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Guatemala
Enumerator's Manual
IV Housing Census
and
IX Population Census
1981

[Pages 1-22 were not translated into English]

[As stated on page 12, the dates of enumeration are from March 23 to April 6, 1981]

[p. 23]

Chapter IV: instructions for the collection of housing data

A. Definition of basic concepts adopted for the housing census

1. Census date

The date of the Census has been established as March 23, 1981 in order that the data obtained accurately reflect the situation of the living quarters and their characteristics, as well as the country's demographic, economic, and social aspects.

2. Enumeration unit

Two principal units of enumeration will be used in the National Housing Census: (a) the place of habitation; and (b) the household. For the investigation of the characteristics of the dwelling, (section II of the census form) the unit "place of habitation" is used. For the investigation of the "housing situation of the household", (section III of the census form) the unit "household" will be used.

3. Definitions

a) Place of habitation

For the purposes of the census, a place of habitation is every place of abode structurally separate and independent that: (i) has been constructed, built, transformed, or made available for human habitation, only if it is not completely used for other purposes at the time of enumeration; and (ii) if not built for human habitation, it is inhabited by persons on the census day.

Note: a dwelling must meet the requirements of separation and independence.
[p. 24]
A site is considered to be "separate" if it is surrounded by walls, partitions, dividers, etc., and is covered by a roof that permits one or more persons to isolate themselves from others in the community for the purposes of sleeping, preparing and consuming meals, and for protection from inclement weather. A site is considered to be "independent" when it has direct access from the street or stairway, hallway, corridor, patio, or public or shared land; i.e. when the occupants can enter and exit the dwelling without passing through dwellings occupied by others.

[p. 24]

b) Types of dwellings

Two types of places of habitation are distinguished: (i) those meant to shelter households, called "private places of habitation", and (ii) those called "collective places of habitation."

A "private dwelling" is understood to be the separate and independent place of abode meant to shelter one or more households. It can also be a site not meant for human habitation that is occupied as a dwelling. It is important to emphasize that because of problems of housing shortages, a dwelling may be occupied by two or more households.

A "collective dwelling" is understood to be that structurally independent and separate place of abode designed to shelter persons who do not live in households; such is the case with hotels, boardinghouses, hospitals, boarding schools, family houses with more than 5 guests, encampments, etc.

c) Census household

For the purposes of the census, a "household" is understood to be one or more persons, related or not, who live together to provide and satisfy their nutritional and other basic needs.

[p. 25]

This means that a household can be made up of the following:

i) One person who satisfies his or her own nutritional and shelter needs without living with another person, or,

ii) Two or more persons who live together to satisfy their nutritional and shelter needs. Those living in this type of household can all be related (parents and children, for example), they can be unrelated (e.g. two or more friends), or they can be related and unrelated at the same time (e.g. parents, children, and a domestic employee).

B. Housing census form use

For recording the data for each "dwelling", the enumerator will use Section II of the form: "dwelling characteristics" and for recording the data of each "household", part III: "housing situation of household number:" is used.

Therefore, if only one household lives in the dwelling, only one form is used (Sections II and III). However, if two or more households live in a dwelling, the same number of forms as households living in the dwelling will be used. In these cases of multiple households living in the same dwelling, the enumerator will record the dwelling data and the housing situation of the first household in one form. For each one of the remaining households, the housing situation data is recorded on separate forms in Section III. Section II of the additional forms used for the same dwelling is crossed out with a large "X" because these data are recorded in the first form.

C. Specific instructions for filling out the housing form

Form numbering:

In the upper right margin of the form, there is a box for recording the form number "____ of ____". In the first space, the enumerator will record the correlative number corresponding to each household or dwelling visited, starting with the number 1. For example, if the seventh household of the route is being enumerated, the number "7" corresponds to the form used.

[p. 26]

When it is necessary to use more than one population form to record the information for the household, because the number of household members exceeds 9, the household number is recorded with the addition of a letter: A, B, C, etc. For example, if the seventh household has 19 members, the first form will be labeled 7-A, and the second form 7-B, and the third form will be labeled 7-C in the first space mentioned.

The second space in the box is used at the end of enumeration and functions as a control for avoiding paperwork mistakes. For example, if, after finishing the Enumeration Sector, 155 housing and population forms have been used, the second space, in all of the forms, will be filled in with the number 155.

I. Geographical location

The enumerator should copy, in all of the sector forms assigned, the following information in the title page of the binder: 1) cartographic code (numbers), 2) department (name), 3) municipality (name).

The adequate location of the enumeration sector, and therefore of the dwellings, requires other information that should be the object of investigation, such as: 4. name of the populated area, 5. address of the dwelling, and 6. category of the populated area.

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

[p. 27]

II. Dwelling characteristics

As mentioned previously, questions 1 through 9 of this section should be investigated for each one of the "dwellings". The specific instructions that follow will allow the enumerator to complete the work more efficiently.

Question 1: type

1. How to investigate this question

The following definitions should be considered in investigating this theme:

a) Regular house (formal): This is defined as a room or group of rooms that because of the way in which was constructed, reconstructed, adapted, or arranged, is meant to be the shelter for a household. This is the case only if it is not completely used for other purposes at the time of the census. A house is characterized by the fact that its construction is surrounded by dividing walls, partitions, fences, gardens, or land that separates one house from another (Figure 1). This also corresponds to those dwellings with a roof for only one or two contiguous houses, with water service, lighting, and toilet facilities for the exclusive use of that dwelling (Figure 2).

Note: Even though this type of dwelling is generally meant to be the place of abode for one household, two or more households may be residing therein at the time of the census. If this is the case, one census form is used for each household.

b) Apartment: This is defined as a room or group of rooms that because of the way in which was constructed, adapted, or arranged, is meant to be the shelter for a household. This is the case only if it is not completely used for other purposes at the time of the census. It is characterized by the fact that it is part of a building with one or more floors or levels and is separated from the other apartments by walls that extend from the floor to the upper level or to the roof of the dwelling.

[Figures 1 and 2 are omitted]

[p. 29]

An apartment is generally equipped with indispensable services such as water, lighting, and toilet facilities for exclusive use. As in the previous case, an apartment is generally a site built to house one household; however, it may be occupied by two or more households at the time of enumeration. If this is the case, one census form should be used for each household.

[Figures 3 is omitted]

[p. 30]

c) Room in a tenement: This is defined as a space situated in a dwelling; constructed, adapted, or arranged to provide shelter for as many households as there are rooms in the building. Each room is characterized by a direct entrance from a hallway, corridor, or patio, etc. These dwellings generally are not equipped with exclusive water service, toilet facilities, or bathrooms.

A household can occupy one or more of these rooms, in which case these rooms are considered to be one dwelling.

It can also be the case that two or more households occupy one room, in which case it is necessary to use two census forms for the same dwelling.

[Figures 4 is omitted]

[p. 31]

d) Rustic cabin or hut: This is defined as a dwelling with one or more rooms that has been constructed of natural or local materials. The walls are made of cane and mud (bajareque), mud, straw, lepa, sticks, or cane. The roof is made of straw, palm, or of similar materials. It is meant to be the place of abode for one household. This is the case only if it is not completely used for other purposes at the time of the census. It is also possible that two or more households live in a "rancho". If this is the case, one census form should be used for each household.

[Figures 5 is omitted]

[p. 32]

e) Improvised dwelling: This is defined as an independent, provisional, structure constructed with waste materials without a preconceived plan to function as a place of abode for a household. Two or more households can also occupy this type of unit. If this is the case, one census form should be used for each household.

[Figures 6 is omitted]

[p. 33]

f) Other type: This category includes the following dwellings: i) mobile units; that is, those places of abode constructed to be transported (e.g. tents, boats, ships, etc.); ii) Permanent structures not meant for human habitation such as granaries, garages, stalls, warehouses, etc.; iii) Other buildings not meant for human habitation, such as natural refuges, caves, etc.

These types are considered to be dwellings only if they are inhabited at the time of enumeration. As in previous cases, the same number of forms as the number of households in each dwelling is used.

2. How to record the data

Once the dwelling has been classified into one of the previous categories according to the respective definitions, the number of the corresponding category is circled.

If dealing with collective dwellings, according to the definition given in the attached instructions for this type of dwelling, the type is specified (e.g. hotel, hospital, barracks, etc.) and the name of the establishment is recorded. The enumerator will then skip directly to section VII, "persons in the household", to proceed to enumerate each person living in the collective dwelling.

(See Example on the following page)

[p. 34]

3. Example:

[The example is a graphic of the census form]

Question 2: predominant material in exterior walls

1. How to investigate this question

The informant is asked what the predominant material in the exterior walls of the dwelling is.

2. How to record the data

Once the predominant material used in the construction of the exterior walls is defined, the number of the category is circled.

[p.35]

If the exterior walls are made of a material not specified in the form, the number [7] "other" is circled and the material specified.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form]

Question 3: predominant material in the roof

1. How to investigate this question

The material that was used to construct the roof of the dwelling is investigated.

2. How to record the data

Once the type of material used in the construction of the dwelling's roof has been identified, the number of the category is circled.

[p. 36]

If the roof is made of a material not specified in the form, the number [6] for "other" is circled and the material specified.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 3 of the census form]

Question 4: predominant material in the floor

1. How to investigate this question

The informant is asked what the predominant material in the floor of the dwelling is.

2. How to record the data

Once the type of material used in the construction of the dwelling's floor has been identified, the number of the category is circled.

[p. 37]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 4 of the census form]

Question 5: occupancy

1. How to investigate this question

The dwelling is investigated to see if it is:

A) Occupied: by persons who are present or by persons who are temporarily absent, or

B) Unoccupied: for sale, for rent, under repair, and other reasons.

2. How to record the data

Once the occupancy of the dwelling is defined, the number of the category is circled. If it is determined that the dwelling is unoccupied for any of the reasons given above, the interview is ended and the enumerator will proceed to the next dwelling.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 5 of the census form]

[p. 38]

Question 6: year of construction

1. How to investigate this question

The enumerator will ask the year of construction of the dwelling.

In the cases in which this information is not known, other persons (members of other households living in the same dwelling, neighbors, etc.) are asked until someone qualified to answer the question is found.

2. How to record the data

Once the year of the dwelling's construction has been identified, the number of the category is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 6 of the census form]

Question 7: facilities

A. Water

1. How to investigate this question

The dwelling is investigated to see if it is connected to a water distribution system.

[p. 39]

2. How to record the data

Once it has been determined if the dwelling is connected to the water distribution system, the number corresponding to the answer given: either "1. yes", or "2. no" is circled.

B. Drainage

1. How to investigate this question

The enumerator will determine if the dwelling is connected to a sewer.

2. How to record the data

Once it has been determined if the dwelling is connected to a drainage system, the number corresponding to the answer given: either "1. yes", or "2. no" is circled.

C. Electric lighting

1. How to investigate this question

The enumerator will determine if the dwelling is connected to an electrical system.

2. How to record the data

Once the existence of the dwelling's connection to an electrical system is established, the number corresponding to the answer given: 1. yes, 2. no is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 7 of the census form]

[p. 40]

Question 8: number of rooms

1. How to investigate this question

The following definition will help the enumerator in correctly investigating this question:

For the purposes of the census, a room is defined as the space, situated in a dwelling, which is enclosed by walls that extend from the floor to the roof, or at least to a height of 2 meters from the floor. This space has sufficient space for an adult bed; or at least 2 square meters. Therefore, bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, and cells for human habitation are all included as rooms. Corridors, open galleries, hallways, kitchens, and bathrooms are not considered to be rooms.

Rooms used exclusively for commercial purposes, such as workshops, services, etc. should not be included in the count.

Taking into account this definition, the total number of rooms available in the dwelling is investigated.

2. How to record the data

The number of rooms in the dwelling is written down in the space provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 8 of the census form]

Question 9: number of households residing in the dwelling

1. How to investigate this question

According to the definition of census household (p. 24 of this manual), the number of households that normally reside in the dwelling at the time of the census is investigated.

[p. 41]

2. How to record the data

Investigating the number of households normally residing in the dwelling, this number is written down in the space provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 9 of the census form]

III. Living situation of household number

The questions included in this part of the form should be investigated for each of the households that are residing in the dwelling at the time of the Census.

The following specific instructions will allow the enumerator to carry out the work more efficiently.

Household number: _____: The household number is recorded in this space: e.g. household 1, household 2, or household 3, etc. This question refers to the number of households within the same dwelling; e.g. if 3 households live in one dwelling and the information for the second household is being recorded, household number 2 is recorded in this space, and section II "dwelling characteristics" is crossed out with a large "X" because it is only filled out for the first household when dealing with multiple households residing in one dwelling.

Question 1: water supply

1. How to formulate the question

What type of water service does this household have access to?

The following definitions are taken into account: "1. Exclusive use running water" is the water service inside the dwelling used by only one household.

[p. 42]

When the household has running water that is shared between two or more households, the enumerator will circle the number "2. running water for multiple households". The service "3. public running water (outside of the dwelling)", should be circled when the household has access to running water that comes from a public source, installed for the community's use. If the household stores water from a well, river, lake, or spring; the numbers 4 or 5 are circled according to the case. The number "6. other" is circled for households that store water in another form, other the 5 cases explained above; e.g. rain water, water purchased from another household, water purchased from a tanker truck, etc.

2. How to record the data

The number corresponding to the answer given is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 1 of the census form]

Question 2: toilet facilities

1. How to formulate the question

What type of toilet facilities doe the household have access to?

The following definitions are taken under consideration:

The enumerator should be aware of the difference between: a) a "toilet connected to a sewer"; b) "toilet connected to a septic tank"; c) "washable toilet"; and d) "outhouse or latrine". Type "a" refers to the installation for the elimination of human waste connected to a sewer that receives water through pressurized pipes.

[p. 43]

Type "b" refers to an installation for the elimination of human waste that receives pressurized water and is connected directly to a septic tank.

Type "c" refers to an installation for the elimination of human waste without a pressurized water connection; rather the waste is washed with water transported in a recipient or in another form (water current). Type "d" is similar to the previous type except it does not have a current of water.

In the cases in which the dwelling has a toilet (either connected to a sewer or septic tank), the enumerator will find out, before recording the data, if it is used by only one household (exclusive service) or by two or more households (service for multiple households).

2. How to record the data

The enumerator will circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form]

[p. 44]

Question 3: lighting

1. How to formulate the question

What type of lighting is available to the household?

The following definitions should be taken into account:

"Electricity from a public service" is the lighting provided by a State company (such as the Electric Enterprise, "INDE", and municipalities).

"Electricity from a private service" is the lighting provided by a private company.

2. How to record the data

The number corresponding to the answer given is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 3 of the census form]

[p. 45]

Question 4: number of rooms

1. How to formulate the question

To investigate this question, the definition of "room" (see page 40) and "bedroom" should be taken into account. A "bedroom" is a room usually used for sleeping. Therefore, before asking the pertinent questions, the following should be taken into account: When one census household lives in a dwelling, the number of rooms should be the same as declared in section II, question 8; with this in mind, the enumerator will ask:

A. What is the total number of rooms available to this household?, and;
B. How many of these rooms are used as bedrooms?

2. How to record the data

If only one household lives in the dwelling, the same number of rooms as declared in section II, question 8 is recorded. If two or more households live in the dwelling, the number of rooms and bedrooms available to the household in question is recorded, independently for each household.

Might be cases where two or more households live in one-room dwellings. In these cases, it will be recorded in the form that each household has one room and one bedroom available. This situation will be documented in the space meant for observations in the census form.

[p. 46]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 4 of the census form]

Question 5: kitchen

The following definition will allow the enumerator to correctly carry out the investigation of this question:

Kitchen: the room equipped for the preparation of principal meals that is used exclusively for this purpose.

1. How to formulate the question

Does the household have a room meant only for cooking?

2. How to record the data

If the answer is affirmative, the enumerator will ask if the kitchen is for the household's exclusive use or if multiple households use it. According to the answer given, one of the alternatives will be circled.

If the household does not have a kitchen available, number "3. Does not have" is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 5 of the census form]

Question 6: fuel used for cooking

1. How to formulate the question

What type of fuel is usually used for cooking?

2. How to record the data

The answer according to the answer given is circled.

The fuel type should be the one used most frequently.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 6 of the census form]

Question 7: tenure

1. How to formulate the question

Under what tenancy condition does the household occupy the dwelling?

[p. 48]

The following definitions will allow the enumerator to correctly investigate this question:

Completely paid for: The dwelling occupied by the household in which one of the members has acquired the right to the real estate property via purchase, with cash, credit, or through inheritance etc. This is the case only if it has been completely paid for by the time of the census.

Paying in installments: The dwelling occupied by the household in which one of the members has acquired the right to the real estate property through a credit purchase. A mortgage is still held at the time of the Census.

Rented: The dwelling occupied by the household that pays the owner or subtenant an amount of money or its equivalent in-kind or in services.

Loaned: The dwelling occupied by the household, with the express permission of the owner, for which no rent is paid.

Other: Any other form of tenure that cannot be classified into the above categories.

2. How to record the data

Once the type of tenure has been identified, the enumerator will circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

When the dwelling is being paid for or is being rented, the amount of the monthly mortgage (in payment) or rent (rented) payment in Quetzales [Guatemalan currency] is requested and recorded.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 7 of the census form]

[p. 49]

Question 8: household appliances

1. How to formulate the question

Does the household have any of the following artifacts?

The question is asked and the list of artifacts on the form is read immediately thereafter.

2. How to record the data

If one or more of the artifacts listed on the form are available to the household, the enumerator will proceed to circle each of the respective numbers.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 8 of the census form]

IV. Social characteristics of the household members

A. Do they speak an indigenous language?

1. How to formulate the question

The following question is asked:

Do the members of this household, or the majority of them, usually speak an indigenous language?

2. How to record the data

[p. 50]

The enumerator will circle the number "1. yes" or "2. no" according to the answer given.

If the answer is affirmative, the name of the indigenous language is recorded in the space provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

B. Do they use indigenous outfit?

1. How to formulate the question

Do the members of this household, or the majority of them, usually use indigenous outfit?

This question should be presented according to the styles of the place. Sometimes it will be convenient to ask if they use an envuelto, for women, or calz?n , for men. In other places, different words are used. Therefore, the question is presented with words used in the locality.

2. How to record the data

The number "1. yes" or "2. no", according to the answer, is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

C. They use:

Shoes
Caites
None

1. How to formulate the question

Do the members of this household usually wear shoes or sandals, or do they not wear any type of shoe?

[p. 51]

2. How to record the data

The number according to the answer is circled. If the members of the household do not normally wear any kind of shoe, number "3. None" is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

V. Family or home-based industry

It is desired to quantify all of the households that produce articles, in the dwelling, to sell. This excludes agricultural products. It is also desired to identify the principal articles produced and the number of persons usually working in the production of these articles.

If one or more members of the household produce articles purely for entertainment, this is not counted.

If one or more household members receive materials from a workshop or factory in order to produce one or more articles (home workers) and receive payment for this work, they are not included.

It is necessary to take into account that (visible) workshops open to the public are not counted here, even if they take up part of the dwelling.

1. How to formulate the question

A. Does this household produce, in the dwelling, articles to sell?
(It does not include agricultural products)

2. How to record the data

The number "1. yes" or "2. no" is circled, according to the answer given. If the answer is affirmative, questions B and C are presented; if negative, the enumerator will skip to section IV, resident and present population in the household.

[p. 52]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

1. How to formulate the question

B. What is the name of the main article produced and the material used?

2. How to record the data

The names of the main product and the predominant material used in its production are recorded in the spaces provided. E.g. furniture-wood, jars-clay, etc.

In many households might happen that more than one product is considered to be principal by the informant. In this case, the product that produces the most income is recorded.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

1. How to formulate the question

C. How many persons usually work in the production of this article?

2. How to record the data

The enumerator will record the number of persons declared by the informant.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

[p. 53]

VI. Resident and present population in the household

Present Population

1. How to formulate the question

A. How many persons slept in the dwelling the night of Sunday, March 22, 1981?

2. How to record the data

The number of males and females who slept in the dwelling under investigation the night of Sunday, March 22, 1981, is recorded. They are counted even if they are not residents of the dwelling.

The total is also recorded; that is the sum of the males and females.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

Resident Population

1. How to formulate the question

B. How many persons usually resided in the dwelling on March 22, 1981?

C. How many of these persons were in another municipality or in another country the night of Sunday, March 22, 1981?

2. How to record the data

B. The total number of persons, by sex, who were usual residents of the dwelling on March 22, 1981, is recorded; irrespective of whether they slept in the dwelling or not.

C. The total number of persons who were in another municipality or country the night of Sunday, March 22, 1981 is recorded.

[p. 54]

The annotations should be made in the spaces provided.

Observation: The total number of residents in the dwelling should be the same as the number of persons contained inside the census form in section VII "persons in the census household".

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of the census form]

[p. 55]

Chapter V: instructions for obtaining and recording the information of the persons in the census household in the census form (section VIII)

A. Definition of basic concepts adapted for the population census

1. Type of Census

The population census will be a de jure census.

This means that the Census should register the persons in the geographical place of usual residence at the date of the Census.

2. Census date and moment

The date of the Census has been established as March 23, 1981 in order that the data obtained accurately reflect the situation of the living quarters and their characteristics, as well as the country's demographic, economic, and social aspects. The Census moment will be zero hours of March 23, 1981; that is midnight of March 22. Therefore, the Census should not include children born after this time but it should include those residents who passed away after that time because they were alive at the time. Care should be taken to not exclude children born before 12:00 am of March 23; whether they are in the dwelling or not at the time of the Census.

B. Norms for defining the usual place of residence

Place of usual residence

For the purposes of the census, the place of usual residence is understood to be the place where the person is established, or intends to be established, at the time of the Census.

2. Rules for determining residence

For the purposes of the census, in each household visited, the following persons may be found: Persons present in the dwelling who should be included in the census form; other persons who are present but who should be excluded in the form; and finally there is the possibility of encountering persons who are absent. According to the information of the informant, a decision should be made whether or not to include those who are absent in the form.

[p. 56]

a) Usual residents who are included in the household.

In order to clarify the above cases, usual residents of the dwelling are those persons who regularly sleep there; that is, they consider it as their home because it is the principal headquarters of the person's family, business, employment, or studies. Other persons do not cease to be household members because they are temporarily absent because of illness, vacation, tourism, work, etc. These persons will return to the place of usual residence once the circumstances keeping them away from the home at the time of the Census end.

All of the usual residents who are present at the time of the Census as well as those usual residents who are absent should be enumerated as household members.

The most frequent cases of usual residents who are absent but should be included in the census form of the enumerated household are the following:

i) A person who is temporarily absent, visiting another place, on a business trip, tourism, vacation, or because of the person's employment (traveling salesman, military officer, nurse, guard, medical doctor, or other). This person generally sleeps in the dwelling but was not present at the time of the Census.

ii) A person who lives or resides in the dwelling but is absent and in a hospital or clinic because of a temporary illness.

iii) A person who is a domestic employee or other employee of the household who sleeps most of the week in the dwelling of employment, even if spending weekends in his/her own home.

iv) A person who is temporarily abroad on business, tourism, for health reasons, studying, etc.

[p. 57]

v) A person who is temporarily detained, without a sentence, for minor infractions or offenses.

b) Persons who are absent who should be excluded

There are other persons who might be absent from the dwelling at the time of the Census, who are apparently usual residents, but who have to be excluded from the census form. They should be excluded because they have become residents in another dwelling where they should be enumerated. The following examples illustrate the most frequent cases:

i) A person who permanently resides or is based in an institution because of a profession or job (soldiers, priests, nuns, police officers, etc.), even if they apparently have another place of usual residence.

ii) A student living in a boarding school in the same or different locality.

iii) A student who does not live at the boarding school but who permanently lives and studies in another locality.

iv) A person imprisoned in, or admitted to, a welfare institution - because of a chronic or incurable disease - such as hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, tuberculosis clinics, cancer clinics, and other similar institutions. Also included are penitentiaries and prisons.

v) A domestic employee who does not sleep in the dwelling of employment.

vi) A person who lives abroad.

vii) Children or youth who live in reformatories or orphanages and elderly or disabled persons living in welfare or similar institutions.

viii) Members of religious orders who live in convents, schools, parochial houses, or seminaries.

Other cases not contemplated above can be assimilated to similar situations, but in the case of uncertainty, it is preferable to enumerate the person, make the corresponding annotations in the space provided for observations and to consult with the supervisor.

[p. 58]

3. Examples of application of residence rules

The most common and important cases are the following:

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Type of person
(B) Where to enumerate

Type of person: living in the household, but temporarily absent for reasons of business, vacation, tourism, work, or guard duty
Where to enumerate: household in which they live.

Type of person: living in the dwelling at the time of enumeration and does not have a place of usual residence in another place
Where to enumerate: household in which they live.

Type of person: he or she present in the household at the time of the enumeration and is not a permanent resident elsewhere.
Where to enumerate: household in which he or she is located.

Type of person: members of the armed forces who are stationed permanently in a military establishment
Where to enumerate: in the military facility.

Type of person: members of the armed forces who are stationed in a military establishment and sleeps there when on duty, but lives outside of it
Where to enumerate: at the outside house.

Type of person: officer or crew member of a ship who lives on the ship
Where to enumerate: on the ship.

Type of person: officer or crew member of a ship who has a residence on land
Where to enumerate: the dwelling on land.

Type of person: nurses who live in a hospital, clinic, nurses' housing, etc.
Where to enumerate: hospital, nurses' housing, etc. where they live.

Type of person: he or she has more than one house and divides his or her time between them
Where to enumerate: house where he or she sleeps most of the time.

[p. 59]

Type of person: domestic employees who sleep most of the week in the dwelling where they work; even if they spend the weekend with their families or somewhere else
Where to enumerate: the dwelling where they work.

Type of person: domestic employees who do not sleep in the dwelling where they work
Where to enumerate: dwelling where normally live, outside of the place of work.

Type of person: persons temporarily detained for minor offenses or infractions (not sentenced)
Where to enumerate: the dwelling where they live outside of the detention center.

Type of person: persons who are imprisoned in a penitentiary through a judicial sentence
Where to enumerate: the penitentiary where imprisoned.

Type of person: persons who reside in the dwelling but are in a hospital or clinic because of injuries, giving birth, operations, medical checkup, etc.
Where to enumerate: the dwelling where they live outside of the hospital or clinic.

Type of person: persons admitted to extended care hospitals, such as: tuberculosis hospitals, leprosy hospitals, etc.
Where to enumerate: the hospital where they are interned.

Type of person: persons admitted to reformatories, orphanages, nursing homes, or rehabilitation centers
Where to enumerate: the center to which they are admitted.

[p. 60]

Type of person: members of religious orders who live in convents, schools, seminaries, or parochial houses
Where to enumerate: In the convent, parish, school, or seminary where living.

Type of person: boarding-school students
Where to enumerate: school where they are studying.

Type of person: persons who live in another locality because of work or school but return daily to their dwelling
Where to enumerate: dwelling to which they return daily.

Type of person: persons who stay in a locality because of work or study and who only return to the dwelling on weekends or at the end of the year.
Where to enumerate: the locality where they spend most of the week.

Type of person: Guatemalan citizen who is on vacation or traveling temporarily for reasons of work, health, tourism, etc.
Where to enumerate: dwelling in Guatemala where he or she resides.

Type of person: Guatemalan citizen who lives abroad
Where to enumerate: do not enumerate.

Type of person: foreigners passing through Guatemala for any reason
Where to enumerate: do not enumerate.

Type of person: foreigners who come to reside in Guatemala
Where to enumerate: wherever they are.

[p. 61]

Type of person: foreigners who live in Guatemala (for example, diplomatic personnel)
Where to enumerate: household in which they live.

Type of person: seasonal workers who are with their entire family on the farm
Where to enumerate: the place where found at the time of enumeration, with the geographical information of their place of usual residence; making the clarification in the space for observations on the form.

Type of person: seasonal workers who left their families at their place of usual residence
Where to enumerate: In the place where they live.

Type of person: seasonal workers who do not have someone who can give their information in their place of usual residence, or who do not have a place of usual residence
Where to enumerate: the place where found at the time of enumeration (galley, encampment, etc.).

C. Unit of enumeration

The persons, or units of enumeration, are classified according to whether or not they live in the census household, according to the following concepts: (congruent to the types of dwellings, explained on page 24)

1. Persons who live in households (private dwellings).

[p. 62]

A household might be made up of only one person; this is a person who satisfies his or her nutritional and shelter needs without any other person. A household can also be made up of various persons (two or more), who live together in order to satisfy their nutritional and shelter needs. The persons who live in this type of household can be relatives (parents and children, for example), they can be unrelated (two or more friends), they can also be relatives and non-relatives (parents, children, and a domestic employee).

2. Persons who do not live in households (collective dwellings)

These are persons who live in hospitals, barracks, convents, boarding schools, jails, etc. They live together for reasons other than home life, such as for health, education, discipline, or other reasons.

D. Using the population census form

One census form has been designed for the enumeration of the population living in households (private dwellings) and the population not living in households (collective dwellings). For the enumeration of persons living in households, the enumerator will use one form when the household has from one to nine persons. Two or more forms will be used when enumerating households with more than nine members or when two or more households reside in the same dwelling.

The forms are numbered continuously, whether for private dwellings or for collectives.

The steps for filling out two or more forms are explained in Chapter VI of this manual.

E. Parts of the form and order of enumeration

1. Parts of the Form

The population form, in section VII, has 24 questions grouped into 5 blocks:

[p. 63]

A. Personal characteristics;
B. Geographical characteristics;
C. Educational characteristics;
D. Economic characteristics;
E. Fertility and mortality characteristics

2. Order of Enumeration of the Household Members

To facilitate the enumeration, the enumerator should record the information of each member in the following order:

a) Head of household
b) Spouse or partner of the head
c) Unmarried children according to age (including newborns)
d) Married children and their families
e) Other relatives (mother, father, aunts/uncles, siblings, etc.)
f) Other non-relatives, such as guests, servants, etc.

F. Specific instructions for filling out the form

A. First block: personal characteristics (for all persons)

This part of the census form is designed to study the composition of the population according to the following characteristics: relationship to the head of household, sex, age, marital status, maternal orphanhood, ethnicity, and disabilities.

Questions 1-8 are presented to all enumerated persons, without exception, following the specific instructions presented below:

[p. 64]

Question 1: name and surname

1. How to formulate the question

What is the name and surname of each person that usually resided in this home on March 22, 1981? (including those younger than 1 year of age)

Clarification: before asking for the name and surname of the person or persons who form the "census household", the following tasks are completed: a) the informant is selected; b) those to be included in the investigation, either they are relatives of the head of household or not, according to the concepts of "usual residence (census type)" and "census moment"; and c) the persons are put into order according to the pertinent instructions (order of enumeration).

2. How to record the data

The names and surnames of all of the household members, taking into account the order of enumeration as indicated above, are recorded. The names and surnames of the persons are recorded horizontally; that is, from left to right on the census form. After writing down the names and surnames a few questions are asked in order to discover possible omissions and misinterpretations of the concept of usual residence. Informants will frequently omit those under the age of 5 - especially newborns. If a newborn does not have a name, the enumerator will write down "without name".

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 1 of the census form]

[p. 65]

Question 2: relationship

From this question on, the data is recorded vertically for each person.

1. How to formulate the question
What is your relationship to the head of household?

It is necessary that the relationship between persons recognized as head of household and each of the household members. This relationship can be through family, work, or other (e.g. a chauffeur, an employee, a domestic employee, or a guest, etc. who resides in the home).

2. How to record the data

a) The number that corresponds to the relationship of each of the household members is circled.

b) "9. unknown" is marked only when the informant does not know the relationship between a household member and the head of household. These cases, obviously, are exceptions.

c) When enumerating collective dwellings, the number "10. collective" is marked for each person.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form]

Question 3: sex

1. How to formulate the question

Are you a man or a woman?

2. How to record the data

[p. 66]

The number of the corresponding category is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 3 of the census form]

Question 4: age

1. How to formulate the question

What is your age, in years completed?

The information that should be obtained from each person is the number of years completed at the last birthday, not the age about to be completed by the enumerator.

Taking into account the importance of this information, all of the effort necessary to obtain the age in years completed should be made. If this is not possible, the enumerator should insist in obtaining, at least, approximate information, this way there will always exist information about "age".

2. How to record the data

The enumerator will write, in the space provided:

a) The number of years completed.

b) "00" for those younger than one year of age, including newborns.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 4 of the census form]

Question 5: current marital status

1. How to formulate the question

Are you married, living in a consensual union, unmarried, widowed, divorced, or separated?

The following definitions will help the enumerator to correctly classify each person according to their marital status at the date of the census:

[p. 67]

a) Married: Those who have entered into a legal marriage and live with their spouse; that is, they are not widowed, divorced, or separated.

b) In union (consensual union): Those who are not legally married but who live in a consensual or de facto union with another person.

c) Single: Those who have never entered into a legal marriage and do not live in a consensual union.

d) Divorced or separated from a marriage or consensual union: Those whose marriage has been legally dissolved or those who are separated from their spouse and who have not remarried or entered into another consensual union.

It is not necessary to ask this question to those under 13 years of age; in these cases, "3. single" is marked.

2. How to record the data

The different categories are mutually exclusive, therefore, only the number corresponding to the marital status of the enumerated person is marked.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 5 of the census form]

Question 6: maternal orphanhood

1. How to formulate the question

[p. 68]

Is your mother alive?

2. How to record the data

If the enumerated person's mother is alive at the time of enumeration, only the number "1. yes" is circled. On the other hand, if the mother has passed away, "2. no" is circled. If the enumerated person's mother is alive and living in the same dwelling being enumerated, the mother's order number in the form is recorded in the space provided.

The category "9. unknown" has been provided to record those cases in which the informant does not know if the mother of the enumerated person is alive or not.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 6 of the census form]

Question 7: ethnic group

1. How to formulate the question

The enumerator should take into account, as a benchmark, the social assessment of the person in the place in which the enumeration is conducted to determine if the enumerated person is indigenous or not.

When enumerating a servant, the informant will be asked if the servant is indigenous or not. If there is doubt or the enumerated person is not a servant, the enumerator will fall back on the last option that will be to ask the person if he or she is ladino or indigenous. The answer given by the person is recorded.

2. How to record the data

If the person is indigenous, number "1" is circled, on the other hand, the number "2" is circled. If the informant cannot establish the ethnic group of the person, the category "9. unknown" is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 7 of the census form]

[p. 69]

Question 8: disability

1. How to formulate the question

Do you have any physical or mental impediment, congenital or by another cause?

The following definition will help the enumerator investigate the question:

Disabled person: The person whose physical or mental well-being is temporarily or permanently disturbed, either from birth or during life because of illness or any type of accident.

2. How to record the data

One or more of the numbers corresponding to categories in the census form are circled.

If the enumerated person does not have a physical or mental disability, number "1. no disability" is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 8 of the census form]

B. Second block: geographical characteristics (for all persons)

The questions relating to geographical characteristics are designed to study internal and international migration of the population.

It is desired to find out the total number of migrants and the patterns of these movements as well as the principal characteristics of this population.

Question 9: place of birth

1. How to formulate the question

In which municipality and department were you born?

[p. 70]

(If born abroad, the name of the country is recorded and the person is asked: In which year did you come to live permanently in this country?)

2. How to record the data

When the place of birth is the same as the place of usual residence at the time of the Census, the number "1. here" is circled. The spaces for the municipality and department are then left blank.

a. If the enumerated person was born in another municipality, different from the place of usual residence, the enumerator will ask the name of the municipality of birth and the corresponding name of the department, recording the information in the spaces provided.

b. If the enumerated person was born in another country, the enumerator will record the name of the country and the year of arrival in the spaces provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 9 of the census form]

Question 10: period of residence

1. How to formulate the question

For how many years have you lived in this municipality?

2. How to record the data

If the person has always lived in the municipality of the place of usual residence at the time of enumeration, the number "1. Always" is circled.

If the enumerated person has changed residences, moving to the current municipality of usual residence, the number of years living in this municipality is written in the space provided. If the time of residence is less than one year, "00" is recorded.

[p. 71]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 10 of the census form]

Question 11: place of usual residence in February, 1976

1. How to formulate the question

In which municipality and department or country did you reside at the time of the earthquake of February 1976? (Only for those 5 years of age and older).

2. How to record the data

If the place of usual residence at the time of the earthquake of February, 1976 was the same as the place of usual residence at the time of the Census, the enumerator will circle "1. here", leaving the spaces for municipality and department or country blank.

a. If the enumerated person resided in another municipality, different from the current place of usual residence, the name of the municipality of birth and the corresponding name of the department is requested and recorded in the spaces provided.

b. If the enumerated person was born in another country, the name of the country and the year of arrival are recorded in the spaces provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 11 of the census form]

Question 12: previous place of habitual residence

1. How to formulate the question

In which municipality and department or country did you normally reside before establishing yourself in this municipality?

[p. 72]

2. How to record the data

When the previous place of usual residence coincides with the current place of usual residence at the time of enumeration, the number "1. here" is marked with a circle. The other spaces are left blank.

a) If the person resided in another municipality, different from the current place of usual residence, the name of the municipality and department is written down in the spaces provided.

b) If the person lived abroad, the name of the country is recorded in the space provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form]

C. Third block: educational characteristics (for those 7 years of age and older).

Questions 13 to 15 refer to the enumerated person's literacy and education completed or education being carried out. For this reason, only those persons 7 years of age and older are asked these questions.

The purpose of these questions is to discover the educational level of the population in relation to demographic, economic, and social characteristics.

Question 13: literacy

1. How to formulate the question

Do you know how to read and write?

The following definitions will help the enumerator to investigate this question.

Literate: The person who knows how to read and write a simple paragraph in Spanish or in another language.

[p. 73]

Illiterate: The person who does not know how to either read or write, or who only knows how to read or can only write his or her name (signature).

2. How to record the data

According to the answer, the number "1. yes" or "2. no" is circled. If an informant does not know if the literacy condition of the person in question, the category "9. Unknown" is circled.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 13 of the census form]

Question 14: educational level

1. How to formulate the question
What was the last grade or year of study that you completed in either primary [elementary], middle, or superior school?

Two pieces of information are required:

a) The highest level of education; and,
b) The last year completed in that level.

The Republic of Guatemala's regular educational system is made up of the following levels of education:

a) Primary
b) Middle
c) Tertiary

The following definitions will help the enumerator in correctly classifying the population in this characteristic.

Primary education: The educational system providing the first elements of instruction (1st to 6th grades).

Middle education (secondary): A general, specialized, or both, system of education. The minimum prerequisite to enter into secondary education is the completion of elementary education. This level is currently divided into basic and vocational.

[p. 74]

Tertiary education: Education provided by universities and non-university technical schools. The minimum prerequisite to enter tertiary education is the completion of secondary education.

2. How to record the data

If the person has not completed any grade, the number "00. none" is circled.

The spaces that appear before the different levels of education, "1. Primary", "2. Middle," and "3. tertiary", are provided so that the last grade or year completed can be recorded.

Finally, number "99. unknown" is provided in case the informant cannot supply the information about the person in question.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 14 of the census form]

Question 15: school attendance

1. How to formulate the question

Do you currently attend an educational establishment; primary, middle, or tertiary?

2. How to record the data

If the informant declares that attends a primary, middle, or superior educational establishment, the number "1. yes" is marked.

On the other hand, number "2. no" is circled.

If the informant does not know if the enumerated person attends a regular educational establishment, number "9. unknown" is marked.

If the enumerated person, between the ages of 7 and 14, does not attend a regular educational establishment, the reasons for not attending are requested and recorded in the spaces provided.

[p. 75]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 15 of the census form]

D. Fourth block: economic characteristics (for those 10 years of age and older).

Questions 16 through 20 are only presented to those 10 years of age and older.

Question 16: type of activity

1. How to formulate the question

What were you doing during the week prior to the Census; that is March 16-22, 1981?

Immediately the different alternatives are read, one by one, so that the informant can exactly determine which of the answers translates to the situation of the enumerated person during the week prior to the Census.

The following definitions will allow the enumerator to carry out the work and mark the corresponding alternative.

1. Did you work? A person is considered to work if he or she carried out a remunerated job, for the time equivalent to one day of work, during the week of March 16-22.

For the purposes of the census, work is considered to be:

a. Work for another person as an employee or laborer (salaried), that includes:

i) Daily or regular wage work.
ii) Work for in-kind payment (food, shelter, or supplies received in place of cash payment).
iii) Work paid by the piece, commissions, or tips.
iv) Active service in the Armed Forces.

b. Work in [the person's] own business, professional practice, or as an independent worker (on own account).

[p. 76]

c. Unpaid work, in a business or farm run by a relative (e.g. a son who works, unpaid, in his father's store), for more than 15 hours per week.

d. Part-time job carried out during the week for compensation in money.

This includes sewing jobs and other jobs carried out in the home for other persons or companies for which monetary or in-kind payment is received. This also includes the preparation of food, candy, etc. for sale. Thousands of housewives, students, and elderly persons, who apparently are not working, carry out activities that provided them with monetary income; this should be considered to be "work".

For the purposes of the census, the following is not considered to be work:

a. Tasks carried out in the home, such as household duties (except for servants with or without pay), odd jobs for other family members that is not compensated monetarily, and jobs carried out in the person's own home (cutting the grass, painting walls, etc.).

b. Unpaid volunteer work for the Church, the Red Cross, or other welfare organizations.

c. Work carried out by those who are imprisoned in institutions of involuntary confinement (prisons, sanatoriums, asylums, penal farms).

2. Did not work, but employed? This refers to those who did not work during the week of March 16-22 but who have employment or a business and were absent or did not carry out the work because of illness, inclement weather, vacation, etc.

3. Looked for work but previously employed? This refers to those who did not have a job during the week of March 16-22, having left or been fired from a job; they are waiting for the previous employer to call again or they are looking for a new job.

[p. 77]

4. Looked for work for the first time? This refers to those who have never been employed and who were making an effort to find work or employment during the week of March 16-22.

5. Lived from rents or retirement? This refers to those who did not carry out any remunerated activity during the week of March 16-22, but who received a retirement payment, pension payment, or pension for their previous service or for the previous service of a relative. Included in this category are those who, without carrying out any remunerated activity, receive income from rents or from another source.

6. Studied? This refers to those who were attending school, high school, or university during week of March 16-22. They are only counted in this category if they did not carry out any work during this same period of time.

7. Domestic duties? This refers to those who did not carry out any remunerated activity during the most part of the week of March 16-22 because they were exclusively dedicated to domestic duties.

8. Other? This refers to those who cannot be classified in the previous categories; such as those imprisoned in institutions of involuntary confinement (presidios, hospitals, etc.).

9. Unknown: This refers to those for whom the activity is unknown.

2. How to record the data

The problem of this question is the adequate selection of the type of activity carried out by each person 10 years old or older.

The following recommendations will allow the enumerator to carry out the work more efficiently:

a. An answer should not be recorded unless the enumerator is absolutely sure that the person has correctly understood the question and that the answer is coherent with the pertinent definitions.

[p. 78]

b. A person cannot be classified in more than one category, even if the informant gives double information (worked and studied, worked and received income from rents or retirement, takes care of the house and works, takes care of the house and studies, etc.). The primary criteria for selecting the type of activity is to give preference to the participation in a remunerated economic activity and, secondly, to the activity of studying over that of domestic duties.

Once the answer is selected, the corresponding number is circled.

c. Category "9. unknown" is used only for those cases where the informant cannot answer the questions because he or she does not know what the enumerated person's activity is. This is reserved for those household members who cannot be classified in any of the previous categories.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 16 of the census form]

Note: questions 17-20 are only presented to those who answered 1, 2, or 3 for question 16. For those answering 4-9, an "X" is marked in all of the spaces for questions 17-20.

[p. 79]

Question 17: principal occupation

This question is only presented to those who were classified in alternatives 1, 2, or 3 in question 16.

1. How to formulate the question

What principal occupation, type of work, or trade did you carry out during the reference week (March 16-22) or in the last job that you had?

Principal occupation is understood to be the occupation that provides the highest income or that which takes most of the enumerated person's time.

2. How to record the data

The principal occupation is written down in the space provided.

A word or phrase that exactly describes the type of work that the enumerated person carries, or carried out should be used. Generic terms that do not give a clear idea of the type of work (e.g. worker, employee, office worker, or other similar descriptions) should be avoided.

To illustrate this further, the following examples are provided:
[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for principal occupation
(B) Correct answer for principal occupation

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: agricultural worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: cowboy; milker; coffee picker.

[p. 80]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: mechanic
Correct answer for principal occupation: auto mechanic; technician who makes dental parts; airplane mechanic.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: office worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: typist, secretary; bookkeeper; file clerk.
Incorrect answer for principal occupation: construction worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: mason; plumber; carpenter; house painter.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: engineer
Correct answer for principal occupation: civil engineer, sanitary engineer, mechanical engineer, chemist engineer.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: specialist
Correct answer for principal occupation: agronomist, accountant, specialist in marketing, industrial expert, specialist in agriculture.

[p. 81]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: technician
Correct answer for principal occupation: agricultural technician, biological and agronomical technician, technician in construction costs, technician in electronics.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: draftsman
Correct answer for principal occupation: general draftsman, draftsman in civil engineering, drawer of publications, illustrator.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: teacher
Correct answer for principal occupation: primary school teacher; rural teacher.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: director
Correct answer for principal occupation: primary school director, secondary-school director, director of institutes.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: professor
Correct answer for principal occupation: college professor, physical education instructor, language teacher, home education teacher, teacher for blind persons, professor of Neurological Units Institutes.

[p. 82]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: professional
Correct answer for principal occupation: geologist, sociologist, anthropologist, economist, statistician, doctor and surgeon, accountant and public auditor.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: analyst
Correct answer for principal occupation: analyst in marketing, systems analyst, professions analyst.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: public employee
Correct answer for principal occupation: president of organizations (executive, legislative, and judicial), vice president of organizations (executive, legislative and judicial), minister of State, vice minister, comptroller of accounts, municipal secretary, executive director, diplomatic, ambassador, customs worker, official.

[p. 83]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: manager
Correct answer for principal occupation: wholesale trade manager and administrator; manager and administrator of retail trade of food products; retail trade manager and administrator; manager and administrator of retail trade of clothing and footwear; manager and administrator of retail trade of vehicles, engines, and accessories; manager of manufacturing enterprise; manager of construction enterprise; financial manager; sales manager; administrative manager.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: administrator
Correct answer for principal occupation: manufacturing company administrator, construction company administrator, Montep?o administrator, hotel manager, mining administrator.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: operator
Correct answer for principal occupation: operator of accountant machines, operator of ribbons and cards drills, radio operator.

[p. 84]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: agent
Correct answer for principal occupation: air traffic agent, shipping company agent, station agent, tourism agent, broker, insurance agent, advertising sales agent.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: laborer
Correct answer for principal occupation: agricultural laborer, agricultural laborer of vegetables, agricultural laborer of cotton, milker, agricultural laborer of sugarcane.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: weaver
Correct answer for principal occupation: loom operator; hat maker; hammock maker.

Finally, it is necessary to point out that, for professionals, the occupation usually corresponds to the profession.

However, some professionals could have carried out occupations outside of their specialty, in which case the occupation carried out is recorded and not the profession. For example, if a medical surgeon acted as the director of a hospital, the principal occupation is recorded: hospital director; if a lawyer worked as the manager of a textile company, the enumerator will write down: textile company manager.

If a person carries out various occupations that cannot be limited to one, the principal occupation should be determined according to the instructions given previously.

[p. 85]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 17 of the census form]

Question 18: industry

1. How to formulate the question

What does the establishment do where you carried out the principal occupation identified?

2. How to record the data

The industry of the establishment where the principal occupation declared in question 17 (manufacturing, service, etc.) is recorded in the space provided.

Generic terms, such as factory, plantation, workshop, etc., should not be used to describe the industry. The name of the establishment should not be used: e.g. Santa In?s Fabric, El Artesano, etc. However, in cases of public sector institutions: central government, semi-autonomous and decentralized entities (IGSS, INDE, etc.), the name should be used. To better illustrate this, the following examples are presented:

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for branch of activity
(B) Correct answer for branch of activity

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: farm
Correct answer for branch of activity: raising and fattening cattle.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: store
Correct answer for branch of activity: grocery sales.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: stall 13 in the market
Correct answer for branch of activity: fruit and vegetable sales.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: SAHSA
Correct answer for branch of activity: air transport of passengers and cargo.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: Guastatoya
Correct answer for branch of activity: ground transport of passengers and cargo.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: dress-making shop
Correct answer for branch of activity: manufacture of women's dresses.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: factory
Correct answer for branch of activity: shirt factory.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: workshop
Correct answer for branch of activity: radio repair.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: Santa Luisa farm
Correct answer for branch of activity: coffee farm.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: El Huerto deposit
Correct answer for branch of activity: sale of basic products.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: to produce statistics
Correct answer for branch of activity: General Direction of Statistics

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: repair of roads
Correct answer for branch of activity: General Direction of Roads.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: classification of positions
Correct answer for branch of activity: National Office of Civil Service.

[p. 86]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 18 of the census form]

Question 19: location of the establishment

1. How to formulate the question

In which municipality and department is the establishment located where the principal occupation was carried out?

2. How to record the data

When the establishment is located in the in the place of usual residence, the number "1. here" is circled; if not, the name of the municipality and department is recorded in the spaces provided.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 19 of the census form]

Question 20: occupational category

1. How to formulate the question

What was your employment status in the principal occupation indicated in question 17?

The list of different alternative answers is slowly read, one by one, until the enumerated person is classified into one of them.

The following definitions will help orient the enumerated person.

a. Employer: This refers to those who have one or more salaried persons in their charge carrying out an economic activity; that is, workers who receive monetary or in-kind remuneration. One who has no employees is not an employer.

[p. 87]

b. Own account: This refers to those who work independently, who do not have remunerated employees and are not employees of anyone else. An own-account worker can count on the help of family workers and can work alone or as an associate.

c. Public sector employee: This refers to employees who receive a salary or wage from any state agency, either from the central government or from semi-autonomous or a decentralized entity (municipality, Institute of Social Security, Universidad de San Carlos, ministries, etc.).

d. Private sector paid employee: This refers to employees who receive a wage or salary from a company whose capital is private (Factories, Stores, Private Farms, etc.).

e. Unpaid family worker: This refers to those who carry out an unpaid occupation in an establishment operated by a relative, working at least 15 hours per week. Excluded from this category are those who carry out domestic duties or occasional tasks in the establishment.

2. How to record the data

The number corresponding to the answer is circled. "9. Not known" is circled only when the informant does not know the employment status of the household member.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 20 of the census form]

[p. 88]

E. Fifth block: fertility and mortality characteristics (for all women 15 years of age and older)

Questions 21-24 are designed to obtain information to allow estimations of levels and trends in fertility, mortality, and population growth.

The adequate investigation of this question requires that the enumerator be delicate and extremely diligent in the request for information. Questions 21-24 should be presented to all women 15 years of age and older, irrespective of their marital status. If possible, these questions should be presented directly to each woman. Women sometimes forget to declare children born alive who have passed away, children who are alive but living in another place of residence, and also newborns. This should be kept in mind to avoid omissions.

It has been verified that certain enumerators suppose that unmarried women do not have children and therefore do not present the pertinent questions to them. This is inadequate and leads to the collection of poor quality data.

Question 21: total number of children born alive

This question is presented to all women 15 years of age and older, irrespective of their marital status.

1. How to formulate the question

How many children born alive have you had in total?

The following definition should be taken into account:

Child born alive: The child who, after birth, breathes, cries, or moves; whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut, whether or not the child is connected to the placenta.

If any of these vital signs are present, the child is considered to be born alive, even if passing away immediately thereafter.

2. How to record the data

Before recording the information, pertinent questions should be asked until it is certain that no child born alive has been omitted and those children born alive who died shortly after birth or in the first months of life are included. Those children who do not live with the mother and reside in another place as well as newborns should also be included.

[p. 89]

The number of children born alive, by sex, is recorded after the corresponding word: "total", "males," "females." If the enumerated woman has not had any children born alive, the word "00. none" is marked.

When the informant does not know if the enumerated person has had children born alive, the category "99. unknown" is marked.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 21 of the census form]

Question 22: total number of surviving children

This question is presented to all women 15 years of age and older, irrespective of their marital status.

1. How to formulate the question

How many of your children are currently alive?

The following definition should be kept in mind:

Children currently alive:
All children that are alive at the time of the Census, irrespective of whether they:
a) Live with the mother
b) Reside in a geographical location different from that of enumeration of the mother, or live abroad.

2. How to record the data

If a mother does not have any surviving children, the number "00. none" is marked.

For mothers who have one or more surviving children, the answer is recorded in the spaces provided: "total," "males", "females."

If the informant does not know if the enumerated woman has surviving children, the number "99. unknown" is marked.

[p. 90]

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 22 of the census form]

Question 23: date of birth of last child

This question is presented to all women 15 years of age and older, irrespective of their marital status.

1. How to formulate the question

On what date was your last child born, even if passed away thereafter?

2. How to record the data

The day, month, and year of birth of the last child born alive is recorded in the spaces provided.

If the informant does not know the date of birth of the last child born alive, the enumerator should do everything possible to find out at least the month and year of birth or, as a last resort, the year of birth. When the date of birth is unknown, the category "99. unknown" is marked.

If the enumerated woman has not had any children born alive, the number "0. has not had children" is marked.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 23 of the census form]
[p. 91]

Question 24: survival of last child

1. How to formulate the question

Is your last child born alive still alive?

2. How to record the data

If the last child born alive is still alive, the number "1. yes" is marked.

If the last child born alive has passed away, the number "2. no" is marked. If the informant does not know if the last child born alive of the enumerated woman is still alive, the number "9. unknown" is marked. If the enumerated woman has not had any children born alive, the number "0. has not had children" is marked.

The enumerator should then proceed to request the information of the next resident of the investigated household.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 24 of the census form]

F. Sixth block: question of the last column of the census form: seasonal agricultural employment.

The question appearing in the last column of the census form, after the ninth person, is presented to the informant after recording all of the information of each of the household members.

1. How to formulate the question

Did anyone in this household go to another municipality to carry out agricultural work as a daily or seasonal laborer during any time of the agricultural year - May 1980 to April 1981?

[p. 92]

2. How to record the data

If the answer is affirmative, the number "1. yes" is marked and then the form FC-03 "seasonal agricultural employment" is filled out according to the instructions given in the following chapter.

If the answer is negative, the number "2. no" is marked and the enumerator will skip to the next household.

3. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graphic of question 4 of the census form]

[p. 93]

Chapter VI: instructions for cases when two or more census forms should be filled out for the same dwelling or the same household

There may be cases when the enumerator should fill out more than one census form for a dwelling or household. These situations and instructions for proceeding are described below.

a) When two or more census households live in one dwelling.

The enumerator will completely fill out the form for the first household and, in the forms for the second and other households, the correlative numbering is followed but section II is crossed out with a large "X". This information is already recorded in the form corresponding to the first household.

b) When more than nine persons reside in the household.

Since each census form has the capacity for the information of nine persons, the enumerator will use the necessary additional forms to record all of the household residents when this number is surpassed. In these cases, the enumerator should proceed in the following manner:

i) The letter "A" is added to the "form number" of the first form.

ii) Additional forms are assigned the same number but with the letters "B", "C", etc., added.

iii) Section I of the additional forms is filled out.

iv) Sections II, III, IV, V, and VI of the additional forms are crossed out with a large "X".

v) Section VII of the additional forms is used from the second column, substituting the heading with the corresponding person's number; that is, cross out "second person" and write down "tenth person", etc., etc.,

vi) Additional forms should be physically placed inside of the first census form.

c) Collective dwellings.

When the number of residents is more than nine, the enumerator will proceed in the following manner:

i) The letter "A" is added to the "form number" of the first form.

ii) Additional forms are assigned the same number but with the letters "B", "C", etc., added.

iii) Section I and question 1 of section II of the additional forms are filled out. The rest of the title page of the form is crossed out with an "X".

iv) In additional forms, the headings of the columns in section VII are substituted with the corresponding person's number: cross out "first person" and write in "tenth person".

v) Additional forms should be physically placed inside of the first census form.

[p. 95]

Chapter VII: seasonal agricultural employment

The purpose of this form is to determine the volume and demographic characteristics of the population that temporarily leaves the municipality where they normally reside to carry out agricultural work, as day laborers, laborers, or seasonal workers. They participate in activities typical in cultivation, such as land preparation, planting, maintenance, and harvest. It is also desired to know in which municipalities, in which crops, and in which month or months during the agricultural year - May 1980 to April 1981 - these activities took place.

The following definitions should be kept in mind:

Agricultural work: For the purposes of the census, agricultural work is understood to be the labors carried out in one or more of the following activities: land preparation, planting, maintenance, and harvesting.

Land preparation: This includes all of the tasks previous to planting the crop.

Planting: This is only the task of scattering or burying seeds so that they germinate.

Maintenance: This includes all of the tasks carried out immediately after planting until the harvest of the crops, such as watering, fertilizing, cleaning, fumigating, etc.

Harvest: This includes the task of collecting the crops from the farm and other activities related to this, such as transportation, blow away, storage, etc.

Instructions for filling out form FC-03, "seasonal agricultural employment."

All of those who carried out some kind of agricultural work outside of the municipality of residence should be recorded correlatively, whether they are members of the same household or not.

[p. 96]

Form numbering:

In the upper margin of the form, there is a cell for recording the number of the form "_ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _". The correlative number according to the forms used is recorded in the first space.

The second space is used at the end of enumeration of the sector and is used to avoid paperwork mistakes; for example: if, after finishing the enumeration of the area, 10 forms were filled out, the number 10 is written in this second space on all of the forms.

Geographical location

This part is filled out according to the instructions given in Chapter IV, subsection C-1, and page 26 of this manual.

Corresponding Population and Housing Form number: Column 1

Recorded in this column is the number corresponding to the housing and population census form where the information of the person who carried out agricultural work outside of the municipality of residence is found.

Person's order number from section VII of the population form: Column 2

Recorded in this column is the order number of the person who carried out agricultural work outside of the municipality of residence, as found in population form.

Name: Column (3)

The name of these persons is written in this column, in the same order in which they appear in section VII of the population form.

[p. 97]

In which municipality and department or country was the agricultural work carried out? Columns (4 and 5)

Once the question is asked, the municipality and department or country is written down in the space provided.

A person could have worked in different municipalities during the agricultural year; because of this, one line should be used for each municipality in which this work was carried out.

For which crop was the work carried out? Column (6)

The name of the crop is recorded in the space provided. When dealing with multiple crops in different periods of time, one line is used for each crop. When dealing with multiple crops on the same farm at the same time, the names of the crops are listed in one cell.

In which agricultural activities did the person participate? Columns (7, 8, 9, and 10)

The previous definitions related to land preparation, planting, maintenance, and harvest should be used in determining the category; the corresponding cell is marked with an "X".

The four categories are not mutually exclusive, therefore, more than one cell can be marked if the person carried out more than one task on the same crop.

In which month was the work carried out? Column (11)

The month, or months, during which the agricultural activity was performed are recorded in the space provided.

How many persons from the household accompanied the person? Column (12)

The number of household residents who, for various reasons, accompanied the person is recorded. Not included in this number are those who were directly accepted, joined with, or contracted, etc., either in the place of residence or in the place where the agricultural work took place. These persons should be recorded on a separate line.

[p. 98]

Household members who accompany the agricultural worker, laborer, day laborer, or seasonal worker, for example his wife, children under the age of 10, etc., are included in this question, even if they assisted in work such as picking coffee, cotton, etc.

When there is more than one agricultural worker in the same household who are accompanied by the same people, these people are recorded in the line corresponding to the first worker.

It is important that, before proceeding to enumerate the next agricultural worker, all of the information, from columns 1-12 be recorded.

[p. 99]

Appendices: Additional Instructions

[p. 100]

Appendix I

Instructions for the enumeration of collective dwellings

[Pages 101-102 are missing in the original]

[p. 103]

It is necessary that the enumerator be familiar with the present instructions referring to the enumeration of collective dwellings, in addition to those established in the "Enumerator's Manual".

Persons to be enumerated:

All of the persons who usually reside in the institution (hospitals, clinics, jails, barracks, boarding schools, religious congregations, and houses with 5 or more guests, etc.) are enumerated. To establish who are usual residents, the instructions in chapter V page 55 of the Enumerator's Manual should be followed. Taking into account these instructions, all of the members and employees of the institution, irrespective of their status or the work carried out in the institution are enumerated. They are only enumerated if they reside or are permanently established in the institution; such as, soldiers, members of religious congregations, students and teachers in boarding schools, permanent guests, terminally ill patients, etc. There are frequently households, made up of one person living alone or of a family, independent of but within collective dwellings; e.g. hospital director, commandant of a military zone, etc. These households should be enumerated with one form and the collective dwelling with another.

Procedure for the enumeration

a) The enumerator will contact the person responsible for the institution in order to request the list of all members that usually reside therein at the time of the Census in order to verify that all are enumerated.

b) Next, the person responsible for the institution and other administrative personnel who usually reside therein will be enumerated. They are enumerated alone or with their families and domestic employees that form one or more census households.

c) Next, the persons established in these institutions, in order of rank or in the same order as the list provided by the person responsible for the institution, are enumerated.

[p. 104]

d) The enumerator will request that the boarding school or hospital designate someone from the establishment to directly collaborate so that the enumeration can take place efficiently and within the time frame designated.

e) For penal farms or jails, all persons who have been sentenced by the competent authorities are enumerated.