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[p. 1]

National Statistical Institute of Guatemala


Tenth Population and Fifth Dwelling Census
Enumerator's Manual 1994

[p. 2]

Tenth population and fifth dwelling censuses: enumerator's manual for the homeless population

[This manual is for the enumeration of the homeless populations. Many of the questions are the same as they are for other populations.]

[Table of contents, pages 3-33, have not been translated]

[p. 34]

Part 3: Census form

3.1 Description of the form by chapter

What is the Census Form?
The census form is the means through which you will collect data on people who are homeless. It contains a series of questions related to people, households and dwellings. It is composed of seven sections, each of which is comprised of questions relating to dwelling characteristics. They are in the following order:

Section I Geographic localization
Section II Dwelling characteristics
Section III Household housing status
Section IV Family-run business
Section V List of persons
Section VI International migration and mortality
Section VII Persons in the census household

[Page 35, instructions on how to fill out the form (what king of pencil to use, etc.) are not translated]

[p. 36]

3.2.2 Specific instructions for filling out the form
We have arrived at the most important point of the enumerator's manual: the procedure to use when filling out the form. Obtaining all of the information on which this great event depends on your responsibility and skill.

Numbering the form
On the upper right margin of the form is a box for writing the form number.

[A graphic of the "form number" box is reproduced here]

In the first space, write the sequential number which corresponds to the form used in each homeless shelter visited. Start the numbering with number 1.

The second space in the box is used at the end of enumerating the work area and serves as a verification of the total number of homeless shelters enumerated in the area. This is where you will write the number of the last form used at the end of the route. For example, suppose that when you finish your enumeration area you have used 120 forms to enumerate 900 people in 15 shelters. The numbering should be as follows:

Begin with 1, 2, 3, and continue in this way until you get to 15. At the end, each form will say 1 of 15, 2 of 15 and so on, until you get to 15 of 15.

Additional forms will have the same number as the master form of the homeless shelter (see annex, additional instructions).

[p. 37]

3.3 Instructions for filling out the form by section

3.3.1 Section I: Geographic localization
In this section, you will find blank spaces in which to write the cartographic information about the collective premises being visited (department, municipality, zone, block and dwelling number, address, name and category of the populated area).

It is important that this information be written clearly and accurately. This allows the population and dwellings to be grouped at the level of the department, municipality or other populated area (village, hamlet, farm, etc.).

1. Cartographic identification
In this section, write the location of your assigned enumeration area, i.e., the department, municipality and zone. This information is the same for your entire work area. Use the appropriate code from the cartographic supplies you received.

In the grid space for premise, write the number of the homeless shelter, giving the first one you visit number one (001) and continuing in sequential order at each shelter to be enumerated.

[A graphic of box 1, "cartographic identification" is reproduced here.]

[p. 38]

2. Address
In this space, write the address of the homeless shelter you are enumerating, as well as the name of the municipality and department.

If the homeless shelter does not have a name, write the street and avenue names.

[A graphic of box 2, "Address", is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

3. Name of the populated area
In this space, write the complete name of the populated area in which the homeless shelter you are enumerating is located.

Verify the complete and correct name of the populated area, checking with local authorities such as the assistant mayor, military commissioner, etc.

Write the name of the populated are on the lines.

[A graphic box 3, "name of populated area" is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

4. Type of populated area
There are various types of populated areas listed in this box. Verify the type of area you are enumerating with local authorities.

Mark an X in the circle which corresponds to the type of populated area you are enumerating.

[A graphic box 4, "category of populated area" is reproduced here on the right-hand side of the page]

[p. 39]

3.3.2 Section II: Dwelling characteristics
This section contains questions and options about the characteristics of the premise. These questions are not applicable to the enumeration of the homeless population.

1. Type of dwelling

What is a dwelling?
A dwelling is a separate and independent lodging which was built, converted or arranged for human habitation. It may be inhabited at the time of the census even though it was not built as a dwelling. It may not be used in part or full for any other purpose at the time of the census.

A dwelling has two essential characteristics:

a) Separate: a lodging can be considered separate if it is surrounded by walls and covered by a roof in such a way that a person or group of persons has privacy and safety, and is separate from other persons in the community for purposes of sleeping, preparing and eating food, and protecting himself/herself from inclement weather (rain, sun, wind).

b) Independent: a lodging can be considered independent if it has direct access from the street, stairway, hallway or courtyard, i.e., when the occupants can go in and out of a dwelling without going through premises (dwellings) inhabited by other people.

There are two types of dwelling, private and collective.

[A drawing of a private dwelling and a collective dwellings are reproduced here.]

[p. 40]

This manual and this census refer only to the homeless population. There is no categorization for type of premise.

A. Homeless population
One of the characteristics of the population to be enumerated is the lack of dwelling. Like the institutional population, this population is not separated into households, and people share the space where they spend the night simply to obtain temporary or permanent shelter. This population comes together to meet their common needs, though they do not constitute census households.

[Part B and C (institutional and homeless, respectively) of a box is reproduced here.]

Keeping in mind the above, mark an X in the circle that corresponds to option C, "homeless".

3.3.3 Chapter V: List of persons
This section contains spaces to write the first name and complete last name of all residents of the homeless shelter, as well as grid spaces to write the total number of persons by sex.

Those who spend the night in homeless shelters are usually the very poor who have no dwelling, vagrants who gather in groups to survive, minors who live in the street because they have been abandoned or expelled from their homes, beggars, and other socially marginalized people for whom the street is their social space.

The names are useful in organizing the interview and putting names to the people you interview, thereby allowing you to avoid duplication in the homeless shelter.

[p. 41]

To continue with this section a definition of the terms "date" and "census moment" is required.

The date of the census has been established as the day ____ of month ____, 199____, and the census moment as zero hour on the day ____ of the same month and year. Zero hour is from midnight on the day ____ of month ____. Therefore, do not include children who were born after that time, but do include resident persons who died after that, given that they were still alive at the time in question. Take special care not to omit children born after zero hour on the day ____ of month ____, regardless of whether or not they are in the dwelling at the time of the census.

Do not enumerate children born after zero hour on the day ____ of month ____.
Enumerate children born before zero hour on the day ____ of month ____.
Do not enumerate persons who died before zero hour on the day ____ of month ____.
Enumerate persons who died after zero hour on the day ____ of month ____.

[p. 42]

Permanent residence
For the purposes of the census, "permanent residence" is the geographical place where the enumerated person is living or intends to live at the time of the census.

The length of time which determines residency is three months or more. However, if a person has resided in a place for less than that but intends to stay there for three or more months, he/she is considered a permanent resident.

Permanent residents are therefore those persons who sleep regularly in the homeless shelter, i.e., they consider it their home because it is the main base of their activities. Person are still considered permanent residents of the homeless shelter even if they are temporarily absent for reasons of illness, etc. as long as they return to the homeless shelter once the issues which caused them to be absent from the shelter at the time of the census have been resolved.

Given that people will be enumerated in the homeless shelter it is important to keep in mind the previous concepts when determining which people are considered permanent residents.

Write the total number of persons, the total number of men and the total number of women (including minors who live in the street) separately.

Remember that the total number of permanent residents must be equal to the number of persons written on the list.

Ask the names and surnames of each of the persons that normally stay overnight in the shelter and record their names. Include newborns who were born before the census moment and permanent residents of the shelter who died after the census moment; the elderly; minors who live in the street; or other persons from the homeless shelter who are temporarily absent.

Begin the list with the person who is leader of or in charge of the homeless shelter. This may be a man, a woman or a child. Do not apply the rule about listing the enumerated by age because these people are not part of a household, but rather live together in order to have a place to sleep or spend the night.

[p. 43]

[A graphic of the page on which to list the name of each person is reproduced here.]

Filling out section V, "list of persons," according to the previous instructions
Example: Say that you must enumerate the homeless shelter on Rubio Street, where the leader states that 10 people normally spend the night. The names of these people are: Luis Roberto Ram?rez Rosales, Mar?a Elena Alvarado Paz, Mar?a Jos? S?nchez Ruiz, Carlos Roberto P?rez y P?rez, Pablo C?sar Palacios Paz, Gilma Letona (widow of Sandoval), C?sar Adolfo Palma Sandoval, Julio Roberto C?rdova Mux, Rosario Morales Soto, and Ana Mar?a Espa?a Ruiz.

[p. 44]

[A graphic of a filled-out list of persons is reproduced here.]

[p. 45]

3.3.4 Section VII: Persons in the census household

The first seven questions sets in this section refer to family relationship, age, sex, current marital status, ethnic group, death of mother and disability.

Questions 8-12 refer to the person's migration and ethnic characteristics. Only questions 11 and 12 are for persons aged three and older.

Questions 13-15 refer to literacy, level of education and attendance at school and are intended for persons aged seven and older.

The four following questions (16-19) refer to the person's type of economic activity, principal employment, branch of activity, and occupational category. They are also intended for persons aged seven and older.

The last five questions (20-24) cover fertility, and are intended only for females aged 12 and older.

The housing form has enough space to record a maximum of ten person, and so the section is repeated an equal number of times. The information about each person who spends the night in the homeless shelter should be written in the same order as they were listed in section V, "list of persons."

If the homeless shelter has more than ten persons, use an additional form.

Section VII is designed to allow you to record the complete information about one person. Write the person's order number in the grid space according to the list in section V. Spell out completely the first names and complete surnames of each person.

[p. 46]

1. Family relationship
For people who spend the night in a homeless shelter, there is no family relationship to the head of household. Instead, mark an X in the circle corresponding to the 0 option, "person in an institutional dwelling or homeless person."

[A graphic of the box 1, "family relationship," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

2. Age
"Age" is understood to mean the length of time between the date of birth and the census date, expressed in completed years.

Ask, "How old are you in completed years?" Write the age in completed years in the corresponding grid spaces. If less than one year, write 00, and if more than 98, write 98.

[A graphic of box 2, "age," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

This question is an important one and you must make every effort to obtain the age in completed years. If that is not possible, insist on getting at least an approximate age so that there is always some information about age.

Ask, "What is your date of birth?"

The date of birth should be written in numeric form using two digits. For example, number 01 corresponds to the month of January, 02 corresponds to the month of February, and so on through number 12, which corresponds to the month of December. Write the year using just the last two digits of the year. For example, if the respondent says he/she was born on December 8, 1957, write: 08/12/57.

Do not under any circumstances correct the age using the birth date or vice-versa.

[p. 47]

3. Sex
Ask, "Are you a male or a female?" and then mark an X in the corresponding circle.

[A graphic of box 3, "sex," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

If the respondent (the leader, or person in charge of the group, etc.) answers for other residents of the homeless shelter verify that the information is correct because there are names that are given to both males and females. Examples include: Carmen, Mar?a, Jos?, Concepci?n, Guadalupe, Tr?nsito, In?s, etc.

4. Current marital status
If the person is 12 or older, ask, "What is your current marital status?"
If the person, male or female, is less than 12, do not ask this question and mark an X in the circle corresponding to option 1, "less than 12 years old."

[A graphic of box 4, "current marital status," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

The following definitions will help you determine a person's current marital status:

[p. 48]

- Co-habiting: this is a person who lives in a consensual or de facto relationship with another person, without any marital or legal ties.

- Married: this is a person who has contracted legal marriage and lives with his/her spouse, i.e., is not widowed, divorced or separated.

- Divorced or separated: this is a person whose marriage was legally dissolved or a person who is currently separated from his/her spouse. This person has not married again, nor is he/she cohabiting.

- Widowed: this is a person who was married but whose spouse died, and the person has not remarried and is not cohabiting.

- Single: this is a person who has never been married and is not cohabiting.

Mark an X in the appropriate circle.

5. Ethnic group
When determining whether or not a person is indigenous it is important to respect the right of an individual to identify his/her own ethnic group. This must be determined by asking the person directly, and not simply through what you observe.

[A graphic of box 5 "ethnic group," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

For children or those who are not able to self-identify, ask the parents or respondent about the person's ethnic identity.

Ask, "Are you indigenous?" and then mark an X in the appropriate circle.

[p. 49]

6. Mother deceased
This question should be asked of all persons, regardless of whether or not the mother lives in the homeless shelter you are enumerating.

Ask, "Is your mother alive?" and mark an X in the appropriate circle.

[A graphic of box 6, "mother deceased," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

If the mother is alive and she lives in the homeless shelter, write her number from the list of persons in the appropriate grid space. If the mother does not live in the homeless shelter, leave the grid space blank.

7. Disability
Take note of the following definitions before you begin asking the questions in this question set.

A disability is the difficulty some people have in hearing, seeing, speaking, learning, and moving as others do. It may be from birth, illness, or any type of accident.

[A graphic of box 7 "disability," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

- Physical disability: this is the inability to move one or more parts of the body: legs, arms, trunk or head. Some people may not be able to sit down, stand up or walk.

- Sensory disability: this is the total or partial inability to see, hear, or speak. The most important categories are blind, deaf, and deaf-mute.

[p. 50]

- Mental disability: this is a person, either a child or an adult, who has difficulty learning or understanding and is less developed than he/she should be with respect to his/her age. These are people who appear not to have grown up completely. They have little heads, eyes which are far apart and small or almond-shaped, and a snub nose. They may have a small mouth and a large tongue, for which reason they keep their mouth open and the tongue hangs out, and the back of the head is flatter than normal.

Ask the respondent, "Is this person disabled" or "is this person blind, deaf, or mute, or does he/she have a mental disability?"

Note that there are more likely to be persons with disabilities among this population. Make sure you enumerate them!

8. Place of birth
For the purposes of the census the enumerated person's place of birth is the municipality in which the mother was residing at the time of birth. This is so even if the mother gave birth in a municipality other than that of her residence for medical or other reasons.
Ask, "In which department, municipality or country were you born?"

[A graphic of box 8, "place of birth," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

If the person you are enumerating was born in the municipality in which you are interviewing him/her, mark an X in the circle for the 00 option, "In this municipality," and leave the rest of the question set blank.

If the person was born in a different municipality, write the name and department of the municipality.

The box for country is only for people born abroad. Write the year of their arrival.

Leave the grid spaces on the right of the box blank; they are for office use only.

[p. 51]

9. Length of residence
Length of residence is the length of time, up to the census date, that a person lived in the municipality where his/her place of permanent residence is located. Express the number in complete years.

[A graphic of box 9, "Length of residence," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

Ask, "For how many years have you been living in this municipality?"

If the person has always lived in the municipality in which the enumeration is taking place, mark an X in the circle corresponding to option 98, "always," and go to question set 12, "Ethnic characteristics."

If the person has not always lived in the municipality, ask how many years he/she has lived there and write in digits the number of years.

If the length of residence is less than one year, write 00 in the appropriate grid space. The number of years a person has resided in the municipality cannot be greater than the person's age.

10. Previous permanent residence
The place of previous permanent residence is the municipality and department in which the person resided immediately prior to moving to the municipality in which he/she is living at the time of the census.

This question is for people who specified a number of years in the previous question set. Ask, "In what municipality and department, or country, were you living before moving to this municipality?"

[p. 52]

If the person was residing in a municipality other than that of his permanent residence, write the name of the municipality and department in the appropriate spaces.

If the person was living abroad write the name of the country in the appropriate space.

Leave the grid spaces on the right side of the box blank; they are for office use only.

If the person is less than three years old end the interview and go on to the next person.

Questions for persons aged three and older
[Questions 11 - 12 were asked of persons age three or older.]

11. Permanent residence in the month of November, 1990
Ask, "In which municipality, department or country department were you residing in November, 1990?"

If the municipality of permanent residence in November, 1990 is the same as the one the person was residing in at the time of the census, mark an X for option 00, "in this municipality," and leave the rest of the question set blank.

[A graphic of box 11, "permanent residence in 1990," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

If the person was residing in a municipality other than that of his/her current permanent residency, write the name and department in the appropriate spaces.

If the person was living abroad write the name of the country in the appropriate space.

Leave the grid spaces on the right margin blank; they are for office use only.

[p. 53]

12. Ethnic characteristics
This question set is a new one which combines related variables and is intended to determine the ethnic make-up of the population. It is distinct from the "ethnic group" question, which is based on self-identification.

Only ask people who are three years old or older the questions these questions, which are about the first language learned; the ability to speak one of the Mayan languages or Spanish; and Mayan outfit.

Question A
Ask, "What language did you first learn to speak?" and mark an X in the appropriate circle.

If the person first learned to speak a Mayan language that is not specified in the box (K'ich?, Kaqchikel, Mam, Q'eqchi'), mark an X in the circle for option 5, "other Mayan language," and specify which one in the space provided.

Fill in the circle for option 7, "other language," if the person's maternal language is neither Mayan nor Spanish. Specify the language in the space provided.

[A graphic of box 12, "ethnic characteristics," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

[p. 54]

Question B
Ask anyone three or older, "Do you currently speak a Mayan language?" This is different from the question about first language learned. Mark an X in the appropriate circle.

If the person speaks more than one Mayan language record the one he/she speaks most easily (the one he/she speaks best).

If the Mayan language the person speaks is other than one already specified (K'ich?, Kaqchikel, Mam, Q'eqchi') mark an X in the circle corresponding to question 5 and specify which one in the space provided.

Question C
Ask anyone three years old or older, "Do you speak Spanish?" This is different from the previous question about the language the person first learned to speak.

Question D
Ask all persons in the institutional dwelling who are three years old or older if they wear Mayan outfit, then mark an X in the appropriate box.

If the person is less than seven years old end the interview and continue with another person.

[p. 55]

Questions for persons aged seven and older only
If the person is less than seven, do not ask him/her question 13-24. Instead, go to the next person on the list.

13. Literacy
A person who is literate is a person who can read and write a simple message, idea or paragraph in Spanish or another language.

Ask, "Do you know how to read and write?"

[A graphic of box 13, "literacy," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

If the person only knows how to read, or only knows how to write, mark the circle for "no."

14. Level of education
Before continuing with this question, familiarize yourself with the following definitions:

[A graphic of box 14, "Level of education," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

- Pre-primary education: the goal of pre-primary education is to provide early stimulation and promote the psychomotor development of the child in preparation for primary education.

[p. 56]

- Primary education: this level is intended to provide the basics of education (from first to sixth grade).

- Secondary education: this level is intended to provide either general or specialized education, or both. The student must have successfully completed primary school to enter secondary school. This stage of education is divided into basic and vocational.

- Higher education: this is education taught in state or private universities or advanced technical schools. The student must have successfully completed secondary school to enter an institute of higher education.

Ask, "What was the last grade you passed in pre-primary, primary, or secondary school, or an institute of higher education.

If the person has not passed any grade, mark an X in the circle corresponding to the 00 option. If the person passed pre-primary, mark an X in the circle corresponding to the 10 option.

For primary school, secondary school, and higher education, write the last grade passed in the appropriate grid space. Write the information in digits using number from 1 to 7 (7 being the maximum).

Classes taught at a university but of limited length (6 months, etc.) are not considered higher education.

[p. 57]

15. School attendance
School attendance means consistently taking classes in any grade or level that is part of the official educational structure of the country while attending any regular and accredited school, public or private.

Ask, "Are you currently attending a pre-primary, primary or secondary school, or an institution of higher education?" and mark an X in the appropriate circle.

If the person you are enumerating is between the ages of seven and fourteen and does not attend a school, ask the main reason for not attending and mark the appropriate circle. If they answer is "other reason," specify the reason.

[A graphic of box 15, "school attendance" is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

Information related to the reason persons aged seven to fourteen are not attending school is important in implementing education policy. If the person is between seven and fourteen and is not attending a school you must record a reason. Do not leave this question blank!

[p. 58]

16. Type of activity
Before continuing with this question note the following definitions:

Type of activity: this refers to each person's usual activity during the reference period. The reference period is the week previous to the census date.

[A graphic of box 16, "type of activity," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

Work:
Consider the following as a work:

a) Work performed for another person as an employee or laborer. This includes:
- Day labor or regular wages

- Work in exchange for payment in kind (food, lodging or supplies received instead of payment in cash.)

- Work paid by the piece, on commission or as tips.

- Active duty in the armed forces
b) Work done in one's own business, professional practice, or as a self-employed worker.

c) Work done without payment in a business or on a farm run by a family member. Examples are a son or daughter who works without pay in his/her parent's store or helps his father in his agricultural work.

d) Any other job performed during the reference period for which the person receives payment in cash or kind. This includes sewing and other work, such as making food or candy for sale, which is performed in the person's home for other persons or companies.
[p. 59]

Keep in mind that housewives, students and the elderly may perform revenue-producing activity which should be considered "work," even though they may not appear to work.

For the census, the following is not considered work:

a) Jobs such as housework performed in the house (except when performed by domestic employees who receive pay for the work) and work that a person does on his/her own house.

b) Unpaid volunteer work for the church, as firefighters, or for other non-profit organizations.

c) Jobs performed by persons who are involuntarily confined in institutions such as prisons, sanatoriums, asylums, or jail-farms.

Keeping in mind the definition of "work," ask, "What did you do the week prior to the census?"

[p. 60]

- Worked: this is a person who performed paid or unpaid work for at least one hour in the week prior to the census.

- Did not work but had a job: this is a person who did not work during the reference week but who has a job or business which he/she did not do or from which he/she was absent due to illness, bad weather, vacations, etc.

- Looked for work and had worked before: this is a person who did not have work during the reference week because he/she left work due to a layoff or other reason, and was actively looking for work. Examples would be visiting factories, farms, etc.

- Looked for work for the first time: this is a person who had never worked before and was actively looking for a job for the first time during the reference week.

- Lived off of investment or retirement income and did not work: this is a person who did not perform any paid work during the reference week, and who received retirement, pension or investment income, or money from abroad.

- Studied and did not work: this is a person who was attending a school or university during the reference week and did not perform any work during this period.

- Did housework and did not work: this is a person who did not perform any paid work during the reference week and was dedicated exclusively to housework.

[p. 61]

If a woman performed work for which she was paid in cash or kind during the reference week, this must be considered work. Examples are:

- Doing washing and ironing for another person

- Preparing food for sale, such as tortillas or tamales

- Assisting with the harvest from the family plot, cleaning crops, etc. (as long as it was a performed as a regular job)

- Selling products in the market or from her home.

-Other. This is a person who does not fall into one of the previous categories, such as a person confined involuntarily in an institution (prison, hospital, etc.).

Include beggars in this category.

Mark an X in the appropriate circle.

If the answer is worked, did not work but had a job, or looked for a job but worked before, go to questions 17, 18, and 19.

If the respondent is a male and his answer fell into any other category, end the interview here.

If the respondent is a female who is 12 or older and her answer fell into any other category, go to question set 20 (live-born children).

17. Principal occupation
Occupation means the type of work a person performed during the reference period, or that he/she performed in the last week that he/she worked (unemployed).

[p. 62]

If the person has more than one occupation, the term "principal occupation" refers to the one for which he/she receives more income, or the one at which he/she works the most hours.

Ask, "What was your principal occupation, work or trade during the reference week, or at the last job that you held?"

[A graphic of box 17, "principal occupation," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

On the blank lines, write out completely the jobs stated by the respondent. Use words or phrases that give specific details about the type of job or work the person does or did. Avoid using general terms that do not furnish a clear idea of the type of work referred to.

Information about the enumerated person's job is important in understanding the economic profile of the country, which is important for economic planning. There should always be an answer if the person has a job. Do not leave this area blank.

[p. 63]

Principal occupation
The following is a list of examples demonstrating correct and incorrect ways of recording occupations.

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for principal occupation
(B) Correct answer for principal occupation

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: mechanic.
Correct answer for principal occupation: automobile mechanic, technician who makes dental parts.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: secretary.
Correct answer for principal occupation: typist who transcribes documents, secretary who writes letters and answers the phone, secretary in charge of sales files.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: construction worker.
Correct answer for principal occupation: plumber who installs and repairs plumbing, bricklayer who prepares mortar and lays bricks, painter of interior and exterior walls.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: engineer.
Correct answer for principal occupation: civil engineer, chemical engineer, electrical engineer.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: teacher.
Correct answer for principal occupation: urban primary-school teacher, rural primary-school teacher, home-economics teacher, music education teacher.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: cashier.
Correct answer for principal occupation: department-store cashier, bank cashier, factory cashier.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: agricultural worker.
Correct answer for principal occupation: worker who plants tomatoes, worker who plants corn, worker who milks and cleans cows, worker who harvests coffee or sugarcane, etc.

[p. 64]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: sales clerk.
Correct answer for principal occupation: counter clerk in a fabric store, counter clerk in footwear items, counter clerk in hardware items, counter clerk in office supplies.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: street vendor.
Correct answer for principal occupation: street vendor of brooms, street vendor of candy, street vendor of variety goods.

For example, if a surgeon worked as the director of a hospital during the reference week, write: "hospital director (public or private)" as his/her principal occupation.

If a lawyer worked as a factory manager in a factory producing cotton fabric during the reference week, write "manager of a factory producing cotton fabrics" as his/her principal occupation.

If the person you are enumerating has several jobs, remember to write the principal occupation according to the criteria written above.

18. Branch of economic activity
Branch of economic activity is the activity of the company in which the person worked during the reference work, or in his/her last job. That is, the branch of activity refers to what the factory, industry, workshop, farm or company where the person works, or worked at his/her last job, does during the reference week.

[A graphic of box 18, "branch of economic activity," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

[p. 65]

Ask, "What is the branch of economic activity of the factory, workshop, office or establishment where the person was or is employed?"

Write the activity of the company in which the enumerated person performed his/her principal occupation, as declared in question set 17, "principal occupation," in the appropriate spaces.

When describing the branch of activity do not use general terms such as factory, ranch, workshop, store, etc. Do not write the name of the establishment or operation, such as El ?ngel Coffee Processing Plant, Las Ilusiones Factory, etc., unless it is a government institution, such as the central government, a semi-independent state agency (IGSS, INDE, etc., including autonomous bodies such (USAC, municipalities, etc.). In those cases, write the name of the entity.

Branches of activity

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity
(B) Correct answer for branch of economic activity

Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity: factory.
Correct answer for branch of economic activity: shirt factory, shoe factory, chocolate factory, food-products factory, factory making traditional woven clothing, wooden furniture factory.

Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity: store.
Correct answer for branch of economic activity: grocery sales.

Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity: workshop.
Correct answer for branch of economic activity: women's dress manufacture, vehicle repair and maintenance.

Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity: Santa Luisa farm.
Correct answer for branch of economic activity: Coffee farming, corn farming, vegetable farming, sugar cane farming, cardamom farming, tobacco farming, etc.

Incorrect answer for branch of economic activity: company.
Correct answer for branch of economic activity: customs-processing office, real-estate office.

[p. 66]

It is important to understand the information about the branch of activity of the person's job to know the production structure of the country, which is important for economic planning. There should always be an answer if the person has a job. Do not leave this area blank!

19. Occupational category
This is the relation between an employed person and his/her job, and indicates if the person is (or has been, in the case of the unemployed) an employer, a self-employed worker, a civil service employee, an employee in the private sector, or an unpaid family worker.

[A graphic of box 19, "occupational category," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

Ask "What was your occupational category in your principal occupation?" and mark an X in the appropriate circle.

Below are definitions for the "occupational category" so that you can better identify the options:

- Employer: this is a person who is responsible for one or more workers who receive payment in cash or kind for performing an economic activity. If someone is not responsible for employees he/she is not an employer.

- Self-employed: this is a person who does not have an employer and who manages his/her own business, company or farm and who does not employ paid employees.

- Self-employed with premises: this is a person who has a fixed place from which to conduct business, such as a grocery store, a permanent market stall, office, farm, workshop, plot of land, etc.

[p. 67]

- Self-employed without premises: these are persons such as street vendors or others who work for themselves and do not have a fixed place in which to conduct their business. Examples are broom sellers, basket sellers, shoeshine boys, etc.

- Civil service: this is a person who earns a wage or salary from any state office; this may be the central government, municipalities, or autonomous or semi-autonomous independent bodies.

- Paid private employee: this is any employee who earns a wage or salary in any company using private capital.

- Unpaid family member: this is a person who works in a company, business, farm or agricultural enterprise which a family member owns or manages, and who does not receive pay for his/her work.

It is important to understand the information about the person's occupational category to know the country's productive structure, which is important information for economic planning. There should always be an answer if the person has a job. Do not leave this area blank.

If the respondent is a male end the interview here. The following group of questions is only for females aged 12 and over.

Questions for females aged 12 and older
The purpose of questions 20-24 is to obtain information that allows estimates as to the level and trend of fertility, mortality, and growth of the population.

[p. 68]

The enumerator must be dedicated and careful in order to obtain the appropriate information in this important question set. Ask all females older than 12, regardless of their marital status.

If possible, ask girls and women directly. They may forget sometimes, and state that children who have died were live-born, or are alive living elsewhere, and newborns. Keep this in mind so as to avoid missing anyone.

Note that information about live-born children should include all children that the girl or woman has had, either as the result of a marriage or cohabitation, or from a current or former marriage.

Remember that the following questions are to be asked of all girls or women aged 12 and older, regardless of their current marital status.

20. Live-born children
Keep in mind the following definition as you are asking this question:

A live-born child is one who breathed, cried or moved when he/she was born, even if he/she died immediately afterward and regardless of whether or not the umbilical cord had been cut or the placenta delivered. If the child displayed any of these vital signs it should be considered live-born, even if he/she died immediately afterward.

[A graphic of box 20, "live-born children," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

Ask, "Have you had a child who was born alive?" and mark an X in the appropriate circle.

If the answer is no, finish the interview and go on to another person.

[p. 69]

21. Total number of live-born children
Keep in mind the definition of live-born child as you ask this question.

Ask, "How many live-born children, both male and female, have you had in all?" Record the total number of live-born children, live-born sons, and live-born daughters separately in the appropriate grid spaces.

[A graphic of box 21, "total number of live-born children," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

22. Total number of surviving children
Keep in mind the following as you ask the following question:

A child currently alive is one who is alive as of the census date, regardless of whether they:

a) Live with the mother or not
b) Live in a difference geographic area, or country from their mother

[A graphic of box 22, "total surviving children" is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

Ask, "How many of your children are still alive?" Write separately and in digits the total number of surviving children, surviving sons, and surviving daughters.

The total number of surviving children you record in this questions must be less than or equal to the total number of children recorded in the previous question (total number of live-born children).

[p. 70]

23. Survival of last child
Keep in mind the definition of a living child as you ask this question.

Ask "Is your last live-born child alive?"

[A graphic of box 23, "survival of last live-born child," is reproduced on the right-hand side of the page.]

Mark an X in the appropriate circle.

24. Date of birth of last child
Ask, "What was the date of birth of your last live-born child?" Ask this question even if he/she later died or is now living elsewhere. Record the answer in the appropriate grid spaces, using two digits for the day, two for the month and two for the year.

[A graphic of box 24, "date of birth of last live-born child," is reproduced on the left-hand side of the page.]

If the respondent does not know the last live-born child's date of birth, do everything possible to get this information.

Go on to the next person and repeat the process. If it is the last person on the list end the interview and go to the next household or premise.

[p. 71]

[A graphic of the box for the enumerator's and the supervisor's signature is reproduced here.]

To the enumerator:
This is the last sheet of the form. Please feel it out as follows:
Write and sign your complete name, as well as the date of the interview (day and month).
The supervisor will fill in his/her name and signature, as well as the date he/she checks the document, on the day it is checked.

[p. 72]

Additional Instructions
This section contains instructions to fill out the form when the shelter is integrated more than ten people and has to fill additional ballots.

This situation will be determined by asking the question "How many persons reside usually in this shelter (household)?" of Chapter V (list of persons). Use the additional ballots that are necessary to complete the number of persons that integrate the shelter, initiating the first additional ballot with the person number eleven.

On each additional ballot note in the box on the top right margin the same number of the first ballot of the shelter, and mark an X in the circle that indicates "additional ballot."

On each additional ballot that you use, note in Chapter I "geographic location," the same data that recorded in the first ballot of the shelter (main ballot).

Cancel with a large X Chapters II, III, IV, and VI of each additional ballot.

On each additional ballot you can record maximum information for ten persons, therefore, for each one of them, write down the individual data that are requested in Chapter VII (persons in the census household), according to the order of the list of Chapter V, completing the data according to the instructions given for this chapter in the unit 3 of this manual (census form).