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Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Population and Housing Census 1970

Instructions for Enumerators and Supervisors for Completing Sheets a/ and c/
(Edited Version)

In the course of the 1970 census more data on a 25 % sample of the population will be collected. Consequently there are two types of the base questionnaires. For the enumeration of 75 % of the population the green questionnaires (A/ Dwelling questionnaire and C/ Personal questionnaire) while for the enumeration of the 25 % the brown questionnaires (B/ Dwelling questionnaire and D/ Housing questionnaire) will be used. Nevertheless in a given enumeration district either the short (A/ and C/) or the long (B/ and D/) can be used.

The present Instruction contain the guidelines for the enumeration of the 75 % of the population (questionnaires A/ and C/). The Instruction explains every important topic nevertheless it does not deal with the self-explanatory issues.

[Sections 1 and 2 were omitted].


3. Scope of the census and the main definitions used

The census covers every dwelling, dwelling unit of the enumeration district as well as the occupants of the dwellings and housing units.

Scope of the enumeration

Consequently it has to be enumerated all of the dwellings, institutional households, occupied premises used for human habitation (inhabited business spaces, occupied temporary or mobile facilities), person living in the dwellings, in the institutional households and in the other housing units.

Institutional households should be enumerated in general according to the present instruction manual.


Building data should be recorded on each residential building, i.e. on those originally built for or converted into dwelling as well as on those buildings which have not been built for human habitation though they incorporate at least one dwelling or housing unit. A building covered by separate roof, firewall will be regarded as independent building even in the case of the firewall is not visible from the outside. In case the buildings have several staircases though are not internally connected to each-other should be regarded by staircases as independent. Separate entrances of the twin-houses, as well as all the other houses, where a firewall separates the buildings, should be enumerated separately.

Housing unit

The concept of "housing unit" covers the occupied dwellings, vacant dwellings, holiday houses, cottage (farm) houses inhabited only in the summer, institutional households, inhabited business spaces, and the occupied temporary and mobile facilities.



The dwelling - irrespective of the occupancy - , is a unit of places and rooms having specin the case ofic functions (living rooms, cooking places, sanitary places etc.), generally technically (architecturally) connected to each other. The former are originally built for human accommodation or converted into dwelling and also suitable for living at present, which has a separate entrance from a public place, courtyard or from a collectively used place inside the building (staircase, corridor etc.),. A dwelling might consist of a single premise. Vacant unoccupied dwellings, have to be enumerated, as well as holiday houses and cottage houses inhabited only in the summer. Data on vacant, unoccupied dwellings should be recorded on the information collected from the neighbors or the janitor, the file of the dwelling register of the municipality could be used as well.

The holiday houses in counties Baranya, Fejér, Somogy and Veszprém have been already enumerated in the summer months. The respective completed questionnaires ("Questionnaire for the enumeration of the holiday houses") will be handed over to the enumerators together with the List of addresses. From the questionnaires only the relevant answers should be copied to the A/ Housing questionnaire; while copying the data by comparing them with the List of addresses the completeness of the census should be checked. In case (in the summer) no questionnaire on a holiday house has been filled in a supplementary enumeration should be made.

In the case of a building being enumerated in the summer as a holiday house, but at the reference date is permanently occupied, it must be enumerated as a residential building, e.g. occupied dwelling.

Dwellings originally built for habitation but used for other purposes (e.g. as an office, etc.) will not be enumerated.

No dwelling questionnaire should be filled in on dwellings under construction, demolition or totally deserted dwellings.

What should be regarded as a dwelling?

The technically (architecturally) connected spaces having internal connections (doors) to each-other should be regarded as one dwelling even in the case of the doors are closed and the separated parts serve as a home for an other household.

Though the originally connected but later technically disconnected spaces, rooms should be regarded as independent dwellings.

A mostly separate place, building -- e.g. the summer kitchen of detached family house -- built as a part of the dwelling is considered as part of the dwelling in the case of it is used by the household living in the main building or by persons not belonging to the main household (e.g. subtenants).

Other housing unit

Other occupied housing units also cover the inhabited business units and the inhabited temporary or mobile facilities. The category covers the separate buildings (like the summer kitchens) built for rental on the parcel of the main building. These facilities will be enumerated only in the case of occupied.


Inhabited business facility

Inhabited business facility is the really occupied space not having been converted into a dwelling. The category covers the inhabited workshop, store, storage house, laundry house, wine pres-house, etc.

Occupied temporary facility

The category "inhabited temporary or mobile facility" covers the inhabited hovels, huts, caves, auto bus bodies, occupied ships, floating mills, railway carriages, circus coaches, etc.

Institutional household

The category "institutional household" includes the establishments for collective accommodation or accommodation and boarding of humans (e.g. infant's and children's homes, dormitories, old people's homes, hospitals, recreation houses, convalescent hospitals, hotels, workers' homes, etc.) run by public organs, companies, factories, etc. The category does not cover the dwellings wholly or partially rented by companies, institutions for the accommodation of their employees. Nevertheless workers' homes maintained by companies, factories are classified as institutional households. (See in detail chapter 8. "Enumeration of the institutional households").

Persons to enumerate

The enumerator should enumerate every person registered at the police as temporary or permanent inhabitant of the given dwelling. Enumeration of the persons is a must even in the case of they have not been present on the site at the reference date of the census. Furthermore every other persons living in the dwelling should be enumerated even without formal registration at the authorities.

Consequently the following persons will be enumerated:

The person with a permanent registration in the dwelling even in the case of having a temporary registration in another dwelling,

The person temporarily registered in the dwelling even in the case of having a permanent registration elsewhere,

The person living in the dwelling without any official registration.

Accordingly, those persons living generally in the dwelling but staying continuously or permanently abroad will be enumerated, that is the persons:

Staying for a longer or shorter period visit abroad,

Being in mission abroad (for diplomatic, commercial or other reasons),

Working abroad in the frame of a bilateral cooperation.

Regular and civilian members of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior (police, police force, frontier guard, fire department) and of the Hungarian Prison Service of the Ministry of Justice should be enumerated. Regular and civilian members of the Hungarian Customs and Finance Guard should be enumerated according to the ordinary rules.


Enumeration of the conscripts, etc.

Between December 29-31 the enumerator will be supplied by the supervisor with the D/ Personal questionnaires of the conscripts and the reservists on duty residing in the given enumeration district. The same type of questionnaires will be handed over on the convicts and on those being in investigation custody in the case of any). The enumerator, after defining the household status of the given person, will copy the corresponding answers onto a C/ Personal questionnaire and attaches it to the files of the dwelling/household in question.

The questionnaires inserted according to the above procedure shall be treated as the other questionnaires of the inhabitants of the dwelling/members of the household.

By interrogating the occupants of the dwelling irrespective of the presence the enumerator should register all the persons officially registered in the dwelling. In case the enumerator discovers that there is in the dwelling/household a conscript reservist, or inmate not previously enumerated (that is the d/ Personal questionnaire is missing) an additional c/ Personal Questionnaire will be filled in.

Persons not to enumerate

Foreign diplomats and the members of the Warsaw Pact Armed Forces as well as their relatives must not be enumerated.

Sequence of the enumeration

Because the persons living in the same dwelling might belong to different households, before the filling in of the forms it should be determined:

  • The number of households living in the dwelling,
  • Whether which persons belong to the same or different households
  • Who is (are) the head(s) of household(s),
  • The sequence of the enumeration of the members of each household.

The allocation of the households is necessary because the inhabitants of the dwelling should be enumerated according to their households. Before stating the filling in of the questionnaires it has to select the head of the household(s) because the household status of the members of the household (question 5) depends on their relation to the head of household. The relation to the head of household at the same time determines the sequence of the enumeration of the persons. (The completed personal questionnaires should be filed and numbered according to the determined sequence, on the forth page of the Dwelling questionnaire the listing of the members living in the dwelling/household should follow the former sequence.

It is necessary to determine the household structure in order to be able to define the head of household.



A household is a group of persons living together in a common housing unit or in a part of it, bearing together, at least partly, the costs of living (i.e. daily expenses, meals) on at least on of the days of the week they have a common lunch, dinner.

A household might consist of: one family, one family and their relative(s) living with, two or more families, two or more families and their relative(s) living with, one or more lone person.

Eventually there might belong to the household person(s) other than relative(s) (domestic help, person in state care, boarding student, person(s) supported for money, land or other property, etc.). Co-tenants, sub-tenants however always form a separate household.


From the point of view of the census the family, the so called "family nucleus", is the smallest circle of persons living together as married couples or relatives of kin; they might be married couples without or with child(ren), lone parent (widowed, divorced, eventually never married) with never married child(ren). Male and female cohabiting (unmarried) partners together with their child(ren) should be regarded as a family as well.

Head of household

In defining the head of household the following procedure should be followed:

In case of a one-family household the head of family is regarded as the head of household.

Irrespective of his activity status (person in employment or dependent) in a married couple type family the husband, in the lone parent with children type family the parent is the head of the family. This rule is valid even in case one or more relatives (not forming a different family) are living in the family.

In a multifamily household, the eldest head of one of the family (provided he works or has an income) should be regarded as the head of household. In case none of the head of families is working the eldest head of family having a pension, otherwise the eldest inactive head of family is the head of household. In the case of in a multifamily household there is an economically active female head of family and none of the male head of families are working the female shall be regarded as head of household. In case both the male and female heads of families are working, irrespective of their age, the male person should be regarded as head of the household.

In case there are more lone persons or relatives (brothers/sisters) not constituting a family are living in a household the above rules should be followed (eldest economically active person, etc.). The same procedure will be followed in case lone parents (widowed, separated, divorced) are together with their lonely living, formerly married children. (In this particular case not the inactive parent but the economically active child will be the head of household.)

Warning! The same method will be applied for each of the households in case there are several households living in a given dwelling.


[Section 4 does not exist in the available documentation, Hungarian or English.]
5. Completing the dwelling questionnaire (Form A)

Parts of the dwelling questionnaire.

The housing questionnaire has the following three parts:

Building data

[Dwelling data]

Data on the persons living in the dwelling.

Completing part "Building data".

The data on the building incorporating more dwellings should be marked only once on the Dwelling questionnaire (i.e. on questionnaire relating to one of the dwellings of a building) as follows:

In the case of the building incorporates only one dwelling (premises used as a dwelling), that is the building practically is a family house of one dwelling, the respective questions on the building should be answered on the Dwelling questionnaire.

Provided the building incorporates more than one dwelling (housing unit) the building data should be recorded on the first Dwelling questionnaire filled in the building. On the second and further Dwelling questionnaires of the same building the building data must not be recorded.

If house number refers to several buildings (of the same topographic number, parcel or cottage) the building data shall be recorded by buildings on the Dwelling questionnaires separately, as described above. In these cases the buildings will be marked with a sub-number (e.g. first building Kossuth street 15/I, the second one 15/II, etc.))

If a building incorporates several dwellings, it is advised to collect the information on the building data from the janitor, caretaker or the owner.

1. The present designation of the building

The actual designation of the building will be recorded by taking into account whether which utilization purpose (dwellings, office premises or institutional household) is the dominant in the building

The building is a residential building provided it was built or rather converted for incorporating one (or several) dwelling(s) and the majority of the space of the building represent (a) dwelling(s). Accordingly in case the grand floor of a building incorporates a store and there are dwellings on the first (and other) floor(s). In this case the answer "residential building" should be underlined.

In the case of the cottage (farm) houses used as a dwelling only in the summer, it should be regarded as a "residential building" too.

Holiday house
The holiday house is a constant residential building with a solid foundation (concrete, stone or brick), covered with durable materials (tile, slate) and having at least 20 sq. meters total floor space used generally for summer recreation. The so called weekend houses erected as transitional build-ups (despite those are used for summer recreation), the rolled out auto bus bodies, railway carriages (even in the case of used for summer recreation, or rest after performing garden works) must not be enumerated as holiday houses. (Nevertheless in case of occupancy at the reference date of the census they will be enumerated according to their characteristics.)


Other occupied (inhabited) building
Other occupied buildings are facilities incorporating at least one dwelling (e.g. building of the office of the municipality, school, and post office). In such cases the actual designation of the building is marked.

Institutional buildings
A building is regarded as institutional building provided the larger part of it (more than 50 %) is occupied by an institutional household (e.g. hospital, worker's home, dormitory, student's home, etc.). It is a must to record the proper denomination of the institution (e.g. Worker's home of Building Company No 43).

Other occupied build-ups
Other build-ups might be the business buildings (e.g. stall, laundry house, workshop, etc.) originally built not for human habitation though partly inhabited at the reference date of the census as well as the temporary or mobile facilities (e.g. hovel, hut, auto bus body, railway carriage, circus coach, etc.). The answer should indicate the base designation by indicating the occupancy (e.g. occupied/inhabited warehouse).

2. Height of the building

In defining the number of floors the mezzanine should be regarded as a separate floor (e.g. the building having a mezzanine and two upper floors will be regarded as a three-storied (03) building.) While defining the floors of the building the basement, cellar -- i.e. parts of the building underground -- must not be taken into account. The mansards will be regarded as a separate floor.

In the case of the whole edifice -- such as a cavern -- is dug onto the side of a hill or a mountain the answer "subterranean" will be underlined. The covered hovel dug into the earth is a subterranean edifice too.

3. Walls

While marking the walls of the building the foundation of the building should not be taken into account. In case the wall of the building is made of different materials (i.e. partly brick, partly adobe clay) the dominant material should be marked.

If the walls of the building are prefabricated (concrete) panels irrespective of the size of the constituting building elements, the answer "Block" should be marked. The category includes the manual walling blocks, the medium and large panels.

Cast concrete
The answer cast concrete will be marked in the case of the walls of the building had been erected by casting the concrete into formworks made of wood or metal.

4. Foundation of the building

The question relating to the foundation of the building will be answered only the walls of the house are of adobe, clay or similar material. In the case of the foundation is made of several types of materials (i.e. stone and brick) the dominant material will be marked.

5. Number of dwellings and housing units in the building

As an answer the total number of dwellings and premises used for habitation in the building (inhabited business premises, temporary or mobile facility) should be marked. (The number should correspond to the number of Housing questionnaires belonging to a building, facility.)


Filling in the part "Dwelling data".

The questions related to the dwelling will be answered by the tenant or the owner of the dwelling.

The "Dwelling data" consists of three sections:

a) General data
b) Number of rooms
c) Equipment of dwelling

Filling in part (i.e. table) "a) General data".

1. Designation of the housing unit

In answering the question only one designation should be underlined, i.e. marked.

The answer "occupied dwelling" or "vacant dwelling" will be marked only if the premises or group of premises suits the definition described in part "3. Scope of the census and the main definitions used".

Vacant dwelling
The dwelling will be regarded as vacant only if at the reference date of the census no person was registered by the authorities temporarily or permanently living there.

Holiday house
If at the reference date of the census at least one person was temporarily or permanently registered as inhabitant, the holiday house should be marked as "occupied dwelling".

Cottage (farm) house occupied only in the summer
The answer "Cottage (farm) house inhabited only in summer" should, be marked in the case of the dwelling is used during the summer season.

Cottage (farm) houses occupied at the reference date of the census should be marked as "residential building".

Institutional household
In the case of "Institutional household" is marked the designation (e.g. hospital, worker's home, dormitory, student's home, etc.) should be indicated too.

Occupied (inhabited) store, workshop, hovel
The designation of the occupied (inhabited) other housing units must be marked by underlining the respective answer (e.g. inhabited warehouse, occupied laundry house, inhabited hovel, circus coach, etc.).

2. Type of ownership

The type of ownership of the dwelling -- irrespective of the title of use of the occupants --should be registered.

The dwellings in private property should be enumerated by taking into account the type of construction as follows: dwelling in a house as property of private individual(s), dwelling owned by a dwelling co-operative, condo (dwelling in private property), dwelling in a building of collective ownership.


Dwelling in a house as property of private individuals
" Dwelling in a house as property of private individuals" answer should be marked in the case of residential buildings in private property, in buildings covering not more than three dwellings (the family-house type buildings) occupied by the owner, his/her relative(s) or a tenant.

Co-operative dwelling
"Co-operative dwelling" is the dwelling which had been built by a co-operative. The occupants of the dwelling (generally the joint-owners of the building i.e. the dwelling), after making an advance payment, are obliged to pay a monthly installment. The joint owners - after the cumulative amount of the monthly installment reaches the indexed value of the money invested for the dwelling -- shall become the owners of the dwelling.

Condo (dwelling in private property)
"Condo (dwelling in private property)" answer should be marked in the case of dwellings basically built upon the initiative of the state, subsidized by the state budget, and sold for a reduced price to private individuals. A private dwelling in multi-dwelling buildings built before 1945 is regarded also as a condo.

Dwelling in a building of collective ownership
"Dwelling in a building of collective ownership" is a dwelling built by private individuals by a cash payment supplemented and by bank credit. The dwelling usually is in a multi-storeyed building incorporating at least of four dwellings. The private individuals are owners of the given dwelling though collective owners of the common parts (and the parcel) of the building.

Dwelling in state property
Dwellings in state property are those maintained by (local) governments. Dwellings maintained by companies, institutions should be regarded as dwellings in state property too.

3. Title of use
In marking the title of use -- irrespective form of ownership -- answer should be given whether upon what grounds are the occupants staying in the dwelling.

Title of use is "Owner" (of a house, a co-operative dwelling, a condo) in the case that the occupants are living in a dwelling of their own property. The same answer should be given in the case of a relative of the owner is occupying the dwelling without paying a rental fee. Provided a rental fee is paid, the title of use of the occupant is "tenant".

The dwelling is used by a tenant in case it is used exclusively by the lessee.
Co-tenants are using a part of the dwelling collectively, while definite parts of it are used separately.


Service (contingency) dwelling
Service dwellings are usually bound to some activities (e.g. janitor, warden, doorman, maintainer of a levee, etc.) as well as the so called contingency dwellings usually being on the site of a production unit, or next to a production unit for assuring the safe running of the production.

The dwellings of the janitor -- as related to the work performance -- are also service dwellings.

In case of vacant dwelling, holiday house, cottage (farm) house occupied only in the summer, the "title of use of dwelling" shall not be recorded.

By answering question 3 as secondary title of use in the dwelling, the answers "subtenant" and "night lodger" must not be used.

Person leasing at least a room in a dwelling from the owner or the tenant is regarded as subtenant.

Title of use of a housing unit -- generally consisting of single premises (like a summer kitchen) -- let to a subtenant should be regarded as tenant.

Night lodger
The night-lodger is the person usually not entitled the use of an independent room.
Title of use "subtenant, night lodger" should be marked only in cell d) of table c./.

4. Year of construction

Enter the equivalent year into the printed cells, in case of a building built before 1960, by crossing the corresponding decade.

In the case of reconstructed or technically divided building, mark the year the work was accomplished.

Filling in the tables "b) Number of rooms"


Premises used for sleeping or daily stay, having natural lighting and at least 4 sq. meters total surface (living room, bedchamber, children's room, dining room) are regarded as a room.

Alcove (roomette):
The hatchway adjoining a room without door (alcove) must not be enumerated as a separate room.

Vestibules having a natural light and at least 4 sq. meters total surface shall be regarded as a room. All the other vestibules (meaning no natural lighting or having less than 4 sq. meters will be marked in line 9 as "other premises"'.

1. Room
In the first row only the rooms having more than 12 sq. meters should enumerated.

2. Half-room
Half-room has a total surface between 4 -- 12 sq. meters .


The kitchen is a room having at least 4 sq. meters and having been built and used for cooking.

The space adjoining the kitchen -- generally without a door -- will be regarded as a separate room.

A kitchen should be recorded only once even if it is used by occupants of two dwellings.

4. Kitchenette
Kitchenette is a space having less than 4 sq. meters used for cooking.


6. Bathroom

A bathroom is a room supplied with a bathtub and connected to a waste water conduit used for sanitary purposes. In case there is no installed facility the premises should be enumerated as other premises.

A bathroom architecturally separated, though used by two dwellings, shall be enumerated as belonging the dwelling closer to it.

7. Lavatory (shower)
A lavatory (shower) is generally a chamber not completely separated from the kitchen/room though having a separate basin, tub or shower connected to wastewater conduit.

8. Anteroom

Anteroom is a closed premise of a dwelling serving as an entrance of a dwelling. The glassed porch way shall be recorded as separate premises.

9. Other premises
Other premises are those belonging to the dwelling and contributing to the well-being f the occupants though not enumerated elsewhere (e.g. glassed porch way, servant's chamber having less than 4 sq. meters surface, storage closet, vestibule, etc.).

The loft, cellar, premises used for production purposes (stall, garage, etc.) must not be recorded as other premises.

The WC in separate premises will be enumerated as other premises.

Dwelling with a single premise

The dwelling with a single room as well as the inhabited economic facilities, temporary or mobile facilities should be marked in line 9.

11. Summer kitchen
A summer kitchen generally is in a separate building and is used only seasonally (generally in the summer).

Filling in table "c) Equipment"

A dwelling will be regarded as equipped with given facility in case the installation is usable, or in case of a transitory (repair) period -- in case of newly erected houses after connecting to the supplier -- the use of the facility is assured.

Community water circuit

A dwelling is equipped with "community water circuit" in case it is connected to the water system run by the city (village) or the district water supply system.

Domestic water circuit
"Domestic" water circuit should be marked in case the tap water is pumped electronically or manually from a well drilled/dug on the parcel of the building.

Drilled well
Deeply drilled Artesian well.

Sewage facility

The sewage can be canalized with the help of a community or domestic canalization.

Community sewage facility
"Community sewage" answer will be marked in case the dwelling is connected to a central sewage system.

Domestic sewage
"Domestic sewage" means connection to a depository, desiccators or cesspool on a non-communal territory.

Table on page 4 of the Dwelling questionnaire will be filled in after enumerating all the persons living/registered in the dwelling.


6. Filling in [form C)] Personal questionnaire
Parts of the Personal questionnaire

The Personal questionnaire consists of three parts:

  • General data on the enumerated person (It should be completed for each person!))
  • Education data of the enumerated persons (It should be marked only for those born after 1963)
  • III Occupation data of the enumerated persons. (Only for those born in 1955 or earlier!)

Consequently it must not be completed

  • Part II, III in case of persons born after 1964 and
  • Part III In case of persons born after 1956.

Filling in part "I. General data on the enumerated persons"

1. Family and last name

In case of married, widowed, and divorced women, the maiden name should be marked.

3. Date of birth
Provided the enumerated person was born in 1879 or earlier, a cross (X) should be put on the upper right part of the Dwelling questionnaire.

4. Marital status

In recording the marital status the actual legal situation should be marked:

"Never married" is the persons in case he/she has never had a marriage;

The person is "married" in case he/she has bound a legal marriage, the marriage had not been dissolved legally and his/her spouse is alive. The married couples might live together or separated from each-other;

"Widowed" is the person in case his/her spouse had deceased and he/she did not make a new match;

"Divorced" is the person provided his/her marriage had been legally dissolved with a final judgment, and he/she did not wed again.

Marital status of the persons living together without wedding will be defined according to their actual legal status. For example, in the case of a never married woman living with a married man, the marital status of the partners will be marked as never married and married respectively.

5. Household status

The enumerator at first should select the head of household and afterwards the (family and other household) relation against the head of household of the other household members will be defined. After completing this procedure -- irrespective of the presence/absence of the given person the corresponding answer should be marked.


Head of household

In defining the head of household, the principles on page 24 should be taken into account.


Wife is the female living in legal marriage with the head of household.

Consensual partner

Cohabiting (consensual) partner is the female living with the head of household without a legal marriage.


In case the head of household is the parent of a definite person irrespective of his age and marital status should be enumerated as "child". In case. Adopted or bred children will be enumerated as "children" too.

Grandchild, etc.

While defining the family status attention should be given to the relation of the particularly person to the head of household. That is the answer "grandchild" can be underlined only if the head of household is the grandfather of the person, while a person will be marked as grandfather only if the head of household is his grandchild., etc.

Other relatives

If the printed answers do not describe the relation between the given person and the head of household (e.g. cousin, brother/sister of the spouse, aunt, etc.), the respective denotation should be written on the dotted line.

Lone person

If a person does not live with anybody else, the answer "lone person" will be marked. In case lone persons (e.g. friends) other than relatives form a household one of the persons will be marked as head of household.

Other non-relatives

If there are living in the household persons other than relatives, the term expressing their position (e.g. maid, student in board, child in state care, person supported for a material compensation, etc.) should be written on the dotted line.

6. Presence on the place of enumeration

The place of the enumeration is the dwelling where the persons under enumeration live (i.e. those enumerated with the help of the respective Personal questionnaires).

The person to enumerate might be present, or absent depending whether at the reference date of the census he/she had stayed in the dwelling or not. The official registration of the person as resident does not automatically signifies the effective situation. In case the persons was not present the definite answer of his/her stay (locality, district, name of the public place, number of the building, door number) should be registered.

The persons having been working at the night of the reference date of the census (e.g. guards, drivers, pilots, engine drivers, etc.) will be enumerated as "person present" in dwellings they return after performing the works, service to.

The same approach is valid for those being absent only for celebrating the New Year's Eve.

The persons who at the reference date of the census have been travelling shall be enumerated at the destination of their trip.


7. Is the place of enumeration the registered address?

The registered permanent address is the dwelling in which the person is registered by the police as inhabitant.

In case the dwelling is not the registered permanent dwelling of the person enumerated, while underlining the answer "no" the proper address (including the floor and door numbers) of the person's permanent address should be entered.

The registered address of the children -- who are not yet obliged to register themselves at the authorities -- is the same as that of the parent's.

The permanent address of the persons residing not at home (e.g. due to conducting studies or working abroad) is the address registered by the authorities.

The permanent address of the conscripts, reservist on duty as well as that of the professional and civilian members of the armed forces is the same as the place of enumeration. (The answer should be always "yes".)

The same applies in case of the captives, imprisoned persons.

In case of a foreign citizen living in Hungary by marking the place of his/her permanent address only the name of the country should be entered.

Person living in institutional household

Among the persons enumerated in institutional households, the enumerator could find persons permanently registered there (e.g. foundlings, children in state care, some inhabitants of the health institutions, worker's homes who do not have a permanent address elsewhere).

As permanent address of these persons, the place of enumeration should be taken into account.

Does the person have a temporary address

The temporary address of the enumerated person is:
  • The dwelling which had been registered by the police as temporary address (that is the address entered on the pages 12-17 of the person's "Identity card") e.g. a worker's home, the dwelling where the person is a subtenant, night lodger;
  • The temporary place of residence of the persons (not yet obliged to be registered by the authorities) being away from the parents for studies (dormitory, etc.) even if they go home for the winter holidays);
  • The temporary foreign address of the persons having a permanent address in Hungary while studying or working abroad.
In cases of members of the Hungarian diplomatic corps, the temporary address is the country of their service, mission.

In case a person has one of temporary addresses described above after underlining the Answer "yes," the a) and b) sub-questions should be answered too.

Conscripts, reservist on duty, as ell as the members of the armed forces must not have a temporary address. These persons should be enumerated only at their permanent address. (Only the answer "no" should be used.)

Person living in institutional household

In case a person does not have a registered permanent address by disregarding the sub-questions, only the answer "no" will be underlined.

Hospitals, maternity hospitals, health institutions, hotels and holiday homes must not be regarded as registered temporary address of the enumerated persons. In case of in-patients and hotel guests enumerated, there the answer "no" should be underlined even if they have been registered in the books (checked by the police) of the establishments.

8/a Place of the temporary address
If the registration is on the temporary address the answer "the place of enumeration" should be underlined.

If the registration is not the same as the temporary address than the answer "not on site of the enumeration" should be underlined and the proper address of the registered temporary address should be noted.


8/b Cause of having a temporary address

While registering the temporary address the reason of having the address should be declared. At the enumeration the actual reason should be noted. The original reason of having the temporary address of a person given person might have been the conduct of studies, while at the reference date -- after getting the exams -- the reason of having the address could be "work performance".

The answer "family issues" can be underlined in case of married cohabitation, divorce, separation, in case of children living together with their supporter(s).

9. Mother tongue

Mother tongue is the language in which the person generally speaks with the members of his/her family and which one, free of all influences and true reality, declares to be his/her mother tongue. The mother tongue of the dumb and the infants unable to speak is the language in which their next of kin regularly speak. Only one language can be marked as mother tongue.

In case of Southern Slavic languages -- Bunjevac, Chroatian, Shokatz, Rascian, Slovenian, Vendish -- as far as question 9 is concerned the Bunjevac, Chroatian and Shokatz languages are grouped as Chroatian language, the Serbian and Rascian languages are grouped as Serbian language, while the Slovenian and Vendish languages are grouped as "other Southern Slavic" languages.

10. Number of live-born children

Total number of the live-born children of the enumerated person should be entered into the printed boxes with Arabic numbers. In case the number of live-born children is below 10 a "0" should be entered into the first box (e.g. 02, 03, etc.) A child is regarded as live-born provided after a natural or artificial labour has shown signs of life (respiration, crying, and cardiac sound) and he/she had been registered in the parish. In case the enumerated person did not have a live-born child double "0" must be entered into the box, that is the boxes should be filled in case of each enumerated person.


Filling in part "II. Data on education of the enumerated person"

The questions related to the education should be filled in only in case the enumerated person was born in 1963 or earlier. That is in case of the children born between 1964 -1969 this part as well as part III of the questionnaire will be empty.
First question of part II collects information on the regular school attendance of the enumerated person. A regular school i.e. educational institution is

In the primary education: the general school;
In the secondary level: the grammar school,

The (so called) technical school,
The specialized secondary school;

On the higher level: the university,

The academy,
The technical school of a higher level,
The teachers training college
Training college for kindergarten teachers.

Questions 12-14 refer to the training completed in regular educational institutions. A supplementary instruction is issued to define the education obtained regarding the persons having completed studies in educational institutions already not existing.

11. School attendance

Due to the evening and correspondence courses in the education the question should be answered by the persons over school age.

12. Not studied in a school
In case the enumerated person did not attend the school or is studying in the first grade of the primary education, the answer is "without attending the school" and the printed boxes remain empty.

Number of levels (classes) completed
In the case of persons either conducting regular studies in an educational institution or having finished his/her studies, the number of the highest grade completed should be entered with Arabic numerals into the empty boxes. The numbering of the grades should start with the first grade of the primary school and it should continuously follow up to the last grade completed by the respective person (e. g. in case a person has a final certificate issued by a secondary educational institution or a diploma of a university the total number of grades completed will be recorded).

Only the classes (grades) completed successfully -- that is the completed grade confirmed by a certificate - should be taken into account. In case a person is visiting the 4th grade of the primary school only the 3d grade can be marked as completed. Repeated and post-graduate classes must not be considered. The evening and correspondence courses are treated equally with the daily courses.


Due to the past changes in the educational system the individuals have had different ways in obtaining the highest grade of their education. By taking into consideration the previous statement the enumerator should note (record) the facts according to the contemporary educational system.

Examples for recording the answers to question 12:
General (primary) school 4 4 8 8
Higher elementary school 4 0 0 8
Secondary school 0 8 4 4
Institution of higher education 0 0 0 5
Generally a higher level of the education is possible only after the successful completion of the lower level studies. Nevertheless there are persons who obtained the certificate on the specialized matriculation exam or the diploma of a university without completing the secondary school. These extraordinary cases occurred only in the course of some selected years only.

The courses completed in technical institutes, on technical courses must not be considered. These (e.g. courses for stenographers, typists, medical courses, apprentice schools, etc.) are not regarded as training in regular educational establishments. The specialised secondary school -- being a regular educational institution -- must not be mistaken with the apprentice school (e.g. there is a difference between medical training college and the medical secondary education).

Attention should be given to the fact that in the training of the teachers, kindergarten teachers as well as the technicians there was in the past (and as regards the latter category it is even presently) both secondary and high level education. In these categories completed, high level education can be registered if the given person obtained a final certificate (qualification document).

The schools for backward children (schools for tongue-tacked, deaf and dumb persons, blinds, the persons deficient in body, the mentally back warded persons) should be regarded as the schools in general.

Higher elementary school
Some people unduly regard the higher elementary school as a secondary school. Therefore the enumerator should whether the given person visited an ordinary or a higher elementary school. To register the higher elementary school is possible only if persons completing their studies before 1948. The number of grades/classes noted should be between 1 and 4.

Institution of higher education
One-year colleges (e.g. commercial college) are regarded as training courses consequently the completed years do not mean completed secondary or higher level education.


13. Does the person have a certificate from a secondary school
In the case of persons having certificates issued by two secondary educational institutions, only one certificate will be recorded, that is the which is more close to the person's job, work performance.

13/a Type of the secondary school certificate
In the case of the persons who obtained final certificate secondary education, the type of institution (i.e. the specialization of studies) will be marked by underlining the correspondent answer.

Attention! The certificate obtained in a teacher's grammar school, lyceum as well as in a sports-masters secondary school qualifies the person as elementary school teachers.

13/b Specialization of the secondary school certificate
Answer 13/b should not be answered if persons who obtained a final certificate in grammar schools, or qualification of secondary level as elementary school teachers or kindergarten teachers, or those who passed the special matriculation exam. The industrial agricultural, financial (business) and artistic grammar schools are regarded as exemptions, in these cases question 13/b is "other".

14. Person completed secondary education
In the case of persons having obtained a diploma, the final certificate should not be underlined -- that is in case the answer "the person has only a final certificate" is underlined, then the answer "diploma obtained" must not be marked. The final certificates issued by theological and military colleges are regarded as diplomas.

The answers "diploma obtained ", "the person has only a final certificate" will be marked only in case if the given person completed at least 2 years on the given higher educational institution, that is the line "higher educational institution" of question 12 at least 2 years are marked.

In the case of persons who obtained several diplomas, only one must be noted -- the one which is closer to his/her profession, job performance.

In case the persons visited or visiting the university but no diploma had been obtained (yet), the answer "no" will be underlined and the remaining part of the sub questions will not be answered.

15. Existence of certificate of professional skill

The answer "yes" will be marked only in case the person obtained a certificate in an apprentice school. The qualification obtained simultaneously with a certificate obtained in a secondary specialized school the answer "no" will be underlined and the sub-questions a) and b) should not be answered.


15/b Duration of studies

The number of years and months of studies for obtaining the certificate should be registered. (E.g. in the case of studies which lasted for 2 years and 6 months the 2 years and 06 months will be entered.) In the case of an answer the printed cells should be filled in, that is in case the certificate had been obtained in 2 years the entry is 2 years and 00 month.

Filling in part "III. Occupation of the enumerated persons"

Part III. Of the questionnaire will be completed only in the case of persons over 14 years and over (persons born in 1955 or after) as follows: question 16 should be recorded for everybody, question 17-18 only for those who are not working, question 19 will be filled in again for everybody while questions 20-22 for those who are having gainful employment.

Defining whether a person is working -- having a gainful employment -- requires the consideration of several issues. It is possible to take into account on the one hand the status at the reference date of the census while on the other to consider the activity status during the whole year.

As far as the present enumeration is concerned the question should be answered upon the activity status at the reference date of the census, more exactly upon the status of the last week of 1969. The persons having been employed by a company, having been members of co-operative, private entrepreneur or family helper in the given period (that is in the last week of 1969) are regarded as working.

In the case of persons not working in the last week of 1969, by answering the further (17-19) questions reference will be given to the activity during the previous year. Answering questions is important to the effect of having explicit information on the respective characteristics of the person.

Consequently before answering question 16 it has to be clarified whether in the last week of 1969 was the person working or not i.e. whether at the reference date of the census is performing gainful activity. In the case of persons not having gainful activity it should be answered in the case of the persons have had ever a gainful activity or not, in the case of he is a pensioner or dependent, or in the case of he is actually changing his position.

In case of conscripts and imprisoned persons, the answer should be given on the basis of the activity before commencement of the service or that of the imprisonment.

The answer is "yes" in the case of in the last week of December the person had an employment contract, was (working) member of a co-operative or private entrepreneur (all the persons listed before but those being on for childcare leave as well as pensioners having a working contract as permitted by the legislation). The answer is "yes" in case the person during the last week of 1969 had been sick or on leave (winter holiday, maternity leave) and consequently the working contract (or the membership status in the co-operative) have not broken.


Consequently the answer is "yes" in case of:

  • Employees of the companies, institutions, offices, co-operatives and private entrepreneurs having working contract for the last week of 1969 (even in the case of in part-time or outside worker) including the pensioners who due to working status temporarily abandons to receive the pension;
  • Members of the agricultural, industrial and other co-operatives provided their membership had been valid at the reference date of the census, i.e. in the last week of 1969;
  • Agricultural and non-agricultural private entrepreneurs;
  • Family helpers of non-agricultural private entrepreneurs;
  • Odd job workers or persons having similar activity status, provided they worked in the last week of December 1969;
  • Persons having earnings by letting their land, having subtenant, night-lodger in their dwellings (properties), or financed by somebody upon a contract of support; and
  • In case of conscripts and reservists on duty as well as of imprisoned persons provided they had been working before the commencement of the service or the imprisonment.

In case of family helpers in agriculture (family helpers of the members of agricultural co-operatives, of agricultural private entrepreneurs and those of having income from double -- agricultural and non-agricultural - works) being usually active in the collective or private farms) -- as in the least week of the year they are not performing the works the answer "yes" must not be answered. After marking the answer "no" in case of these persons attention should be given to the proper answers to questions 17-19 those will be considered in defining the characteristics and length of the work performed in the year as a whole.

The answer "no" must be underlined in case of all the persons not listed above, that is in case of persons who did not have a gainful activity in the last week of December 1969, that is in case of:

  • Odd job workers who did not work in the last week of 1969,
  • Seasonal workers -- irrespective of the length of work during the year - not working on the last week of the year,
  • Family helpers of the members of agricultural co-operatives, of agricultural private entrepreneurs and those of having income from double -- agricultural and non-agricultural - works) being usually active in the collective or private farms,
  • Pensioners, rentiers (of own or derivative right) even in the case of while receiving the pension are working for a payment allowed by legislation (e.g. HUF 500 monthly or HUF 6 000 yearly). The pensioners who due to working status temporarily abandon to receive the pension as well as those while receiving a derivative pension, rent have a full-time employment should not be regarded as pensioners,
  • The persons being on unpaid holidays for taking care of their children and those being on a "child-care leave",
  • [p.23]
  • Persons supported exclusively by their relatives,
  • Persons over 14 years of age conducting regular studies (in primary, secondary schools, institutions of higher education), participating in professional training, in specialized courses, lectures without having a working contract,
  • Each person not having an independent income, earning and is supported by a private person or an institution (domestic help, maid, persons maintained in institutions, etc.),
  • Conscripts and imprisoned persons who did not work before the enrollment.

Further question of part III. Of the questionnaire will be answered depending on the "yes" or "no" answer given for question 16.

17/a Why the person does not work

The question will be answered only by persons giving answer "no" to the previous question. It has to be defined in the case of the person:
-- Was dependent or
-- Based on his former economic activity had an income and was not working at the date of the census that is in the case of he was:
-- On child-care leave,
-- Pensioner or rentier of an agricultural co-operative.
Dependents are the persons who at the reference date of the census do not perform gainful activity i.e. those who worked in the course of 1969 though they in the last week of the year did not work, had not been pensioners, renters, or did not get a child-care allowance. The group of persons include :
  • The students in general primary (elementary) schools aged 14 years and over, born in 1955 or earlier;
  • The students conducting regular studies on daily courses of the secondary educational institutions;
  • The apprentices studying in professional educational schools and those who contracted with a company or a private entrepreneur for acquiring technical skills;
  • Attendees in professional schools, courses provided this is regarded as their main activity (and they are not working at the same time);
  • The students in the high level educational institutions even in the case of they receive a stipend;
  • The housewives, hostesses not having a paid compensation;
  • The persons who at the reference date of the census, more exactly in the last week of 1969 did not have a working contract, have not been private entrepreneurs even in the case of in the course of 1969 have had a temporary job, have been family helpers in the agriculture, or are in transition from one job to the other;
  • [p.24]
  • The elderly or sick persons not having any income (pension, rent);
  • The persons supported by different institutions, the institutional dependents.
The answer in case of a student should reflect the quality of the student (e.g. student in a general (primary) school), in case of a person other than student his/her position in the household (e.g. housewife).

In case an institutional dependent is regularly attending a school he/she has to be classified as the other students (e.g. student in a general (primary) school).

The pensioners (rentiers) living in social welfare homes must be enumerated as pensioners and not as institutional dependents.

The answer is "housewife" only in case of female dependents other than students who in 1969 did not have an income generating activity.

The answer is "other dependent" in case of males other than students and all the females having been working in the course of 1969.

The entry in the dotted lines in case of family helpers, day-laborers is "odd job worker", "causal laborer", in case of persons in transition from one employment into the other "temporarily not working". In case the persons stopped the income generating activity without the intention not to work afterwards the entry is "other dependent". In case of conscripts who did not work before starting the service the entry after the answer "other dependent as" should be "seeking for the first employment"

Person on leave for child-care.
The person on leave for child-care is the mother who before delivering the child have been working and who for taking care of her newborn child is on unpaid holiday though is getting childcare allowance from the state (social welfare fund). The mother is entitled to be on leave for child-care as from the end of the maternity leave up to the completed 3d year of the child. The 20 weeks (in case of extraordinary cases 24 weeks) maternity leave is not regarded as leave for child-care.

Pensioner (rentier).
The pensioner is the person who after completing his working activity -- according to the valid legislation -- receives a regular pension. The category includes the disability pensioners and the rentiers as well. The basis of the title of getting pension is generally the last employment; in case of the derivative pension the last employment of the spouse. While giving the address the answer should be either "pension of own right" or "pension of derivative right".

Rentier of agricultural co-operative.
Rrentier of agricultural co-operative is the person -- female aged 65 years and over and male 70 years and over -- who became member of the agricultural co-operative but due to the lack of years for getting the base amount of the pension from the social security receives only HUF 260 rent. The persons are regarded as rentiers even in the case of he is working regularly in the collective or (his/her) private farm.


17/b Last working date.

Persons giving answer "no" to question 16 should answer in the case of he/she have had a working contract or have been working in the past. In case the answer is "yes" the year of the last employment, in case the last employment was in 1969 the month of the last job should be entered. In case of those being on child-care leave the commencement of the leave, in case of pensioners, rentiers the year of start of the status will be entered even in the case of the person had a part-time employment. (In case the child-care leave or the period in pension started with effect of January 1st the last to numbers of the previous year will be entered.)

In case of dependents having performed in 1969 any agricultural activity the year 1969 and the number of performed months will be entered as an answer.

In case of persons -- even in the case of they are pensioners on derivative rights -- who did not have yet a working contract or did not perform income generating activity at all and in 1969 did not perform agricultural activity either the answer "no" should be underlined.

17/c Duration of work in 1969.

The question will be answered by persons who had worked in 1969. The total (cumulative) number of days worked -- even in the case of in several industries, jobs (agriculture, industry, construction, etc., household plot, private farm, etc. - should be entered. The days spent on a holiday or on sickness leave are regarded working days. The week will be regarded as covering 6 working days even in the case of according to the working contract of the given person only 5 days should be spent in work weekly.

In case the answer to question 16 is "no," the value entered as an answer to question 17/c must not be less -- even in the case of the person is a family helper -- than the time worked and entered as an answer to question 19/a. It is advised that the enumerator in case of the persons giving the answer "no" to question 16 first inquires and counts the days covered by agricultural activity (as described at question 19) and thereafter counts the days spent in performing other works (in 1969 at any other employer, in any other jobs) and writes the sum of the two previous figures into the respective printed boxes of question 17/c.

Provided the answer to 17/b given by a pensioner is not 1969, the time spent in agricultural or in any other job should be entered too. Consequently an answer should be given to question 17/c in case a pensioner, rentier gives an answer "yes" to question 19.

18. Last occupation of the retired person (last occupation of the spouse of the person having derivative pension).

The question must be answered by those persons who at the reference date of the census are "not" working but they have been working before, or had performed income generating activity (in answering question 17/c time worked is registered). The same is valid for the widows receiving derivative pension.

In case of pensioners, rentiers, persons being on child-care leave, being temporarily unemployed the last occupation, employment status, employer should be registered.

In case of widows receiving derivative pension the last occupation of the spouse should be recorded even in case he/she was working too though the pension is paid on a derivative right.


In case of persons having performed in the course of the year income generating activity (causal workers, odd job workers, day laborers, family helpers) for several employers, in different jobs (agriculture, industry, construction, etc.) instead of the last occupation the job (occupation) in which larger part of the activity had been spent.

The last -- or more characteristic -- employment, employment status, the name and address of the employer - should be entered according the definitions related to questions 20, 21/a, 21/b, 22/a and 22/b.

Family helper in the agriculture.
The persons working on the land of one of the family members, on the household part supplied by the agricultural co-operative as well as those working on behalf of one of the members of the household in the agricultural co-operative without material compensation will be entered as family helpers provided in the course of the year that was his/her main activity. Family helpers might support the following persons:
Members of agricultural co-operatives (specialized co-operatives) provided the family members are helping the farming either in the private household part or on the collective farm;
Agricultural private entrepreneurs;
Persons who while working in the industry, commerce, etc. have a piece of land or husbandry.
The employees of the agricultural co-operatives supported in their household part by the family members.

While entering the occupation (that is "family helper") it should be noted whether the family member is helping an agricultural private entrepreneur, a member of an agricultural co-operative or a person having other occupation as the former.

Correct entries are as follows:
Family helper of a member of an agricultural co-operative (specialized co-operative) irrespective of the effective place (the household part or the farm of the co-operative) of work;
Family helper of an agricultural private entrepreneur;
Family helper of a private gardener;
Family helper working in the household part of a digger.
Attention! The qualification of the employment (skilled worker, semi-skilled worker, outside worker, etc.) should be indicated also by the answer to question 18/a.

19. Agricultural work performed in 1969
The question should be answered by each person in case part III of his/her questionnaire contains information. Even in case the agricultural work lasted only for a few days and even in the case of the agricultural work performed was a secondary activity of a person working in other industry, or he/she was a dependent, causal worker or family helper the answer "yes" should be given. (In case of conscripts and imprisoned persons instead of 1969 the year before the enrolment/ imprisonment should be taken into account.


Agricultural work
Any physical (manual) work will be considered as agricultural activity which was performed in plant cultivation, animal husbandry, horticulture as well as in production, transportation, storage and packaging of agricultural companies (collective farms of agricultural co-operatives, state agricultural of forestry companies, specialized agricultural firms),
in small-size agricultural estates (farms of private agricultural entrepreneurs, household parts of members of co-operatives and that of any other person) the daily activity with the animals (breeding, taking care of), the works in crops production, cultivation of wine yards, production of fruits as well as the other activities within the farm-yard.
The following activities must not be regarded as agricultural activity:
the works performed in auxiliary industrial, construction and commercial plants of the agricultural ventures (e.g. button manufacturing, machinery production, construction), agricultural works performed by non-agricultural companies, institutions (e.g. horticulture, etc. and the activities for maintaining the family life (e.g. washing, cooking, dusting).

Agricultural work as main activity
Answer "main activity" will be underlined in case the agricultural work is the exclusive activity, or activity performed in the major part of the year of the given person, e.g. the person had been always or mostly working as a day laborer or family helper in the agriculture. The persons working for agricultural firms (state companies, agricultural co-operatives, etc.) in agricultural activities are performing the work as their main activity even in the case of they also work in their private farm.

Agricultural work as auxiliary activity.
In the case of persons having a main activity other than agricultural work (having a working contract with a non-agricultural employer or being a student) the agricultural activity performed should be regarded as "auxiliary activity". The complementary (auxiliary) agricultural can be underlined in case of persons working in the industrial production or elsewhere, who in their spare-time or after completion of the daily work had performed agricultural activity.

The agricultural activity performed in their household part of the persons working in agricultural firms (state farms, agricultural co-operatives, etc.) in non-agricultural occupations (e.g. as a locksmith, carpenter, etc.).
19/a Length of agricultural work.
In the case of the answer to question 16 is "yes", that is in case the person is member of an agricultural or specialized co-operative, has a working contract with a different agricultural employer (forestry, horticulture, etc.) and is working in an agricultural type occupation, instead of entering the number of hours worked the answer "through the year" should be entered.


The period of time spent on holidays or in sickness leave will be regarded a time worked. For example in case of a stock-breeder who besides the legal annual leave have been for a month on sickness leave the answer "through the year" should be underlined.

Taking into account the complexity and characteristics of the agricultural work it is not easy the proper allocation of the agricultural activity. In case a person at the date of the census is working for an agricultural venture and in the preceding year performed both agricultural and non-agricultural activities though it is not easy to separate them, the answer "through the year" should be underlined.

In the case of persons who did not work in agricultural occupations through the year the answer is "in a part of the year" and the number of days having been employed in agricultural activities should be entered into the printed boxes. (The number of days entered must not exceed those marked in question 17/c.)

Increased thoroughness and care must be devoted to persons giving an answer to question 16 as "none". In counting the days spent in agricultural work it is advised to apply additional questions such as:

What is the number of days having been working in agricultural occupations during the year in agricultural co-operatives and special agricultural co-operatives, including the share-farming, in agricultural state farms, in agricultural activities in the forestry firms, in the agricultural private farms as entrepreneur, family helper, day-laborer, etc.

20. Occupation, main activity, status, scope of activity

The occupation of the persons at the reference date of the census should be entered.
In case of persons having several occupations (having secondary employment, second job) the main activity should be recorded that is the one performed in the larger part of the year, i.e. the one regarded by the person as his/her main activity.

Precise and detailed definition
The occupation should be entered precisely and detailed otherwise the entry will not reveal the actual activity, assignment, scope of work of the particular person. Sweeping expressions such as labourer, outside worker, semi-skilled worker, merchant, clerk, foreman, teacher, etc. should not be used. Below you will find some examples of correct entries which of course relate to some definite cases nevertheless they might give suggestions for the details of the specification required.

Correct entries are e.g. trammer in brigade, operator of bolting-machine, carpenter, foreman of engine fitters, embroiderer, labeller, pocket gluer, digger's foreman, fruit and vegetable merchant, foreman in a finances, payroll-clerk, primary school teacher, etc.


Similarly detailed description of the activity is necessary in case of persons working as rapporteurs, executives, section heads, persons employed in technical, research and other. The correct entries in the later cases might be such as head of department/sanitary physician, rapporteur/mechanical engineer, researcher chemist, university professor/surgeon, etc.

Working in agriculture
As described above also in case of the persons having an agricultural occupation and members of agricultural co-operatives a detailed definition of the work performed should be given, e.g. breeder of animal husbandry, plant cultivator, guard of agricultural land, mixer of fodder, teamster, gardener, etc. In case of agricultural private entrepreneurs the following -- or similar - answers could be given: vineyardist, vegetable gardener, etc.

Agricultural day-labourer
The entry "agricultural day-laborer" can be applied in case of persons performing agricultural activity only occasionally and at the reference date of the census do not have a working contract and are not members of an agricultural cooperative either.
Private artisan, merchant and their relatives
The persons working in the workshop, store or venture (in general) of the head of household or that of one of the members of the household regularly and without material compensation should be regarded as family helper.

Persons who might have a family helper are:

  • Craftsmen (carpenters, bricklayers, etc.) as private entrepreneurs;
  • Merchants as private entrepreneurs.
  • In case of a family helper it is not sufficient to enter the expression "family helper"; the exact definition of the workplace should be registered too, e.g.
  • Family helper of a private upholsterer;
  • Family helper of a private fruits and vegetables merchant.

Unskilled worker

The scope of activity should be recorded properly in case of a person employed as unskilled laborer too, e.g. cleaner, roustabout, material handler, etc.

Causal hand

If the scope of activity of a person's work outside the agriculture can not be properly defined due the fact that his employer or activity is not stable, the answer "casual hand" should be entered.

Living from earning of land, house, etc.

In case of persons having agricultural land, a house or a dwelling for rent and their income is exclusively the rental fee received from the lessee -- that is they do not have a working contract and are not pensioners either -- the entry might be: "living of having sub-tenants in the dwelling", "living of letting agricultural land", "living of life-annuity contract".

21/a Employment status

The answer should define in the case of the occupation entered at question 20 relates to a person having a working contract (as employed), to a private entrepreneur, to a member of a co-operative or else.


The "employees" are the persons having a working contract at a state company, institution, office, agricultural or other co-operative, private entrepreneur, etc. and based on the contract a salary or other material compensation is paid to them. The same entry will be recorded in case of day-labourers, causal workers too.

Member of co-operative
The member of co-operative is the person who is regular member of an agricultural co-operative (production-, specialized co-operative, co-operative working group, association, vine-growing community), fishing co-operative, industrial or cottage industrial co-operative and their membership was effective on 31 December, 1969. (The supporting members are not regarded as members of a co-operative.)

The answer must not be underlined in case of persons working for the General Consumer's and Trading Co-operatives as well as in case of persons working as members of a working team (e.g. lawyer's team). The correct entry for these persons is "employee".

Private entrepreneur
The answer "private entrepreneur" shall be given in case of persons who are working as agricultural private entrepreneurs, artisans, retailers, free-lance intellectuals, of those letting their land for a material compensation.

Family helper
The answer "family helper" should be given in case of persons working without any material compensation in a workshop, store, and private venture of one of the household members.

21/b Intellectual (white-collar) or manual worker
The persons giving the answer to question 21/a "employee" or "member of co-operative" should declare the qualification of the profession, job entered at question 20.

The answer should not be given in case of the professional employees of the armed forces though it has to be answered by civilian employees there.

Before the detailed description of the quality of occupation it to be defined in the case of the persons was a "white-collar" or a "blue-collar" worker. The answer will be given by underlining the respective word printed.

In general the intellectual (white-collar) workers are those performing managing, administrative activities not requiring physical efforts.

Intellectual (white-collar) worker
The white-collar workers are the technical managers (chief engineers, plant engineers, etc.); the persons pursuing scientific or teaching activities (scientific researchers physicists, librarians, teachers, schoolmasters, etc.); the persons curing, taking care of sick people (physicians, maternity nurses, nurses, etc.); the artists (performers, writers, etc.); the managers of companies, institutions, offices; payroll-clerks, cashiers, typists, etc.); the shop managers and managers of restaurants .

The persons working as trainees to become an engineer, technician, chemist, nurse or similar and those working as candidates for intellectual works should be regarded also as white-collar workers.


Manual (blue-collar) worker
The categories of blue-collar workers besides the physical workers cover the activities complementing the productive work: doormen, guards, cleaners, packers. The category includes also the shop assistants, the messengers, the janitors, the domestic hands.

The quality of the blue-collar workers should be further classified. Answer should be given in the case of the enumerated person was a skilled worker, a semi-skilled worker, an outside worker or other worker.

Skilled worker
The person is a skilled worker having the qualification of (proved by) a journeyman's certificate, a certificate of skilled laborer, a document on passing the exam of technical base studies). Nevertheless the same answer will be underlined even in case the given persons do not have the necessary written certificate though based on the long experience he is employed as such.

Semi-skilled worker
Semi-skilled workers are executing similar works as the skilled workers but as they acquired the ability for accomplishing the tasks by a simple training, they do not have a certificate of profession neither a document to proof the passing the exam of technical base studies and they do not regard themselves as skilled workers.

Contracting (outside) worker
The answer "contracting (outside) worker" should be underlined in case of persons working generally at their homes, usually performing industrial works based on a contract with a state company, a production co-operative eventually a private entrepreneur. In their case it must not be recorded the qualification of the work (skilled or semi-skilled labour) but the word "outside worker". Persons working in the household plots of the members of the agricultural co-operatives must not be regarded as outside (contracting) workers.

Other manual worker
The answer "other manual worker" will be underlined in case of persons not listed above, such as:

Unskilled workers, that is the persons assisting the skilled and semi-skilled workers (e.g. material handlers);
The persons performing agricultural works without having any professional qualification in crops production, animal husbandry, teamsters, etc., that is the unskilled agricultural laborers;
The roustabouts, causal workers and
The persons performing other auxiliary physical activities not listed above, e.g. doormen, guards, office servants, etc.

22. Name and place of the employer

The question must be answered by persons giving an answer to question 21/a as "employee" or "member of co-operative".

22/a Exact denomination of the employer
The employer is the company, institution, co-operative, etc. where the enumerated person is working and receiving a salary (as employee) or member of co-operative. The employer might be a private individual as well.

It is required to enter the official name of the employer. Abbreviated names can be used in case of commonly known companies, phrases e.g. MÁV (for Hungarian Railways), IBUSZ (for national tourist company), mg. tsz. (for agricultural co-operative, etc.).


Similarly, the proper name and address will be marked in case the employer is an agricultural co-operative -- that is, if the members and employees of the agricultural co-operatives who for securing the continuous employment are hired by the agricultural co-operative temporarily or for a definite period to other companies on the base of a collective or individual contract.

In case of professional and civilian employees of the armed forces, the abbreviated form of the corps should be entered, i.e. HM (for Ministry of Defense), BM (for Ministry of the Interior) and IM (for Ministry of Justice).

The name of the agricultural company should show in the case of it being a co-operative, a specialized co-operative, or a joint company of several co-operatives, e.g. Joint Company of the Agricultural Co-operatives in Pig-breeding.

In cases of roustabouts and daily laborers, it is sufficient to indicate that the person is working for "private entrepreneurs" or "for privates". (That is the name and address of the employer must not be entered.)

Persons working for several employers
In case of persons working for several employers, the answer to question 20 that is the main employer is taken into account.

22/b Exact definition of the place of work
The place of work is the workshop, division, institution, etc. (maintained by the employer) the person enumerated is going for work. The exact name of the place of work will be entered as answer to question 22/b.

In case the employer's and the work place's address is the same (that is in majority of the cases) a full address will be recorded only in the answer to question 22/a while the answer to question 22/b will be "the same.

The question will not be answered in case of the professional and civilian members of the armed forces.

In case of persons working in a particular department -- e.g. in the head office or in a grocery shop, in a clothing shop, restaurant, bar, etc. of an employer - it is very often that the name of the employer is very generous, e.g. Retail Trade Company, General Consumer's and Trading Co-operative, etc.

Therefore it has to be entered here the exact and definite address of the plant, shop, division, etc. where the enumerated person works.

Health and educational institutions
In case of persons working in health and educational institutions again not the name of the employer (that is Ministry of Education or District Council, etc.) rather the effective place of work (e.g. the definite address and/or name of the primary school, the District Hospital will be noted.


In case of persons working in the medical cabinets, crèches, kindergartens, day-time homes, holiday houses, restaurants maintained by companies, institutions, etc. instead of the name of the maintainer the concrete place of work will be entered, e.g. medical company of the company, crèche of a firm, holiday house of the company, etc.

22/c Locality of the place of work

As an answer the name of the locality of the workplace entered as an answer to question 22/b is given, that is the name of the village, town, in case of Budapest and towns with county rights the district where the enumerated person is going to daily for work.

In case of persons usually working on different places the answer is "not fixed". The place of work is not regarded as "not fixed" in case the person's different working places are within the same municipality (district in Budapest).

In case the place of work is the same as the locality of the enumeration -- in case of Budapest the district of the enumeration -- it is sufficient to give an abbreviated answer, such as "H" (in loco).

Data on the supporter of the person
Attention! The data on the persons supporting others are linked to the occupational questions.

While filling in the Personal questionnaire, the enumerator will recognize in the case of the dependents enumerated were enumerated as belonging to the family. In majority of cases this can be automatically realized while building up the family structure. In case the dependent person is not enumerated with the family e.g. he/she was enumerated in a holiday house, dormitory information on his/her supporter must be acquired even in the case of otherwise no Personal questionnaire on the person below 14 years of age would be necessary to filled in. In this case part III. Of the questionnaire must not be filled in.

The data of the supporter will be entered into the printed boxes in the framed section, after part
III preceding the "Comments of the enumerator" as follows:
The occupation of the supporter as described at question 20
The type and characteristics of the supporter as described at questions 21/a and b,
The employer of the supporter as described at question 22/a, b and c.
Irrespective of the age of the institutional dependents the name of the supporting institution, organization, etc. must be entered into the line "name of the employer".

7. Housing questionnaire
Filling in the table "Data on persons living in the dwelling" Sample (A)


After completing the enumeration of the persons living in the dwelling the table on the back-side of the Housing questionnaire will be filled in. There are several reasons for having the table.
First it gives an overall review on the enumerated persons, enabling at the same time to control the completeness of the Personal questionnaires; it contains the data used in collecting the preliminary data on the census; according to the aforesaid concepts it serves as supporting table to define the composition of the households, the relation of the members of the household to each-other and the number of households living in the dwelling.

The filling in of the table requires due foresight and care as well as the proper knowledge of the definitions concerned.

A complete list of the persons (and some of their personal characteristics) living in the dwelling will be listed. Data on the persons will be entered into the rows of the table; the number of rows filled in must be the same as the total number of Personal questionnaires of the persons living in the dwelling.

In the case of there are more than 16 persons living in the dwelling an additional sheet will be used. As an additional sheet the sample A) housing questionnaire will be used. In this case remark "additional sheet" on the first page of the questionnaire should be made.
In case there are several households living in the dwelling the members of the first household, than the corresponding data of the second, third, etc. households are entered. In case besides the leaser household a subtenant or night lodger is also living in the dwelling the main household will be entered at first. In case of co-tenants the order of entering the households depends on the duration of staying in the dwelling.

The data of the persons of a household will be entered into the questionnaire according to their family identification number fixed at question 5 of the personal questionnaire as follows: first the head of household, than the spouse followed by the (never married) children according to the ascending order of their age, than the married children followed again by the spouse, children, than the other (widowed, divorced) children of the head of household, the children of the latter followed by the relatives and finally the non-relatives.

The name of the given persons as entered at question 1 of the Personal questionnaire will be copied into cell b).

Household status

Into household status - cell c) -- will be copied as from the 5th question (the printed answer underlined) of the Personal questionnaire.

Title of use of dwelling

Cell d) refers to the title of use of dwelling (owner, tenant, co-tenant, subtenant, night-lodger), should be marked only at the head of household, the cell in case of the other members of the household will be blank.


In the case of there is only one household in the dwelling, then from the Dwelling questionnaire it should be copied the (the underlined printed answer or written) answer to question 3. In the case of the head of household is living in the dwelling as a relative that is he is living there without any legal act than his relation to the owner/tenant of the dwelling (e.g. father of the owner, son-in law of the tenant, etc.).

The other cells of the table will be filled in after completing the enumeration. The corresponding instructions are described in part "9. Duties of the enumerator after accomplishing the enumeration".

Defining the code number of the different categories of population

Based on the answers given to question 6, 7, 8 and 8/a the code number of the population categories -- reflecting the character of the form of their registering (permanent or temporary) and their resident status at the place of enumeration (present, absent) of each of the person should defined.

The person enumerated can be classified into the following seven categories:

The persons at the reference date of the census and on the place of enumeration:
1. Is present, is permanently resident in the dwelling and does not have a temporary address;

2. Is present, is permanently resident in the dwelling and has a temporary address elsewhere;

3. Is present and is registered temporarily in the dwelling;

4. Is present and living in the dwelling without registration;

5. Is absent, though permanently resident in the dwelling and does not have a temporary address;

6. Is absent, permanently resident in the dwelling and has a temporary address elsewhere;

7. Is absent and living in the dwelling without registration.