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Department of Finance and Economic Affairs
Haitian Statistical Institute

General Census of the Population, Dwellings and Agriculture for 1971

Enumerator's Guide

Haitian Statistical Institute

[Text omitted, Table of Contents]

[pages 1-9 are not translated]

C. Basic Definitions

a) Place of Permanent Residence: Enumerate on the collective form all the persons who are normally part of the household, regardless of whether they are present or absent at the time of the census. Make sure that you do not forget to note the persons who are absent (business executives who are traveling, persons who are temporarily hospitalized or visiting relatives, students living away from home). Ask for the same information for those who are absent as you do for those who are present during your visit. Foreigners who have been in Haiti for one year or who intend to stay in Haiti for at least one year are called permanent residents.

A person who has left and does not intend to return is no longer considered part of the household.

b) Household: A household is most commonly a group of persons living together who are generally, but not necessarily, related. They live in the same place and generally take their meals together. A person living alone comprises a household.

To simplify the census count, the concept of household does not require that household members share either their meals or their budget. Instead, the basic criterion is whether or not they share a housing unit. Thus, the number of units will be the same as the number of households, except if some of the units are vacant.

c) Housing Unit: Apartment. An apartment is any room or set of rooms within a larger building which serve as the place of residence for a household or a person living alone.

If a building is completely occupied by a single household or by one person living alone, the building is considered an apartment.

d)Room: A room is any space in a housing unit

pg 10

enclosed by 4 walls, excluding the bathroom (if it has a toilet) all outbuildings (maid's room, garage, storage, etc.) should be counted as rooms if they are used for habitation.

Please note: Rooms which are used only for professional or business purposes must be identified as such. They must be taken into consideration when enumerating premises used for habitation, but not in the calculation of the occupation index.

In the case where a single household occupies several houses in the same compound the houses are considered to form a single housing unit.

pg 11

D. Who to Enumerate

24. Enumerate all persons (including those who are temporarily absent) whose permanent place of residence is in the census zone which has been assigned to you. This corresponds to what is called the legal population, which includes all persons legally domiciled in the country, regardless of where they may be at the time of the census and even if they are out of the country.

'Temporarily absent' means persons who have been absent for less than one year and who intended to return, such as travelers, vacationers, students living away from home, hospitalized patients, prisoners, etc.

25. Servants: errand boys, managers, servants, maids, cooks, cleaning women, young children taken in as domestic servants, etc. who regularly sleep in their boss' house and who don't have a place of residence outside of this house should be enumerated in the households as 'servants'. This rule is also applicable to servants in hotels, boarding houses, institutions, etc.

26. Boarder in a Private Household: Anyone who is not a member of the household but who is living permanently with a household and takes his/her meals with the household in exchange for a certain amount of money should be enumerated as a 'boarder'.

27. Persons in Hotels, Boarding Houses, Institutions, etc. If there are hotels, boarding houses, institutions, etc. in your census zone, make sure you fill out the special form intended for these establishments with information provided by the directors, managers or supervisors.

28. Every person who has spent the night in one of these establishments, regardless of whether they are of Haitian nationality or a foreign nationality, must be noted on this special form. However, persons living permanently in one of these establishments

pg 12

should be enumerated as a boarder in the household of the directors.

29. Military: Soldiers of the Haitian Armed Forces, firemen, and sailors in the Haitian Marine who do not have their permanent residence in a place other than the military post where they carry out their duties should be enumerated in these posts. The officers who live in apartments in a military post should be enumerated there. These apartments are considered private residences.

30. Individuals without a permanent residence should be enumerated by special enumerators on the night of the census, with the help of the Haitian Armed Forces.

Please note: High school students who have been gone for less than one year should always be counted with their family.

pg 13

E. Persons Who Should Not Be Enumerated

31. Do not enumerate persons who fall into the following categories:

a) Foreign diplomatic and consular agents accredited in Haiti, and members of their family. These persons will eventually be enumerated through diplomatic means. However, all persons of Haitian nationality who have their permanent residence in embassies, legations, consulates, etc, should be enumerated, and generally in the houses occupied by these agents.

b) Haitian diplomats and consular agents who are living abroad, and their families and servants of the same nationality, will be enumerated by the Department of Foreign Relations.

c) Foreigners who are in Haiti as tourists or on business. However, foreigners who have been living in Haiti for more than one year, either because they are studying or working here, should be enumerated.

Very important

Ideally, the census would be carried out across the entire country within a very short time period ? a matter of several hours or one day. For technical reasons, this is not possible and it is planned that the census will extend over a period of about 15 days beyond the official date of census night.

Only those persons who are permanent residents (present or absent) on the official date of the census are to be enumerated. Thus, babies born after this date are not included, but persons who die after this date are included.

Thus if the official date of the census is the 16th of August, 1971 at midnight, then a baby born

pg 14

the 17th of August is not enumerated, even if the household where this baby lives is not enumerated until the 30th of August. On the other hand, an elderly person who dies after the 16th will be enumerated.

pg 15

Specific Instructions Related to the Questions Asked

Even before you begin the census interview, make sure that you fill in the rectangle in the upper left with your name, the date of the interview and the name of your immediate supervisor. The supervisor will also fill in the date each of the questionnaires was reviewed.

I. Location

Questions 1, 2, 3: Clearly write the name of the department [département], the district [l'arrondissement] and the municipality where your census zone is located.

For example:
Province: West
District: Port-au-Prince
Municipality: Kenscoff

Question 4: Address. If the house is in a city, give the complete address including street and number, or any other information which can help in locating the house. If it is in the country, write the names of the Rural Section, plantation/village or area where it is found.

Question 5: Large cities are subdivided into zones and districts. Write the figure corresponding to the zone number and district number in which you work.

Please note: Never forget to write the numbers of the Supervision District and the Census Zone. The latter figures are also on the notebook [croquis]] which will be given to you at the beginning of the operation.

Question 6: In a rural zone, indicate the name of the plantation/village.

pg 16

Question 7, 8: Refer to section 19 of paragraph B: "How to fill out the questionnaires."

Question 9: At the end of the interview in a building, write on the questionnaire corresponding to each of the households living in the building "number of households in the entire building." Refer to section 20 of paragraph B.

Question 10: Do not write anything on line 10. This line corresponds to the definitive household number, which will be written in the office after review and verification of all the files relating to the same census zone.

II. Dwelling

All buildings should be numbered. However, only enumerate those which are actually inhabited by a household.

Nonetheless, any establishment or portion thereof, buildings (even unfinished), etc. which are used to house the cleaning lady, the manager, the caretaker or the watchman should be considered as housing units.

The institutional population is classified separately, i.e., [those persons] living in institutions such as military barracks, hospitals, [boarding] schools [collèges] which cannot be directly connected to a head of household. Note that there may be private households living within the walls which contain institutional households, such as the household of a school [collège] or hospital director who occupies a separate housing unit in the school or hospital.

A household of one or several persons living permanently in a hotel and without another dwelling should be considered as a private household and separated from the institutional household made up of transient clients.

pg 17

A. Building Characteristics

A building may include one or many dwellings. The building characteristics are only indicated for the first dwelling. Thus if a building is comprised of 4 dwellings, fill in the 'principal building material of walls' and 'principal building material of roofs' headings for dwelling number 1 only; i.e. the household whose visitation order in the building is 01. Do not write any information for dwelling 2, 3 or 4, i.e. for households whose visitation order in the household is 02, 03 or 04.

1. Main Construction Material of the Walls.

a) Masonry or Cement: this category includes all construction of the type commonly described in Haiti as 'walled house'. The exterior portions are built of the following materials: stone, cement or concrete; stone blocks, earthen bricks, bricks made of sand and cement, concrete. Multi-storey houses whose ground floor is of masonry and upper floor is of wood or wood and masonry are also considered as masonry constructions, even if the exterior sides of the upper floor are covered in galvanized sheet-metal.

b) Wood: This category includes all houses whose exterior portions are made of wood, even if they are covered in galvanized sheet metal.

c) Wood Slats and Mud Mortar: This type of building is very widespread in the countryside and includes all small houses and huts which are not completely finished but are nonetheless lived in by a household. These constructions are built of flexible wooden slats covered by a sort of earthen mortar.

d) Wood Slats without Mud Mortar: This type of building is also very widespread in the countryside and includes all small houses and huts which are not completely finished but are nonetheless lived in by a household. These constructions are made of flexible wooden slats only.

pg 18

e) Wood from Boxes: This category includes all small houses whose exterior portions are covered with wooden boxes (codfish boxes, soap boxes, etc.). This type of construction is common in the suburbs.

f) Other: Put all buildings which do not correspond to any of the above categories in the "Other" category. Specify the materials used, as in the case of huts made of tâche, arbors which have been covered by branches, etc. Always make sure you specify the type of construction placed in this category.

2. Main Construction Material of the Roofs.

a) Concrete: Put into this category any building whose roof covering is made of at least two-thirds reinforced concrete or any other combination of 'cement blocks'.

b) Tiles: Put into this category any building with at least two-thirds of the roof in terra cotta tiles, commonly called 'tiles'.

c) Sheet Metal: Put into this category any building with at least two-thirds of the roof in iron or laminated sheets of iron.

d) Wood: Put into this category all buildings whose roof is at least two-thirds construction wood.

e) Thatch: Put into this category any building whose roof is made of at least two-thirds thatch. These houses are generally known in Haiti as caille paille.

f) Other: Put all buildings which do not correspond to any of the above categories for at least two-thirds of their roof covering in the 'Other' category.

pg 19

B. Characteristics and Fixtures [Installations] Of Dwelling

3. Type of Dwelling. Indicate the type of dwelling by marking an 'x' in the appropriate box.

a) Regular Dwelling. An ordinary dwelling is a room or several rooms and their annexes in a permanent building, or in a portion of the building which is separated structurally from the building and which, given the way in which it was built, renovated or changed, is intended to be used as habitation for a household and is not entirely used for other purposes at the time of the census.

b) Dwelling: in a building not intended for habitation (factory, garage, etc.)

Put into this category housing units which have not been built, changed or equipped for residential purposes, but which are in fact used for habitation at the time of the census. Factories, garages, warehouses and offices belong to this category.

c) Hotels, Boarding Houses: This group includes permanent constructions intended to shelter more than 5 persons who are fed in exchange for paying a certain amount of money each day, week or month.

d) Institution (Hospital, Military Barracks, Prison, etc.). An institution is any establishment in which an organized group of individuals lives under an established management, such as a prison, [boarding] school, asylum, hospital, sanitarium, seminary etc.

e) Other: If the construction cannot be classified in one of the 3 groups listed above, put it in the 'other' category and specify the type of dwelling.

pg 20

4. Occupation status of the dwelling

Information for each dwelling should be collected in order to determine if the dwelling is occupied or vacant at the time of the census. If the dwelling is empty, try to find out from the nearest neighbor, or any other person who might be able to give you information, the reason that it is empty. Write these reasons at the bottom of the questionnaire in the section reserved for comments.

5. Composition of the Dwelling

a) Number of Rooms: Write in figures the number of rooms in the dwelling.

b) Number of Persons: Write in figures the number of persons living in the dwelling.

For example:
-Number of rooms: 2 _ _
-Number of persons: 5 _ _

Please note: The notion of dwelling and the notion of apartment are the same.

6. Main Construction Material of the Floors

The floor of the dwelling may be in concrete, tile, mosaic, wood, tamped dirt, or other.

In the case of concrete, tile and wood you can refer to the definitions in paragraph 2: main construction material of the roof.

a) Mosaic: Include in this category floors made of an assemblage of small multicolored squares set in cement and which form a design.

b) Tamped dirt: Include in this category dirt floors which have been compressed with a heavy piece of wood with a piece of metal on one end. This is typically called a Dame in Haiti.

pg 21

c) [Other]: Specify the materials which floors in the "other" category are made of.

7. Lighting

Mark an 'x' in the appropriate box depending on the answer you receive.

a) Electricity: The house is considered to be lit by electricity if it receives its light from an electrical network, from a generator or any other source of electric energy.

b) Kerosene. The house is considered to be lit by lamp oil if the oil is from distilled petroleum or other natural gas products. (Kerosene is known is Haiti as lamp gas)

c) If the house is not lit by any of the means listed in the above categories, specify the type of lighting used in the house.

8. Water Supply

There are 7 possible answers for this question; put an 'x' in the appropriate box.

a) Running Water in the Dwelling: This means all water supplied to the interior of the main building. If there is a water supply both inside and outside the house, only mark:
1 X

b) Running Water in the Courtyard/Yard: This means all water supplied to the house goes only to the exterior of the main building (i.e., to outbuildings or to the courtyard).

c) Well in the Courtyard: A well is a deep hole dug into the ground from which to draw water. It is often lined with brick or stone.

d) Public Tap/Fountain: These are constructions

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designed for the flow and distribution of water. They are generally built by the government especially in areas where there is no running water in most of the dwellings.

e) Spring or River: Included in this category is any building which is supplied with water form a well or river.

f) Supplied through Purchase: Include in this category all dwellings whose inhabitants purchase their water. In some neighborhoods there are people whose job it is to sell water.

g) Other: Include in this category any dwelling which cannot be included in one of the groups listed above, and specify the way in which the household gets its water.

9. Toilet facilities

There are 4 possible responses to this question. Write an 'x' in the appropriate box.

a) Hydraulic Toilet: This type of hygienic latrine, commonly known as 'modern comfort', is generally located inside the house and empties its contents into the sewer or a ditch with the help of a water boost system.

Please note: If there is also another type of latrine in the house, only check off hydraulic toilet.

b) Pit latrine in the Yard/Courtyard: Check off this heading if the only toilet is a latrine in the yard/courtyard of the house itself.

c) Pit latrine outside of the Yard/Courtyard: If there is a latrine in another place which is used by several households or dwellings, check this heading.

d) Other: If there is no other

pg 23

type of latrine in the dwelling other than those cited above, check off this heading and indicate what type is used in the section reserved for comments.

10. Type of tenure

There are 5 possible answers for this question. Mark an 'x' in the appropriate box.

a) Owner: The household is owner when the house or a part of the house belongs to one of its members.

b) Lodged for Free: The household is 'lodged for free' when it occupies the house or part of the house without being the owner and without paying rent or farm rent. This method of occupation may take place with or without the agreement of the owner of the house.

c) Tenant: The household is a tenant household when it pays rent, or payment in kind, every year, month or week for the house or part of the house that it occupies.

d) Tenant paying rent for another specific time period: The household is a fermier when it pays cash for a very specific time period in return for a reduction in rent either in kind or in cash for the house that it occupies.

In the case of fermier, always indicate the number of months of the agreed-upon lease after the amount of the payment.

e) Other: Put into this category any household which does not belong to one of the above categories. Make sure to include the declared method of occupation in the space reserved for that purpose.

pg 24

11. Rent

The cost of [regular] rent or the cost of non-regular rent [fermage]: Only ask tenant households or fermiers this question. The monthly rent should always be indicated in Haitian Gourdes. Write what the head of household declares as rent after all deductions. Remember to write the value of the fermage in Haitian gourdes and remember that you must specify the length of the lease.

Important: The amount of the rent or the fermage should be aligned on the right when you write it in, i.e., the single digits go in the far right box, the tens in the box second from the right, etc. Leave unused boxes on the left empty.

For example, you would write 220 Haitian gourdes as follows:

_ _ 2 2 0 and not 0 0 2 2 0 or 2 2 0 0 0

Indicate the period of fermage in numbers of months.

For example: 6 months.

Important: The frame at the bottom left of the questionnaire should only be filled out for households without agricultural lots but which do have a few animals.

Write across from each type of animal how many there are. For example:

Cows 3 Mules 6
Pigs 2 Chickens 2
Goats - Turkeys -
Lambs 5 Ducks 1
Horses - Guinea fowl 3
Asses - Beehives 0 3

pg 25

III. Population

A) Questions 1-10: Personal Characteristics

Read all the explanations on the back of the questionnaire carefully, especially those in the column headings. Refer to the Instruction Manual for Interviewers whenever necessary.

Column 1-First Name and Family Name: Carefully print the first names and last name of the people living in the household. Whenever possible, observe the following order:

The head of household; his wife or domestic partner; unmarried children (beginning with the oldest), including adopted children; parents and grandparents; brothers, sister, uncles, aunts, nieces, cousins; grandchildren whose parents don't live in the household; married children (each followed by their spouse and children); other friends; boarders; live-in servants.

Please note: The head of household is the person who is recognized as such by the other members of the household.

Column 2- Family Relationship to the Head of Household: The first line must correspond with the head of household. Beginning with the 2nd line, there are 5 possible choices. Check off the box corresponding to the response given.

Please note: Make sure you fill in only one box per person.

Column 3- Marital Status: Write an 'x' in the appropriate box according to the response given.

a) Single. A single person is anyone who has never been married and who does not live with a domestic partner.

b) Married. Include in this category anyone who is still bound by legal ties

pg 26

(religious or civil).

c) Living in a Long-term Unmarried Relationship [placé]. Placé means any person living in a domestic partnership or declaring themselves to be in a domestic partnership.

Even if the person has been married, he or she must be considered as living in a domestic partnership [placé] if he/she has left his/her legal partner to cohabit with an unmarried partner. The goal of this question is to find out the true marital status of the individual at the time of the census. Make sure that the husband lives in the same dwelling as the domestic partner [concubine] before writing that he is living in a long-term unmarried relationship [placé].

d) Widow(er): Put any person whose spouse is deceased in this category.

e) Divorced: Consider any person whose marriage has been legally dissolved and who is not cohabiting with an unmarried partner as divorced. Any person in the process of getting a divorce or whose divorce has not yet been granted should still be considered 'married', even if he/she is legally separated by a legal judgment.

For example, a married person is classified as follows:
1. [ ] Single
2. [X] Married
3. [ ] Long-term domestic partner Placé, etc.

Column 4: The sex (male or female) of every person should be indicated on the questionnaire by an 'x' in the appropriate box. A male person, for example, would be:

1. [X] Male
2. [ ] Female

pg 27

Column 5- Age: The age should be indicated in completed years, i.e., the age of the individual at his/her last birthday. Write the age of each person enumerated in integers, for example: 15, 21, 35, 85, years. However, for newborns or babies of less than one year old write '0' and the number of months since the birth of the baby.

For example:

a) A person aged 43:

_ 4 3 _

_ _ _ _

b) An 8-month old baby:

_ _ 0 _

_ _ 8 _

If the person in question doesn't know his/her exact age, use the historical calendar. Estimate the person's age first by asking the following question: 'Who was the president of Haiti when you were born?' and then narrow in on the age using specific historical events known to the individual (see appendix I), or else by comparing him/her with a family member whose age you know for certain.

Please note: The head of household often forgets to declare young children without prompting. When you write down the youngest child declared by the head of household, be persistent [in finding out if it is the youngest child] by asking the following type of questions:
Is this in fact the youngest child? or
Are there any babies? Who are they?

pg 28

In the same way, you should systematically ask:

Are there any children aged less than one year, either present or absent?

Column 6- Place of Birth: If the person in question was born in Haiti, write the name of the municipality in capital letters and write an 'x' in the town or rural section, depending on whether the individual was born in one of these geographical subdivisions. For example:

For person born in the town of Cayes:



1. [X] Town
2. [ ] Rural Section

If the person in question was not born in Haiti write the name of the foreign country in capital letters.

For example: A person born in New York:

Foreign country

Column 7- Length of Residence in this Municipality: The length of residence is the period each person has resided in the municipality which is his/her place of permanent residence, ending at the time of the census and expressed in completed years. Mark an 'x' in the number range corresponding to the number of years of residence in the municipality. If the person is enumerated in the municipality where he or she was born, mark an 'x' in the last square on the bottom right.

Example 1: Paul has been residing in the municipality for 7 years.

pg 29

1. [ ] 1 year
2. [ ] 1-4 years
3. [X] 5-9 years
4. [ ] 10-14 years

Example 2: Pierre was born in the municipality where he was enumerated.
10. [ ] 40-44 years
11. [ ] 45 years or more
12. [X] Born in the municipality

Column 8- Previous area of Residence: The previous residence is the place where an individual had his permanent residence (for a period of at least 6 months) before settling in the place where he/she is enumerated and where it is supposed he/she currently resides. Indicate here in capital letters the last place where the person in question resided before coming to the place where he or she is enumerated.

Please note: Proceed as in column 6- Place of Birth.

Column 9- Nationality: There are 2 possible answers to this question. Write an 'x' for the nationality in one of the corresponding boxes. It is understood that nationality includes all Haitians born in the country and abroad, as well as naturalized Haitians.

Example 1: M. Paul was born in New York of a Haitian father and mother and is of Haitian nationality.

Example 2: M. Levi was born in Italy but is a naturalized Haitian and his nationality is Haitian.

pg 30

Column 10- Religion: For the purpose of the Census, religion can be defined as:

a) Religious or spiritual belief or tendency, whether or not this belief is represented by an organized group.

b) The affiliation with an organized group which adheres to specific religious or spiritual beliefs.

There are 4 possibilities. Put an 'x' in the box corresponding to the answer given.

Please note: Classify Jewish, Muslim and Jehovah's Witness in the 'Other' category. Followers of the Anglican Church should be classified as Catholics.

B) Question 11: Fertility

[Question 11 is asked to women 15 to 49 years old]

Column 11- Children Born Alive in the Last 12 Months: Only ask women aged 15 to 49 inclusive this question. Associated with 'live birth' are vital signs such as breathing, heartbeat of the child after complete expulsion or extraction [of the baby] from the mother's body. Because of the delicate nature of this question, it is preferable to ask the person in question rather than the head of household (whenever this is possible). It is recommended that you be very tactful.

If the woman has not had children in the 12 months prior to the census, mark the box corresponding to '0'

If the woman has had any children, write in the column corresponding to the sex of the children how many children she has.

pg 31

[Example on top of page 31 is omitted].

Please note: Even if the child is already deceased at the time of the Census, he/she should be declared at the time of the Census. In this case, the death will also be recorded in the box at the lower right of question 22 of the questionnaire: Deaths.

C) Questions 12-14 Education

[Questions 12 to 14 are asked to persons 5 years old and over]

Column 12- Do You Know How to Read and Write? There are 3 possible answers to this question. Write an "x" in the box corresponding to the answer you are given. For someone to be considered able to read and write it is not enough that he/she knows how to read numbers or to write his/her name; the person must be able to read or write a text made up of a few simple, commonly-used words.

Column 13

a) Highest level of schooling completed. Indicate the type of education by writing an 'x' in the box corresponding to the answer you are given. The options are: none, literacy center, primary, secondary, technical, university, higher education.

None means that the person has never attended school, or any literacy center.

Literacy Center: (alph) includes all centers of this type, whether government or private, such as ONEC centers [Office National d'Education Communautaire], ONAAC centers [Office National d'Alphabétisation et d'Action Communautaire], evening programs for the illiterate

pg 32

affiliated with the Ministry of National Education, the municipality or another body, and even including the schools themselves created or operating due to volunteer work by individuals, etc.

Primary (Prim) or Secondary (Sec): All schools fitting the classic organizational description as defined by the National Education Department.

Technical (Tech): Includes all establishments whose goal is to prepare students to enter a specific trade or profession directly.

An example would the J. B. Damier School in Port au Prince; provincial farm-schools The Arts and Trades Center [Centre des Arts et Métiers]; teaching schools and rural teaching schools; commercial schools: accounting, secretarial, cosmetology; nursing schools, and medical technology schools

University (Univ): Includes all the colleges and faculties of the Sate University of Haiti, such as the College of Law and Economics; The Colleges of Medicine, Ethnology, Agronomy, Dentistry, Arts and Teaching, and the Colleges in the sciences.

Schools of Higher Education (E.S.) Includes all private or public schools providing classes at an advanced academic level, such as the free law schools [Ecoles Libres de Droit] in the provinces, and the schools educating engineers, economists and statisticians.

Indicate if the education is complete by marking an 'x' in the box corresponding to 'C', or incomplete by marking an 'x' in the box marked 'I'.

Then check off the highest class completed in the type of education indicated.

[page 33]

[Example on top of page 33 is omitted.]

Please note: Before indicating the number corresponding to the class, refer to the correspondence table in Appendix II in this instruction manual.

Column 14- School Attended This Year: This question is for those who are regularly taking classes at an educational institution. There are 3 possible answers to this question. Write an 'x' in the box that corresponds to the answer you receive.

Please note: This is the school attended during the 1970-1971 school year.

D) Questions 15-21: Working Population

[Questions 15 to 21 are asked to persons 5 years old and over]

Important: Questions 15-21 should only be asked of people 5 and older.

Column 15- Main activity during the Last 6 Months: This is understood to be the employment at which the person in question spent most of his/her time. The purpose of this answer is to gather information

pg 34

about what people aged 5 and older did during the 6 months prior to the census. There are 6 possibilities. Mark an 'x' in the box corresponding to the answer you receive:

1. A worker is any person whose main employment is paid in kind or in cash. This group constitutes working people. The following enumerated persons should be included in this category:

a) Persons who are momentarily absent from their work because of illness, accident or vacation.

b) The wives, sons, daughters or other relatives who are part of the household and who work most of their time in a family business without receiving payment.

c) The wives, sons and daughters or other relatives who are part of the household and who work most of their time helping the head of the household in work in the field.

d) The housewives (spouses or domestic partners) who work part of the day in or outside the house and who receive payment in kind or cash for piece work, hourly work, etc.

2. Unemployed means anyone of either sex aged 5 or older who was not employed but who was looking for paid or paying work during the reference period (six months), including those who had never worked. Persons who were not looking for a job after an illness or temporary or indefinite layoff without salary during this six month period are also included in this group, as are those who are about to begin a new job during the period of reference.

3. A Housewife is a wife, domestic partner or

pg 35

any other woman of the household who does not engage in any paid work in or outside of the house and who is not looking for work. In general the housewife dedicates herself to work inside. She takes care of the upkeep of the house, her spouse or domestic partner, and her children.

Important ? If the woman engages in paid work in or outside of the house, she should be considered as working.

Example: A married woman who is a secretary in a public office, or another woman who has employment at home such as sewing or embroidery for a third party and for which she receives pay.

4. Student: A student is anyone aged 5 or older in primary or secondary school, in higher education, university or professional school who does not work and is not looking for work.. If a student is both student and worker, for example an office worker who spends more time working than studying, then he/she should be recorded as a worker.

5. Retired (and receiving a pension/private income): This is for people of both sexes who are not engaged in any work and who receive revenue from goods/property or other investments, payments or pension benefits/annuities from previous employment. If a retired person works full time in a different profession, such as a government employee who now runs a business, for example, he/she should be recorded as a worker and not as 'retired'.

6. Other: Put all people who cannot be considered as 'workers', 'unemployed', 'student', or 'retired' in this category. In a certain sense [this is] anyone older than 5 who does not work, is not looking for work, and who is supported by his/her parents.

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Column 16- Time Spent Working in the Last Six Months: The purpose of this question is to identify all those individuals, 'working regularly or not' by asking them to declare how much time they devoted to any paid employment.

Ask the question systematically as a way of verifying all those people, even those who have not declared work as their principal activity. In particular it should allow part-time workers to be identified and to eliminate certain persons who have wrongly declared themselves to be 'workers'.

There are 4 options; mark the one corresponding to the answer you receive with an 'x'. Do not under any circumstances attempt to suggest any response whatsoever to the person being questioned.

1. Not at all for people who have not worked at all in the last 6 months.

2. Less than one month if the person has only worked for a period of less than one month, but has worked a total of at least one week (40 hours).

In this group you may find individuals who, even without a steady job, do work from time to time in some moneymaking activity.

3. From 1 to 3 months for persons not classified previously as "workers" but who were employed part-time only.

4. More than 3 months for persons working full time or employed for a period of 3 months during the period under consideration.

Please note: The person may not give an answer directly in months, but instead in days, in weeks, or in weeks per month].

-Include in the category 'less than one month' the

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following answers: 1 day per week or 1 hour per day.

-Include in the category '1 to 3 months' the following answers: 2 days per week, 1 day per month or 2 hours per day.

-Included in the category 'more than 3 months' the following answers: 2 weeks or more per month, 3 days or more per week.

Column 17- Profession: This is the main profession of the person in question, even if the person is temporarily unemployed. Do not accept vague or general answers. Be as precise as possible.

Example: Head accountant; auto mechanic; civil engineer; factory guard/caretaker; hotel boy; unskilled mason, etc. If the person engages in more than one profession, choose the one he/she does for most of the time, even if it pays less.

Column 18- Activity of the company(what activity does the company do?): Indicate precisely the type of work that the company where the person in question works engages in. If necessary, indicate the name of the company.

Example: Ministry of Finance; shoe factory; garage.

For agriculture, indicate if it is an individual farm, a family business, a co-op, etc.

Column 19- Status in the profession: There are 5 possible answers to this question. Write an 'x' in the box corresponding to the answer you are given.

1- Employer: This is a person who works for his own company or who works for himself in a profession or a trade, and who employs several paid workers.

2-Self-Employed: A self-employed worker is anyone who work for himself and does not employ any paid workers.

3- Salaried worker: This is a person who works for

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a public or private employer and receives pay as wages, pay, commission or tip. The pay may be in kind or in cash.

4- Family Assistant: This is a person who does a minimum amount of work (at least one third of the normal number of working hours), either paid or unpaid, or, at any rate poorly paid, and generally in kind, in a company, workshop or farm run by other members of the household.

5-Other: This person is not able to be categorized according to his/her status in the profession: experienced workers whose exact status is not known or is poorly defined, the unemployed who have never worked.

Column 20- Number of work days in the preceding week. This purpose of this question is to measure under-employment. Write the number of days that the person being interviewed tells you.

Please note: In the case where the week preceding the census was an abnormal week with several holidays, use the preceding complete work week.

Column 21- Are You A Farmer? The purpose of this question is to discover the households for whom a Farming Form should be filled out. There are 2 possible answers to this question. Write an 'x' in the box corresponding to the answer you are given. If at least one person answers 'yes' on a questionnaire, a Form for Farms for the household in question must be filled out. (Questionnaire on agriculture).

E) Question 22 ? Deaths

Question 22- Deaths: Ask the head of household the number of persons in the household who died during

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the 12 months prior to the census.

Make sure that the person you are asking correctly understands the period of the previous 12 months. If necessary, help the person to recognize the period by providing some reference points. For each deceased person write the sex and the age at death in the place provided. For children of less than one year, write the age in number of completed months at the age of death and write a '0' in the box reserved for 'years'.

Please note: Be insistent that the death of infants must be declared, because people generally have a tendency to forget painful events such as these deaths.

Questions 23, 24, 25, 26 ? Type Of Household, Number Of Family Clusters, Number Of Forms for Farms. Do not write anything in the boxes to be filled out by specialized personnel at the Census Bureau.

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[page 41-60 not translated]

[Text omitted, Appendix I ? Estimation of age form Presidential Terms]