to the definitions applied in case of the Dwelling questionnaire.

12-13. Cooking facility, bathroom

1. Data on kitchen and kitchenette will be recorded in the same line;
2. In cases where no separate cooking or bathing premises the floor-space of the former should be deducted from the total floor-space of the room.

E. / Tasks of the enumerator after completing the field-work
[Section E was omitted.]

F. / Tasks of the supervisor
[Section F was omitted.]

Annex 1
Examples for answering question 3 of the Personal questionnaire

In cases where the persons listed below, the family status marked with "bold" should be recorded:

Husband: [All the following persons are included in this category]

One family household: Married/consensual partners
Household with two families: 1st family parent couple; 2nd family child couple
Wife: [All the following persons are included in this category]

One family household: Married/consensual partners
Household with two families: 1st family parent couple; 2nd family child couple
Father, mother: [All the following persons are included in this category]

Lone parent: parent
Child: [All the following persons are included in this category]

One family household: child
Lone parent: child
Ascending relative: [All the following persons are included in this category]

One family household: father of male partner
Other relative: [All the following persons are included in this category]

Lone parent: sibling of parent
Household of persons other than family: Grandfather; Grandchild; Siblings (for each person)
Non-relative

Lone person: [All the following persons are included in this category]

Non-relatives forming one household

Annex 3

Examples for filling in questions 15 and 17 of the personal questionnaire

Manual (blue-collar) occupations

Skilled worker or semi-skilled worker [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Type-setter Miller
Cashier in a shop Agricultural vehicle mechanic
Bulldozer operator Tractor driver in agriculture
Crane operator Founder
Grocery shopkeeper Smelter
Turner Foundry operator
Radio mechanic Grocery shop assistant
Elevator handler in construction plant Detonator handler
Pig-man Hairdresser
Booby-hatch driver Milk taker machine operator
Assembler in clothing industry Motor mechanic
Body-smith Glassblower
Smith in general Producer of pneumatic tyres
Digger Roller(man)
Vegetable grower Order collector
Dressmaker outworker Knitter outworker
Embroiderer outworker Producer of paper products as outworker
Skilled worker [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Engine-driver Passenger car driver
Printing machine operator Track driver
Semi-skilled worker [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Janitor Walking plough
Excavator Mailman
Semi-skilled worker or unskilled worker [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Manual material handler Transport worker
Stevedore Cleaner
Non-manual (blue-collar) occupations
Leading, managing1 [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Head of production unit Manager of an agricultural plant in animal husbandry
Director of a general school Deputy Director of investment department
Foreman of construction works Technological director
Chief agriculturist Head of section of technology
Independent foreman in agriculture Director of a community centre
Foreman in a mechanical plant Shopkeeper in a butcher's with three vendor
Head of department for product Deputy Head of financial development department
Foreman in metallurgic plant Managing chief physician in a rehabilitation hospital
Chief physician of a hospital section Professor managing a university' faculty
Deputy Head of accountancy Plant manager
Specialised employee [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Teacher in primary school Judge at a county court
Internal controller Designer in civil engineering
University assistant professor Human resources officer
Specialist in power management Draftsman
Dispatcher in construction works Demonstrator at university of medicine
Mechanical technician Independent laboratory technician
Head of group in RD Head of statistics group
Cost accountant School teacher
Physician in a hospital Telex operator
District physician Nurse
Administrative employee [17 Staff group]
[15 Occupation, scope of activity]
Keeper of storage registers Stock-taker
Payroll clerk Bill accountant
Typist Secretary
Accountant Company cashier

[The shopkeepers in shops, restaurants, service stations employing three or more persons are classified into leading-managing staff group].