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Enumeration Manual
General Housing and Population Census
Honduras 1961

[Pages 1-6 were not translated into English]

[p. 7]

Persons to be enumerated
A "de jure" or "de facto" census is one that reflects the population of a place at a certain point in time.

For this purpose, a day, called the Census Day, has been established and the information will refer to the present persons at that place the night before the "Census Day". To be more precise, in certain cases 12 midnight will be considered [to be the reference point], thus, a child born after 12:00 that night did not exist at that time and should not be enumerated even if the dwelling is enumerated days after the "Census Day". On the other hand, those persons who passed away at any time after 12:00 of the night before the census should be enumerated because they existed at the time of reference.

[p. 8]

Those persons who usually live in the dwelling but were absent on the reference night should not be enumerated. However, in the rare case that some persons did not spend the night before "Census Day" in any dwelling because they were traveling, working, at a party, or at a wake, they should be enumerated at the dwelling where they normally reside.

Guests, who spent the night before "Census Day" in the dwelling, without living there permanently, should be enumerated as members of the family.

Instructions for filling out the dwelling form
The housing census includes all places in which the inhabitants of the country live. Its principal purpose is knowing how Hondurans live through the knowledge of the characteristics of their dwellings. The unit of investigation for this census is the occupied dwelling, which is defined below. This definition, like every other definition encountered in this manual, has been created for the purposes of the census and might not correspond exactly to what the enumerator has considered to be a dwelling in the past.

For reasons mentioned previously, it is absolutely necessary that, for the success of the census, all enumerators and other census workers follow, with exactness, the definitions and instructions within this Manual and the forms. If this does not happen, the effort will be useless.

The ballot of the dwelling was designed in a way that greatly facilitates its handling. In addition to the general geographical location information at the top, the ballot consists of 18 cells with the same number of topics. In those cells, the enumerator must mark with a "X" the corresponding box to the correct answer; except in cells 7, 12 and 13 where the enumerator will enter the number of toilets in the dwelling, the monthly rental value, and the number of rooms, respectively.

The enumerator must also investigate in each dwelling if any of the people living there have a farm, and therefore, filling cell 17.

In cell 18, the enumerator must record the number of pigs, poultry, and beehives whose rearing is done off the farm.

It should be kept in mind that in each cell, one and only one box should be marked (the box corresponding to the correct answer).

[p. 9]

Below are some basic definitions, with which the enumerator should be familiar so that he or she can successfully carry out the commissioned task.


Dwelling: it is every structurally separate or independent building or premise that has been constructed, made, converted, or made available for accommodation (e.g., private house, rustic hut, shack, apartment, room in a tenement, inn, or tenement, etcetera). Moreover, are considered as dwellings those places that were not built for accommodation, but were used as a house during the Census Day (boat, railroad car, tent, etcetera).

Two types of dwellings are distinguished:

a) Private dwelling: the dwelling used or meant to be used as a separate domicile or place of abode, independently by a family, by another group of persons related or not, or by one person who lives alone.

All persons living in a private dwelling constitute a census household.

b) Collective dwelling: the dwelling used or meant to be used as a place of abode for a group of persons, usually not related, who generally live together for reasons of discipline, health, education, active religious life, work, or other reasons. Examples include: reformatories, penitentiaries, jails, hospitals, sanatoriums, nursing homes, school dormitories, convents, orphanages, worker?s camps, hotels, boarding houses, and other places of abode.

The persons living in a collective dwelling constitute a non-family group.

The classification of private and collective dwellings does not refer to their ownership.

It is also possible that two or more households exist within the same house (see the definition of census household). In this case, a separate form should be filled out for each family.

Census Household: this can be constituted of one person living alone or by a group of persons united by family ties. This includes servants who sleep in the dwelling, guests, and pensioners, only if not exceeding 5.

A group of unrelated persons living together in a family-like atmosphere can be also considered as a census household.

Non-family group: it is a group of unrelated persons who usually live in the same dwelling unit for reasons of accommodation, health, education, discipline, work, etcetera.

This type [of group] is usually found in hotels, clinics, hospitals, school dormitories, barracks, private dwellings with more than five guests, etcetera.

[p. 10]

Occupied dwelling: it is understood to be every dwelling where one or more persons spent the night previous to the Census Day. A census form should be filled out for every occupied dwelling.

Clarifications and examples
People normally live in houses, apartments, rustic huts, shanties, tenements, boarding houses, hotels, hospitals, and other places of accommodation.

All of these places will be investigated as Private dwellings or as collective dwellings, according to the respective definitions.

Normally there will not be difficulty in identifying the dwelling, especially in rural areas, because the majority of the population lives in dwellings occupied by only one family. However, there are exceptional cases that may present problems in defining and identifying [the dwellings]. For a better understanding on how to proceed, the following examples are presented:

1. It has already been established that hotels, boarding houses, clinics, etcetera are collective dwellings; however, there may be cases when the owner or administrator, with his family, occupy part of the building, but live completely independently; cooking and eating separately and not interacting with the other residents. In such cases, there is a private dwelling comprised of this family and a collective dwelling comprised of the other residents. A separate form is filled out for each.

2. It is common that hotels rent out complete apartments, which are inhabited by independent families.

If these families cook and eat separately, they constitute, by themselves, a census household. There are as many private dwellings in the hotel as there are census households. A separate form is filled out for each family, and another form is filled out for the collective dwelling with the rest of the hotel guests and personnel.

3. There may also be cases of collective dwellings within private dwellings. For example, there may be family houses where students, employees, and others who live and eat with the family members. If there are six or more of these guests, the house is considered a collective dwelling. When the number of guests is five or less, the guests are enumerated with the family of the owner as members of the census household and the dwelling is enumerated as a private dwelling. When rooms are rented in a private dwelling to six or more persons, who do not eat with the family and do not constitute, by themselves, a private dwelling, two forms are filled out; one for the family, and one for the renters.

[p. 11]

4. Hotels and boarding houses are always considered collective dwellings, irrespective of the number of travelers spending the night there before the Census Day. Generally, these establishments should be enumerated the same night of reference.

5. In a tenement or inn, where individual rooms are rented out and all of the tenants share toilet and water services, there will be as many private dwellings as there are families. In this case, each family or group of persons living and eating together is considered a census household. The space inhabited by each family is considered a dwelling, whether it is one room or multiple rooms.

6. Buildings with stores, factories, and commercial or industrial establishments, are not considered dwellings unless they contain an apartment, room, or group of rooms occupied as a dwelling by the owner, manager, guard, porter and his or her family. In this case, the part of the building occupied by these persons is considered a dwelling, not taking into account the rest of the building.

How to fill out the form

The sector number and the ballot number is written down in the upper right hand corner.

The sector number will be assigned prior to the census so that the enumerator can tour the sector before beginning the operation; this number is written down on all of the ballots.

The ballot number comes from the consecutive order of visits; i.e. the first ballot filled out will have the number 1, the second ballot will have the number 2, and so forth successively until the last ballot.

The geographical information is of great importance and therefore should never be omitted.

In the geographical location [section], the following [information] will be recorded:
a) Name of the department
b) Name of the municipality

For Urban Zones:
c) Name of the city or town
d) Name of the street

[p. 12]

For Rural Zones:
e) Name of the village
f) Name of the hamlet

The rest of the ballot is made up of 18 cells divided into two groups.

When enumerating private dwellings, which will be the majority of the cases, all of the questions on the form should be answered.

When enumerating collective dwellings, only questions 1-8 and cells 17 and 18 are answered, excluding questions 9-16.

Cell number 1: dwelling classification
Mark with an "X" the box corresponding to whether it is a private dwelling or a collective dwelling.

Reminder: a collective dwelling is when it is a hotel, boarding house, barracks, work camp, dormitory, hospital, etcetera and family houses with more than five guests.

Cell number 2: predominant material in the exterior walls
A material is said to be predominant when it is in the greatest proportion in the construction; for example: for a house with exterior walls made partly of rock, but mostly of stick and mud, box number 2, "adobe or stick and mud" is marked.

Box number 1 is marked if any of the following materials, or a combination, are predominant in the construction: bricks, rocks, reinforced concrete, or cinder blocks.

One box should be marked according to the predominant material. Box number 4 should be marked if the material is not found in any of the three previous categories, the name of the material should also be written down; e.g. sticks or boards, leaves, manaca, bamboo, cardboard, etcetera.

Cell number 3: predominant material in the roof
The roof is the exterior part that covers the building; the ceiling should never be considered to be the roof.

When a dwelling is part of a building with multiple floors, the enumerator should consider the roof of the entire building.

One of the five boxes should be marked with an ?X?, according to the predominant material. As is done for the question concerning exterior walls, when box number 5 is marked, the name of the material should be recorded as well.

[p. 13]

Cell number 4: Predominant material in the floor
Mark an "X" in one of the four boxes, according to the predominant material in the floor.

In a dwelling with more than one floor, the material for the first floor is recorded.

Cell number 5: Lighting
The box corresponding to the type of lighting used in the dwelling is marked with an ?X?.

Cell number 6: Water service
This question is designed to find out whether or not the dwelling receives water through plumbing inside the dwelling, outside of the dwelling, or if it simply does not receive water through pipes.

Piped water inside the dwelling: the dwelling has piped water inside the dwelling [indoor plumbing] when there are one or more faucets inside the construction; i.e. there is at least a faucet in the kitchen; but not when the only faucet available is found in the patio of the house.

When there is piped water inside the dwelling, box number 1 is marked if it comes from the public system; that is, when the water supply and installation of pipes has been supplied by the local, state, or both authorities.

Box number 2 is marked if water comes from a private system; that is, if the installation comes from a person, a group of persons, or a private company that charges the public for the service without intervention of the authorities.

A person who has a personal well, from which water is drawn via pipes into the dwelling, is considered to receive water from a private service, and mark box number 2.

Piped water outside of the Dwelling: The dwelling has piped water outside of the dwelling when the piped water does not reach inside the dwelling; rather it reaches the patio, building, or water is simply taken from a public faucet.

[p. 14]

The public faucet should not be more than 200 meters from the dwelling. If the faucet is closer than 200 meters then box number 3 is marked with an "X", if the faucet is farther away than 200 meters, box number 4 (does not have [piped water]) is marked.

Does not have [piped water]: when the water used in the dwelling does not come from a pipe but is obtained from a well, spring, river, etcetera, box number 4 is marked.

Cell number 7: Toilet facilities, type
This question is designed to find out the type of toilet service found in the dwelling. When there is a toilet in the dwelling, the number of toilets in the dwelling is recorded in the space next to the corresponding box. When another type of toilet facility exists, only the corresponding box should be marked; for example:

If there is a latrine connected to a drain, box number 5 is marked. If it is a latrine connected to a cesspool; that is, there is a hole where the excrement accumulates, box number 6 is marked.

When there is no toilet facility or if there is something that does not correspond to the three types mentioned (toilet, latrine connected to the drain, latrine connected to a cesspool), box number 7 (does not have [a toilet facility]) is marked.

Cell number 8: Toilet service, use
It should be indicated here whether or not the toilet services indicated in cell number 7 are for the exclusive use of the census household or if [those facilities] are shared by multiple families. When there are no toilet facilities, box No.3 should be marked.

Cell number 9: Bathroom
If either box number 1 or number 2 is marked for cell number 6 (piped water in the dwelling), the enumerator should ask if the dwelling has a bathroom; if not, box number 3 (does not have [bathroom]) is marked.

A dwelling has a bathroom if it has a room meant for this use, supplied with a shower, bathtub, or other appliance and only if water arrives via pipes.

If the dwelling has a bathroom, mark one of the boxes corresponding to whether it is for the exclusive use of the family or whether it is shared by multiple families. If the dwelling does not have a bathroom, box number 3 (does not have [bathroom]) is marked.

Cell number 10: Cooking fuel
The enumerator should mark the box corresponding to the fuel used for cooking.

Cell number 11: [House] Tenure

[p. 15]

It should be investigated to see if the occupant is the owner of the dwelling, in which case box number 1 is marked. If monthly rent is paid, box number 2 (renter) is marked. If the occupant is not the owner but does not pay rent, box number 3 (other form) is marked.

Cell number 12: Monthly rent
When box number 2 is marked in cell No.11 ([the occupant is a] renter), the monthly rent, in lempiras [Honduran currency], paid by the renter is recorded.

The enumerator should be care when a person is renting a house but, at the same time, rents part of the house to another person. If the second [sublet] part of the house makes up a separate dwelling, a separate form is filled out and therefore the value of the monthly rent paid [for the sublet] should not be included in the rent of the whole house.

Example: a man rents the house where he and his family live for L. 250. He also rents part of the house to another family for L. 100. Two census households live in this dwelling and therefore, two forms are filled out. However, in none of the forms should the amount of L. 250 appear for cell number 12.

In the first form, corresponding to the principal renter, the amount of L. 150, the amount effectively paid, is recorded. The other L. 100 is paid by the other family and should be recorded on the second form.

However, if a person pays L. 250 in rent and sublets two rooms for L. 50 each, but the persons occupying these rooms do not constitute separate census households; only one form is filled out and the amount of L. 250 is recorded as the monthly rent in cell number12.

Cell number 13: Number of rooms
The number of rooms in the dwelling should be recorded in this cell.

A room is each chamber or space used for accommodation; this includes living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, and servants rooms.

There are some houses, particularly modern houses, where there is no separation between the living room and the dining room. There is a construction in the form of an "L" where, for example, one part is used as the living room and the other part as the dining room. In this case, they are considered to be two rooms if, in fact, there is no visible separation and the dining room is independent from the living room.

If there is a table in the living room used for eating, it is counted as only one room because it functions as both living room and dining room.

[p. 16]

Porches, bathrooms, hallways, or corridors are not included.

Rooms in the dwelling exclusively for commercial, industrial, or service purposes (e.g. stores, clinics, workshops, barbershops, etcetera) are not counted as rooms.

Cells number 14, 15, and 16: Radio, sewing machine, and refrigerator
This question is designed to find out if there is a radio, sewing machine, and refrigerator in the dwelling.

Mark each box according to whether they exist or not.

Cells number 17 and 18
These questions should always be asked, for both private dwellings as well as for collective dwellings, and for dwellings in both rural and urban zones.

Cell number 17
The enumerator must ask tin each dwelling if any of the people who live there, has a farm that the person exploits on his or her own, no matter if the person owns the land or if the person is a tenant or occupant; the enumerator must write "Yes" or "No", depending on the case.

If the answer is "Yes" proceed to fill in the boxes corresponding to: location of the farm, specifying municipality and village; extension of the farm, number of cattle, number of pigs, number of poultry, and number of beehives. If there is more than one farm, complete the information for each farm.

Definition of farm: for the purposes of the census, a farm is a terrain, (no matter the size) used wholly or partly for agricultural or livestock production and exploited by a single person, or with the help of others.

Cell number 18
The questions in this cell refer to the raising of pigs, poultry, and beehives outside the farms, that is, in patios, pens, etcetera. The number of each one must be recorded.

Persons occupying the dwelling
To obtain this information, wait until you have filled the population form. The information of the person who normally resides in the dwelling is not desired; rather the information of those persons who spent the night prior to Census Day in the dwelling are enumerated is taken here.

Be very careful when transcribing this data, since from this cell we will obtain the information of the population of each place.

[p. 17]

Instructions for filling out the population form
Once all of the dwelling information is recorded, the enumerator will proceed to the interior part of the form and record the information for each person who spent the night prior to Census Day in the dwelling.

The sector number and the form number, taken from the ?dwelling form?, are recorded in the upper right corner.

Type of dwelling (upper left part of form)
It should be indicated here if it is a collective dwelling or not. The answer will be "Yes" if box number 2 was marked in cell number 1. In this case, the inhabitants of the dwelling form a non-family group and not a census household.

If it is a collective dwelling, write down a) the type: e.g. hotel, boarding house, hospital, barracks, dormitory, etcetera, and b) write down the name of the institution: Prado Hotel, Suyapa Boarding House, Viera Hospital, The Polyclinic, San Francisco Barrack, etcetera.

The enumerator should then proceed to enumerate all of the persons who spent the night prior to Census Day in the dwelling under the columns numbered 1 to 19.

The columns labeled with letters ("A" to "J") should be left blank since they will be used later in the office.

This is a form for the household, and has room for the information of 15 persons. In the case of families or non-family groups with more than 15 members, use additional forms leaving the dwelling section blank. The number of the first form should be accompanied by the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", and so on. For example, in dwelling number 9 there are 18 persons. The enumerator will write down all of the dwelling information and the information for the first 15 persons; the form number will be 9A. Since there are 3 people who have not been enumerated, the enumerator will use a new form and write down the form number "9B" and then record the information of the last 3 persons.

Generally, more than one form will not be used except for dealing with collective dwellings.

General Characteristics

This section is comprised of questions 1-7 which should be presented to all persons:

[p. 18]

Column number 1: Name and surname
If enumerating a census household (private dwelling), the name of the head of the household should be written down first.

If the head of household was absent the night prior to the Census Day, write down the name of the person who assumed responsibility in the head?s absence. This could be the wife or partner, the mother, an older child, a brother, etcetera. This person will be considered, for the purposes of the census, as if he or she were the head. The information of the other persons should then be recorded, e.g.: wife or partner, unmarried children in descending order of age (starting with the oldest), married children and their families, other relatives, servants, guests, etcetera.

If enumerating a non-family group (collective dwelling), the name of the person responsible for the establishment, director, administrator, or manager, is written down first; only if he or she spent the night prior to the Census Day in the establishment. In the following lines, write down the information of all of the administrative personnel and other employees in order of their classification, followed by the information for the guests, patients, inmates, etcetera.

Column number 2: Relationship
The first person recorded is considered the head of the census household; the word "Head" is written down for this person. If the real head did not spend the night prior to Census Day in the dwelling he or she is not enumerated. The relationship of the other persons to the head is recorded; e.g. wife, partner, child, nephew, daughter-in-law, grandchild, guest, servant, child of servant, etcetera.

For those in non-family groups, write down in this column the reason for which they are in the dwelling, e.g. in a hotel, administrator, porter, passenger, other in a hospital, nurse, patient, etcetera.

Column number 3: Sex
Use "M" for masculine and "F" for feminine.

Column number 4: Age
The age that the person had at his or her last birthday is recorded on the Census Day; i.e. the age in years completed.

For children who have not completed one year of life, the number of months completed, followed by the letter "M", is written down. E.g., for a child who was 2 months and 20 days old at the time of enumeration, the annotation in the fourth column would be "2M" which refers to the number of months completed, not counting of the number of days that have passed in the month.

For children who had not completed one month of life at the time of enumeration, an "X" is written down. It does not matter if the infant is 1 or 29 days old.

[p. 19]

Age is an extremely interesting piece of information and it should not, under any circumstances, be omitted. Try to record precise ages, avoiding estimated ages. For example: if a man claims to be "about 40", explain him that it is necessary to find out the exact number of years. If the person does not remember or does not know his or her age, try to help calculate it by any means; for example, if the person is a woman, ask how old she was what when her first child was born, with that information plus the age of the child the age is known.

Therefore, the enumerator can use any method in finding out the age of the enumerated person. If enumerating a stranger who, for any reason, spent the night prior to Census Day and at the time of enumeration is not present, ask to the family members the estimated age of that person.

As seen from the above comments, the enumerator should investigate, through any method, the age of all enumerated persons and make the corresponding annotation in the form.

Column number 5: Marital Status
Write in this column the marital status of all enumerated persons in the Census Day, using the following words:

Single: those who have never married, including minors. Excluded from this group are those who are not married but live in a consensual union.

Married: those who have been legally married at the time of enumeration. Include in this group those who are married but are not living with their spouse, only if they are not living in a consensual union with another person.

Consensual union: one who lives in a state of marriage without having been legally married.

Widowed: one whose spouse has passed away and who has not remarried or entered into a consensual union.

Divorced: one whose marriage has ended through a legal divorce and who has not remarried or entered into a consensual union.

Column number 6: Place of birth
If the person was born in Honduras, the name of the Department where born is written down. If born abroad, the name of the country where born is recorded.

[p. 20]

Column number 7: Nationality
For those born in Honduras, an "H" is written down. For those born abroad, it should be asked if the person has acquired Honduran citizenship; if the answer is affirmative, naturalized is written down, for other answers, the nationality declared is recorded.

Educational characteristics
This section comprises questions 8, 9, and 10, and those questions should be asked to persons aged 5 years or older.

Column number 8: Are you able to read and write? (in any language)
Write "Yes" or "No" according to the answer.

Column number 9: Did you attend school during the current month of April?
School attendance is not limited to primary [elementary] school only. It is desired to find out if, during the reference month, the person attended any educational center, this can be an elementary school, secondary school, or other educational establishment.

Since the University is not in session during the month of April, all university students will be marked down as not attending, which is untrue. To avoid this anomaly, the enumerator should ask if the person is attending the university; if this is the case, "yes" should be written down in column 9.

If the person had attended, as a student, any educational center at least once during the month of April, the answer is "yes".

Children 5 years of age who attend a kindergarten or day care are not considered to be attending school.

Column number 10: Last year completed
With this information, it is desired to know the educational level of the population and it is necessary that the enumerator pay special attention [to the occupant].

For the persons who have never attended school and for those who attended but did have not complete even their first year of study, a dash (-) is written down.

For the rest of the population, the number of the last year completed is written down, followed by a letter "P" for primary, "S" for secondary, or "U" for university.

[p. 21]

Some faculties in our [Honduran] University have a preparatory course. For those university students who have passed preparatory but who have not entered the first year of university studies, the annotation is "PU", which means University Preparatory.

The annotation will be as follows: 3P, 2S, 1PU, and 4U; meaning third year in primary, second year in secondary, first year in university preparatory, and fourth year in university.

Studies in the Vocational Technical Institute, School of Arts and Trades, Industrial Arts School, School of Fine Arts, and similar are considered to be secondary education.

Be careful when interviewing current students. The question refers to the last year completed and not to the current year of study. E.g. for a child attending the third year of primary, "2P" is written down since the last year completed is second.

For the child attending the first year of primary, a dash (-) is recorded since no studies have been completed.

For the person attending the first year of secondary, "6P" is recorded since the last year completed is the sixth grade in primary.

For those in their first year at the university, ask if they attended the preparatory course, if this is the case, 1PU is recorded. Otherwise, write 5S since the last year completed is the fifth grade in secondary.

Economic characteristics
This section comprises questions 11 to 19 which are asked to persons aged 10 years or older.

Column number 11: Do you have a paying job?
For persons aged 10 years or older, ask if they have a remunerated employment (with or without salary), and write "Yes" or "No" according to the answer. If the answer is "Yes", write dashes (-) in columns 12, 13, and 14, and write the word "Employed" in column 15. The enumerator should then proceed to investigate how long, in weeks or months, [the person] worked during the year between May 1, 1960 and April 30, 1961.

If the answer is "No", proceed to question 12.

Column number 12: Do you work on your own account?
If the answer to question 11 was "No", ask if the person works for his or her own account. This means that the person works in his or her own business (e.g., store), practices a profession, has his or her own workshop, or the person works in agriculture on his or her own account, etcetera. "Yes" or "No is written down according to the answer.

[p. 22]

If the answer is "Yes", record dashes (-) in columns 13 and 14. Write down the word "employed" is in column 15 and then proceed to investigate the length of time, in weeks or months, the person has worked during the year.

Column number 13: Do you work, without remuneration, for a family member?
If the person does not have a remunerated employment and does not work on his or her own account ("No" in columns 11 and 12), ask if he or she work without pay for a family member, and write down "Yes" or "No" according to the answer. A person is considered to be working without pay for a family member if he or she works at least one third of the normal labor time, which can be two hours per day or two days per week.

If the answer is "Yes", record a dash in column 14, write down the word "employed" in column 15, and then proceed to question 16.

Column number 14: If you don't have a job, are you looking for work?
If the answers for questions 11, 12, and 13 were "No", the enumerator will ask whether the person is looking for work. "Yes" or "No" is written down according to the answer.

If the person is looking or looked for work during the last month, record the word "unemployed" in column 15.

Before proceeding to question 15, it is expedient to warn that many persons may not be working at the time of enumeration while being employed, whether remunerated, on own-account, or unpaid for a family member. This happens when the person is not working because of a circumstance, such as illness or accident, labor strike, vacation or other type of leave, work interruption because of inclement weather or machinery breakdown, etcetera. In this case, the answers for 11, 12, and 13 are "Yes" and the person is considered to be "employed".

Column number 15: [Employment] situation
As mentioned above, for every affirmative answer in questions 11, 12, or 13, the word "employed" must be recorded in column 15. When the answer is "No" for these three questions, but "Yes" in question 14, the situation is "unemployed".

When the answer for questions 11, 12, 13, and 14 is "No", investigate the [employment] situation of the person and record the corresponding word: Unemployed, household duties, students, elderly, retired, pensioned, rentier, disabled, sick, religious, imprisoned, etcetera.

[p. 23]

Unemployed: other than those persons seeking employment, included in this group are those who are not working and not looking for work, because of a temporary illness, because the person has made arrangements for a job to begin at a future date, or because the person is temporarily or permanently without paid employment.

Household duties: this category includes all persons dedicated exclusively to the care of their own home; e.g. housewives and other relatives who are in charge of caring for the house and children. Domestic servants are considered to be "employed".

If a person receives retirement or pension [payments], he or she is considered to be "retired" or "pensioned".

Student: those who are not working because they are attending school (any educational center). If studying and carrying out a paid occupation or job, they are considered to be "employed".

Elderly or retired: those who have stopped working and are receiving income in the form of retirement or a pension.

Rentier: those who do not work but receive money from rents coming from a business or company, interests, etcetera.

Disabled: those who cannot work because they suffer a physical or mental defect.

Sick: those who suffer from an illness whose cure requires long-term care or rest.

Religious: the condition of persons who consider themselves to be in such a condition [in religious service]. This can be in spite of the fact that these persons carry out, or carried out, even without direct remuneration, occupations that are usually remunerated; such as: teaching, assisting the sick or indigent, administering, etc.

Imprisoned: those who are in penal or correctional facilities, barracks, etc., carrying out a sentence or punishment, military service, etc.

Column number 16: How much time did you work during the year?
The enumerator should ask all those people aged 10 years or older, working or not, regardless of their employment situation, if they worked during the year. If they have worked, the enumerator should ask the amount of time employed. It is not important if the work was carried out continuously or in separate periods. The number of months or weeks worked during all of the year, from May 1st, 1960, should be recorded.

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If the number corresponds to months, the letter "M" should accompany it. If weeks, the letter "S" should accompany the number.

Columns 17, 18, and 19: The last three questions are asked to all those who worked or sought employment; that is, to all those who have an answer in column 16 and those who despite not having worked all year, claimed to be seeking work.

Column number 17: Where do you work or where did you work most recently?
This question is designed to find out the type of establishment or other place where the person works. The name of the establishment or place is written down: e.g. own farm, private home, clothing factory, brick factory, pharmacy, carpentry shop, mechanic?s workshop, shoe store, company farm, own house, etcetera.

For those who are not working at the time of enumeration, record the name of the establishment where they worked most of the time during the year between May 1, 1960 and April 30, 1961.

In the rare case where a person has a permanent employment but is working in another activity at the time of enumeration, the name of the establishment where the person permanently works is written down. For example: a person who works as a typist in the offices of Standard Fruit Co is on vacation or suspended from work at the time of enumeration and is working as a salesclerk in a store, the enumerator will write down "typist in Banana Co." and not the name of the store.

If a person works in a store as a salesclerk, the correct annotation is "salesclerk in a store", "salesclerk in a pharmacy" or "salesclerk in a bookstore". The type of establishment should be written down.

For those who work in more than one establishment, such as for example; an accountant for a commercial firm who also works as a teacher in a school, write down the profession that brings in the highest income or the one to which more time is dedicated.

For those who have never worked and have been seeking employment in the last month, "new worker" is written down in this column and dashes (--) are written into columns 18 and 19.

Column number 18: What do you do or what did you do?
The type of work carried out by the person in the establishment declared in column 17 is written down in this column. For example: butler, agricultural worker, auto mechanic, carpenter, tailor, salesclerk, cashier, accountant, builder?s assistant, etcetera.

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Enumerators are begged to not use general terms, such as day laborer; the enumerator should write down more or less what the person does, for example: construction worker or road maintenance worker, coffee harvester, sugarcane harvester, insecticide sprayer, carpenter?s assistant, etcetera.

The enumerator should also not write down "office worker". For this type of employee, the enumerator should write: secretary, typist, expert [in an area]; for public employees, the name of the office should be written down.

Column number 19: Employment category
This question is designed to find out if the person is an: employer, government employee, private employee, independent worker, or an unpaid family worker. This only refers to the employment listed in column 18.

Employer: Those who operate their own company or who carry out a profession or trade on their own account and who have one or more remunerated employees.


a) Someone whose only employees are domestic servants is not considered to be an employer.
b) A salaried manager of a company that is not his or her own is not considered to be an employer.
c) Government personnel who are responsible for other employees are not considered to by employers.

Government employee: they are functionaries, employees, and laborers who receive a wage or salary from the national treasury, from district or municipal funds, from foreign governments (personnel from embassies or diplomatic missions, etcetera) or from international institutions.

Other employees and laborers: they work for an employer, receiving a wage or salary.

Independent worker: they do not work for an employer, but operate their own company or carry out a profession or trade without having remunerated employees.

Unpaid family worker: Those who work, without pay, for a member of their family, for at least one-third time (2 days per week or 2 hours per day).

The following symbols, also found on the form, should be used for the annotation:

"PE" for employer
"EG" for government employees
"E" for other employees and laborers
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"TI" for self-employed workers
"TF" for family workers
"C" for other not included in the previous five categories