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Interviewer Instruction Manual
Housing and Population Census: 1973
Guatemala

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Republic of Guatemala
Ministry of Economy
General Directions of Statistics

Third Dwelling and Eighth Population Censuses
March 1973

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Republic of Guatemala
Ministry of Economy
General Directions of Statistics

Third Dwelling and Eighth Population Censuses
March 1973

[Introduction is omitted]

[Table of contents is omitted]

[Chapter I: General aspects of the Third Dwelling and Eighth Population Censuses is omitted]

[Chapter II: Responsibilities of the enumerator is omitted]

[Chapter III: Use of the cartographic material and aspects of the enumeration is omitted]

[Chapter IV: The census' interview is omitted]

[p. 31]

Chapter V. Instructions for obtaining and recording information on the dwelling form

As indicated in the above discussion of census documents, you will use three forms:
1) Dwelling and population form for persons living in dwellings
2) Population form for institutional dwellings
3) Agricultural directory form

In this chapter and in chapter VI we consider the dwelling and population form for households. In chapters VII and VIII, we will discuss the other two forms.

A. Basic definitions used for the dwelling census

1. Census date
The census date has been set as March 26, 1973 so that the information collected will represent as faithfully as possible the dwellings and their characteristics, as well as demographic, economic, and social aspects of the country.

2. Enumeration units
The two main enumeration units will be used to conduct the dwelling census: a) the dwelling, and b) the household. When investigating dwelling characteristics (section II) use "dwelling" as the enumeration unit. For questions about the household housing status (section III) use "household" as the enumeration unit.

To investigate question sets in sections II-2 "building's year of construction," II-3, "main material of building's exterior walls," and II-4 "main material of building's roof," all of which are under "dwelling characteristics" in section II, use "building" as the enumeration unit.

3. Definitions

a. Dwelling

[p. 32]

For the purposes of the census, a dwelling is any structurally separate and independent lodging which:

a) was built, converted, or arranged for human habitation, as long as it is not being used partially or completely for any other purpose on the census date; or
b) was not built for human habitation but was being used for that purpose on the census date.

Do not investigate "mobile" or "improvised" dwellings, which are not inhabited on the census date.

Note that a dwelling must be both separate and independent. A dwelling is considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, is covered by a roof, and allows a person or group of person to separate themselves from others in the community for sleeping, preparing food and eating, and protecting themselves from inclement weather. A dwelling is independent if it has direct access from the street or stairway, hallway, courtyard or public space, i.e., inhabitants can go into or out of the dwelling without having to go through anyone else's dwelling.

b. Types

There are two types of dwellings:

a) those intended to lodge households known as "dwelling units" and
b) those known as "dwellings other than dwelling units," or institutional dwellings.

A "dwelling unit" is a separate or independent lodging intended to lodge one household, or is occupied by a household even if it is not intended for human habitation. Please note that, due to housing shortages or for other reasons, one dwelling unit may be inhabited by two or more households on the date of the census.

"Dwellings other than dwelling units or institutional dwellings" means lodging which is structurally separate and independent and which is intended to lodge persons who do not live in households, such as hotels, boarding houses, hospitals, boarding schools, family housing with more than five boarders, campgrounds, etc. For persons living in this type of dwelling, use the "population living in institutional dwelling" form, which will be explained in a later chapter.

[p. 33]

c. Census household

For the purposes of the census, "household" is a single person, or several people together who may or may not be related by family ties but who live together to provide for their food and other basic needs.

The household may be made up of:
-A single person who provides for his or her own food and housing needs alone, without anyone else.
-Two or more people who provide for their food and dwelling needs together. The people who live in this type of household may all be related by family ties (parents and children, for example); they may not be family relations (as in the case of two or more friends); or they may be a combination of related family members and unrelated persons (parents, children and an employee).

d. Building

A building is any independent and self-supporting structure, which has one or more rooms or other spaces and is covered by a roof. It is typically bounded by exterior or dividing walls, which go from the foundation to the roof.

B. Using the dwelling form

Use section II of the form "dwelling characteristics" to record the information about each dwelling unit. To record information about each of the census households use section III of the form "household housing status; house number" ____.

If a single household lives in one dwelling unit, use a single form (sections II and III). However, if two or more households live in a dwelling unit, use as many forms as there are households. In the latter case, record the information from the dwelling unit, as well as the information referring to the dwelling status of the first household, on one form. For all of the other households record the information relative to each household on a separate form, crossing off section II "dwelling characteristics" on the additional forms used for the same dwelling.

[p. 34]

C. Detailed instructions for filling out the dwelling form

Numbering the forms: On the upper right margin of the form is a box for recording the form number: _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _. In the first space, write the sequential number of each household you visit, beginning with number 1. If you are enumerating the seventh household on your route, you should also record that number above the small box on the sketch or map from your folder that represents a dwelling. If there are two or more households living in the same dwelling, (households 8 and 9, for example) transfer the numbers for both households to the small box, which represents the dwelling on your sketch or map.

When there are more than nine members in a household and you need to use more than one population form to record their information, write the number which corresponds to the household and then add A, B, C, etc. For example, if household number 7 has 19 members, write 7-A on the first form, 7-B on the second form, and 7-C on the third form.

The second space in the small box, "form number," will be used at the end of the enumeration and serves as a way of monitoring the forms so that none goes missing. If, for example, you use 155 housing and population forms to complete the enumeration in your enumeration zone, then you fill out the second space of all the forms used in the enumeration with the number 155.

I Geographic localization

Write the following information on all the forms in your assigned zone: 1) Department; 2) Municipality; 3) Cartographic code; 4) Area (urban or rural, as appropriate). This information is on the cover of your folder.

The correct localization of the enumeration zone and its dwellings requires additional information that you should investigate and record, as shown below:

[p. 35]

Information that should be copied from the folder:
[This box contains questions 1-4 of the section I "geographic localization"]

Information that should be investigated and recorded at the time of the interview:
[This box contains questions 5-7 of the section I "geographic localization"]

Using the above box as a guide, write the information taken from the folder on each of the census forms. Find out the name and category of the populated area, as well as the address of the building in which the dwelling is located.

[A graphic of both sides of box 1 is again reproduced. It is identical to the previous one, except that it includes the title: "Geographic localization."]

II Dwelling characteristics

As explained previously, question sets 1-10 should be investigated for all "dwelling units." The detailed instructions given below will allow you to perform your work efficiently.

Question 1: type of dwelling

1. How to investigate this question set:
Keep in mind the following definitions as you are investing this question set:

a) Detached house: this is a room or collection of rooms which is intended as lodging for a household due to the way in which it was built, renovated, adapted, or arranged. It may not be used for any other purpose on the census date. It is typically surrounded by gardens, fences, dividing walls or land which separates it from other houses (drawing A).

[p. 36]

This type of unit may also have a single roof that covers one or more adjacent houses (drawing b)

Note that even though this type of dwelling unit is generally intended to lodge one household, two or more households may be living there on the census date. If this is the case, use a census form for each census household.

[Drawings A and B are omitted.]

[p. 37]

b) Apartment: this is a room or collection of rooms which is intended as lodging for a household due to the way in which it was built, renovated, adapted or arranged. It may not be used for any other purpose on the census date. It typically makes up part of a building of one or more floors, and is separated from other apartments by dividing walls, which go from the floor of the apartment to the top floor or the roof of the building.

Note in this case, also, that an apartment is a unit that is generally built to lodge a single household. However, on the census date it may be occupied by two or more households, in which case you should use a form for each household.

[Drawings C is omitted.]

c) Room in a tenement: this is a space inside a building which is constructed, adapted, or arranged for as many rooms as there are households. Each room has a direct entrance from a hallway, courtyard, etc. These housing units generally do not have their own water or sanitary service, or bathing facilities.

[p. 38]
A household may occupy one or more of these rooms, in which case the rooms are considered a single housing unit.

There may also be instances in which two households inhabit one room, in which case you will need to use two questionnaires for the same dwelling (drawing D).

[Drawings D is omitted.]

d) Hut: this is a dwelling unit with one or more rooms which was built with natural local materials. The walls are of mud, straw, or cane, and the roof is of straw, palm leaves, or similar. It is considered as lodging for a household as long as it is not used entirely for other purposes on the census date. There may be two or more households living in a hut, in which case you should use a separate form for each census household. (Drawing E)

[Drawings E is omitted.]

[p. 39]

e) Improvised dwelling (hovel, shack): this is an independent, haphazardly built structure constructed of discarded materials and intended to lodge one household. One or more households may be lodged in this type of housing. (Drawing F).

[Drawings F is omitted.]

f) Other: the following types of dwelling units are included in this category:

a) mobile units, i.e., the type of lodging which is made to be transported, such as tents, boats, etc.;
b) permanent structures not intended for human habitation, such as barns, garages, market stalls, warehouses, etc.;
c) other units not intended as human habitation, such as natural shelters, caves, etc.

These types of dwellings are considered as housing units if they are inhabited on the census date.

2. How to record the information:

Once you have classified the dwelling unit according to the definitions in the preceding categories, mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

[p. 40]

3. Example:

[This box contains question 1 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question 2: building's year of construction

1. How to investigate this question set:
Ask the respondent the year the building, in which the dwelling is located, was built.

If the respondent does not know the date or expresses doubts about it, ask other persons (members of other households living in the dwelling, neighbors, etc.) until you find someone able to respond.

2. How to record the information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box once you know the building's year of construction.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 2 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question 3: predominant building material of building's exterior walls

1. How to investigate this question set:

[p. 41]
Ask the respondent the type of material used in constructing the exterior walls of the building in which the dwelling is located.

2. How to record the information:
Once you have determined the predominant building material of the exterior walls, mark an "X" in the box next to the appropriate material.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 3 of the section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question 4: predominant building material of roof

1. How to investigate this question set:
Find out the material used in the construction of the roof of the building in which the dwelling is located.

2. How to record the information:
Once you have identified the type of material used in the construction of the roof, mark an "X" in the box next to the appropriate material.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 4 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

[p. 42]

Question 5: predominant building material of the dwelling floor

1. How to investigate this question set:
Ask the respondent the predominant material used in constructing the floor.

2. How to record the information:
Once you have determined the predominant building material of the dwelling's floor, mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 5 of the section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question 6: dwelling occupation status

1. How to investigate this question set:
Ask if the dwelling is: a) occupied with persons present; b) occupied with persons absent; c) vacant

2. How to record the information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 6 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

[p. 43]

Question 7: reason for vacancy (for vacant dwellings only)

1. How to investigate this question set:
Ask this question set only if the dwelling is vacant, i.e., you marked an "X" in box 3 of the previous question.

Ask if the dwelling is vacant due to one of the following: a) it is for sale; b) it is for rent; c) other reason.

2. How to record the information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 7 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question set 8: dwelling facilities

A. Water

1. How to investigate this question set:
Find out if the dwelling is connected to a public water supply network, i.e., if the dwelling has running water inside the housing unit.

2. How to record the information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box once you have established whether or not there is running water in the house.

[p. 44]

B. Sewer system

1. How to investigate this question set:
Find out if the dwelling is connected to a public sewage system, i.e., if it has a toilet which empties into a public sewer system.

2. How to record the information:
If the service in question is available to the household, mark an "X" in box 1, "yes." If not, mark an "X" in box 2, "no."

C. Electric lighting

1. How to investigate this question set:
Find out if the dwelling is connected to a public power grid.

2. How to record the information
If the dwelling is connected to a power grid, mark an "X" in box 1, "yes." If not, mark an "X" in box 2, "no."

[This box contains questions 8a-8c of the section II "dwelling characteristics"]

[p. 45]

Question 9: total number of rooms in the dwelling (including the kitchen but not the bathroom)

1. How to investigate this question set:
The following definition will help you investigate this question set:

For the purposes of the census, "room" is defined as the space located within a dwelling which is enclosed by walls which go from the floor to the ceiling, or at least to a height of two meters above the floor, and which is large enough to fit an adult-sized bed, i.e., at least four square meters. Bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, studies, servant's quarters, kitchens, and other rooms intended to lodge people are all "rooms." Hallways, balconies, entryways, and bathrooms are not considered "rooms." Note that rooms used exclusively as a place of business, a workshop, or for providing a service, etc., should not be included in the room count.

Keep in mind the above definition as you ask how many rooms the dwelling has, regardless of whether or not they are occupied on the census date.

2. How to record the information:
Write the dwelling's total number of rooms on the appropriate line.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 9 of the section II "dwelling characteristics"]

Question 10: number of households living in the dwelling

1. How to investigate this question set:
Use the definition of the census household (page 33 of this manual) to find out the number of households living in the dwelling on the census date.

[p. 46]

2. How to record the information:
Write the dwelling's total number of households on the appropriate line.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 10 of section II "dwelling characteristics"]

III Dwelling situation

As indicated above, the question sets in this section of the dwelling form should be asked at every occupied household in a dwelling at the time of the census.

The detailed instructions below will allow you to do your work efficiently.

6. Household number ____: in this space write the number of the household in question within the dwelling: household 1, household 2, household 3, etc. For example, if three households live in a single dwelling and you are filling out information for the second household, write "Household Number 2." Obviously, section II, "dwelling characteristics" will already be marked with a large "X," since it will have been filled out for household number 1.

Question 1: water service

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What type of water service does the household have?"
Keep in mind the following definitions:

"Running water for exclusive use" (box 1) refers to running water either inside or outside the household for the exclusive use of a single household. A household with exclusive use of a tap may occasionally provide water to another household. In this case, mark the box "tap for several households." When the household has a tap for running water, which is used by two or more households within the same building or premise, check off box 2, "running water for various households."

[p. 47]

If the household gets its running water from a public tap which was installed by the municipality or other government entity for use by the community, check off box 3, "public tap (outside of the building)."

For households, which get their water other than through, one of the five options specified, such as rainwater or purchase from another household or water supply truck, check off box 6, "other."

2. How to record the Information:
Mark an "X" in the box corresponding to the information you obtain.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 1 of section III "dwelling situation".]

Question 2: sanitary services

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What type of sanitary service does the household have?"

When asking this question set keep in mind the difference between a: a) toilet connected to the public system; b) toilet connected to a septic tank; c) toilet connected to a drain, without water supply. The first refers to a facility connected to a public sewer system and which receives pressurized water through pipes in order to eliminate waste.

[p. 48]

The second refers to a facility that receives pressurized water, is connected to a septic tank, and is used in removing waste.

The third refers to a facility that is not connected to pressurized water, but which is cleaned with water brought in a container and is used for the elimination of waste.

In the case of a dwelling, which has a toilet connected to the public network or a septic tank, ask if the facility is used by a single household (private use) or by two or more households (use by several households) before you record the answer.

2. How to record the information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box according to the information you obtain.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 2 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

Question 3: electric lighting

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What type of electric lighting does the household have?

[p. 49]

Keep in mind the following definitions:

Public electric service is electric service provided by the government, such as the Electric Enterprise, the INEDE, and the municipalities.

Private electric service is the one provided by a private company or an individual.

Note that for a household to have either public or private electric service it must have a direct connection to the service, i.e., it may not be provided through another household.

2. How to record the Information:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box according to the information you obtain.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 3 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

Question set 4: number of rooms

1. How to ask the question:
To investigate this question set, keep in mind the definition of a room from page 45, as well as the following definition of bedroom: a bedroom is a room intended mainly and normally for sleeping. As you ask the two questions in this question set, keep in mind that when there is only one census household in a dwelling the number of bedrooms should be equal to the number stated in question 9 of section II. Considering this, ask the following:

1) How many rooms does this household have?; and

[p. 50]

2) How many bedrooms are there?

2. How to record the answer:
If it is only one household in the dwelling, write the same number of rooms as stated in question 9 of section II.

If there are two or more households in the dwelling, write the number of rooms and bedrooms the household has. Do this independently for each household.

On rare occasions there may be two or more households living in dwellings that are made up of just one room. In this case, write "one room" and one bedroom on the form for each household being interviewed. Leave a comment describing the situation in the section of the form intended for comments.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 4 of section III "dwelling situation".]

Question 5: kitchen

The following definition will allow you to find out the correct answers to this question set:

A kitchen is a room (see the definition of room on page 45) outfitted and intended exclusively for preparing the main meals.

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Does the household have a room which is intended only for preparing food?

2. How to record the answer:
If the answer is affirmative, ask if the kitchen is for the exclusive use of this household or if it is used by several households. Mark an "X" in box 1 or box 2. If there is no kitchen, mark box 3, "no kitchen."

[p. 51]

3. Example:
[This box contains question 5 of section III "dwelling situation".]

Question 6: fuel used for cooking

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What type of fuel do you use for cooking?"

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box according to the type of fuel the respondent says is most frequently used for cooking.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 6 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

Question 7: ownership status

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "what is the ownership status of the dwelling occupied by this household?"

2. How to record the answer:
The following definitions will help you find the right answer to this question set:

- Dwelling paid for completely: this is a dwelling occupied by a household in which
one of its members has acquired property rights either through purchase, credit, inheritance, etc., as long as it is completely paid for on the date of the census.

[p. 52]

- Dwelling being paid off in installments: this is a dwelling occupied by a household in which one of its members has acquired property rights to the building through a credit purchase, and is paying off the credit at the time of the census.

- Rented: this is when a household occupies the dwelling and pays the owner or subtenant a certain amount of money or its equivalent in services or kind.

- Loaned: this is when a household occupies a dwelling without paying rent and with the express authorization of the owner.

- Other type of tenure: this dwelling ownership cannot be categorized in any of the previous categories.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 7 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

Question 8: value of the monthly payment (dwelling being paid off in installments) or monthly rent (rented dwelling)

Ask this question if the household occupies a dwelling that is being paid off in installments or is a rental.

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What is the value of your monthly payment or rent?"

2. How to record the answer:
Write the value of the monthly mortgage payment or rent in Quetzals on the appropriate line. Do not record cents.

[p. 53]

If the household pays the rent in service or kind, estimate their value or an approximate monthly rent in order to record it for the dwelling. Record it in the appropriate space.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 8 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

Question 9: appliances in the household

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Do you have the following household goods?"

Ask the question and then immediately begin listing the household goods from the appropriate section of the form.

2. How to record the answer:
If the household has one or more of the household goods indicated on the form, mark an "X" in the appropriate boxes. Fill in the "yes" box if it has the good and the "no" box if it does not.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 9 of section III, "dwelling situation".]

[p. 54]

IV Social characteristics of the members of the household

Question 1: do you speak an indigenous language?

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Do the members of this household, or the majority of them, currently speak an indigenous language?"

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in the "Yes" box if the answer is positive. If the answer is negative mark an "X" in the "No" box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 1 of the section IV, "social characteristics of the members of the household"]

Question 2: Do you wear traditional indigenous outfit?

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Do the members of the household wear traditional indigenous outfit?"

Ask this question according to the customs of the area. Sometimes you may want to ask if the women wear an envuelto or if the men wear calz?n. In some places, they may use different words, for which reason you should ask your question using the commonly used words in that area.

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in the "yes" box if the answer is positive. If the answer is negative mark an "X" in the "no" box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 2 of section IV "social characteristics of the members of the household".]

[p. 55]

Question 3: do you wear shoes/ caites/ neither?

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "what type of footwear do the majority of household members usually wear?"

2. How to record the answer:
Write an "X" next to the appropriate option. If the household members do not typically wear footwear, write an "X" next to the "neither" box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 3 of section IV, "social characteristics of the members of the household".]

V Population present and resident in the household

Question 1: present population

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "how many people slept in this household on the night of March 26, 1973?"

2. How to record the answer:
Write the number of men and women who slept in the household being interviewed on the night of March 25-26, 1973.

Also, record the total number of men and women together.

Example:
[This box contains question 1 of the section V "population present and resident in the household"]

[p. 56]

Question 2: resident population:

1. How to ask the question:
Ask,
A. "How many permanent residents were living in the household on March 25, 1973?"
B. "How many of these people were in another municipality or country on March 25, 1973?"

2. How to record the answer:
A) Write the total number of permanent residents by sex on March 25, 1973, in the household you are interviewing.
B) Write the total number of these persons who were in another municipality or country on March 25, 1973.

Write the answers in the appropriate spaces.

Example:
[This box contains question 2 of the section V, "population present and resident in the household"]

Note: The total number of residents in the household should be equal to the total number of persons contained inside the census form in section VI, "persons in the census household."

[p. 57]

Chapter VI. Instructions on obtaining and recording information for the population form from persons in the census household

A. Definition of basic concepts used for the population census

1. Type of census: the eighth national population census is a "de jure" census. This means that the persons must be enumerated in the geographic area of their permanent residence on the date of the census.

2. Census date and moment: so that the data obtained faithfully reflects the demographic, economic, and social situation of the country, a census date has been established. The census date is March 26, 1973 and the census moment is zero hours on the 26th, i.e., midnight. Do not include children that were born after that time in the census. Do include persons who died after that time, given that they were alive at the time of the census.

B. Defining permanent residency

1. Permanent residency: for the purposes of the census, permanent residency is that place in which the person is settled or plans to settle for reasons of work, business, school, family, etc.

2. Rules to determine residency: for the purposes of the census, you may find the following in the each household you visit: persons who are present and who should be recorded on the population questionnaire; persons who are present and who should not be included on the housing questionnaire. There may also be absent persons; decide whether to include them on the questionnaire with the help of the respondent.

[p. 58]

a) Permanent resident who make up part of the household: the following is a clarification of the previous section. Permanent residents of the dwelling are those persons who regularly sleep there, i.e., it is the principal place of their family or business and they therefore consider it their home. These people are still considered members of the household even if they are temporarily absent due to reasons of illness, vacation, travel, work, etc., as long as they will return to their permanent dwelling once the situation which caused their absence has been resolved.

Enumerate all permanent residents in the household who are present at the time of the census, as well as permanent residents who are absent.

Below are common examples of permanent residents, who should be included on the questionnaire, but are absent on the date of the census:

i. A person who is temporarily absent because he or she is elsewhere for business travel, tourism, vacation, or work (travel agent, military officer, nurse, guard, doctor or other person). The person normally sleeps in the dwelling but is not there on the night of the census.

ii. A person who lives in the dwelling but is absent due to temporary illness or surgery, and who is in a non-specialized hospital or clinic for a more or less limited time.

iii. A domestic worker or other household employee who sleeps in the household where he or she works during the week, even if he or she spends the weekend in his or her own house.

iv. A person who is temporarily away for reasons of business, tourism, health, etc.

v. A person who is temporarily in prison for minor infractions of the law.

b) Absent persons who should be excluded: there are other persons who may be absent from the dwelling at the time of the census and who appear to be permanent residents, but who must not be included on the questionnaire because they are members of another household and could be counted twice. The most common examples are:

[p. 59]

i. A person who is permanently living in an institution for professional reasons (soldiers, priests, nuns, police officers, etc.), even though they may appear to have another permanent residence.

ii. Boarding-school students, either in the same or in a different location.

iii. Non-boarding school students who live and study permanently in another location.

iv. A person living in a long-term care facility such as a hospital or clinic for chronic or incurable illnesses (insane asylum, asylum for the tubercular or lepers, cancer wards, etc.) for an undefined but more or less lengthy period of time. This also includes other institutions such as penitentiaries and prisons.

v. Domestic servants who do not sleep in the dwelling in which they work.

vi. People living abroad.

vii. Children or youth in reform schools or orphanages, and the elderly or disabled in nursing homes and the like.

viii. Members of religious orders who live in convents, schools, parochial houses or seminaries.

There are other examples not considered here, but which involve similar situations. Consult with your supervisor if you are in doubt about how to categorize someone.

3. Examples of how to apply the rules of residency

The following are the most common and important examples:
[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Type of person
(B) Where to enumerate

Type of person: living in the dwelling, but temporarily absent for reasons of business, vacation, tourism, work, or guard duty
Where to enumerate: dwelling in which they live.

Type of person: living in the dwelling but currently in a hospital or clinic due to wounds, childbirth, surgery, medical check-up, short-term illness
Where to enumerate: dwelling in which they live.

[p. 60]

Type of person: he or she present in the dwelling at the time of the enumeration and is not a permanent resident elsewhere.
Where to enumerate: dwelling in which he or she is located.

Type of person: members of the armed forces stationed permanently in a military establishment.
Where to enumerate: in the military facility.

Type of person: members of the armed forces stationed in a military establishment, but live outside of it but sleeps at the base when on duty.
Where to enumerate: at the outside house.

Type of person: officer or crewmember on a ship who lives on the ship.
Where to enumerate: on the ship.

Type of person: officer or crewmember on a ship who has a residence on land.
Where to enumerate: the dwelling on land.

Type of person: boarding-school students.
Where to enumerate: school where they are studying.

Type of person: non boarding-school students living in another city or town.
Where to enumerate: the household in the other city or town in which they live.

Type of person: nurses who live in a hospital, clinic, nurses' housing, etc.
Where to enumerate: hospital, nurses' housing, etc. where they live.

Type of person: he or she has more than one house and divides his or her time between them.
Where to enumerate: house where he or she sleeps most of the time.

Type of person: Guatemalan citizen who is on vacation or traveling temporarily for reasons of work, health, tourism, etc.
Where to enumerate: dwelling in Guatemala where he or she resides.

Type of person: Guatemalan citizen who lives abroad.
Where to enumerate: do not enumerate.

[p. 61]

Type of person: foreigners passing through Guatemala for any reason.
Where to enumerate: do not enumerate.

Type of person: foreigners who come to reside in Guatemala.
Where to enumerate: wherever they are.

Type of person: foreigners who live in Guatemala (for example, diplomatic personnel).
Where to enumerate: dwelling in which they live.

C. Enumeration unit

People, or enumeration units, are classified according to the following concepts depending on whether or not they live in census households:

1. Persons who live in households (in private dwellings)
The household may be of a single person, i.e., a person who provides for his or her food and lodging needs alone.

The household may also be made up of several people, i.e., two or more persons who come together to provide for their lodging and food needs. Persons who live in this type of household may be relatives (such as parents and children) or they may be unrelated (as in the case of two or more friends). There may also be relatives and non-relatives together (such as parents, children and an employee).

2. Persons who do not live in households (institutional dwellings)
These people live in hospitals, barracks, convents, boarding schools, jails, etc. They live together for reasons of health, education, punishment, or other reasons that are different from household life.

D. Using the population census form
There are separate forms for enumerating the population living in households and the population not living in households (institutional dwellings).

When enumerating persons living in households, use a single form if the household is of a single person, and one or more forms when there is more than one person depending on the number of household members. When you use more than one form in the same household, you must fill out the section referring to the household housing status on the first form, and cross out this section on the other forms.

For persons who do not live in households (institutional dwellings), use one or more forms depending on the number of occupants. Use the special form for these persons.

[p. 62]

The numbering of the forms is continuous, either they are for individual or collective households.

E. Sections of the form and enumeration order

1. Sections of the form

The population form has five sections: a) personal characteristics; b) geographic characteristics; c) cultural characteristics; d) economic characteristics; e) fertility characteristics.

2. Enumeration order of household members

To make the enumeration easier, record the information about each member of the household in the following order:
a. Head of household
b. His or her spouse or partner
c. Single children in order of age (include newborns)
d. Married children and their family members
e. Other relatives (parents, uncles, siblings, etc.)
f. Other non-related persons such as boarders, guests, servants, etc.

If a household has more than nine people, use additional forms as necessary. Make sure to put them together and fill out on all of them the sections corresponding to "geographic localization." On additional forms, begin with the second person, as the head of household is already on the first form.

F. Detailed instructions for filling out the form

A) Personal characteristics (for all persons)

The purpose of this part of the form is to investigate the composition of the population according to relationship with the head of household, sex, age, marital status, mother' death, and ethnic group.

[p. 63]

Questions one through seven should be directed, without exception, to all people who are enumerated and according to the detailed instructions below:

Question 1: name and surname

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What is the complete name of each person who was a permanent resident of this household on March 25, 1973?"

Note: do the following before asking for the complete name of the persons who compose the "census household": a) choose the respondent; b) decide which persons should be included in the investigation in accordance with the definition of "permanent residency," "type of census" and "census moment;" c) put the person in the correct order according to the instructions (enumeration order).

2. How to record the answer:
Write the complete name of all members of the household according to the order noted above. Record the complete name horizontally, from left to right. After recording the complete name, ask questions in order to determine possible omissions or misunderstanding of the term permanent residency. Respondents will frequently omit persons younger than five years old - especially newborns - and may also include person who should not be enumerated, or exclude person who should be enumerated, given that this is a "de jure" census.

In the case of newborns who have not yet been named, write "no name."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 1 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

[p. 64]

Question 2: relationship

(Fill out the information vertically for each person beginning with this question.)

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What is your relationship to the head of household?"

The relationship between the head of household and each person is required. The link may be a family relationship, a work relationship (chauffer, cook, etc.) or other (temporary guest, etc.).

2. How to record the answer:
a. Mark an "X" on the box that corresponds to the relationship between each of the household members.

b. Mark an "X" in the "unknown" box only if the respondent does not know his or her relationship to the head of household. These cases are exceptions, of course.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 2 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 3: sex

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Are you a man or a woman?"

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 3 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

[p. 65]

Question 4: age

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "How old are you in completed years?"

The information you should get for each person is how old the person was at his or her last birthday, and not how old the person will be at his or her next birthday.

Because this is such an important question, you should do everything possible to get information that is as precise as possible. If this is not possible, get at least some approximate information so that there is always information for this category.

2. How to record the response:
Write on the appropriate line:
a) The number of completed years for persons aged one or older;
b) The digits "00" for persons aged less than one, including newborns.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 4 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 5: marital status

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Are you single, married, cohabiting, widowed, or divorced?"

The following definitions will help you categorize each person correctly according to his or her marital status:

[p. 66]

a. Single: this person has never been married and is not cohabiting.

b. Married: this person is married, even if he or she is separated (but not divorced) on the census date.

c. Cohabiting: this person (single, divorced or widowed) is living in a consensual relationship with another person and has established a family with that person, without any legal matrimonial ties.

d. Widowed: this person was married and whose spouse died. The person has not remarried and is not cohabiting.

e. Divorced: this is a person whose marriage was legally dissolved by a qualified authority. The person has not remarried and is not cohabiting.

It is not necessary to ask this question of persons younger than 13; simply mark an "X" in the box for single.

2. How to record the answer:
The different categories are mutually exclusive, so you should mark an "X" in only one box according to the marital status of the enumerated person.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 5 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 6: death of mother

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Is your mother alive?"

2. How to record the answer:
If the mother of the enumerated person is alive on the census date, mark an "X" in the "yes" box. If the mother has died, mark an "X" in the box "no" box.

[p. 67]

The "unknown" box is for those cases where the respondent does not know if the mother of a household member is alive or not.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 6 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 7: ethnic group

1. How to ask the question:
To determine whether a person is indigenous, record the person's own social estimation of himself or herself in the space in which he or she is enumerated. If it is for a servant, ask the informant whether the servant is indigenous. If there is any doubt, or if it is not for a servant, then your last resource is to ask the person if he or she is indigenous and then write the answer given by the enumerated person.

2. How to record the answer:
If the person is indigenous mark an "X" in box 1 next to the word "yes." Otherwise, mark an "X" in box 2 next to the word "no." If the person's indigenous status cannot be established, mark an "X" in box 9 next to the word "unknown."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 7 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

B) Geographic characteristics

The purpose of questions related to geographic characteristics (place of birth, permanent residency in March 1968, and year of arrival for the non-native Guatemalan population) is to study the migration of the internal and international population.

[p. 68]

The information of interest is the total number of migrants and their movement trends, as well as the principal characteristics of the aforementioned population.

Question 8: place of birth

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What municipality were you born in?"

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in box 1, "here," if the place of birth is the same as the place of permanent residency on the census date. Leave the spaces for municipality and department blank.

A) If the enumerated person was born in another municipality within the country, ask the name of the municipality and the department where the person was born, writing them in the appropriate spaces.

B) If the enumerated person was born in another country, ask the name of the country in which the person was born and write it in the appropriate space.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 8 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 9: habitual residency in March 1968

1. How to ask the question:
Ask this question for all persons aged five (5) or older: "What municipality were you living in five years ago?"

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in box 1, "here," if the place of residence in March 1968 is the same as the place of residence on the census date. Leave the spaces corresponding to municipality and department blank.

[p. 69]

a. If the person being enumerated was born in another municipality within the country, ask the name of the municipality and department where the person was living and write the names in the appropriate spaces.

b. If the person was living abroad, ask the name of the country and write it in the appropriate space.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 9 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 10: year of arrival in the country

1. How to ask the question:
For anyone born abroad ask the following question: "What year did you come to live permanently in this country?"

2. How to record the answer:
A) Write the year declared by the enumerated person on the appropriate line.

B) Mark an "X" in the box for "unknown" if the respondent does not know the year the enumerated person arrived in this country.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 10 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

[p. 70]

C) Cultural characteristics (for persons aged seven years or older)

Questions 11-14 refer to the literacy and educational level of the enumerated person; either he or she completed the degree or is currently studying. For this reason, only persons aged seven and older are asked these questions.

The purpose of these questions is to find out the educational level of the population with respect to their demographic, economic, and social characteristics.

Question 11: literacy

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Do you know how to read and write?"

The following definitions will help you investigate this question set:
Literate: this person knows how to read and write a simple paragraph in Spanish or another language.

Illiterate: this person does not know how to read or write, or only knows how to read, or who can only write his or her name (signature).

2. How to record the answer:
If the answer is positive, mark an "X" in the box next to the word "yes." Mark an "X" in the box next to the word "no" if the answer is negative.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 11 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 12: level of education

1. How to ask the question:

[p. 71]

Ask, "What was the last grade or year in primary or secondary school, or higher education, which you successfully completed?"

Note that two pieces of information are required here: a) the highest level of education; and b) the last year successfully completed at that level.

The normal educational system in Guatemala has several levels: a) primary; b) secondary; c) and higher education.

The following definitions will help you categorize the population correctly according to the above.

Primary education: this education is intended to provide the basic elements of instruction (grades 1-6).

Secondary education: the purpose of this level is to provide general, or specialized, or both, types of education. The minimum requirement for students is to be admitted is completion of primary education. This level of education is currently divided into basic and vocational instruction.

Higher education: this is instruction provided in universities and higher-level technical institutions. The minimum requirement for students to be admitted is completion of secondary education.

2. How to record the answer:
The form has various boxes for recording the answer given by the interviewee:

The 00 box, "none," is for the population, which has not completed any schooling.

The spaces appearing after the various levels of instruction, such as "primary 1 _ _," "secondary 2 _ _," and "higher level 3 _ _," are for recording the highest year or grade completed.

Use the 99 box, "unknown," for those persons for whom the informant is unable to provide the information.

[p. 72]

3. Example:
[This box contains question 12 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 13: area of study or major

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What did you study in the last grade or year successfully completed?"

If the last grade or year was higher education, ask also what the person studied in secondary school.

2. How to record the answer:
If the last grade successfully completed by the enumerated person is in primary, and he or she has not completed any other type of instruction, mark an "X" in the box corresponding to "none and primary." If the last grade was in secondary or higher education, write the name of the type of studies or major on the appropriate line.

If the person has only studied secondary schooling, write the name of the area of study or major that the person is studying or studied at that level.

If the enumerated person is studying or has studied in higher education, write first the area of study or major completed in secondary school, and then what the person is studying or has studied in higher education.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 13 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

[p. 73]

Question 14: school attendance

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Are you currently attending a primary or secondary school, or an institution of higher education?"

2. How to record the answer:
If the respondent states that he or she attended a primary or secondary school, or an institution of higher education, mark an "X" in box 1, "yes." Otherwise, mark an "X" in box 2, "no."

If the respondent does not know if the enumerated person is attending a school, mark an "X" in box 9, "unknown."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 14 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

D. Economic characteristics (for person aged ten years or older)

Ask questions 15-19 only for those aged ten (10) years or older.

Question 15: type of activity

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What did you do during the week of March 19-25, 1973?"

Begin reading the options immediately after asking the question. This is so the respondent can determine precisely which was accurate for the enumerated person during the reference week.

Ask the options in the same order as they appear on the form.

The following definitions will allow you to determine the correct answer:

[p. 74]

Box 1: worked. This is a person who performed the equivalent of at least one day of paid work during the week of March 19-25.

"Work" is a broad concept for the census and refers to one of the following:

A. Paid work for another person as an employee or worker (paid) which includes:
- Work paid by the day, or by regular pay
- Work paid in kind (food, lodging or supplies received in place of cash payment).
- Work paid by the piece, on commission or as tips.
- Active duty in the armed forces

B. Work in one's own business, profession, or as an independent worker (self-employed).

C. Work without pay in a business or on a farm run by a family member (a son who works without pay in his father's store, for example) for more than 15 hours per week.

D. Part-time work, i.e., any work performed in the last week on a part-time basis for which the person received payment in money.

Sewing and other work performed in the home for other persons or businesses, and for which payment in cash or kind is received, is included in this category. Also included is the preparation of food, candy, etc. for sale.

Keep in mind that thousands of housewives, students, and elderly who do not appear to work actually perform activity that earns them money, and this is considered "work" for census purposes.

Do not consider the following as work (for census purposes):
A. Household task performed at home, such as housework (except work as a servant with or without pay), odd jobs performed for other family members without pay, and jobs performed for one's own house, such as cutting the lawn, painting the walls, etc.

[p. 75]

B. Unpaid volunteer work for the church, the Red Cross, or other non-profit organizations.

C. Work performed by interned persons who are in an institution such as a prison, sanitarium, retirement home, or work farm. This does not include regular workers who are in fact performing a job.

Box 2: did not work but has a job. This is a person who did not work during the week of March 19-25, but who has a job or business from which he or she was absent for reasons of illness, bad weather, vacation, etc.

Box 3: had worked before and looked for work. This is a person who did not work during the week of March 19-25 because he or she was fired or for other reasons; this person was waiting to be called back to work or was looking for a new job.

Box 4: looked for work for the first time. This is a person who has never had paid work and was actively looking for a job or during the week of March 19-25.

Box 5: lived from his rental or retirement income. This is a person who did not perform any paid activity during the week of March 19-25, and received retirement income, pension, or payment for services previously rendered by the person or a relative. Include in this category those persons who receive rental or other income without performing any type of paid activity.

Box 6: studied. This is a person who attended school during the week of March 19-25 as long as he or she did not perform any paid work during this period.

Box 7: housework. This is a person who did not perform any paid work for most of the time on March 19-25 and dedicated himself or herself exclusively to housework.

Box 8: other. This is a person who cannot be categorized in any of the previous categories.

[p. 76]

Box 9: unknown. Use this box if it is impossible to determine any status.

2. How to record the answer:
The key to this question lies in selecting the correct type of activity for each person aged ten years or older. The following guidelines will allow you to perform your work efficiently:

a. Do not record an answer until you are sure that the person you are interviewing has correctly understood the question and you receive an answer, which is coherent within the pertinent definitions.

b. A person may not be categorized in more than one category or type, even if the respondent provides information that fits into two categories (worked and studied; worked and receives pension income; takes care of the house and works, etc.) When choosing type of activity give preference to paid activity, then studies, then housework.

Once the response is chosen, mark an "X" in the appropriate box.

c. The "unknown" box is intended only for cases in which the respondent cannot answer the question, because he or she does not know the enumerated person's activity and, therefore, cannot categorize a household member according to any of the categories given.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 15 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Note: Ask questions 16-19 only of those people who declare option 1, 2, or 3 as their type of activity for question 15.

[p. 77]

Question 16: principal occupation

Ask this question only for people who fall within categories 1, 2, or 3 of question 15. If they do not, cross out the entire question with an "X."

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What occupation, trade or type of job did you perform in the week of March 19-25, or in the last job that you had?"

If the enumerated person states that he or she had more than one occupation, choose the principal occupation. This is the one at which the enumerated person earns the most money or spends more time.

2. How to record the answer:
Write the principal occupation stated by the enumerated person in the space provided. When you write it, use a word or phrase which describes exactly the kind of work that the enumerated person performs or used to perform. Avoid using general terms such as "worker," or "office worker" that do not provide a clear idea of the type of work performed. The following examples illustrate this point:

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for principal occupation
(B) Correct answer for principal occupation

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: agricultural worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: cowboy; milkmaid; coffee picker.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: mechanic
Correct answer for principal occupation: auto mechanic; technician who makes dental parts; airplane mechanic.

[p. 78]

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: office worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: typist, secretary; bookkeeper; file clerk.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: teacher
Correct answer for principal occupation: primary-school teacher; music teacher; secondary-school teacher; university professor.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: construction worker
Correct answer for principal occupation: mason; plumber; carpenter; house painter.

Incorrect answer for principal occupation: weaver
Correct answer for principal occupation: loom operator; hat maker; hammock maker.

It is important to note that in most cases a professional's job corresponds to his or her career. Nonetheless, some professionals may have performed work different from their area of professional specialty. If this is the case, record the job that the person did and not the career. For example, if a surgeon worked managing a hospital, write "hospital director" as the principal occupation. Similarly, if a lawyer managed a textile company, write "manager of textile company."

If the person has various occupations and cannot specify a particular one, indicate the principal one according to the definition given above.

3. Example
[This box contains question 16 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 17: branch of activity

1. How to ask the question:

[p. 79]

Ask, "What is the activity of the enterprise, company, factory, workshop, service, etc. where you are or were employed?"

2. How to record the information:
Write in the space provided the principal activity of the farm or establishment (manufacturing, service, etc.) in which the person performed the work declared in question 16.

Do not use general terms such as factory, ranch, workshop, etc. when you record the information. Do not write the name of the company or enterprise, such as Santa In?s Factory, The Artisan, etc., except if it is a government institution. The following examples illustrate this point:

[The original document includes a table below.]

[Column headings:]
(A) Incorrect answer for branch of activity
(B) Correct answer for branch of activity

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: Santa Luisa farm
Correct answer for branch of activity: raising and finishing beef cattle.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: "my" store
Correct answer for branch of activity: grocery sales.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: stall 13 in the central market
Correct answer for branch of activity: fruit and vegetable sales.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: Aviateca
Correct answer for branch of activity: air transport of passengers and cargo.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: Guastatoya
Correct answer for branch of activity: ground transport of passengers and cargo.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: dress-making shop
Correct answer for branch of activity: manufacture of women's dresses.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: factory
Correct answer for branch of activity: shirt factory.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: workshop
Correct answer for branch of activity: radio repair.

Incorrect answer for branch of activity: estate
Correct answer for branch of activity: coffee farm.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 17 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 18: occupational category

1. How to ask the question:

[p. 80]

Ask, "What professional category were you in, or what position did you have in the "principal occupation" category indicated in question 16?"

After you ask this question, slowly read the options until the person being enumerated determines which category he or she falls in. Keep in mind the definition of each option so that you can advise the person being enumerated.

1. Employer: this is a person who has or had one or more wage earners performing an economic activity, i.e., workers who receive payment in cash or kind. If the person does not have employees, he or she is not an employer.

2. Self-employed: this is a person who works for himself or herself, does not work for anyone else, and does not have any paid employees. A self-employed worker may receive help from family members and may work alone or with someone else.

3. Paid employee: this is someone who works for a public or private employer and who receives wages, commission, or compensation in kind in exchange for his or her work.

4. Unpaid family member: This is a person who performs unpaid work for an enterprise operated by a relative and who works for at least one-third of the work day. People who do domestic work or occasional work in the enterprise are not included in this category.

2. How to record the answer:
Mark an "X" in one of the options. Mark an "X" in box 9, "unknown," only if the respondent does not know the occupational category of a household member.

3. Example:
[This box contains question 18 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

[p. 81]

Question 19: Affiliation to the Guatemalan National Social Security Institute (Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, IGSS)

Ask this question only for those people who gave an occupation in question set number 16.

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Are you currently a member of the Guatemalan National Social Security Institute (IGSS)?"

Any person who has a fee for social security deducted from his/her wages (even if the payment from the employer is delayed) is considered a member of the IGSS. Do not include persons or family members who do not pay fees to IGSS, even if they receive IGSS benefits.

2. How to record the answer:
If the enumerated person states that he or she is currently a member of the IGSS, mark an "X" in box 1, "yes." Otherwise, mark an "X" in box 2, "no."

If the respondent does not know if a member of the household is currently a member of the IGSS, mark an "X" in box 9, "unknown."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 19 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

E. Fertility characteristics (for all females aged 15 and older)

The purpose of question 20-23 is to obtain information allowing research on fertility and relevant characteristics related to population growth. They are also designed to obtain information about the level of and past trends in mortality rates in the population of Guatemala.

To investigate such important questions requires you to be sensitive and extremely clever during the interview.

Ask question 20-23 of all females aged 15 years or older, regardless of their civil status.

[p. 82]

If possible, ask these questions of the girls and women directly. They may sometimes forget to declare live-born children who died, and those who are still alive. Keep this in mind to avoid any omissions.

Important: It has been noted that some enumerators assume that unmarried women do not have children and thus they do not ask them the pertinent questions. This approach is incorrect and results in poor-quality data that cannot be used to study population growth.

Question 20: total number of live-born children

This question should be asked of all females aged 15 and older, regardless of their civil status.

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "How many live-born children have you had in all?"

Keep in mind the following definition as you ask this question:
A live-born child is a child who breathes, cries, or moves when he or she is born. If the child shows any of these signs of life, he or she is considered live born and recorded as such, even if he or she died afterward.

2. How to record the answer:
Before recording the answer ask pertinent questions until you are sure that no live-born child has been omitted in the response.

If the girl or woman has had no live-born children, mark an "X" in box 00, "none."

In case of women who have had one or more live-born children, write the appropriate number after the word "number."

If the respondent does not know if the girl or woman in question has had any live-born children, write an "X" in box 99, "unknown."

[p. 83]

3. Example:
[This box contains question 20 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

Question 21: total surviving children

Ask this question of all females aged 15 and older, regardless of their civil status.

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "How many of these children are living?"

Keep in mind the following definition as you ask this question:
A living child is one who is alive on the census date, regardless of whether or not the child lives with the mother or resides in another geographic area, or abroad.

2. How to record a response:
For girls or women who have no surviving children, mark an "X" in box 00, "none."

In the case of girls or women who state they have one or more surviving children, write the appropriate number after the word "number."

If the respondent does not know if the girl or woman in question has any surviving children, mark an "X" in box 00, "unknown."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 21 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 22: what was the date of birth of your last live-born child?
Ask this question of all females aged 15 years or older regardless of their civil status.

[p. 84]

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "What was the date of birth of your last live-born child?"

2. How to record the answer:
For girls and women who have had one or more live-born children, write the day, month, and year of birth of the last-born child.

For girls and women who have not had "live-born" children, mark an "X" in box 0, "has not had children."

If the respondent does not know the date of birth of the last live-born child, do everything you can to obtain at least the month and year of birth. As a last resort, if you cannot get the month, try to obtain the year of birth.

If the respondent does not know even the year of the birth of the last live-born child, mark an "X" in the space next to the word "year."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 22 of the section VI, "people in the census household."]

Question 23: is your last live-born child living?

1. How to ask the question:
Ask, "Is your last live-born child living?"

2. How to record the answer:
If the last live-born child is living, mark an "X" in box 1, "yes." If the last live-born child has died, mark an "X" in box 2, "no."

If the respondent does not know if the last live-born child has died, mark an "X" in box 9, "unknown."

3. Example:
[This box contains question 23 of the section VI "people in the census household."]

[p. 85]

Chapter VII. Institutional dwellings

A. Instructions for enumerating people who live in institutional dwellings

1. Definition of persons who live in "institutional dwellings"
These people live in buildings and lodgings that are structurally separate and independent, and are intended to lodge groups of persons who, at the time of the census live communally rather than with their family for reasons of health, education, punishment or other reasons.

The following are included in this category: barracks or other military lodging; hospitals, asylums, and clinics; jails, penitentiaries, and correctional facilities; hotels, motels, boarding houses, and guest houses (family houses with more than five boarders); boarding schools; workers camps and other communal institutions of a similar nature.

2. Special enumeration questionnaire
A special questionnaire is available for "persons who live in institutional dwellings." It is exclusive for persons in institutional dwellings. This form is very similar in content to the one used for the enumeration of dwellings and family households, except that it does not contain the following sections: II, "dwelling characteristics"; III, "dwelling situation"; IV, "social characteristics of the members of the household" and V, "population present and resident in the household."

3. Method of enumeration
Special enumerators will interview the institutional dwellings. In order for them to do this, a list of these groups by city and municipality is available. The list is drawn from the regular enumeration zones and these groups will be enumerated separately.

Places where there are few lodgings are enumerated by the regular enumerators who have been assigned to that zone. If an interviewer does not receive special instructions about it, he or she should proceed normally in enumerating all lodgings included in his or her zone.

[p. 86]

4. Permanent residence of persons who live in institutional dwellings
See the detailed instructions in Chapter VI related to determining permanent residency.

Before you begin enumerating any institutional dwelling, establish contact with the director, administrator, or person in charge. This person will be of great help in guiding your work and in helping you accurately determine:

a) The persons who permanently work and live in the institution;

b) Permanent residents of the institution, as opposed to those who work there;

c) Persons who work in the institution but who are permanent residents elsewhere;

d) Persons who do not work in the institution, but who are there temporarily, either because they have a permanent residence elsewhere or because their reasons for being there are temporary.

Enumerate persons in groups a) and b) as residents of the institution. Exclude those in groups c) and d).

5. Special cases

a) Households within institutional dwellings: be very aware of special cases of households which may exist within an institutional dwelling. This is the case of persons living in independent households, either alone or with their families, within the same premise. Examples are the director of a hospital or the manager of a hotel, who may have independent premises for their families within the institution or in a separate building. Another example is persons or families who can live independently in a hotel, preparing their own food.

Use the dwelling form for these persons, and for the other persons use the form for persons living in institutional dwellings.

[p. 87]

b) Guest houses: it is very common for households in the cities to accept paying guests or boarders, who pay a certain amount for food and lodging. If there are more than five paying guests, the household is no longer a family household but becomes an institutional household. If there are five or fewer paying guests, it is still a family household, i.e., it does not constitute an institutional household.

c) Lodgings in military institutions: for special reasons, no enumerator is authorized to enumerate any institutional military lodging of any type or size. The enumeration of these premises will be performed independently and according to specific instructions, which will be given in due time.

6. Final instructions
Your supervisor will provide additional instructions for the enumeration of persons living in institutional housing when necessary. If questions or problems arise in the course of your work, consult your supervisor.

7. List of most common types of institutional dwellings
The following is a list of the most common type of institutional dwellings you may find:

-Correctional and penal institutions:
Reform school and correctional facilities
Penitentiaries, prisons, and penal colonies

-Homes or schools for disabled persons:
Homes or schools for blind people
Schools for deaf-mute people
Schools for other physically disabled people

-Medical institutions:
Mental or psychiatric institutions
Sanatoriums for the mentally ill
Hospitals specializing in cancer patients
Hospitals specializing patients with tuberculosis
Hospitals, clinics, and sanatoriums specializing in patients with long-term chronic conditions

[p. 88]
-Other types of institutions:
Orphanages and homes for abandoned children
Poorhouses
Retirement homes
Boarding schools
Convents, seminaries, and religious housing
Hotels
Boarding houses
Family boarding houses
Guest lodgings
Police quarters, reform schools, and jails for short-term prisoners who are yet to face sentencing.

-General hospitals and clinics:
General hospitals
Private clinics

-Other institutions:
Ships
Camps

-Military institutions:
Barracks, garrison, military posts

B. Instructions for filling out the form for persons who live in collective housing

a) Form number: use the of "form number" to number the forms in the same way you do for the population living in households. Fill in the form's appropriate sequential number when you arrive at the institutional dwelling in the first space in the box. Fill in the second part once you have covered the entire enumeration zone, referring to the total number of forms used. This will serve as a way of verifying that no census documents have been misplaced or lost.

b) Identification information: the identification information is the following:

[p. 89]

1. Department
2. Municipality
3. Map code (department, municipality, section, and sector)

Write the information from the folder cover in this area.

c) Type of dwelling: mark an "X" in only one box, according to the following categories:

Box 1: hotel, motel, inn, boarding house
Box 2: guesthouse (family house with six or more boarders)
Box 3: hospital or clinic
Box 4: any housing in which residents are confined: military housing, reformatory, penitentiary, prison, convent, seminary, and other religious housing.
Box 5: boarding schools
Box 6: other (roads and public works camps, ships, etc.)

d) Name of establishment: this piece of information is very important and should be recorded with as much detail as possible.

e) Address of establishment: give the street or avenue, the building number, and any other information that will allow it to be located.

[p. 90]

f) Information about the persons who live in institutional dwellings: this part is made up of the following groups: a) personal characteristics; b) geographic characteristics; c) cultural characteristics; d) economic characteristics; e) fertility characteristics. Fill out these items for each person who lives in the institutional dwelling according to the instructions in chapter VI of this manual.