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Republic of Honduras
National Population and Housing Census
1988

Planning, Coordination, and Budget Secretariat
General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses
Enumerator's Manual

[Pages 1-13 were not translated into English]

[p. 14]
III. Basic concepts

Census Moment
The instant at 12:00 the night of Saturday, May 21, 1988 is the "census moment". The census moment can also be defined as zero hours [midnight] of Sunday, May 22, 1988, which is the date of the Census.

Since the purpose of the Population and Housing Census is to obtain the total population at the census moment, the persons that should be enumerated are the following:

1. The persons who were alive at 12:00 the night of Saturday, May 21, 1988.
2. The person who passed away after the census moment; that is, after 12:00 the night of May 21, 1988.

The persons that should not be enumerated are the following:

1. The persons who passed away before the census moment; that is, before 12:00 the night of May 21, 1988.
2. The children born after the census moment; that is, those born after 12:00 the night of May 21, 1988.

It is important that the enumerator take into account who should be enumerated according to the census moment. This is the only way that the exact number of living persons residing in the country May 21, 1988, at 12:00 at night can be discovered.

Unit of Enumeration
The Population and Housing Census of 1988 identifies the person as the basic unit of enumeration. The dwelling where the person usually resides is identified as a unit of analysis because this is the framework in which demographic, economic, and social characteristics are investigated for each resident of the dwelling.

[p. 15]

What is a dwelling?
For the purposes of the census, a dwelling is a building constructed as a place of abode. It can also be any other building, not built for this purpose, but used in that capacity at the census moment.

A dwelling must be separated from others by walls and have its own roof. It must also be independent in that its occupants do not have to pass through the rooms of another dwelling to enter or exit. It is possible to enter a dwelling from the street, a patio, a hallway, a corridor, or stairway that is shared.

[Page 15 contains a graphic illustrating a separate and independent dwelling]

Dwellings that should be enumerated

a) Private dwellings (occupied and unoccupied)
b) Collective dwellings

Dwellings that should not be enumerated

a) Public buildings; e.g. town halls, health centers, schools, institutes, community centers, churches, public offices, etcetera, where no person usually resides.
b) Shopping centers, factories, or other businesses where no person usually resides.
[p. 16]
c) Demolished dwellings, dwellings under construction, or other buildings that do not comply with the above definition of a dwelling.

Place of usual residence
A place of usual residence is the dwelling in which one or more persons permanently dwell, carrying out their principal daily activities.

The person who permanently lives in the dwelling, even if temporarily absent at the time of enumeration, should be considered to be a usual resident.

Usual residents will be found in private dwellings and collective dwellings.

Private dwellings can be occupied by one usual resident or by multiple usual residents who may or may not be related.

Collective dwellings are occupied by usual residents who live together permanently for reasons of health, education, religion, military training, or penal punishment.

Time of usual residence
The time used to measure usual residence is 6 months or more. However, persons, who have lived in the dwelling for less than 6 months, who are planning on establishing residence there, should be considered to be usual residents.

Who should be enumerated in the dwelling and be included in the [census] form as usual residents?

1. Those who normally live in the dwelling and who are present at the census moment, whether related or not.
[p. 17]
2. Those who are temporarily absent, visiting another place, at 12 pm of May 21, 1988, because of a business trip, tourism, vacation, or for work but who normally sleep in the dwelling.

This case can be illustrated by cases including the following personnel: traveling salesmen, military officers, nurses, security guards, doctors, etcetera.

The time of absence should not exceed 6 months using the census moment, or 12:00 pm of May 21, as the point of reference.

3. Those who live or reside in the dwelling but are absent because of a temporary illness or surgical operation in the hospital or clinic.

4. Those who are domestic employees or other employees who sleep in the dwelling where they work all week, even if they spend the weekend in their own homes.

5. Those who are temporarily abroad because of business, tourism, health, etcetera.

6. Those who are temporarily incarcerated for minor infractions or offenses.

Who should not be enumerated in the dwelling and should not be included in the [Census] Form as usual residents?

1. Those who are present in the dwelling, for a short period of time, as guests, and who will naturally be enumerated in their place of usual residence.

2. Neighbors in the dwelling at the census moment who are usual residents of another dwelling where they will be enumerated.

3. Domestic employees, present at the time of enumeration, who work in the dwelling but sleep in their place of usual residence.
[p. 18]
4. Those who, because of a profession or job, reside or are permanently based in an institution (e.g. priests, nuns, police officers, teachers, etcetera), even if they apparently have another place of usual residence.

5. Students living at a boarding school in the same locality or in a different locality.

6. Students not living in the boarding school who permanently live in another locality.

7. Those who, indefinitely or for a more or less long period of time, are imprisoned or admitted to a welfare institution; such as in hospitals, clinics for the chronically or terminally ill (mental health hospitals, tuberculosis hospitals, etcetera), as well as in other institutions such as penitentiaries and prisons.

8. Domestic employees who do not sleep in the dwelling where they work.

9. Those who live abroad.

10. Children or youth who live in reformatories or orphanages and elderly or disabled persons who live in welfare institutions.

11. Members of religious orders who live in convents, schools, parochial homes, or seminaries.

Other cases not contemplated above can be assimilated to similar situations, but if there is uncertainty, it is preferable that the enumerator ask the group leader.

Examples:
In order to illustrate the concept of usual resident so that the enumerator can clearly determine who should be enumerated, various common cases that can present themselves to the enumerator are presented below. [The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Cases
(B) Place where the person must be enumerated

[p. 19]

Cases: Those who reside in the dwelling, but are temporarily absent because of a business trip, vacation, tourism, work, guard or service.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they normally live.

Cases: Those who reside in the dwelling, but are in the hospital or clinic because of injuries, giving birth, operation, medical check-up, short illness
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they normally live.

Cases: Those who are in the dwelling at the time of enumeration and who do not have another place of usual residence.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they are found.

Military Personnel:

Cases: Those who are permanently based in a military installation.
Place where the person must be enumerated: Military collective

Cases: Those who are based in a military installation but who live outside of it and sleep there only when they are on duty.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they normally live.

Officer or crewmember of a vessel:

Cases: Those living on the vessel.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The vessel

Cases: Those who have a place of residence on land.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling on land.
[p. 20]
Cases: Students living in a boarding school.
Place where the person must be enumerated: Institution or boarding school where studying.

Cases: Students not living in a boarding school in another city or town.
Place where the person must be enumerated: Dwelling in the other city or town where studying.

Cases: Nurses living in a hospital or clinic.
Place where the person must be enumerated: Hospital or clinic etc.

Cases: Those maintaining more than one place of residence, dividing time between the two.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they sleep most of the time.

Cases: Honduran citizens who are temporarily abroad because of vacation, business travel, health, tourism, etcetera.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they normally reside in Honduras

Cases: Those who live abroad.
Place where the person must be enumerated: Do not enumerate

Cases: Foreigners who are in the process of establishing residence in Honduras.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where are found at the time of the Census.

Cases: Foreign diplomats living in Honduras.
Place where the person must be enumerated: The dwelling where they normally live.

[Page 21 was not translated into English]

[p. 22]

Presentation of the census form
It is important that the enumerator has a general vision of the census form to complete it adequately. The census form has two main sections:

1. Section of housing census (page 1)
Chapter I. Geographic location
Chapter II. Dwelling information
2. Section of population census (pages 2-22)
Chapter III. Composition of the family inhabiting the dwelling (page 2)
Chapter IV. Mortality (page 2)
Chapter V. Population characteristics (pages 3-11)
Chapter VI. Identification of agricultural producers (page 12)
Chapter VII. Cottage industry or artisan activity (page 12)

Important: Chapter V. Population characteristics
It is important that the enumerator has a clear idea about the structure of the questions of this chapter. [The enumerator] must distinguish especially the following distribution:

[p. 23]

A. Question blocks identified as:
A. General characteristics
B. Educational characteristics
C. Economic characteristics
D. Fertility characteristics
B. Questions blocks distributed according to the age of the enumerated person
For all persons
For persons aged 5 years or older
For persons aged 10 years or older
For persons aged 12 years or older

Questions and ways to record answers
The way in which the enumerator record the answers depends on the type of question.

If the question is closed, the possible answers appear printed in the form, and the enumerator will proceed to mark with an "X" in the corresponding circle.

[A graphic on page 23 illustrates two closed questions]

[The enumerator] also will find open and direct questions or those that require that the enumerator write down in the line or the box the answers given by the interviewed.

[p. 24]

[A graphic on page 24 illustrates four open questions]

Questions with included instructions: with the purpose of guiding the enumerator at the moment of the interview, some questions are accompanied by boxes which contain instructions of various types, and that should be followed according to the answer of the interviewed. Example: in question 4, if the dwelling is occupied by absent persons, in the box appears the message "go back", which means that the enumerator should return to the dwelling until he or she finds its occupants.

In question 7, if the answer is "borrowed" or "other", the box indicated "go to question 10", which means that the enumerator must skip questions 8 and 9, and continue with question 10.

[A graphic on page 24 illustrates questions 4 and 7]

Shaded boxes: the enumerator will realize that in the case of open questions, there appear shaded boxes aligned to the right of the line used to write down the answers. [The enumerator] should not write anything within these boxes because they are for internal use of the General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses.

[Pages 25 and 26 were not translated into English]

[p. 27]

The enumerator's visit to the dwelling
The enumerator will visit the first dwelling of his or her segment to initiate the route, following the precise instructions contained in the Cartographic Manual. When the dwelling has been identified, the enumerator should knock on the door and proceed according to the interview recommendations described in page 13 of this manual. Once a dialogue with the head of household has been established, or the person to be enumerated has been identified, the interview should be initiated following the following instructions.

Instructions for filling out the form

Chapter I. Geographic location (page 1)

The first thing the enumerator should do upon initiating the interview in each dwelling is fill in the geographic location of the dwelling according to the following instructions:
[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Number
(B) Concept
(C) Instructions

Number: 1
Concept: Department
Instruction: The name and code should be copied from the front of the binder.

Number: 2
Concept: Municipality
Instruction: The name and code should be copied from the front of the binder.

Number: 3
Concept: Village
Instruction: The name of the village, according to the map and segment descriptions, should be written down.

Number: 4
Concept: City or hamlet
Instruction: The name of the city or settlement, according to the descriptions in the map and segment descriptions, should be written down.

Number: 5
Concept: Zone
Instruction: The code should be copied from the front of the binder when appropriate.
Number: 6
Concept: Neighborhood or precinct
Instruction: The name of the neighborhood or suburb, according to the map and segment descriptions, should be written down.

Number: 7
Concept: Group area number
Instruction: The group area number should be copied down.
[p. 28]
Number: 8
Concept: Segment number
Instruction: The segment number should be copied down and the segment should be identified as either urban or rural.

Number: 9
Concept: Order number of the dwelling in the Segment
Instruction: The first dwelling enumerated is assigned the number 1, the second dwelling the number 2, the third dwelling the number 3, and so on until the last dwelling in the segment is enumerated.

Number: 10
Concept: Block number
Instruction: The number, according to the map and route sheet, is recorded.

Number: 11
Concept: Address
Instruction: The street and the house number or reference are recorded according to the following criteria:
a) In the case of a house with municipal nomenclature, the corresponding number and street name is recorded.
b) In the case of a house without municipal nomenclature, the house number from the map is recorded.
c) In the case of a house without any nomenclature, and unidentified on the map, as with some rural houses, all of the references that allow the dwelling to be located should be recorded.

Observation:
It is important to correctly record the dwelling's address information because it will assist the enumerator in completing the information for persons who are absent during the interview or in revising the information after the census.

[p. 29]

Chapter II. Dwelling information (page 1)
Before filling out the dwelling information, it is important that the enumerator clearly understand the difference between the two major types of dwellings:

a) Private dwelling: Those dwellings meant to function as a place of abode for one or more persons who live as a family.

These can be an independent house, a room in a tenement, apartment, or an improvised house.

b) Collective dwelling: A special place of abode in which the occupants are subject to administrative rules and who are obligated to follow the rules of living together. For example: hotel, boarding house, guest house, hospital, medical house, welfare institutions, boarding schools, orphanages, barracks, jails, etcetera.

[A graphic on page 29 illustrates the two types of dwellings]

The enumeration of collective dwellings will be done by trained enumerators who were prepared with this purpose.

[p. 30]

1. Dwelling type
[Each definition is accompanied by an illustration]

a) Private [dwelling]:

Independent House: A dwelling surrounded by gardens, land, walls or barriers that separate it from other dwellings. Also falling into this category are contiguous homes with stand-alone roofs.

Room in a tenement: A dwelling that is part of a group of dwellings that generally have a direct entrance from a patio or hallway or corridor. Usually the inhabitants share water and toilet services.

Apartment: A dwelling that is part of a building with one or more floors, separated from the other dwellings by dividing walls, with an exit to the street through a hallway, corridor, stairway, or elevator. Dwellings constructed behind or to the side of another dwelling are also considered to be apartments. An apartment has exclusive water and toilet service available.
[p. 31]
Improvised house: A provisional dwelling constructed of waste materials such as pieces of cardboard, cans, [metal or other type of] sheets, etcetera (is in uninhabitable conditions). This type of dwelling is generally found in marginal areas of large cities.

Building not intended as a dwelling: Dwellings located in permanent buildings that were not constructed for the purpose of human habitation but at the time of enumeration (12:00 the night of May 21, 1988) are being used as dwellings. E.g. garages, factories, offices, warehouses, transit booths, workshops; also mobile units such as: tents, motor-homes, train cars, etcetera.

Natural refuges such as caves or holes in trees are considered to be dwellings if there are clear indications that they are being used as such on Census Day.

Spaces designed for servants or domestic employees are not considered to be separate dwellings unless they have an independent entrance and are rented or loaned to another family.
b) Collective [dwelling]:
A collective dwelling is a building or house where a group of unrelated persons resides. The dwelling is shared for reasons of shelter, health, education, discipline, religion, advanced age, or orphanhood. Hotels, boarding houses, guest houses, hospitals, medical houses, nursing homes, boarding schools, and hospices are included in this category.

[An illustration of a collective dwelling, a hostel, is shown.]

[p. 32]

c) Other type: This includes sanatoriums, correctional facilities for minors, convents, monasteries or seminaries, presbyteries, encampments, penitentiaries, jails, battalions, barracks, presidios, brothels, refugee camps, public municipal dormitories, etcetera.

Attention: Collective dwellings are enumerated by a special group of enumerators. If an enumerator finds a collective dwelling not on the list provided by the group leader, it should not be investigated, the enumerator should proceed to the next dwelling.

2. Predominant material in the exterior walls of the dwelling
The enumerator should identify the type of material used in construction of the exterior walls: façade, lateral walls, and back wall.

Mark an "X" in the corresponding circle.

[A graphic contains an illustration of the eight types of materials: brick, stone, cement block, adobe, wood, cane with earth, stick or cane, and waste materials]

Reminder: If more than one material is used in a dwelling, the predominating material is recorded. The same procedure applies to the identification of materials in roofs and floors. If the proportion is equal, the most valuable material is recorded.

[p. 33]

3. Predominant material in the roof of the dwelling
The type of material used to cover the roof of the dwelling is identified. An "X" is used to mark the corresponding material.

[A graphic contains an illustration of six types of materials: tile, asbestos and cement sheet, zinc sheet, concrete, straw or palm or similar, or waste materials.]

[p. 34]

4. Occupancy [of the dwelling]
a) Occupied dwelling
The enumerator will find out if the persons occupying the dwelling are present or absent. The following definitions will help the enumerator select the correct alternative.

By present people: It is the dwelling that is found, on the days of the census, with at least one occupant who is able to provide the information necessary to fill out the census form. If this is the case, an "X" is marked in circle 1 and then question 5 is presented.

[A graphic illustrates a dwelling with an occupant present]

By absent people: It is the permanently occupied dwelling where, due to work, state religious holidays, vacations, or other reasons, the persons are not in the dwelling on days of the census.

Also included in the category of "occupied dwelling with absent occupants" those dwellings where the enumerator only finds minors or elderly people who are unable to give the required information. In both cases, the enumerator should return to the dwelling one or more times to obtain the data.

Reminder: If, after multiple visits to the dwelling, the occupants are still absent, an "X" is marked in circle 2 and the interview is considered to be over.

[p. 35]

b) Unoccupied dwelling: The dwelling that is not occupied during the census days because it is for rent, sale, or is under repair or because it is for seasonal use. The enumerator should mark and "X" in the corresponding circle and finish the questionnaire.

[A graphic of a house for rent illustrates the above definition]

Reminder: The persons who have two dwellings and spend a considerable amount of time during the year in both of them should be enumerated in the dwelling in which they are found. This dwelling should be considered to be an occupied dwelling and the other should be considered to be unoccupied for seasonal use. These situations generally are found in agricultural areas where the persons reside in the city for part of the year and in a farm for the other part of the year.

Questions 5 and subsequent are only presented at dwellings with occupants who are present

5. Predominant material in the floor of the dwelling
Ask for the predominant material used in the floor of the dwelling. Once the material is defined, an "X" is marked in the corresponding circle.

[A graphic contains illustrations of six types of materials: (1) clay brick, (2) cement block, (3) cement plate, (4) wood, (5) dirt, and (6) granite or stone bricks]

[p.36]

6. Rooms in the dwelling
A room is a space in the dwelling, closed in by fixed walls, which rises from the floor to the roof, or to a height of at least two (2) meters from the floor.

a) How many rooms in total does the dwelling have?
Hallways, vestibules, and bathrooms are not counted as rooms. Then, write down the number of rooms told by the informant.

[There is a graphic illustrating the rooms in a dwelling]

b) How many rooms are used as bedrooms?
A bedroom is a room that is principally used for sleeping.

[There is a graphic illustrating the bedrooms in a dwelling]

c) Is there a room used only for cooking?
A kitchen is the room meant for food preparation.

[There is a graphic illustrating a kitchen in a dwelling]

Reminder: It is possible that, in the country, the kitchen is located separately from the rest of the dwelling. For the purposes of the census, this is considered to be an integral part of the dwelling.

7. What is the form of tenure of the dwelling?
Owned: The dwelling in which one of the members of the dwelling has acquired the right to real estate through purchase, inheritance, donation, etcetera. If the dwelling is owned, the enumerator will skip to question 9.

[p. 37]

Owned, still in payment: The dwelling in which one of the members of the dwelling has acquired the right to the real estate through a credit purchase and at the time of the census, a member is paying for it.

Rented: The dwelling occupied by a family with the permission of the owner, renter, etcetera, and for which a monthly payment is made.

Borrowed: The dwelling occupied by the family with the permission of the owner, renter, etc., for which no monthly payment is made. An "X" is marked in circle 4 and then question #10 is presented.

Other: It is when the dwelling is not owned, rented, or borrowed. An "X" is marked in circle 5 and the enumerator will skip to question 10.

8. If the dwelling is owned but still in payment or rented, how much is paid monthly?
The amount of the rent or monthly payment (in Lempiras, not including cents) is written down in the line provided.

9. In what year was construction for the dwelling completed?
The informant is asked for the calendar year in which the construction was completed for the dwelling. The appropriate circle is marked with an "X", according to the answer.

10. What is the source of drinking water for the dwelling?
This question is designed to find out if the water comes through a pipe from a public or private system. In both cases, water arrives to the dwelling through pipes; if from a public system it is installed by the "SANNA", "DIMA", or the municipality. If from a private system, it is installed by a sugar cane processing plant, a social service foundation, or from an owner who extends his system to other dwellings. Other methods of water supply are the following: from a well, from a river, watershed, traveling salesmen, or others.

An "X" is marked in the corresponding circle. Only one answer is marked.

[p. 38]

[A graphic illustrates various water supplies]

11. Is there a piped system for water installed?
An "X" is marked in the corresponding circle.

[A graphic illustrates the possible answers to question 11]

[p. 39]

12. What type of toilet service does the dwelling have?
Toilet connected to sewer system: It is s a toilet connected to a sewer system, whose waste goes into the sewer.

Toilet connected to a septic tank: It is a toilet connected to a cement tank that is connected to a drainage area.

Latrine with a hydraulic flush: It is a toilet connected to a drain where the waste is washed away with a current of water or with buckets.

Latrine with a simple hole: It is a hole, more or less deep, over which a cement or wooden toilet is constructed.

[Four graphics, related to this question, illustrate the types of toilet service]

13. Toilet service is for:

Exclusive use for one family
Shared use between multiple families

An "X" is marked in the corresponding circle.

[p. 40]

14. What type of lighting is used in the dwelling?
If electricity, specify whether from a public or private service.

Public electricity: It is the service provided by a company owned by the State, municipality, a social service foundation, or by the national electrical company.

[This definition is accompanied by an illustration]

Private electricity: It is the service provided by a private company or when the dwelling has its own generator.

[This definition is accompanied by an illustration]

An "X" is marked in the appropriate circle.

15. What is the principal fuel used for cooking?
[This question refers to a graphic illustrating the various types of cooking fuels]

Read the list of fuels used for cooking and mark an "X" in the circle that identifies the fuel that is most frequently used for cooking.

[p. 41]

16. Which of the following appliances and/or vehicles are in the dwelling?
Ask for the items in the order in which they appear on the form. An "X" is marked in each one of the cases according to the answers given. The enumerator should take care to not leave any item unregistered.

[A graphic illustrates the items included in question 16: radio, sewing machine, refrigerator, television, bicycle, car, motorcycle.]

Summary of the resident population
In the summary chart, the total number of usual residents who are present as well as the number absent is recorded.

From this total, the number of men and number of women is also recorded.

This data should coincide with the list in Chapter III, page 2, and with the total number of persons in Chapter V. If additional forms are used, the summary is only filled out in the first form.

[There is a graphic illustrating the summary chart.]

[p. 42]

Chapter III. Composition of the family inhabiting the dwelling
1. Who usually resides in this dwelling?
The name and surname of each person who usually resides in the dwelling is recorded (column 2). Write down all of the persons according to their relationship to the head of the family, according to the order given in column 2.

Reminder: Children and newborns should also be recorded, as well as elderly residents and the usual residents who are absent the day of the Census. The order given in column 2 should be followed rigorously, starting with the head of the family; that is, the person recognized as the head by the family. The wife or partner is next. Unmarried children come before married children, irrespective of age. Married children and their wives (who will be daughters-in-law of the head) are listed, followed by their children (who will be the grandchildren of the head); only if they are usual residents of the dwelling. The parents, the mother-in-law or father-in-law, other relatives, domestic employees, and finally other non-relatives are then listed.

If there are five or more guests who are not related to the head of the family, they are listed as other non-relatives.

The relationship to the head of family is written down for each person in column 3. The sex of each person is recorded in column 4 with an "X".

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the form and an illustration of a family]

Chapter IV Mortality
Has any person, who lived in this dwelling, passed away since January 1987 to the Census day?

The enumerator should ask about children, even if they might have passed away at a very young age.

The name and surname, the day and month of death, and the sex of the person is recorded. The year of death is also written down in the box for month.

In [the box for] age at death, "00" is written down if younger than one year; and write down the number of years completed if older.

[p. 43]

Chapter V. Population characteristics
It is estimated that in most of the dwellings in this country, up to nine persons can live in a dwelling. For this reason, the census form appears nine times in Chapter V. The enumerator will use one page for each person, from page 3 to page 11. Page 3 will begin with the head of family as person number 1. The following pages will be used for each person, enumerated in the same order in which they were listed in Chapter III.

If more than 9 persons usually live in the dwelling, an additional form is used and person number 10 is listed on page 4. (See instructions on page 25 of this manual). The person's number, name, and surname are also listed.

A. General Characteristics

1. What is the relationship to the head of family?
The relationship to the Head of Family, as verified in Chapter III's ordering, is recorded.

2. How old are you in years completed?
"00" is recorded in the line provided for those younger than one year of age; "99" is recorded for those older than 99 years of age.

3. What is your date of birth?
Request the year, month, and day of birth and record them in the space provided. If the month and day number is less than ten, a zero is placed in the first box. E.g. the person was born on May 9, 1964.

Year: 1964
Month:05
Day:09

Reminder: If the informant does not remember the date of birth, other family members should be consulted or the identification card or birth certificate requested. If the exact date is not known, at least the year should be recorded.

[p. 44]

4. Is the person a man or woman?
Mark the circle that identifies the sex of the individual. If the person is present, the answer is recorded without asking the question. Ask the question only if the person is absent and the name could be used for either a man or a woman.

5. Is your mother alive?
The person is asked if his orher mother is alive. If the mother is alive, the answer is affirmative, even if she does not live in the dwelling.

6. In which municipality and department were you born?
There are three possible answers for this, and the following, question: here, in another place in the country, or abroad. Only one answer is marked.

When the answer is "another place in the country", the municipality and department are recorded.

If born abroad, the name of the country and the date of arrival [to Honduras] are recorded.

[These instructions refer to an illustration of the three possible answers.]

[p. 45]

For those 5 years of age and older
[Questions 7-14 were asked of persons aged 5 years or older]

7. In what municipality and department did you live in 1983 (5 years ago)?
This question refers to the person's place of residence in May, 1983.

Important: The month of May, 1983 does not appear on the form; therefore, the enumerator should take care to form the question in the following manner:
In which municipality and department did you live in May, 1983 (five years ago)?

Here: This refers to the place where the interview is taking place, not the dwelling.

If the person resided somewhere else in the country five years ago, the Municipality and department are recorded.

If the person lived abroad five years ago, record only the name of the country.

8. Do you speak any of the following languages?
An "X" is marked in the corresponding circle.

B. Educational characteristics

9. Are you able to read and write?
If the person can to read and write, an "X" is marked in circle 1. If the person only reads, circle 2 is marked.

[These instructions refer to an illustration of a person reading.]

10. Do you currently attend an educational establishment or a literacy center?
Mark "yes" if the person attends any of the centers mentioned above.

[p. 46]

11. What is the highest level of study that you have studied or completed?
If the answer corresponds to one of the first three levels (none, literacy center, or pre-primary), the enumerator will skip to question 15.

If the answer is among the alternatives 4, 5, 6, or 7, the corresponding mark is made and the enumerator will proceed to the following question.

Reminder: Post-secondary non-tertiary education takes place after secondary (middle education) but is not at the tertiary level. E.g.: studies in the Teaching School, Pan American Agricultural School of Zamoran, National Agricultural School of Olancho.

12. What is the highest grade you completed?
This refers to the last year completed in the level of studies corresponding to the previous question and not the current year or semester of studies.

[These instructions refer to an illustration of the concept "last year completed"]

13. Did you complete this level?
If the person finished the level of study corresponding to the answer to question 11, "yes" is marked. If the person is currently studying or if the level was not finished, "no" is marked.

[p. 47]

14. To what course of studies or career did the last year completed belong?
If the person claims to have completed or to be studying secondary, non-university superior, or university, specify the name of the major. Examples:

The following are secondary studies: Business, Secretarial, Education, Diploma in Arts and Sciences, Administration, etcetera.

The following are post-secondary non-tertiary studies: Agronomy, Mathematics, Chemistry, and Biology.

The following are tertiary studies: Civil Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Law, Journalism, Business Administration, Economics, and Medicine.

For those 10 years of age and older
[Questions 15-25 were asked of persons aged 10 years or older]

15. Did you learn or are you learning an occupation?
An "X" is marked in the corresponding circle. If the answer is "no", the enumerator will skip to question 18.

16. What type of occupation did you learn or are you learning?
The trade learned or being learned is recorded in the line provided. Examples: carpentry, masonry, mechanics, etcetera. If multiple trades are learned, record the most important trade.

17. Where did you study or are you learning the occupation?
The enumerator will investigate whether the trade was learned in the National Institute of Professional Training (INFOP) or in another place. The corresponding circle is marked.

18. What is your current marital status?
Each of the following alternatives is read and an "X" is marked in the corresponding circle.

Be aware that:

Consensual Union: Is the person who lives with his/her spouse without having been married, either civilly or religiously.
[p. 48]
Married: Is the person who has been married, either civilly or religiously, and who lives with his or her spouse.

Separated: Is the married person who does not live with his or her spouse and who does not live in a consensual union with another person.

Divorced: Is the person whose marriage has been terminated by a judicial sentence and who has not remarried or live in a consensual union.

Widowed: Is the person who, after the death of a spouse, has not remarried and does not live in a consensual union.

Single: Is the person who has never been married and who does not live in a consensual union.

C. Economic characteristics

19. During the last week the person:

Note: This question is designed to determine the condition of activity or type of activity; that is, the relationship between each person and economic activity that takes place in the country. To determine the condition of each person, all residents 10 years of age or older are asked if, during the week of May 15-21, 1988 (last week), they "worked in an occupation that gave them money", "worked for another person without receiving money", or any of the other eight alternatives that follow.

Important: The condition of each person, during last week, should be carefully investigated. Each of the alternatives should be read and only one "X" is marked for the alternative that receives the affirmative answer.

[p. 49]

Each of the alternatives for question 19 is presented below. They should be carefully analyzed.

[] 1 Did you work in an occupation that gave you money?
This is the person who carried out some type of work in the week of May 15-21, 1988, for at least the work equivalent to one work day.

Other than what is normally considered to be work, a person is considered to have worked in the last week if:

- He or she worked for a daily or regular wage.
- He or she worked for in-kind pay: "food, supplies, or shelter in place of pay in cash."
- He or she was directing or collaborating in the work of his or her own farm.
- He or she worked for commission, tips, or for a piece-rate.
- He or she was directing the work for his or her own business, professional practice, or was working as an independent worker (on own-account).
- He or she was in the armed services.
- He or she occasionally worked.
- He or she worked part-time, or if they carried out any part-time job during the past week for which was paid in money.
[] 2 Did you work for another person without receiving pay in money?
The person who worked for a relative or other person, who, instead of money, received pay in-kind such as: food, clothing, and supplies; or who received pay in services such as: dwelling, transportation, etc.

[p. 50]

[] 3 Did you have a job but did not work?
This refers to those who are employed but who did not carry out their activities during the last week because they were absent because of illness, vacation, or leave. Many agricultural employees who wait for the planting and harvesting season are in this situation.

Note: The following two categories allow the classification of the unemployed; therefore, the enumerator should be very careful to include all persons who are in this situation.

[] 4 Did you look for employment? ([the person] had worked before)
Include in this category those who had lost their employment, job, or business; because of this they did not work last week but they are currently looking for work.

[] 5 Did you look for work for the first time? (never having worked before)
Include in this category those who are looking for work for the first time and having never worked before. This category is very common for those young persons who have recently finished some level of education, either primary, secondary, or university.

[] 6 Did you perform domestic duties?
Those who did not carry out any remunerated activity during the past week, having been exclusively dedicated to domestic duties, are included in this category. The domestic employee should not be included in this category, rather in the category of "Worked in an occupation that gave money".

[] 7 Did you study exclusively?
This question refers to those who, during the last week, were only dedicated to studying; that is, they did not carry out a productive activity at the same time.

Reminder: For the purposes of the census, for those who study and work at the same time, only the activity that occupies most of the person's time during the week of 15-21 May, 1988, is considered.

[p. 51]

[] 8 Are you a retiree or pensioner? (lives only from pension)
This question refers to those who receive their income exclusively from a pension that can be because of widowhood, disability, or retirement because of age or years of service.

[] 9 Are you permanently disabled, unable to work?
This category refers to those who, because of illness, accident, or advanced age, are completely or permanently disabled and unable to carry out a productive activity.

[] 0 Other?
Include in this category those who did not work during the last week, but the reason for this is not found in question 19. Example: when a person claims to work when he or she want to, or the person does not like to work, etcetera.

20. Did you carry out, during the last week, in or outside of the house, any activity that provided monetary or in-kind income?
This question is asked to all those who responded, in question 19, to one of the following alternatives:
[A graphic of the census form indicates alternatives 5-9 and 0]

If the answer is "yes", the enumerator will proceed to the following questions.
If the answer is "no", and the person is a woman, the enumerator will skip to question 26.
If the answer is "no", and the person is a man, the enumerator will skip to the next person and the next page in the form.

21. What is the occupation, job, or position that you hold or held?
This question is asked to those who answered from 1-4 in question 19 and who answered "yes" to question 20.

[p. 52]

The type of work should be written down in the most complete form possible, indicating the specialty of the occupation in the space of the two lines provided.

Even though the occupation usually coincides with the profession, the enumerator should try to differentiate in the cases where applicable. A doctor can have the occupation of the administration of a hospital, an engineer can be the manager of a company, a lawyer can work as a court Judge, etcetera.

[These instructions refer to two illustrations of occupations.]

So that the enumerator can better understand how to fill in the description of the occupation, some examples of correct and incorrect annotations are given below. [The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer
(B) Correct answer

Incorrect answer: Laborer
Correct answer: Agricultural laborer, road laborer, construction laborer, cattle laborer, cow milker, coffee picker.

Incorrect answer: Mechanics
Correct answer: Car mechanic, dental technician, airplane mechanic, industrial mechanic.

Incorrect answer: Doctor
Correct answer: Hospital director, chief of surgery, medical researcher.

Incorrect answer: Lawyer
Correct answer: Magistrate of the Supreme Court of Justice, judge, legal assessor of a Ministry.

[p. 53]

22. What was your last income received for the occupation declared in the previous question?
The last income, in Lempiras, received for the mentioned occupation, is recorded, specifying whether the income is received daily, weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly.

[These instructions refer to an illustration of a man receiving income]

23. In this job, are you or were you? [employment status]
Employee or worker in the public sector:
It refers to those who work in public administration (governments or autonomous institutions), carrying out an executive, administrative, or support occupation.

[p. 54]

Employee or worker in the private sector:
It refers to those who work in a private company carrying out a managerial, technical, administrative, manual, or support occupation.

Employer:
It refers to those who work alone or in association, in their own factory, workshop, company, or business and who employs one or more persons for a salary or wage.

Administrators, managers, or other directors who are in charge of personnel but are not the company's owner, are not considered to be employers.

Unpaid family worker:
It refers to those who work for the company directed by a family member, not receiving a salary or a wage.

Own-account worker:
This refers to the workers who offer and charge for their services individually. They do not have an employer and do not contract salaried personnel. In some cases, they work with family members and do not pay them for their work. Examples: street peddlers, shoeshines, small businessmen, independent shoemakers, plumbers, etcetera.

Domestic servant:

It refers to those who permanently work in the home of a family carrying out domestic duties, such as washing, cleaning, cooking, etcetera, for which a salary is received.

Worker in a production cooperative:
In this category are those who work as active members of one or more production cooperatives and who receive payment according to their participation. If the person is not a member of the cooperative and only receives a wage, they must not be in this category, rather they must be included in the first or second category as an employee or laborer of the public or private sector.

[p. 55]

24. What does or produce the establishment (company, business, or farm) or institution, where you work or last worked?
A precise answer, indicating exactly the establishment's type of activity, should be obtained from the person.

Reminder: If the answer is not clear, the enumerator should insist that person specify so that the correct answer can be recorded. Examples:
[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer
(B) Correct answer

Incorrect answer: Plantation
Correct answer: Sugarcane crop, fruits crop, vegetable crop.

Incorrect answer: Workshop
Correct answer: Upholstery workshop, carpentry workshop, turning workshop, car workshop.

Incorrect answer: Farm
Correct answer: Poultry farm, pig farm.

Incorrect answer: Shop
Correct answer: Retail sale of consumer products, sale of furniture.

Incorrect answer: Estate
Correct answer: Dairy barn, fattening stable.

Incorrect answer: Public administration (government and autonomous institutions)
Correct answer: Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Finance, National Agricultural Institute BANADESA.

Incorrect answer: Factory
Correct answer: Shoes factory, clothing factory, washing soap factory, cold meat factory.

[p. 56]

25. How many total hours did you work during last week?
Write down the number of hours worked [by the person] during the week of May 15-21.

[p. 57]

For women 12 years of age and older
[Questions 26-30 were asked of women aged 12 years and older]

D. Fertility Characteristics

26. Have you had any children born alive? (whether currently alive or having passed away)

Child born alive: A child born alive is one who, after birth, breathed or manifested any other sign of life, even if passing away immediately thereafter.

If the answer is "no" or "does not know", the enumerator will end the interview and continue with the next person.

27. What was the date of birth of your last child born alive? (whether currently alive or having passed away)

Record the day, month, and year of birth of the last child born alive, independently of whether the child had passed away by the time of the census. (If the number of the day or month is less than 10, a zero is placed in the first box. E.g.

Day: 04
Month: 02
Year: 1986

28. Is your last child still alive?
An "X" is marked according to the answer given.

29. How many children born alive have you had?
Record the total number of children, along with the number of boys and number of girls.

30. Of those children born alive:

a) How many have passed away?
Record the total number of children who have passed away, along with the number of boys and number of girls.

[p. 58]

b) How many are currently alive?
If there are children still alive, write down the total number of children currently alive, along with the number of boys and number of girls.

[Chapter VI, Identification of agricultural producers, was not translated into English – pages 58-59]

[p. 60]

Chapter VII. Cottage industry or artisan activity

1. Does anyone, who lives here, carry out any artisan activity, cottage industry, or business activity in the dwelling?
This question was designed to identify the cottage industries, artisan activities, or small units dedicated to business located in the place of residence of the persons.

The answers should be recorded in the last page of the Census Form, following the order given below.

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form.]

What is a cottage industry?
For the purposes of the census, a cottage industry or artisan activity is understood to be the production of small quantities of goods, made for direct sale or for sale through intermediaries, which generate income for the family. Examples of a cottage industry can be the production of tortillas, bread, clothing, pottery, shoes, or articles made of tulle, jute, or palm, etcetera.

[p. 61]

What is a small business or store?
For the purposes of the census, private dwellings that, besides functioning as a place of abode, are also used to sell diverse goods; e.g.: A dwelling where clothing, shoes, fruits, vegetables, or various goods are sold.

How to fill out the chart?

Name of the person: If the enumerated person claims that there is someone who produces or sells something in the dwelling, request the name of the person and record it in the first column.

The use of columns 2, 3, and 4 depends on the each case. These cases are explained below:

a) If a good is produced in the dwelling but not sold there, write down the name of the good in column 2. Nothing is written in column 4 (small business or store).

b) If a good is produced and sold in the dwelling, write down the name of the good in columns 2 and 4.

c) If goods are sold but not produced in the dwelling, write down the name of the goods or type of business in column 4. Nothing is written in column 2.

For those dwellings with a cottage industry or artisan activity, write down in column 3 the number of persons employed in production of those articles.

Final instructions for filling out form
To finish the work in each dwelling, the enumerator revises the census form. After the revision, [the enumerator] write down the date, name, and signature in the corresponding space on the last page of the form.

Then, [the enumerator] must give the form to the group leader for its revision; this person will indicate the appropriate corrections to the enumerator. Once the form is filled out correctly, the enumerator request to the group leader that writes down the date, name, and signature in the respective space on the last page of the form.

[p. 62]

Collective dwellings

Generalities

Definition of persons who live in collective dwellings:
These are unrelated persons who stay and live together because of work, health, education, discipline, security, etcetera, at the moment of enumeration (12:00 the night of Saturday, May 21).

For the purposes of the census, those separate and independent places of abode, such as boarding schools, welfare institutions, worker's camps, correctional facilities, rehabilitation centers, penitentiaries, barracks, boarding houses, refugee camps, and others are considered to be collective dwellings.

Enumeration procedure
The population living in collective dwellings will be enumerated by personnel specially designated for this activity and will be done separately [from the enumeration of private dwellings].

The enumeration of collective dwellings is similar to the enumeration of persons living in private dwellings. The same census form is used, using only question 1 from Chapter II, dwelling information, excluding Chapter VI, identification of agricultural producers, and Chapter VII, cottage or artisan industry.

Who the enumerator should talk to before beginning the interview?
The enumerator should initially establish contact with the person responsible for the establishment (director, administrator, or person in charge) to obtain the dwelling's general information and so that this person provides the facilities to proceed to the enumeration.

[p. 63]

Persons who should be enumerated in collective dwellings
In a collective dwelling, the enumerator can find employees who are there to complete their work but actually reside in another dwelling, other persons who for special reasons are temporarily in the dwelling (days, weeks, or less than 6 months), and Hondurans or foreigners who reside in another country and are passing through Honduras. These persons should not be enumerated in the collective dwelling.

So that the enumerator can clearly distinguish who should be enumerated, this is clarified below:

Should be enumerated:

a) Those who normally work and reside in the collective dwelling.

b) Those who do not work in the collective dwelling, but who normally live there.

Example: The collective dwelling is a boarding school

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Person
(B) Place of residence
(C) Place where enumerated

Person: The director
Place of residence: The boarding school
Place where enumerated: In the boarding school.

Person: Professor
Place of residence: Resides in the boarding school
Place where enumerated: In the boarding school.

Person: Professor
Place of residence: Works in the boarding school and lives in his/her house in the same city
Place where enumerated: In his or her dwelling.

Person: Counselor
Place of residence: Resides in the boarding school
Place where enumerated: In the boarding school.

Person: Janitor
Place of residence: Works in the boarding school by day
Place where enumerated: In his or her dwelling.

Person: 50 students
Place of residence: Students living and studying at the school
Place where enumerated: In the boarding school.

Person: 20 students
Place of residence: Arrive at their classes during the day
Place where enumerated: In their respective dwellings.
[p. 64]

Special Cases:

a) If the enumerator finds persons who live alone or with their families independently in the installations of a collective dwelling, they are enumerated with the whole form, following the instructions for persons who reside in private dwellings.

b) The enumeration of military installations will take place in a special manner and at a different date and therefore should not be carried out [by the usual enumerators].

Instructions for filling out the Form for persons residing in collective dwellings

Chapter I. Geographic location

To fill in the information for this chapter, follow the same instructions as for private dwellings.

Chapter II. Dwelling information
Ask only question 1. Identify the collective dwelling marking with an "X" the corresponding alternative, between options 6 and 9. The enumerator should then proceed to chapter III and then to fill out the "summary of the resident population".

Chapter III. Composition of the family residing in the dwelling
Ask the head or person in charge of the collective dwelling about the persons who have lived in the dwelling for no less than six months, or for those who have spent less time there and are planning on establishing residence there.

[p. 65]

When these persons have been identified, the enumerator should enumerate according to the following instructions:

1. The first person written down is the head or person in charge of the dwelling, if he or she usually resides there. Continue with the other residents until the 9th person. If there are more residents, use one or more additional forms (instructions on page 25) and follow the correlative numbering.

2. Column 2 is filled in with the name of each person and column 4 is marked for the sex of each person. Do not fill out column 3.

Summary of the resident population
After filling out chapter III, complete the summary chart that appears on page 1 of the first form then proceed to chapter V.

Chapter V. Population characteristics

a) The information for this chapter should be obtained by each of the residents, identifying them by the person number that was assigned in chapter III.

b) Follow the instructions for private dwellings, appearing in pages 43-58, with the exception of page 3, which corresponds to the head of family. This means that, the information of the first person in collective dwellings is reported on page 4. The same should be done for each additional form (page 3 should not be used).

c) In question 1, "what is the relationship to the head of family?", marked with an "X" the circle 9, "person in a collective dwelling".
Important: The interview is finished after the questions in chapter V are completed.

Chapters VI and VII are not filled out.