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Republic of Ghana
2010 Population and Housing Census
Enumerator's manual

Statistical Service
31st August, 2010

[The table of contents and chapters 1-4 of the original document are not presented here.]

Chapter 5: Preliminary operations before enumeration period

[Sections 5.1-5.7c of the original document are not presented here]

5.7d. Locality
A locality is defined as a distinct population cluster (also designated as inhabited place, populated center, settlement) which has a name or locally recognized status. It includes fishing hamlets, mining camps, ranches, farms, market towns, villages, towns, cities, and many other types of population clusters, which meet the above criteria. In writing names of localities, you must not suffix No.1, No.2, except where the inhabitants themselves call it that way, e.g. Pakyi No.1, PakyiNo.2. In short, never put down any name, which is not known in the area.

[Section 5.7e of the original document is not presented here]

5.8. Understand your geo-codes

Your EA has been assigned consecutive numbers within the administrative division and in conformity with the geographic coding of the country that uniquely identifies each EA. It is a ten digit code system which contains geographic identification codes of each administrative area and EA numbers associated with them. Also included are codes for the EA type and locality, as explained below [table]:

[Column headings:]
(A) Geographical area
(B) Digit location
(C) Codes
(D) Range
(E) Remarks

Geographical area: Region
Digit location: First two
Codes: 2-digits
Range: 01-10
Remarks: From western=01 to upper west=10

Geographical area: District
Digit location: 3rd and 4th
Codes: 2-digits
Range: 01-27
Remarks: Ashanti has the highest=27

Geographical area: District
Digit location: 5th
Codes: 1-digit
Range: 1-3
Remarks: District=1, municipal=2, metropolitan=3

Geographical area: Sub-district
Digit location: 6th and 7th
Codes: 2-digits
Range: 00-99
Remarks: 00 for district and municipal, and 01-99 for sub-metros

Geographical area: Enumeration area number
Digit location: 8th and 7th
Codes: 2-digits
Range: 00-99
Remarks: 00 for district and municipal, and 01-99 for sub-metros

Geographical area: Enumeration area type
Digit location: 11th
Codes: 1-digit
Range: 1-3
Remarks: 1=EA with one locality, 2=Many EAs forming one locality, 3=Two or more localities forming one enumeration area

Geographical area: Locality number
Digit location: 12th to 14th
Codes: 3-digits
Range: 001-999
Remarks: To be numbered within enumeration area

a. Region name (A01)
There are 10 regions in Ghana. Each region has its own code, based on the serpentine ordering recommended by the United Nations for listing.

[Below the text there is table showing the region names and their codes, from 1 to 10.]

b. District name (A02)
There are 170 districts including all metropolitan and municipal assemblies in
Ghana.

c. District type (A03)
District type refers to District or Municipal or Metropolitan

d. Sub-district (A04)
This refers to only the 6 metropolitan areas (Sekondi-Takoradi, Cape Coast, Accra, Tema, Kumasi, and Tamale).

e. Locality name (A05)
This refers to the locality of enumeration.

f. Address of house/compound/group quarters (A06a)
It refers to the detailed address of house/compound/group quarters.

g. NHIS/ECG/VRA/other numbers (A06b)
This refers to the NHIS/ECG/VRA/Other number which has been assigned to the structure/compound.

h. Household contact phone numbers (A06c and A06d)
This refers to the household contact numbers.

i. Enumeration area code (A07)
This is the 10-digit Enumeration Area Code.

j. EA type (A08)
This refers to a 1-digit code of 1, 2 or 3.

1 = EA with one locality
2 = Many EAs forming one locality
3 = Two or more localities forming one EA
k. Locality number (A09)
This is a three-digit code for locality on PHC 2. If a new locality is found within the E.A., continue with the numbering. For example, if three localities are on the PHC2 and are coded 001, 002, 003 and the enumerator finds two more localities within the E.A., he/she should number the first (of the two new localities) 004 and the second 005.

[Section 5.9 of the original document is not presented here]

Chapter 6: Household listing operation

[Sections 6.1-6.2 of the original document are not presented here]

6.3. What is a house or compound?

A house or compound is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. The essential features are separateness and independence. An enclosure may be considered as separate if it is surrounded by walls, fences, etc., so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking their meals or protecting themselves from the hazards of climate such as storms and the sun.

A compound need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or a hedge. For example, a house, kitchen and toilet may constitute one compound whether or not they are surrounded by a wall, etc. (see diagrams 6, 7 and 8). In the same way, a group of huts walled or un-walled (see diagrams 9 and 10) may constitute one compound and listed as such. A house or compound may contain one or more households.

You must also list as a house or compound any structure used as living quarters at the time of the census, e.g. containers and kiosks, etc.

In localities where the houses are numbered, you must regard each house number as identifying a separate house or compound and assign each a separate 4-digit serial number. However, if two structurally separate houses bear the same house number, you must regard them as two separate houses and give them two different 4-digit serial numbers. In addition, give some other description to distinguish one house/structure from the other, e.g. House No. B 48, owned by Kwasi Adomako and House No. B 48, occupied by Mr. Kodjo Amedume.

6.4. Listing different types of houses/structures

Diagrams 1 to 10 shown below represent the following different types of residential and non-residential houses/structures:

a. Detached houses (Diagrams 1 and 2)
b. Semi-detached houses (Diagram 3A and 3B)
c. Block of flats (Diagrams 4 and 5)
d. Compound houses and high rise compound houses / flats built in the form of quadrangles (Diagrams 6, 7 and 8)
e. Group of huts (walled and un-walled) Diagrams 9 and 10
f. Mosque (Diagram 11)
g. Church (Diagram 12)
Detached house - A detached house is any housing unit that stands alone and is not attached in any way to another house. During listing, each detached house (as shown in diagrams 1 and 2) should be assigned a separate 4-digit serial number.

Semi-detached house - This is a single housing unit that is attached to another single housing unit. These adjoining houses usually have one common dividing wall which extends from the ground to the roof. Houses which fall into this category may be single or story buildings. Even though these are attached houses, each semi-detached house should be assigned a separate 4-digit number. This means that houses 3A and 3B as shown in the diagram should each be given a separate 4-digit number.

Blocks of flats - A flat is a self-contained dwelling/living quarters located in a building which contains several sets of housing units. A block of flats is a tall building containing several flats located on several floors. The housing units can be accessed by a common stairway. For block of flats, each identifiable block should be given a separate 4-digit number. For example, the block of flats in diagram 4 is one identifiable block and should be assigned a 4-digit serial number as shown. However, for block of flats in diagram 5, each block e.g. Block A, Block B and Block C should be assigned a separate number (4-digit serial number). Most Government and Public Service blocks of flats, e.g. Adenta SSNIT Flats and other SSNIT block of flats in other parts of the country, have each block usually numbered. In such cases, you should use the number on each block as a guide and assign each block a 4-digit number accordingly. You should never list individual flats or apartments in a block of flats as houses/structures.

Compound houses - A compound house refers to multiple dwelling units which are located within a compound. These dwelling units usually have shared toilet(s) and bath(s) and cooking either takes place outside, on the porch or in an enclosed area. The compound may or may not be surrounded by a wall fence or hedge. Diagrams 6, 7 and 8 represent 3 different types of walled and un-walled compound houses. Each of the compound houses, whether walled or not, should be listed separately.

High rise compound houses / flats built in the form of quadrangles - In the Esikafo Amba Ntem areas of Takoradi and Cape Coast and the Bantama area of Kumasi, there are large multi-story residential buildings divided into flats. These houses are usually built in the form of a quadrangle, with a compound in the middle. For ease of enumeration, you should list each wing separately. This means you would have 4 blocks i.e. the front block, the back block, the left block and the right block. Note that each of the wings should be assigned a separate 4-digit serial number. For example, the front wing would have number 0001, the left wing 0002, the back wing 0003 and right wing 0004. When you start enumeration you should enumerate each flat on each floor of each wing. Then move to the next wing and enumerate the households in the flats on each floor in the wing. You should proceed in this way until all households in all the flats on all floors in all the four wings of the buildings have been enumerated.

Group of walled and un-walled huts - A hut is a small and crude shelter built with natural materials (such as grass, palm leave branches, wood and mud) that allow for swift and inexpensive construction. During listing, each group of huts, walled or un-walled, should be regarded as a compound house and assigned a 4-digit serial number as showed in the diagram.

Mosque and Church - Two types of places of worship are shown in diagrams 9 and 10. Each of such buildings should be listed separately. However, if a mission house is attached to the place of worship, and is occupied by the Pastor or Imam, list such a structure separately.

[The instructions are accompanied by diagrams 1-12 that represent the different types of houses/structures]

High rise offices / shops in front of houses - There is an emerging phenomenon whereby some private houses have allowed commercial/office building to be constructed in empty spaces in front of their houses. For operational control and complete coverage of each of these structures, the residential and the commercial/office buildings should be listed separately and assigned separate 4-digit serial numbers. This means that the residence should be assigned a 4-digit serial number and the commercial/office building should be given another 4-digit number. Listing the residential house and commercial block separately will ensure complete coverage.

[Sections 6.5-6.7 of the original document are not presented here]

Chapter 7: What to do during enumeration period

7.1. When does enumeration begin

For the 2010 Population and Housing Census, enumeration of all persons in households and all living quarters starts on the morning of 27th September, 2010. Enumerators will start visiting each house/compound in the order in which they were listed and start enumerating all persons who spent Census Night in households (i.e. usual members of household and visitors present on Census Night). Most categories of the non-household population will be enumerated about a week before Census Night. Then after Census night, enumerators will visit the institutions again to update the information on the questionnaires. For the floating population, i.e., outdoor sleepers and transients, enumeration will be carried out during Census Night (Refer to chapters 7 and 8).

7.2. Whom to enumerate

a. All persons who spent Census Night in households in Ghana.
b. All persons who spent Census Night in institutions, in transit and as floating population in Ghana.
7.3. What is the unit of enumeration?

For the purpose of this Census, the units of enumeration are the individual and housing units. In private houses/compounds, an additional unit of enumeration in which persons will be identified is the household. In institutions, the additional unit is the hall, house, wards, cells, etc., and for outdoor sleepers, it is their location.

7.4. What is a household?

A household consists of a person or a group of persons, who live together in the same house or compound, share the same house-keeping arrangements and are catered for as one unit. In general, a household consists of a man, his wife, children and some other relatives or a house help who may be living with them. However, it is important to remember that members of a household are not necessarily related (by blood or marriage) because non-relatives (e.g. house helps) may form part of a household. On the other hand, not all related persons living in the same house or compound are necessarily members of the same household. For example, two brothers who live in the same house with their wives and children may or may not form separate households depending on their catering arrangements. The same applies to a father and his married children. Thus in many cases, a house or compound may be divided into separate households.

7.5. Dividing a house into households

Dividing a house or compound into households may not be easy. However, the following examples must guide you in deciding who form a household:

(a) In large family houses where you have more than two generations of people living in the same house, you must not automatically treat the grandfather, his married children, and their families as forming one household. First, find out which members of his/her house have common catering arrangement and regard each such unit as a household. He/she may, for example, have four sons, each of whom has a separate arrangement for the preparation of food for their own "family". Each of these units must be treated as a household. If the father shares meals with one of his married children, he must be classified as part of that household. An exception to the above principle is where in a house or compound, a man has several wives with each wife and her children occupying their own set of rooms in the house. The man eats successively with each of his wives. In such a case, the man, his wives, their children, etc., must be treated as one household.

(b) You may also come across a married man who does not live in the same house as his wife or wives. The children may take their meals in their respective mothers' houses. But if the children sleep in their father's house, they must be considered as forming one household with the father (not the mother). In this case, living together in the same household takes priority over sharing common catering arrangements. Each mother then constitutes a separate household.

(c) A lodger who sleeps and eats at least one meal a day with the household must be considered as a member of that household.

(d) A house help and his family who live in a house or in an outhouse on the same compound as the employer but prepare their own food and eat separately must not be considered as members of the employer's household. They must be classified as forming a separate household. However, a house help who eats and sleeps with the family of the employer must be considered as a member of the employer's household.

(e) If two or more unrelated persons live together in one flat or in one room, they may or may not be regarded as one household depending on whether or not they have a common catering arrangement.

(f) There is a growing phenomenon where groups of students (who attend universities, polytechnics, etc., and who cannot find accommodation on campus) rent private houses. Such students should be enumerated as household population and divided into separate households depending on their catering arrangements. If each student has his/her own catering arrangement, each student should be classified as a separate household. However, if two or more students have common catering arrangements then that group should be treated as one household. In this case, one of them should be identified as the head.

(g) It will be seen from example (f) above that one person may constitute a household if that person lives alone in a house or part of a house. If the person lives with others in one room but prepares and eats his/her meals separately, he/she forms a one-member household.

(h) Members of staff of institutions must be treated as members of households. They must never be treated as inmates of institutions.

7.6. Who is the head of household?

The household usually recognizes one person as the head. The head of household is generally the person, male or female, who has economic and social responsibility for the household.

7.7. Who is a usual member of a household?

A usual member of a household is a person who (whether present or absent on Census Night) has spent at least the last six months with the household or intends to spend at least the next six months with the household.

The following, however, must also be considered as usual members of the household, even though they do not satisfy the residential requirements:

(a) Persons who have not spent the last six months with the household but who have the intention of staying there for at least the next six months, e.g. workers on transfer.

(b) Seasonal workers who return home after a season. If such workers spent Census Night with the household they should be considered as usual members present. However, if they were absent on Census Night they should be recorded as usual members absent.

(c) Students in boarding schools or hostels. If a student spent Census Night with the household, he/she should be recorded as usual member present; if not he/she should be classified as usual member absent. However, students who have spent six months or more before Census Night outside the country and those who were outside the country on Census Night and intend to stay outside the country for the next six months or more, should not be regarded as usual members.

(d) Soldiers in barracks where they are catered for as a group. In this category, treat any person who did not spend the Census Night with the household as household member absent. Those who spent the Census Night with the household should be regarded as household members present.

7.8. Who is a member of group quarters (non-household) population?

For the purpose of the census, all persons who did not sleep in households on Census Night except otherwise stated (e.g. nurses on night duty, shift workers on night duty, security guards on night duty, persons who attended night club and wake-keeping and returned to their homes, etc.) are members of group quarters and should be enumerated as such. The following are examples of group quarters:

(a) Educational institutions, e.g., boarding schools, student hostels, universities, training colleges, blind schools, seminaries, convents, monasteries, etc.

(b) Children's homes, orphanages, nurseries, old people's homes, etc.

(c) Hospitals and healing centers including mental hospitals, maternity homes, divine healers' camps and herbalists' establishments, rehabilitation centers and similar institutions for the sick, as well as those who are physically and mentally handicapped.

(d) Hotels, motels, hostels, guest houses, bed and breakfast, etc.

(e) Prisons including borstal institutions, remand homes, industrial schools and police / immigration / military cells.

(f) Service barracks including army camps, military academies, police training schools and colleges.

(g) Soldiers on field exercise

(h) Floating population

Note that staff members living in private households in the institutions specified in (a), (b), (c) and (d) above must be classified as living in private houses and must not be considered as inmates of institutions.

7.9. Who constitute the floating population?

There are certain categories of persons, such as outdoor sleepers, who may be counted more than once or may not be enumerated at all if care is not taken. These persons constitute the floating population.

The following are examples of persons in this category:

(a) All persons who slept in lorry parks, markets, in front of stores and offices, public bathrooms, petrol filling stations, railway stations, verandahs, pavements, hideouts and all such places which are not houses or compounds.
(b) Hunting and fishing groups
(c) Beggars and vagrants (mentally sick or otherwise).

Persons at funerals, dances, parties, etc., on Census Night must not be treated as part of the floating population. If the respondent spent Census Night at such a social gathering he must be enumerated in the house to which he finally returned after the function. For instance, if Kwamena Appiah after the social function went to sleep with a friend after Census Night he must be enumerated in the friend's household.

7.10. Census Night - All enumeration must relate to Census Night

In order to meet one of the essential requirements for a modern census, a Census Night has to be designated. It is a reference time to which all enumeration must relate. Note that only persons alive in Ghana at midnight of this day must be enumerated. Census Night will be publicized in advance throughout the country so that it will be easily remembered by everyone. Remember that all the questions you ask (e.g., information communication technology (ICT), agriculture and housing questions) must relate to Census Night unless you have specific instructions in this manual to the contrary.

Note that between the Census Night and the time of enumeration, the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after Census Night you must enumerate him as living on Census Night; if a baby was born after Census Night you must not enumerate him. Visitors are enumerated if they spent Census Night in the household.

7.11. Who should be enumerated

Every person who spent Census Night, in a household, in an institution (i.e., an established organization, especially one dedicated to education, health care, the care of the destitute, poor, or any other public service) or in an outdoor location (as floating population) in your EA must be enumerated. All usual members of household and their visitors who spent Census Night in the house must be enumerated. All usual members who did not spend Census Night in the house must not be enumerated in that particular household but will be listed on A16b as usual members absent.

7.12. Look out for those likely to be omitted

There are certain types of persons who are likely to be omitted. You should, therefore, make sure to enumerate the following categories of persons who spent Census Night in the household:

(a) All newly born babies in the household who were born alive before Census Night. It does not matter whether they have been named or not or whether they have died since Census Night;
(b) All persons who died after Census Night but who were alive on Census Night;
(c) All physically or mentally sick persons;
(d) All old men and women;
(e) All visitors, especially those not present at the time of enumeration;
(f) All servants/domestic employees.

In short, you must enumerate every human being of whatever sex, age, social or family status and health condition who spent Census Night in the household or in an institution or slept out of doors in your EA.

7.13. Look out for the following who should not be enumerated

Note that persons (relatives or non-relatives) who are not members of the household staying in the household at the time of enumeration but who spent Census Night in a house or compound outside Ghana should not be enumerated. In the same way, babies born after Census Night and persons who died before Census Night should not be enumerated.

7.14. Enumeration of all census officials including yourself

You must enumerate all Census Officials who spent Census Night in their respective houses in the usual way. Census Officials who were engaged on census duties during Census Night must also be enumerated in their usual houses provided they returned to their usual places of residence in the early hours of the following day. However, if a Census Official does not return to his/her house but spent the Census Night elsewhere, he/she must be enumerated where he spent the night.

7.15. Who should be interviewed

Though we require information on every person who qualifies to be enumerated, it is not likely that you will obtain information directly from every individual. In some cases, you will have to rely on some responsible persons in the house or compound you visit to give you information about persons who may be absent when you call but who spent Census Night in the house.

You must never rely on the following persons to supply you with the information required:

(a) Young children
(b) Strangers
(c) Mentally sick persons
(d) Persons with weak memory

Remember that in most cases you will have to use your own judgment to decide who to rely on to provide the information required. It is, however, best if the information is provided by the head of household.

[Sections 7.16-7.17 of the original document are not presented here]

Chapter 8: How to enumerate the different categories of the population

8.1. Enumeration of persons in households

The Census house-listing operation starts on the morning of 20th September, 2010 (i.e. a week before Census Night). On the morning after Census Night (i.e. 27th September, 2010, you must start the enumeration of persons who spent Census Night in households. Data should also be collected on housing conditions.

Remember to enumerate different households on separate questionnaires. See chapter 12.2 for details of what to do when you use two or more questionnaires for one household.

Remember to include workers on duty on Census Night as well as visitors or usual members of a household who may not be present at the time of your visit but who spent Census Night with the household (e.g. security guards/watchmen).

8.2. Enumeration of non-household (group quarters) population

The non-household (group quarters) population are persons who did not spend census night in households. This group of population covers persons in educational institutions, patients in hospitals, hotel guests, inmates of prisons, correctional centers as well as people travelling on buses and lorries, at airports, etc., and homeless persons. Different procedures will be used to enumerate them. Before the census night, supervisors and enumerators together will list all locations of non-household population with estimates of their population and plan for their enumeration. Procedures for enumeration of the different categories of non-household population are outlined below.

8.2a. Students in educational institutions
All students of educational institutions where there are boarding facilities (for example, primary schools, secondary schools, teacher training colleges, polytechnics, universities, blind schools, seminaries, convents, monasteries, etc.) will be enumerated in advance of Census Night. School hostels are also included in this group.

It is expected that the list of institutions in each EA would be provided and the heads of these institutions must be contacted three weeks before Census Night. You must explain the procedure for the enumeration of students to the head or the officer-in-charge of the institution and obtain estimates of their population and then leave a specimen of the questionnaire with him/her to enable him/her to be aware of the information in the questionnaire.

You (the Enumerator) must record the information provided on the students of the institution with the help of the staff. This advance enumeration must be done a week before Census Night. Then, on 27th September, 2010 (the day following the Census Night), the Enumerator must visit the institution again to up-date the information on the questionnaires. Students who did not spend Census Night in the institutions should have their particulars deleted while those who were not covered in the advance enumeration but who spent Census Night in the institution must be enumerated.

Members of staff in these institutions must be enumerated in the same way as persons in households during the usual enumeration period.

8.2b. Security personnel in training academies
Prior discussions should be carried out with the Ministry of Defense, Ghana Armed Forces, CEPS, Ghana Immigration Service, Ghana Police Service, Ghana Fire Service, Ghana Prisons Service, etc. for enumeration of personnel who are undergoing training in their schools or academies. This advance enumeration must be done a week before Census Night. Then, on 27th September, 2010 (the day following the Census Night), the Enumerator must visit each training academy again to up-date the information on the questionnaire. Trainees who did not spend Census Night in the academies should have their particulars deleted while those who were not covered in the advance enumeration but who spent Census Night in the academy must be enumerated.

8.2c. Patients in hospitals / healing centers / prayer camps
Patients who are on admission at the various health institutions in the country must be enumerated. The enumerators assigned to hospitals will, on the morning before the census night (about 9am), go to the hospitals and enumerate the in-patients. On the morning after census night, they should go back and delete the records of patients who did not spend census night in the hospitals or those who passed away before Census Night. Those who were not covered in the advance enumeration but who spent the census night in the hospital should be enumerated. The same procedure should be used for the enumeration of persons in rehabilitation centers and prayer and healing camps. Discussion on procedures for enumeration of in-patients should be carried out with hospital authorities prior to enumeration time. Relatives and non-relatives of in-patients who are temporarily residing within hostel facilities provided by these health facilities with the intention of taking care of the sick must be enumerated as outlined in 8.2d below.

8.2d. Guests in hotels/guests houses/rest houses/motels
Hotel guests should be enumerated about 9 pm before Census Night. The enumerators should check on the morning after Census Night (27th September, 2010) the guests who spent the census night at the hotel. Those who did not spend the census night there should have their records deleted while those who spent census night there but were not enumerated should be enumerated. In cases where hospitals / clinics / prayer camps provide hostel facilities for relatives and non-relatives caring for patients, these persons should be enumerated as guests of the hostels.

8.2e. Persons on lorries and buses
The field supervisor will have prior discussions with transport associations (e.g. GPRTU, PROTOA, etc.) and transport companies (e.g., STC, Pergah, O and A, Imperial, etc.) to have an idea about the buses which will be on the road on Census Night. The discussions will concentrate on long haul travelers, (e.g., Accra - Tamale, Accra - Bolgatanga, Accra - Wa, Tamale - Accra, etc.) and short un-motorable roads which require people to sleep overnight on vehicles. The census officials should arrange and enumerate the passengers before they set off. These passengers should be issued with certificate of enumeration to prevent double enumeration.

8.2f. Inmates of prisons / borstal institutions / remand homes
Discussions on enumeration procedures should be carried out with the staff of the prison service to facilitate the enumeration of prisoners. You must record the entries of the inmates in the prison with the help of the prison service staff on duty. The advance enumeration must be conducted a week before Census Night. On 27th September, 2010, the enumerator must visit the prison again to up-date the information on the questionnaire. Prisoners who did not spend the Census Night in the Prison yard because they were released before the Census Night should have their particulars deleted. New inmates who were not covered in the advance enumeration but who spent the Census Night in the yard must be enumerated. A similar procedure should be followed for inmates of borstal institutions and remand homes.

8.2g. Persons in police/ military / immigration cells
On the evening before Census Night, 26th September, 2010, the enumerator must visit the police / military / immigration cells located in his/her enumeration area to enumerate all inmates in police / military / immigration custody with the help of the police / military / immigration officers on duty. The information collected should be updated on the morning (27th September, 2010) after Census Night.

8.2h. Persons on ship/boats in Ghana's territorial waters / airports on Census Night
Discussions with officials of Ghana Immigration Service, Ghana Ports and Harbor Authority (GHAPOHA) and Ghana Civil Aviation Authority should be carried out to provide information on ships/boats within the ports of Ghana on Census Night. Supervisors and Enumerators should plan well in advance to enumerate such persons. Persons who will spend the Census Night at the ports but who will board their ships/boats and sail immediately after the Census Night must be enumerated before they board. A similar approach should be used to enumerate persons found at the country's international airport and are preparing to move out of the country on Census Night.

8.2i. Persons on oil rigs in Ghana's territorial waters on Census Night
Discussions with officials of oil companies operating these off-shore oil rigs should be made about a few weeks before Census Night. Information on their workers should be provided by their on-shore offices to the enumerators a few days to Census Night. This information should be checked on the morning following Census Night.

8.2j. Persons at Ghana's border posts / check points
The manned border posts usually close at 10 pm. This means that travelers who arrive at the border post after 10 pm have to sleep there until the re-opening of the borders the next morning at 6 am. Enumeration of persons at manned crossing points should begin immediately after 10 pm when the borders close. Prior discussions should be carried out with Ghana Immigration Service, transport associations and transport companies officials so they can assist in the orderly enumeration of such persons. Enumerated persons should be issued with certificate of enumeration.

8.2k. Outdoor sleepers (floating population)
Outdoor sleepers will be enumerated during Census Night. The following are regarded as outdoor sleepers:

a) Persons who sleep in lorry parks, in or around markets, in front of stores and offices, in public bathrooms, at petrol filling stations (excluding pump attendants on duty), at railway stations, on pavements, fetish groves and any place similar to the above which are not houses or compounds

Note that persons resident in a house but who sleep on the verandah of the house in which they live or were visiting because of the heat should be enumerated with their households.

b) Beggars and vagrants (mentally sick and otherwise). Usually these outdoor sleepers go to bed at particular times. The enumerators with their Supervisors should be at these locations before these outdoor sleepers go to bed. They should be enumerated before they go to bed. A few enumerators should be around to enumerate others who may turn up late and ensure that they do not leave those places before midnight (Census Night). You should issue them with certificate of enumeration after they have been enumerated.

c) When persons are admitted into hospital / clinic, some relatives usually go along with them to help care for them. These persons usually stay around the hospital grounds and go to the aid of the patient when needed. At night, some usually sleep on verandas or waiting rooms of the hospitals. In prayer / healing camps also, relatives accompany their sick relatives. Such persons should be classified as floating population and enumerated during Census Night as they are neither patients nor staff members of the hospitals / prayer / healing camps / guests of hostels run by these facilities.

d) Hunting and fishing groups. Groups of individuals sometimes embark on hunting and fishing expeditions, moving from one location to another, and resting at convenient outdoor locations. Sometimes, such persons may be away for periods lasting six months or more and may, therefore, not qualify to be enumerated as household members. Find out from the community leaders whether any such group is present within your assigned EA. If you encounter such a group, liaise with its leader to have the members enumerated on Census Night.

Enumeration of the out-door sleepers and homeless households are the most problematic so great care must be taken to ensure complete coverage. A preliminary survey to list all locations of outdoor sleepers and estimate the population at each location would be carried out. This is to enable the appropriate allocation of enumerators (one enumerator to about 10 outdoor sleepers) and supervisors at each location. For security reasons, the field supervisor must ensure that the enumerators work in groups and are provided with lanterns/flash lights.

Both the field Supervisor and the enumerators must note that the success of this operation depends on all enumeration being completed by midnight of Census Night (i.e., in the very early hours of 27th September, 2010).

Remember that most mentally sick normally move within the same area even though they do not sleep in any house. It is possible that some persons in the area may be able to give you information about them. Where no one can tell you anything about the mentally sick, just write down the sex and estimated age and record that the person is mentally sick in the space provided for "full name". Then leave the rest of the items blank. You must do your best to enumerate all of them on Census Night. If you meet a mentally sick person on the second or subsequent days of enumeration in your EA, do not enumerate him unless you have very good reasons to believe that he has not already been enumerated.

Note: The questionnaires used for the enumeration of outdoor or homeless households should be separated from questionnaires of other outdoor sleepers. (Refer to P01 of chapter 12)

[Chapters 9 and 10 of the original document are not presented here.]

Chapter 11: How to record entries on the front page of the questionnaire

11.1. Entries on the front page of the questionnaire

On the front page of the questionnaire, spaces are provided for general information:

(A01) Region name
(A02) District name
(A03) District type
(A04) Sub-district (applicable only to metropolitan areas)
(A05) Locality name
(A06a) Detailed address of house/compound/group quarters
(A06b) ECG Number/NHIS Number/VRA number/other number
(A06c) and (A06d) household contact phone number(s)
(A07) Enumeration area code
(A08) Enumeration area type
(A09) Locality code
(A10) Serial no. of house/compound/group quarters
(A11) Serial no. of household within house/compound or subgroup of group quarters
(A12) Type of residence
(A13) Date enumeration started
(A14) Date enumeration completed
(A15a) Total number of visits
(A15b) Form numbering (forms used)
(A16a) Household roster (usual household members and visitors present on Census Night)
(A16b) Usual members absent on Census Night
(A17) Total number listed as status A by sex
(A18) Total number listed as status B by sex
(A19) Total number listed as status C by sex
(A20) Total no. of persons enumerated [household (i.e. status A and status B) or non-household population] by sex

11.2. How to fill out the general information entries

On the front page of the questionnaire, spaces are provided to elicit general information about the location of the household as well as the status and size of household population.

For some items on the front page, alpha-numeric responses are expected while numeric responses are to be entered for others. An alphanumeric response is one that combines alphabetic and numeric characters (e.g. A01). A numeric response, on the other hand, consists of only numerals (e.g. 07).

Boxes have been provided for A01 to A06d to enable you to write. Each box is for one character.

(A01) Region name - Write the name of the region where you are conducting enumeration e.g. upper east

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "upper east".]

(A02) District name - Write the name of the district where you are conducting the enumeration e.g. Kasena-Nankana East

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "Kasena-Nankana East".]

(A03) District type - Write the name of the district type (district, municipal, metropolitan) where you are conducting the enumeration. For example, if you are conducting the enumeration in Ayawaso East sub-metro in Accra Metropolis, write metropolitan as the district type;

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "metropolitan".]

(A04) Sub-district - Write the name of the sub-district where you are conducting the enumeration. Note that this applies to only the sub-metros in the metropolis. The sub-district in the example in A03 is Ayawaso East sub-metro in Accra metropolis.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "Ayawaso East".]

(A05) Locality Name - Write in the space provided the name of the locality, which may be a town or village where you are actually conducting that particular enumeration. In the case of metropolitan and municipal areas, the localities are the suburbs. Note that in rural areas you may have many localities in one enumeration area. Therefore, the questionnaires for each such locality must have the name of the particular locality written on them. e.g. Asaseterew

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "Asaseterew".]

(A06a) Detailed address of house/compound/group quarters - The address you write here must be the same as what you recorded in column 2 of the "enumerator's visitation record (EVR) book". A precise description of the location of the house or compound/group quarters should be written so that another person can use the address to find the location of a particular house or compound on a second visit. If the streets are named and the houses numbered, you must write the house number and the name of the street e.g. C49/2 Castle Road, Adabraka. Otherwise write a precise description of the location of the house or compound/group quarters. For example, (i) Kwame Adomako's house on the Main street directly opposite God is Great drugstore, or (ii) Mustapha Bukari's H'Se, second compound after the chief's palace.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing "Mustapha Bukari's house, second compound after the chief's palace".]

Note that the address of house or compound in both the EVR and the questionnaire must agree. If it becomes necessary to correct any address in the visitation record you must also correct it on the questionnaire.

In the case of an institution or location of the floating population, the precise name of the institution or place must be written in the space provided e.g. Legon Hall, University of Ghana, Asankragwa Senior High School, Nsawam Prison, Agogo Hospital, Pokuase Mobil Filling Station, etc.

(A06b) NHIS number/ECG number/VRA number/other number - These are numbers given to the house/structure by other public organizations (electricity company, VRA, etc.) Copy whichever have been written on the house onto your questionnaire for that house/structure.

(A06c) and (A06d) Household contact phone number(s) - Write in the boxes provided the contact phone numbers of the household. If the household has two phone numbers record both. On the other hand, if the household has only one phone number, record the information on A06c and leave A06d blank.

(A07) Enumeration area code (base) - Copy this number in 10 digits from the enumeration area description (PHC 2) on all the questionnaires you use. Before going to the field you may copy this number at home on all the questionnaires you expect to use for a particular day.

(A08) Enumeration area type - Copy this number from 6b of the enumeration area description (PHC 2).

(A09) Locality number - Copy this number from the PHC 2 (7b and 9) or the number you have assigned (if locality was not originally on the PHC 2).

(A10) Structure no. of house/compound/location of outdoor sleepers (within the E.A.) - Copy this number in four digits from column 1 of the EVR on all the questionnaires you use for all the households in a particular house, compound/location of outdoor sleepers. For instance, if you enumerate five households in one house or compound, all the questionnaires for these households must bear the same 4-digit serial number of house/compound. Note that subgroups [e.g. halls (Volta Hall), blocks (Medical Block), etc.] within each group quarters must be numbered serially.

(A11) Household number within house/compound or group quarters - Every household you enumerate in each house or compound must be given a two-digit serial number. This means the first household you enumerate in a house must be given the number 01, the second household 02, the third household 03, and so on. For group quarters, floors in hotels, dormitories in educational institutions, cells in prisons, etc. should also be given serial numbers.

(A12) Type of residence - Shade the appropriate circle for the type of residence. Options 01, and 02, are for households (PHC 1A) while options 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12 and 13 are for institutions and the floating (PHC 1B) population.

Note that option 03 (homeless households) should be marked only for two or more persons sleeping outdoors who are related e.g. mother and child or mother, father and child. Shade the circle for option 13 for an individual outdoor sleeper.

Also note that if the circle for option 2 (i.e. vacant housing unit) is shaded, skip to Section H (housing conditions) and complete only questions H01, H02 and H04.

(A13) Date enumeration started - Before you start writing out the names of persons in the household you must write in the space provided in A13 the date enumeration started in that household. The year is already indicated so you will only write the day and month interviewing started. For example, if enumeration started on 27th September, 2010, it will be coded as:

[Below the text there is a filled box showing day "27" and month "09"]

(A14) Date enumeration completed - When enumeration of the household members has been completed you must record in the space provided in A14 under "date completed" the day and month the interview was completed for the household. For example, if enumeration in the household ended on the same day (27th September, 2010), you should write:

[Below the text there is a filled box showing day "27" and month "09"]

(A15a) Total number of visits - Record the total number of visits made to the household before the questionnaire was completed. For example, if three visits were made by an enumerator before enumeration was completed, record 3 in the box provided for A15a. Record 9 if more than 9 visits were made.

(A15b) Number of forms or questionnaires used - Write the number of forms or questionnaires used for each household.

Examples:
If one questionnaire is used for a household write 1 of 1 in the boxes provided as follows:

[Below the text there is a filled box showing form "1" / "1".]

If two questionnaires are used for a household, write 1 of 2 in the boxes (for the original questionnaire) and 2 of 2 for the supplementary questionnaire as indicated below.

[Below the text there are two filled boxes showing form "1" / "2" and form "2" / "2".]

(A16a) Household roster: listing of usual member and visitors present on Census Night
You must first write down the full name of the head of household, relationship, relationship code, and sex. Then record the names of each usual member of household and each visitor who slept in the house on Census Night together with their relationship to the head of household, relationship code, and sex. Indicate in the column provided under "status" whether a listed person is a usual member who slept in the house/compound on Census Night (status A) or whether he/she is a visitor (i.e. guest of any member of the household), who slept in the house on Census Night (status B).

Listing of persons must be in the following order:

1. Head of household, (if head of household was not present on Census Night, list the person who took charge of the household in his/her absence as head).
2. Usual member(s) of household present on Census Night.
3. Visitors present on Census Night

List in the following order (where applicable)

For a normal household, you will usually have the following household pattern:

1. Head;
2. Spouse;
3. Children (start from eldest child);
4. Additional members of household (parents of head, parents of spouse, other relatives, non-relatives, etc.);
5. Visitors present on Census Night.

However in a household where a head has more than one wife living in the same house as one household, the listing should be as follows:

1. Head
2. Eldest spouse followed by all her children who were present on Census Night;
3. Next eldest spouse followed by her children who were present on Census Night;
4. Continue with spouses and their children until you finish;
5. Other children present on Census Night whose mother was not there on Census Night;
6. Parents of head;
7. Parents of spouse;
8. Other relatives;
9. Non relatives;
10. Visitors present on Census Night.

You must note that this method of listing the names first is to ensure completeness of coverage within the household. If this is not done the respondent may forget to give information on all the eligible members. In this connection, you must make sure that all babies born before Census Night are listed. You should read the names given to you by the respondent and ask "Just to make sure I have not missed anybody - are there any other persons who spent Census Night in this household whom I have not listed?" For example:

a. Babies born before Census Night whether still alive or not;
b. Persons alive on Census Night but who had died at the time of enumerator's visit;
c. Old men and women;
d. Visitors who spent Census Night in the household but who were not present at the time of the enumerator's visit;
e. Physically and mentally challenged persons.

You should record the relationship codes in the column provided (using the codes provided for relationship (below the household roster -A16a). You should then indicate the sex of each person in A16a by shading the appropriate circle ('M' for male and 'F' for female in the sex column).

You should note that the non-household population roster in PHC-1B does not have a column for status.

(A16b) Listing of usual members absent on Census Night (status C) - This section should include any usual household member(s) absent on Census Night. If a household member did not sleep in the house on Census Night, list such person in A16b.

Note that for persons classified as status C, you must first record:

a. The name;
b. Relationship to head of household;
c. Code for relationship;
d. Sex;
e. Age;
f. The town/village where the absent usual member spent Census Night, and;
g. Region/country of that town or village.
h. Code for the Region/Country where the absent usual member spent the Census Night.
i. Total number of months usual member has been absent from the household.

[Use the region and country codes provided below A16a in the PHC 1A].

Write in completed months how long he/she was absent up to Census Night. For example, if the person has been away for two months three weeks write "02" in the space provided. If he/she has been absent for less than one month, write down "00". Note that if the person has been away for six months or more he/she must not be considered as a usual member of the household.

Note that if the usual head of household was absent on Census Night, he/she must never be entered as head in the relationship column but rather specified as the husband, brother, mother, etc., of the temporary head in A16a.

There may be situations where either the number of usual members absent or the total number of emigrants within the household for the past six months will be more than the six rows provided. In this case you are required to use a continuation sheet (i.e. the usual members absent continuation sheet and emigration continuation sheet).

(A17) Total no. of persons listed as status A You must write in the boxes provided, the total number of persons (males and females) listed in the household as status A.

(A18) Total no. of persons listed as status B You must write in the boxes provided, the total number of persons (males and females) listed in the household as status B.

(A19) Total no. of persons listed as status C You must write in the boxes provided, the total number of persons (males and females) listed in the household as status C.

(A20) Total persons enumerated - You must write in the boxes provided, the total number of persons enumerated - males and females [i.e. usual members who spent Census Night in the household (status A) and visitors who spent Census Night in the household (status B).]

For persons enumerated in group quarters (boarding schools, hospitals, hotels, etc.), you must write in the boxes provided the total number of persons (males and females) who were enumerated in a hall, ward, block, cell wing, etc. in a particular institution or location of floating population. If you enumerated ten persons (four males and six females) at a petrol filling station, for example, you must record 0004 for males, 0006 for females in the appropriate boxes.

If you use more than one questionnaire for one household or a group quarter, A17, A18, A19 and A20 should be left blank for the supplementary questionnaires.

11.3. Completing general information for floating population on Census Night

As an enumerator, when you are assigned a particular location on Census Night,

  • Complete A01 to A09, A12 to A15 of PHC 1B with the information on the PHC2
  • Code A10 if structure number is available; otherwise leave it blank.
  • Leave A11 and quest id for each questionnaire blank.
  • After enumeration, hand over the questionnaires to the supervisor for that location.

All field officers (enumerators and supervisors) engaged on the Census Night should hand over all the floating population questionnaires to the supervisor assigned to that EA. The supervisor should take note of all questionnaires which are supplementary (i.e. A15b - _ of _) and sort them sequentially before handing over to the Enumerator for that particular EA.

The Enumerator working in the entire E.A. will then code the blank A10(s) by continuing from the last structure number in the EA. The Enumerator should also assign a code to A11 and complete the quest id at the top right corner of all pages of the PHC 1B based on A10 and A11.

11.4. Important points to note about head of household, name, relationship to head, sex, and age

1. Who is the head of the household? - The head of household is generally the person (male or female) who is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the household. He/she is not necessarily the oldest person in the household. Your main guide as to who is the head is the one who will be pointed out to you as such.

If the head of household was away on Census Night you must ask for the person who took charge of the household when the usual head was away. This person thus becomes the head of household and all other relationships must refer to this person and not to the usual head who was absent. Enter the name of the head of household on the first line of the household roster and write in the relationship column "head". Then relate all other relationships to this person. For instance, if the usual head of household was away and the wife becomes the "head" all the relationships must refer to this wife. Thus, the usual head (who will be classified under status C) becomes the "husband" and his sister's son will be recorded as other relative and not "sister's son".

Note that for non-household population (population in group quarters) you can start with the names of any respondent.

2. Full name - Write in the spaces provided in the first column of the household roster (A16a) the full names of household members and visitors who spent Census Night in the household. The names you put down must be such that if a second visit is paid to the house during or after the final enumeration, the persons to whom the names refer can easily be identified.

  • Persons with more than one name - If a person has two names, one for official use and the other for use at home, write down the name(s) by which he/she is best known in the neighborhood or village where he/she is being enumerated and then write his/her other name(s) in parenthesis. For example, Ato Safo (Charles Mensah).
  • Babies who have not been named - Occasionally, you will come across babies who were born before Census Night but who have not been named by the time you call to enumerate. In such cases, write down only the day name (e.g. Kwame, Akua, Abla, etc.) of the baby together with the mother's name. For example, if the newly born baby's day name is Kwame and the mother's name is Akua Mansa, the name you must put down is Baby Kwame, Akua Mansa's son.
  • Persons who refuse to give out their names - Sometimes you may come across a person who will refuse to give you his/her name although he/she may be quite prepared to give you answers to the remaining questions. Explain to such a person that the law strictly forbids the disclosure to unauthorized persons of any census information and that the name is required only for identification purposes in connection with later checks on the accuracy of the information being collected. If he/she still refuses to give his/her name assign a letter of the alphabet such as A, B or C for him/her and proceed to record the other facts. After completion of the questionnaire, you might be able to obtain the person's name from other sources, e.g. neighbors, chiefs, etc.
  • Persons with identical names - You may also come across households where two or more persons have identical names. In such cases, you must record also the nick-names, or any other names by which they are distinguished in the household or by neighbors and friends, e.g., Kofi Kyamba Panyin and Kofi Kyamba Kakraba. If this is not possible, you must distinguish them by physical characteristics such as height or fatness or shortness. Thus, for instance, you can have Abongo Jato (fair coloured) or Kofi Dogo (tall).

3. Relationship to head of household - What is required in the relationship column is the relationship of each member of the household, including guests and visitors, to the head of household. Most relationships are established either by blood (descent) or by marriage (affine). This means that your brother and sister's son are your blood relatives whilst your wife, wife's mother, and wife's sister are your relatives by marriage.

You must refer to the list of relationships below the household roster (A16a). The relationship must always be written as if it were defined by the head himself/herself. For example, if the head replies in the following manner:

a. A is my son - write son
b. B is my brother - write brother
c. C is my wife - write wife
d. D is my father - write father

On the other hand, if you ask a member of the household about his or her relationship to the head of the household, you have to invert the relationship before you enter it. If, for example, a person tells you that:

a. The head is my father - you will write son or daughter (whichever is applicable)
b. The head is my mother's brother - you will write other relative
c. The head is my son - you will write father or mother.

Always remember to avoid such vague terms as nephew, cousin, uncle, etc., which do not denote exact relationships. Nephew may mean brother's son or sister's son.

Make sure that the blood relationships specified are true biological relationships. A son must mean the head's own true son and not his brother's son, etc. Half-brothers, e.g. persons having one mother but different fathers, or one father but different mothers must be recorded as brothers. Similarly, half-sisters must be recorded as sisters. [Adopted son/daughter must be classified as son/daughter].

Any other relationships must be clearly stated e.g. parent/parent-in-law, grandchild, etc. Other household members, who are not related to the head of the household such as lodgers, guest, friend, etc., must be classified as non-relatives. Paid unrelated house help(s) must also be classified as non-relative(s).

Write the appropriate code in the boxes corresponding to the line number of the individual respondent. Note that the 'other relative' response category includes nephew (a son of your brother/sister), niece (a daughter of your brother/sister), cousin (a child of your uncle or aunt), brother/sister-in-law (brother/sister of your husband or wife), etc.

For all non-household population (group quarters), the code for relationship is 12. You should therefore write "group quarters" in the relationship column and record 12 in the corresponding boxes for all non-household population.

Note however, that where there are households within the floating population (homeless household), code the appropriate relationship and not 12.

4. Sex - It is important to ask whether a person is male or female when information is being given to you by a third person. Do not infer the sex from the name or names of the person. Bear in mind that some names are given to both males and females and can be misleading in this respect e.g. Kafui, Dela. Some people also use George as a short form of Georgina and Ben for Bernice.

Shade the appropriate circle according to whether the respondent is male or female. For example, if the respondent is male, shade the circle for male, as shown below.

[Below the text there are two circles, one for male and the other for female, and the correspondent to male is shaded]

5. Age on 26th September, 2010 (Census Night) - The age of every person must be stated in completed years only and in two digits. For those who know their birthdays the age to record is the age as at last birthday with reference to the Census Night. "Age in completed years only" means that all the ages must be recorded in full years discarding fractions of years and months. For instance, 15 years 11 months must be written down as 15. Do not write down months. Only years are required. All infants who are less than one year old must be recorded as "00" year old. Ages of persons who are 99 years or more should be recorded as 99.

What to do when a person does not know his/her age:

(i) For such a person, use the following method to estimate his/her age:

  • Ask him/her to name any historical event preferably a local one (as in appendix 1), which occurred around the time of his/her birth.
  • Ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.
  • Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he/she was about 15 years when Ghana attained her independence this person must be 15 + 53 (i.e. 6th March 1957 to 26th September, 2010) = 68 years.

(ii) If this method fails, you must try the following approach:

  • Simply estimate how old he/she may be.
  • Then select from your list of local, regional or national historical events some events which occurred about the time when according to your estimate, he/she must have been born.
  • Ask whether he/she has heard about any of these events.
  • If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he/she was born.
  • Then from this information work out his/her age.

(iii) If this second approach also does not elicit the required information, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old however small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following method:-

  • Ask her, at what age she had her first child.
  • Determine the age of her oldest child.
  • Then add her age at first child to the age of her first child to obtain her age. You must not base your assumption on the oldest living child without further probing. There is the likelihood that (in certain cases) the first child died or that the woman had miscarriages or stillborn children before the oldest living child was born. Therefore, if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born, you must make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage, still-birth or live birth.
  • Note also that some women do not have children early in life while others have children earlier than what generally obtains in the community. Therefore, in every case you must find out whether she had her first child, miscarriage or stillbirth at the usual age before you assume she was aged 18 years at her first pregnancy.
  • Then use the information obtained by the above means to estimate her age.

(iv) Only as a last resort should you estimate a person's age from physical features.

(v) If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person, then obviously you have to rely on the information supplied by the third person in estimating the age in respect of the person who is absent. Under no circumstance must you leave the age column blank.

E. Emigration outside Ghana

E01. Has any former member of this household been living continuously for 6 months or more outside Ghana?

This question seeks to identify all former household members who have emigrated and lived continuously outside Ghana for 6 months or more before Census Night and travelled directly to live in another country. This should include persons who have been visiting from time to time during the period and those who have been away for less than 6 months but intend to stay away for a longer period. Note that we are not referring to people who have moved from one region of Ghana to another. We are referring to those who have travelled outside Ghana and are currently staying outside Ghana. Shade the 'Yes' circle if any former household member has travelled outside for 6 months or more and the 'No' circle if nobody has moved. If the response is 'yes', proceed to ask question E02 (a, b, c, d, e, f). If 'no', skip to P00.

E02. Record of emigrants

This question is only for those households who responded 'Yes' in E01. List the names of all former household members who have moved outside Ghana for 6 months or more and collect information on sex, age, destination (country/sub-continent/continent of current residence), code for destination, year of departure and activity abroad (employed, unemployed, student and other [specify]). Using the codes provided below A16a, record the appropriate code for destination and activity abroad. See page 2 of the questionnaire (PHC 1A) for the activity codes.

Chapter 12: How to record individual entries

12.1. Individual entries

Remember that these individual entries are restricted to usual members and visitors who spent Census Night in the house (i.e. Persons Listed as A or B in the MEMBER STATUS column in A16a) and persons in Group Quarters (i.e. institutional and floating population) who qualify to be enumerated.

P00. Names of eligible household members (status A and status B): Copy the names of usual household members present on Census Night (status A) and visitors (status B) from A16a. Do not change the line numbers of persons listed in the household roster (A16a) when copying on to P00. This means that the full names of the respondents should be copied in the same order you listed persons under status A and B.

P01. Date of Birth: What is (name)'s date of birth? For date of birth you should record day, month and year of birth for each person listed. If after probing the respondent can only provide the year but not the day and month of birth, you should enter '99' for both the day and month of birth then record the year.

Note: The '99' is applicable to only the day and month in which the respondent was born. Under no circumstance should '9999' be recorded in the year column. Enumerators should therefore try as much as possible to estimate the age of the respondent to enable them get the year in which the respondent was born.

P02. Age: How old is (name) in completed years?
The age of every person must be written in 2 digits in completed years only. For those who know their birthdays, you should record the age at last birthday with reference to the Census Night (26th September, 2010). "Age in completed years only" means that all the ages must be written in full years, disregarding fractions of years and months. For example, 18 years 11 months as at Census Night must be recorded as 18. Do not record the months. All infants who are less than one year on Census Night must be recorded as being "00" year old. For those aged 99 years or more, write down 99.

Example 1: If a household member is 11 months old, write 00 in the two boxes provided as shown below.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing '00'.]

Example 2: If the household member is 1 year 11 months. Write 01 in the two boxes as shown below.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing '01'.]

Example 3: If a household member is aged 104 years, write 99 in the boxes as shown below.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing '99'.]

P03. Nationality: What is (name)'s nationality?
You are required to differentiate between a Ghanaian by birth and a Ghanaian by naturalization as well as all other nationals. Other nationals have been grouped into ECOWAS nationals, Africans who are not from ECOWAS countries (See appendix 2 - for list of other ECOWAS and other African countries), and non-Africans.

(1) Ghanaian by birth:
a. A person born in or outside Ghana, one of whose parents is a Ghanaian citizen.
b. A child of not more than seven (7) years of age found in Ghana whose parents are not known.
(2) Dual nationality (Ghanaian and other)
This relates to a citizen of Ghana who holds the citizenship of another country in addition to his/her Ghanaian citizenship.

(3) Ghanaian by naturalization: For the purpose of this census, a Ghanaian by naturalization include the following:
  • Adopted child: A child of no more than sixteen years of age and neither of whose parents is a citizen of Ghana who is adopted by a Ghanaian.
  • Citizenship by registration: A person who acquired citizenship by registration.
  • Naturalization: A person who acquired Ghanaian citizenship by naturalization.
(4) Nigerian
Enter the code (04) for this option for all persons who are citizens of Nigeria.

(5) Liberian
This category is for persons who responded that they are Liberians (code 05)

(6) Sierra Leonean
Enter code 06 for all persons who are Sierra Leoneans.

(7) Gambian
This option (07) refers to nationals of the Gambia.

(8) Togolese
Enter code 08 for all persons who are Togolese.

(9) Burkinabe
This option refers to persons who responded that they are nationals of Burkina Faso (09).

(10) Ivorian
Enter code 10 for all persons from Cote D'Ivoire.

(11) Other ECOWAS national
For citizens of any of the other ECOWAS countries; these include Benin, Cameroun, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and The Gambia, enter code 11.

(12) African, other than ECOWAS national
Enter code 12 for this option for all persons who are Africans but not from any of the ECOWAS states.

(13) European
Enter code 13 for this option for all persons from countries in Europe.

(14) American (North, South and Caribbean)
Enter the code for this option for persons from North, South and those from the Caribbean islands.

(15) Asian
All nationals of Asian countries (e.g. India, China, Vietnam, Japan, etc.) should be put under this category and coded 15.

(16) Oceania (including Australian, New Zealand, etc.)
Record code 9 for nationals of Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Philippines and South Pacific Islands, etc.

Note that for options 01 and 02 continue to ask P04; for all other options, skip to P05

P04. Ethnicity: To which ethnic group does (name) belong?
This question relates only to Ghanaians by birth and Ghanaians with dual nationality. Obtain from each of these persons what his/her ethnic group is and write it together with their corresponding codes in the boxes provided. A list of ethnic groups in their alphabetical order and their codes has been provided in appendix 3. Note that this question does not seek the broad categories of the ethnic groupings. If for example a respondent indicates that he/she is an Akan, probe to find out which of the Akan groupings he/she belongs.

Example: If the respondent is a Ga, you must enter code 22 in the boxes provided as shown below.

[Below the text there is a filled box showing '22'.]

P05. and P06. Birthplace

P05. Born in this Village/Town: Was (name) born in this town or village?
In this Census, the town or village (locality) of birth of a person is the usual residence (town or village) of the respondent's mother at the time of respondent's birth. For example, Akua Mansa who normally resides with her husband at New Tafo (eastern region) went to Accra (Greater Accra) to deliver her child in her mother's house. In such a case, the place of birth of her child will be New Tafo and not Accra. If, however, she stays in Accra after her child's birth for six months or intends to stay there for six months or more then the birthplace of her child will be Accra and not New Tafo.

The following should not be regarded as birthplace of respondent

(a) A hospital or maternity home outside the usual place of residence of the mother;
(b) The hometown of the mother's mother; or
(c) Some other locality where the mother had gone for a short visit and given birth.

If, however, the mother's length of stay outside her locality of usual residence is six months or more or the mother has the intention of staying in the new place for six months or more the 'actual town/village of physical birth' is considered as the birthplace of the person in question.

Note that a 'yes' response will skip you to P07.

P06. Birthplace outside this village/town: In what region or country was (name) born?
Record the appropriate response in the boxes provided. As in P05, the region or country of birth is the usual place of residence of respondent's mother at the time of the respondent's birth and not where the birth actually took place. For any response in P06, skip to P08.

P07. Living in this town or village since birth: Has (name) been living in this town or village since birth?

You should ask this question only of those persons who answer 'Yes' in P05 (i.e. born in this town or village). You should note that persons who have temporarily been absent from their place of birth or who are normally absent for periods less than one year (e.g. seasonal workers who return after a season and students in boarding schools elsewhere or traders absent for short periods) should be regarded as having lived in this town or village since birth. When a person answers 'No', you should probe further to get the right response.

P08. Number of years lived in this village or town: For how long has (name) been living in this village or town?

This question should only be asked of persons who answer 'No' in P05 (i.e. not born in this town or village where enumeration is taking place) and also those who answer 'No' in P07 (i.e. not lived in this town or village since birth). Note that breaks in duration of residence lasting less than 12 months should be disregarded. Also, note that for persons who have made multiple movements of 1 year or more, you should consider the last duration of stay as the number of years lived in the town or village. Write down the response in the appropriate boxes.

P09. Religion: What is (name)'s religious affiliation?
Ask the religious affiliation of each respondent. Do not assume that every household member, particularly the children, belong to the same religion as the head or the head's spouse.

Do not use respondents' names to determine their religious affiliation. For example, Yaw Owusu may be a Muslim whilst Yakubu Fuseini may be a Catholic. It is, therefore, very important to ask for the religious affiliation of every respondent.

Write the code corresponding to the respondent's religious affiliation in the boxes provided.

1. No religion - Some people do not have any religious beliefs and thus do not belong to any religion.

2. Catholic - Christians who belong to the Catholic faith

3. Protestant - These are made up of mainly the Churches that belong to Christian Council and include; Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian, AME Zion, Lutheran, E.P. Church, Global Evangelical Church, etc.

4. Pentecostal/Charismatic - This group comprises Churches which are mainly under the Ghana Pentecostal Council and include: The Apostolic Church, Foursquare Gospel Church, Christ Apostolic Church, Assemblies of God, Church of Pentecost, International Central Gospel Church, Action Chapel, Praise Valley Temple, Rhema Christian Centre, Word Miracle Church International, International Bible Worship Centre, Victory Bible Church, Jubilee International Church, Light House Chapel, Salvation Army, etc.

5. Other Christian - Other Christians include members of the SDA Church, Mosama Disco Christo Church, Church of Christ, Kristo Asafo, Odifo Nkansah/Awoyo, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Jehovah Witness, Church Universal and Triumphant, etc.

6. Islam - These are made up of people who mainly use the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith as their books of instruction. They include the following sects: Al-Suna/Tijaniya (orthodox), and other Islamic sects except Ahmadis.

7. Ahmadis - People who also use The Holy Qur'an and the Hadith as their books of instruction. This group follows the Alhamadiyya sect.

8. Traditional Religion - These are made of people who worship gods such as "abosom"/"tro"/"wo", Africania mission and other forms of ancestorial worship. Examples of some of the gods are "akonedi", "antoa nyama", "tigare", etc.

9. Other (specify) - These include Eckankar, Bahai, Hinduism, Buddhism, Hare-Khrisna, Yoga and all Transcendental Meditation religions. Those whose religious affiliation is unknown should also be put under this category. For any of these categories mentioned enter code 9 in the box provided and specify the religion.

P10. Marital status: What is (name)'s current marital status?
Question P10 is to be asked of persons who are 12 years or older. Six categories, "never married", "informal/consensual union/living together", "married", "separated", "divorced", "widowed", have been provided. The answer that is given must refer to the respondent's marital status as at Census Night.

Never married - Write code 1 in the box for persons who have never been married.

Informal/consensual union/living together - Write 2 in the box for a relationship contracted by two adults who are living together without civil or traditional recognition.

Married - Enter code 3 in the appropriate box for persons who, at the reference time (26th September, 2010) had marriage partners whether they were staying in the same house or not. "Married" includes persons in all types of marriages e.g. ordinance (court, church), customary and Islamic.

Occasionally, you may come across a respondent who has been divorced or widowed before his or her present marriage. You must treat such a person as married.

Separated - Enter code 4 for all persons who because of a dispute or other reasons are no longer staying as "married partners" but whose marriage has not been declared customarily or legally dissolved. Note that the fact that the two married partners are not staying in the same house does not necessarily mean that the two are separated. Normally, a "separated" person has his/her case before the "elders of one of the families" or before a law court. A separation need not lead to a divorce.

Divorced - Enter code 5 for all persons who at the reference time have had their marriage formally annulled - either in court or by custom and have not remarried.

Widowed Enter code 6 for persons who at the reference time had lost their marriage partners through death and had not remarried.

P11. Literacy: In what language can (name) read and write?

This question is to be asked of persons who are 11 years and older.

The question also relates to the respondent's ability to read and write in any language. Note that a respondent is considered literate if he/she can read and write a simple statement with understanding. Literacy is more than the ability to write or distinguish between the various letters of the alphabet and counting numbers.

Note that if a respondent can only read but cannot write or can write but cannot read, he or she cannot be considered as literate. Similarly, if a person was literate some time ago but cannot read and write with understanding at the time of the interview then you must consider him/her illiterate and enter code 1 in the box (i.e. not literate). For instance, if a person completed middle form 4 or JSS/JHS 3 and can no longer read and write with understanding, you must consider him/her non-literate.

The following are the categories for literacy:

1. None (not literate) - Enter code 1 in the box for persons who cannot read and write with understanding in any language.

2. English only - Write 2 in the box for a person who can read and write in English only.

3. Ghanaian language only - Enter code 3 in the in the box for a person who can read and write in a Ghanaian language only.

4. English and Ghanaian language - Enter code 4 in the box for persons who can read and write with understanding in English and any Ghanaian language.

5. English and French - Enter code 5 in the appropriate box for persons who can read and write in both English and French.

6. English, French, and any Ghanaian language - Enter code 6 in the appropriate box for persons who can read and write with understanding in English, French, and any Ghanaian Language.

7. Other (specify) - Enter code 7 in the corresponding box for persons who can read and write in other languages which do not fall into any of the categories listed above and record the actual response in the box provided.

P12. Educational characteristics: Ask all persons 3 years or older

P12a. School attendance: Has (name) ever attended school or is (name) attending school now?

This question refers to full time education in an educational institution such as, nursery, kindergarten (pre-school), primary, junior secondary, junior high school, middle, senior secondary, senior high school, secondary, vocational, commercial or technical, teacher training college, university or similar type of school where a person spends or has spent at least four (4) hours a day receiving general education in which the emphasis is not on trade training.

This definition excludes night schools and trade schools such as catering schools, floral schools, etc. It also excludes on-the-job training establishments like National Productivity Institute, Auditor-General's Training School, Accountant-General Training School, Labor College, Commercial Bank Training School, etc. It includes schools where Arabic and other subjects are taught. It, however, excludes Arabic schools where only reading and writing of the Qur'an are taught.

Three options: never, now, past are provided for this question and you must shade only one of them:

a. Never - Shade the circle with the option 'never' if the person has never at any time received full-time education. If you shade the option 'never', skip to P13a without asking P12b and P12c.

b. Now - Shade the circle with the option 'now' if the person is still receiving full-time education at the time of the Census Night. This includes those who are on vacation at the time of the Census Night and would be going back to school.

c. Past - Shade the circle with the option 'Past' if the person received full-time education in the past and is no longer receiving it as at Census Night.

P12b. If now or past in 12a: What is the highest level of school (name) is attending now/attended in the past?

This question seeks to elicit information on the highest level of formal school respondent attended or is attending. 12 levels have been identified and they are:

01 Nursery
02 Kindergarten
03 Primary
04 JSS/JHS
05 Middle
06 SSS/SHS
07 Secondary
08 Vocational/technical/commercial
09 Post middle/secondary certificate (teacher training, college of education, agric., nursing, midwifery, other certificate, etc.),
10 Post secondary diploma [tertiary (university diploma, teacher training, HND, etc.)]
11 Bachelor degree
12 Post-graduate or higher (higher means post graduate diploma, master's degree, Ph.D.).

Note that the interest here is to find the highest level of formal school respondent ever attended or attending and not completed. If a respondent dropped out of school at a level it means he/she has attended that level. Also note that first degree includes undergraduates who are still in the universities and polytechnics and those who attended university but dropped out before completing the bachelor degree in addition to those who have completed their bachelor degree.

Similarly, the post graduate category includes those who have completed post graduate diploma, masters' degree and Ph.D. It also includes those who are currently doing a postgraduate course and those who started post graduate course but dropped out before completion.

Enter the code applicable to the person.

You will also come across people who through distant, sandwich course or adult education have attained some level of schooling. In such cases, find the equivalent level of schooling and record the appropriate code in the box provided.

P12c. What is the highest grade [class/form/year] (name) has completed at that level of schooling?

The highest grade completed, is the last full class, form or year completed and not the present/current one being attended. For example if the person is now in primary class five (5), then the highest grade (class) completed will be primary four (4) since he/she has not yet completed primary five (5). Similarly, a child who is currently in JHS 1 or who dropped out during the second term in JHS 1, will have "0" (Zero) recorded, because no grade has been completed at that level. Record the equivalent grade for persons who have attained some level of schooling through distant, correspondence or adult education. If the grade is unobtainable, the equivalence of the number of years devoted to that particular type of school will provide the required information. Below is an example of how to complete P12b and P12c. If a child is currently in the third year of primary school then enter code "03" in P12b. In P12c, write 2 in the appropriate box.

Economic activity (P13 - P17)

Economic activity questions cover P13a, P13b, P13c, P14, P15, P15a, P16 and P17. All these questions should be related to the period of 7 days preceding Census Night. They should be asked only for persons aged 5 years and older.

P13. Type of activity

P13a. During the 7 days before Census Night, did (name) engage in any activity for pay or profit or family gain (in cash or in kind) for at least one hour?

Two circles 'yes' and 'no' have been provided in P13a. Shade the circle under the 'yes' column for those persons who worked even for one hour during the reference period (i.e. seven days before Census Night). For those who did not work, shade the circle under the 'no' column.

For the purpose of this census, the following categories of persons must be regarded as working and the appropriate circle below the yes column shaded:

a. All those aged 5 years or older who were in regular employment or self-employment during the 7 days before the Census Night and were paid in cash or in kind.

b. All those aged 5 years or older who worked for at least one hour for pay, profit or family gain during the seven days before Census Night

c. All those aged 5 years or older who during the reference period worked on their own farms or went out to fish or engaged in trading for at least one hour during the reference period even though they may not have sold any produce during the period.

d. Domestic employees (house helps, cleaners, etc.,) aged 5 years or older who worked for at least one hour and were remunerated for their work either in kind or in cash.

e. Apprentices (i.e. persons learning a trade and who normally work under supervision of qualified workers e.g. apprentice carpenters, apprentice hairdressers, apprentice fitters, apprentice goldsmiths, apprentice masons, etc.) aged 5 years or older and who worked for at least one hour during the reference period.

f. All persons aged 5 years or older who worked without pay for at least one hour or more in an establishment or farm operated by a member of their family. This category of persons known as contributing family workers includes the following:
i. Wives/husbands who during the reference period worked in their husband's/wife's store, farm or other economic enterprise. However, if these wives/husbands are paid, they should be classified as paid workers and not as contributing family workers.

ii. Children aged 5 years or more who during the reference period helped on their father's/mother's or any family member's farm/shop or assisted them in other economic activities such as cocoa shelling.

You must also remember to include as contributing family workers all persons aged 5 years or older who helped family members in their economic activities but were full-time students in educational institutions. These persons must be treated as working. Similarly, a university student who temporarily did some work during the holidays should be regarded as working if he/she worked for even one hour during the 7 days before Census Night.

If the Yes circle in P13a is shaded, P13b and P13c must be left blank. This means that if the response is Yes in P13a, you should skip P13b and P13c and ask P14.

P13b. If no in P13a: How was [name] mainly engaged?

Read out each option to the respondent, pause for a few seconds to ensure that the respondent has understood the statement.

1. Did not work, but had job to go back to
This category includes persons who, during the reference period, did not do any work for pay or profit or family gain although they had jobs to which they could return. Persons who come under this category may or may not be paid during their absence from their jobs and include the following that were temporarily absent from their jobs for any of the following reasons:
i. On leave with/without pay but with definite instructions to return to work after a certain period. Note that that persons e.g. teachers, public servants on study leave who are receiving full-time education in educational institutions, with or without pay, and persons on maternity leave with or without pay, etc., must be classified as working.

ii. Off-season, e.g. farmers or fishermen who did not do any work because it was their off-season. Note that in certain parts of the country, particularly in the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions, work on the farms takes place during certain months of the year while in other months the farmers remain virtually idle. The same applies to fishermen in other parts of the country.

iii. Temporarily ill without pay, but would return to a fixed job after recovery, e.g. workers on sick leave or on admission at hospitals.

iv. Labor dispute, strike or lockout but would return to a fixed job after the strike or lockout.

v. Temporary lay-off with definite instructions to return to work at a specific date. Such workers include permanent farm laborers, or workers in various enterprises and establishments whose work has been interrupted temporarily for lack of raw materials and / or other reasons.

vi. Bad weather/inaccessibility, i.e. persons not working because of bad weather thus making their workplace inaccessible. For example, farmers who could not go to their farms because the paths leading to their farms were flooded; fishermen who could not go to sea because of stormy weather, masons who did not work because of bad weather, etc.

For the above mentioned categories, enter 1, and skip to P14.
2. Worked before and seeking work and available for work
Write 2 in the box and skip to P14 for persons who have worked before but during the 7 days preceding census night, were unemployed (i.e. not in paid employment or self-employment). Note that such persons must be available for work and should have taken steps to seek for one through visiting employment agencies, visiting worksites, writing applications, seeing relatives and friends for help in securing jobs and visiting websites, etc. Also included in this category are persons who have worked before and currently unemployed but have lost hope of finding job. However, if such persons are offered work they will take it.

If respondent is unemployed but had worked before and seeking work and available for work, enter code 2 and go to P14.

3. Seeking work for the first time and available for work
Enter 3 for persons who have not worked before and during the 7 days preceding census night, were unemployed (i.e. not in paid employment or self-employment). Such persons are available for work and have taken some steps to seek for one through visiting employment agencies, visiting worksites, writing applications, seeing relatives and friends for help in securing jobs, etc. This category also includes persons looking for work for the first time but who have lost hope of finding a job. However, such persons are willing to work if offered jobs.

Note: If the respondent is seeking work for the first time and available for work, enter code 3 and skip to P18.

4. Did voluntary work without pay
This refers to volunteers (without any pay in cash or kind) who produce services for another household or for non-profit organizations. However, volunteers (without any pay in cash or kind) who produce goods for any enterprise/institution/household or who render services for a market enterprise should be considered as employed.

5. Did not work and not seeking for work>
Enter code 5 for any person who did not work and did not seek for work during the 7 days before census night.

P13c. Why did (name) not seek work?

This question is restricted to persons who were not engaged in any activity for pay or profit or family gain during the seven days before Census Night, i.e. those who "did not work and were not seeking for work" in P13b. For these persons, enter the appropriate code as defined below.

This category includes those who;

1. Did home duties (household chores)/full time homemaker
Enter code 1 for a person of either sex who was wholly engaged in household duties and was not paid for this work. If, however, a person traded one full working day in the seven days before Census Night, or worked regularly some hours daily, or engaged in some other economic enterprise (e.g. worked on a farm or in a bar), or did any part-time work e.g. typing, dressmaking for which the person was paid or did any work on the family farm or business for one hour or more without pay, such person must not be classified as homemaker but must be classified as employed. You must not assume that any married female who did not do any work during the reference period is necessarily a homemaker. You should probe further to ascertain her correct status.

2. In full time education/student
Enter code 2 for a person aged 5 years and older who is pursuing full-time education in an educational institution and for whom a code of 2 ("now") is entered in P12a.

3. Pensioner/retired
Record code 3 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because he/she is retired and on pension. Such persons normally receive government/company pension or social security payments every month.

4. Disabled/too sick
Enter code 4 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because he/she has a disability or was too sick to work. A person with a disability is one whose impairment inhibits his/her ability to work, participate in or perform an activity in a manner or within the range considered normal. (Impairment refers to any physical, functional or psychological defect, which results from illness, injury or congenital [people who are born with disability] malformation).

5. Too old/too young
Enter code 5 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because he/she is too old or too young to work.

6. Other [specify]
An answer, which does not fall into any of the above categories must be entered as other (code 6) in the appropriate box. The main types of persons who come under this group are:
i. Living on independent income - those who live on remittances;
ii. Hospital patient and not returning to a fixed job;
iii. Voluntarily unemployed i.e. not employed although able to work and not interested in seeking work (e.g. beggars);

All persons who are recorded in P13a as working (i.e. yes in P13a) or in P13b as had job but did not work, unemployed, worked before and seeking work and available for work, and unemployed and seeking work for the first time are classified as economically active.

All others who did not work and were not seeking for work in P13b are classified as economically inactive.

For all categories in P13c (i.e. 1, 2, …, 6) skip to P 18.

P14. Occupation

If yes in P13a, ask: What kind of work did [name] mainly do?
If P13b = 1, ask: What kind of work did [name] do before the break period?
If P13b = 2 or 4, ask: What kind of work did [name] do previously?

This question should be asked of persons who answered:

a. Yes in P13a,
b. Did not work, but had job to go back to (1 in P13b) and,
c. Worked before, seeking for work and available for work (2 in P13b).

For those who worked (i.e. 1 in P13a) you should record the work they did. For those who did not work but had job to go back to (i.e. 1 in P13b), you should write the job they will to back to after the period of absence.

For respondents who had worked before and were seeking for work and available for work, (i.e. 2 in P13b), you should record the last work they did before becoming unemployed.

For the employed (i.e. yes in P13a), write down the work the respondent actually did during the period of seven days preceding Census Night. For example, if the respondent has been trained as a lorry driver but actually worked as a construction laborer during the 7 days preceding Census Night, you must write down construction laborer.

In recording the occupation of the respondent, record detailed and exact description of the work the respondent actually did. The term laborer, for example is too vague. You should be more specific by indicating whether the person was an office cleaner, a construction laborer, a gardener, a farm laborer, etc.

  • In the same way designations like businessman, operator, civil servant, teacher, are too vague. They cover several groups of persons occupying different grades and doing different kinds of work. For example 'a businessman' may be a retail trader in spare parts or textiles or office machines. An 'operator' may be forklift operator, crane operator, or drilling machine operator. In the same way a civil servant may be chief director or an executive officer. A teacher may be a primary school teacher, a JHS teacher or an SHS teacher.
  • For those who sell items they themselves prepare e.g. kenkey, aboloo, fried fish, etc., you should indicate this by recording "kenkey maker and seller".
  • For those who sell food we would like to know whether they are street food sellers (i.e. selling food (cooked or uncooked on the street), food seller in the market or food counter attendant.

Note that whenever you specify a seller or maker of a particular commodity which is only known in a few areas, you must also write in brackets whether that commodity is food, drink, etc. For instance, you may write seller of Aheyi (non-alcoholic corn drink), maker of Tubani or Wakye (food).

It is also important to distinguish between persons who carry out their work by hand and those who operate machines which do the same type of work. The following are examples of such occupations:

a. Bread making by hand and bread production machine operator,
b. Labeler by hand and labeling machine operator, and
c. Launderer, hand and laundry machine operator.

These distinctions are necessary because these two groups belong to different major occupational groups.

For members of the armed forces (i.e., army, air force and navy), you must go into greater detail to find out their ranks, i.e.

a. Commissioned officers e.g. air commodore, air marshal, brigadier, captain, major, officer cadet, navy commander, wing commander.
b. Non-commissioned officers e.g. boatswain (navy), flight sergeant, sergeant (army), warrant officer, etc.
c. Armed forces occupations, other ranks such as airman, bombardier, infantry/man/woman, gunner, etc.

However, for civilians working at the Ministry of Defense or any other military installations, record in detail work done, e.g. private secretary, office cleaner, administrative officer, etc.

For officers working in the Police Service, Enumerators should also provide the rank of each police man/woman e.g. constable, corporal, sergeant, superintendent, etc. as the various ranks are classified differently.

Industry

P15. and P15a.
These should be asked of persons who answered:

a. Yes in P13a,
b. Did not work, but had job to go back to (P13b = 1) and,
c. Worked before, seeking for work and available for work (P13b = 2).
d. Did voluntary work without pay (P13b = 4).

P15. Name and physical location of establishment: What is the name and physical location of the establishment where (name) currently works/previously worked?

Write down the name and physical location of the establishment where (name) worked. For establishments who have names with well identifiable physical location, you should record the information. For e.g., if a respondent worked with Latex Foam, you should record the following: Latex Foam, 116 North Dadeban Road, North Industrial Area, Accra.

However, for a respondent who hawks his / her wares along the street, you should write the name of the respondent and the area where he / she plies the trade. For e.g., Aku Mansah who sells along Nkrumah Circle, you should write Aku Mansah, Hawking along Nkrumah Circle, Accra.

Similarly, for a respondent Musah Mahama, a cocoa farmer in Nyamebekyere in Sefwi Wiawso area, near river Sanso, you should record Musah Mahama cocoa farm, at Nyamebekyere in Sefwi Wiawso, near river Sanso.

For a person who sells in a market or shop you should record for example.

i. Kwame Menkah Trading, Stall No. 221, Central Market, Kumasi.
ii. Oko Shop, Near Orion Cinema, Accra.

Note that you should not to write the postal address of the establishment and always avoid addresses like:

i. Fitting Shop, Osu
ii. Farm, Obuasi
iii. School, Adabraka

Never use abbreviations like e.g. M. A., B. O. R., etc., which are known and understood only in the areas concerned.

P15a. Industry: What is the main product or service of the establishment where (name) works/worked?

Industry in P15a refers to the main industrial activity i.e. the main products made or service rendered by the establishment where the respondent works; or if unemployed his/her last place of work. Establishment applies not only to big enterprises such as a biscuit factory, meat factory, financial institutions, etc. but also to the small ones, e.g. hairdressing saloon, roast plantain joint, beer bar, street hawking, etc.

The guiding principle for recording industrial activity is that the main product or service must be the same for all persons employed directly by the same establishment even though they may be doing different type of jobs.

The following examples may help you understand what industrial activity is and what you are required to write down.

a) All persons (lecturers, professors, hall porters, registrar, vice-chancellor, research assistants, gardeners, cleaners, etc.) employed by University of Cape Coast should have university education as their industry.

b) The industrial activity of a self-employed brick layer is brick making. However, the industrial activity of a brick layer employed by a building construction company is construction of houses.

c) For a carpenter who makes window frames and is employed by a firm which builds houses, the major industrial activity you must write down is construction of houses, not window frames, since houses are built by the establishment where the construction carpenter works. If a hotel contracts a building construction company to build some chalets for them, the main product or service of the employees of the building construction company is building of houses and not hotel services.

d) In the same way, if a carpenter is employed by a building construction company which is undertaking a contract for a secondary school, you must write down building construction and not secondary education.

e) For a construction carpenter who is employed directly by a hotel, you must write hotel services as the major industrial activity of the establishment.

f) The major industrial activity of educational institutions, both public and private, are as follows [table]:

[Column headings:]
(A) Institution
(B) Industrial activity

Institution: Pre-primary / primary schools
Industrial activity: Pre-primary and primary education

Institution: Junior secondary school, junior high school, senior secondary school, senior high school
Industrial activity: General secondary education

Institution: Technical school, vocational school
Industrial activity: Technical and vocational secondary education

Institution: University, polytechnics, colleges, teacher training colleges, nursing training colleges
Industrial activity: Higher education

This means that when recording main service for persons employed in educational institutions, you should indicate precisely whether respondents work in primary schools, secondary schools, polytechnics, universities, etc.

g) Human health activities
In the same way, a more detailed description of the service offered is required for those employed by health institutions (i.e. hospitals, clinics, etc.). You should differentiate between health facilities which offer both in-patient and out-patient services and those which offer only out-patient services. For health institutions like the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ridge Hospital, Kaneshie Polyclinic, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital which have both in-patient and out-patient facilities, the main service will be "hospital activities". For those clinics which have only out-patient facilities, the main service is medical and dental activities.

h) Insurance
You should also make a clear distinction between respondents who work in insurance companies which deal with life insurance and those who cover non-life insurance e.g. marine, fire, aviation, property, health, etc.

i) Wholesale trade
In wholesale trade, distinction should be made between trading in specialized and non-specialized goods. This means dealing in one type of goods e.g. textile clothing and footwear; electronic and telecommunication equipment and parts or dealing in a variety of goods without any particular specialization.

[Below the text there is a graph showing the types of wholesale trade and the correspondent codes.]

j) Retail trade
Similarly, for retail trade, distinction is required first by type of sale outlet i.e. retail trade in stores and retail trade not in stores. For retail trade in stores, further distinction is required between specialized (i.e. range of items sold) and non-specialized retail trade.

Retail trade not in stores is classified by forms of trade e.g. retail sale in stalls and markets, door to door, mail order, by vending machines, on the street, in front of houses, etc.

[Below the text there is a graph showing the types of retail trade and the correspondent codes.]

k) At the market place, different economic activities are carried out. For example, cloth selling, food selling, dressmaking/tailoring/embroidery, corn milling, chop bar activities, hairdressing/barbering, etc. You must specify the actual economic activity of the respondent in the market. Do not record vague terms like 'market activities.'

These distinctions are necessary because they are classified under different industrial groups.

P16. Employment status: What was (name)'s employment status in that establishment/ industry?

Eight categories have been provided for this question and you must write the appropriate code in the corresponding box.

1. Employee - Write code 1 in the appropriate box for a person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer.

2. Self-employed without employees - Enter code 2 for a person who operates his/her own enterprise (e.g., a farmer, kenkey seller, carpenter) and who does not employ anybody to work for him/her in the operation of his/her enterprise (except perhaps apprentices or contributing family workers). It also includes persons who pay themselves on own account (e.g. financial consultant, lawyer, hairdresser, dressmaker, etc.). Note that apprentices must not be classified as employees. You must, however, make sure that the assistants of such a person are actually apprentices and not paid employees before classifying the respondent in this group.

3. Self-employed with employees - Enter code 3 for a person who operates his/her own enterprise directly or through another person (e.g. a manager or caretaker) and who for the operation of this enterprise hires one or more employees. Note that the persons considered employees here exclude contributing family workers and apprentices, whether they are given allowances or not.

4. Casual worker - Refers to any person who provides labor or services under an irregular or informal working arrangement. They are contracted from time to time for short periods to perform specific jobs and have limited entitlement to benefits and little or no security of employment. They are also normally paid through the casual payroll. Enter code 4 for such persons.

5. Contributing family worker - Record code 5 in the appropriate box for a person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member of his or her family without payment of wages or salary.

Note that a family member who works for pay must be classified as an employee.

6. Apprentice - This category refers to a worker (male or female) who is learning a trade and who normally works under the supervision of a qualified worker. He/she may or may not be given an allowance.

7. Domestic employee (house help)- These are persons who are engaged to render household service with or without pay.

8. Other - To this category belong all persons who do not fall into any of the above groups

P17. Employment sector: In what sector was (name) mainly working?

This question relates to the sector of employment in which (name) is working. The following explanations of employment sectors have been given to guide you choose the appropriate option.

1. Public - Code 1 if respondent works or worked in the public sector which is made up of establishments that are largely regulated, owned or controlled by the central or local government e.g. ministries, other government departments and agencies, district assemblies, national mobilization program, etc.

2. Private Formal - Record 2 for persons who worked in large/organised establishments owned and controlled by private person(s). These establishments include Uniliver, Darko Farms, Japan Motors, Nestle, CFAO, Shell, MTN, UT Bank, etc. They are formal in the sense that they have established procedures for keeping records, recruitment, promotion, and dismissals.

3. Private Informal - Record code 3 for persons who worked in small establishments owned and controlled by private person(s). They are informal in the sense that they have no established procedures for keeping records, recruitments, promotion and dismissals, e.g. Kumasi Magazine garages, Abossey Okai spare parts shops, table top shops, etc.

4. Semi-public/parastatal - Record 3 in the appropriate box if respondent works in corporations and boards that are partly or fully owned by the government. These do not, however, depend on the consolidated fund or government funds. They normally generate their own income and have some autonomy e.g. ECG, VRA, Ghana Water Company, Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, Graphic Communications Group Limited, etc.

5. NGOs (local and international) - Enter code 4 for respondents who work in non-profit making organizations which aim at providing services / facilities / assistance to the government and communities. There are two main types of NGO's.
(i) Local NGO's e.g. Friends for the Mentally Retarded. Ghana Society for the blind, etc.

(ii) International NGO's e.g. Save the Children Fund, International Needs, Water Aid, Help Age, World Vision International, ADRA, Care International, etc.
6. International Organizations - Write down 5 in the box for persons who work in international organizations. This includes UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, FAO, UNFPA, WHO, AU, ECA, World Bank, etc.

P18. Disability: This question is to be asked of all household members.

Does (name) have any serious disability that limits his/her full participation in some life activities (such as mobility, work, social life, etc.?)

Persons with disabilities are defined as those who are unable to or are restricted in the performance of specific tasks/activities due to loss of function of any part of the body as a result of impairment or malformation. Examples are persons with visual/sight impairment, hearing impairment, mental retardation, emotional or behavioral disorders and physically challenged persons. A disability could be partial or total, sensory or physical and an individual may suffer from one or more disabilities. A person is considered disabled if despite the use of assistive device or supportive environment (such as eye glasses and hearing aids), the limitation/restriction cannot be improved.

Note that for each of the categories (i.e. a - g), there should be either a 'yes' or 'no' response.

1. Visual/sight impairment (blind and partially sighted)
The purpose of this item is to identify those who are restricted in the performance of a specific task or an activity for which sight is essential. Persons who are completely or partially blind and those who have difficulty in seeing or reading fall into this category. If a person is wearing glasses, make sure they understand that the question refers to difficulties they may have seeing while wearing their glasses. For such persons, shade the circle below the "yes" column.

2. Hearing impairment (deaf, hard at hearing)
You should classify, under this category, persons who have serious hearing limitation or problems of any kind with their hearing that contribute to difficulty in doing any aspect of their daily activities. It can be that they cannot hear when someone talks to them directly in a quiet space. They may not be able to hear in one ear or both. Any problem with hearing that they consider serious or important should be captured. If the person is wearing hearing aids, make sure that they understand that the question refers to difficulties they may have in hearing when they are wearing their hearing aids. For such persons, shade the circle for "yes".

3. Speech impairment
Speech is said to be impaired when it deviates so much that it interferes with communication (that is, the speaker cannot be understood) or when the speech causes the speaker or listener to be distressed (e.g. stammering, stuttering, cluttering, and mis-articulation).

4. Physical (e.g. needs wheel chair, clutches or prosthesis, leg, hand usage limitations)
Persons in the household with difficulties in moving parts of their bodies such as arms, legs or neck should be classified in this category. They may have problems walking more than a block or some short distance, or the problem can be that they cannot walk up or down steps without difficulty. In other cases, they may not be able to walk a short distance without stopping to rest or they may not be able to walk without using some type of assistive device such as a cane, a walker, wheelchair or crutches.

The capacity to walk should be without assistance of any device or human support. If such assistance is needed, the person has difficulty in walking. Note: If the person is using an assistive device such as a wheelchair or has a person to help him or her in walking, it is highly likely that they have difficulty in walking. For such persons, shade the circle below the "yes" column.

5. Intellectual (serious difficulty in learning)
Intellectually challenged (or mentally retarded) persons are those who have substantial limitation in their mental functions. Such persons are characterized by sub-average intellectual functioning and this exists concurrently with one or more deficiencies in adaptive skills during the developmental period (0-18 years). Adaptive skills include communication skills, self-care, home living, social skills, etc. These persons usually have difficulty doing things their peers can do, for example, a ten-year old may have difficulty in doing things such as wearing a dress, using a spoon, playing with friends, etc. For such persons, shade the circle corresponding to "yes" under this heading.

6. Emotional/behavioral disorders
This refers to a disability that is characterized by behavioral and emotional responses which sometimes affect other people and impose undue stress on them. Emotional disorders are usually inward feelings that may lead to isolation, withdrawal, moodiness, weeping, etc., while behavior disorder is an outward expression characterized by hitting, shouting and distraction that are generally aggressive and violent. People who tend to hear voices or see things that others do not see or hear should be classified under this category. Also included in this category are persons who have changed so much that they have stopped cleaning themselves, dressing properly or tend to speak or move in a strange way. For such persons, shade the circle under the "yes" column in P18f.

7. Other (specify)
This category includes those considered by the household as having difficulty in carrying out normal activities but cannot be classified under any of the above-mentioned categories. This category also includes dwarfism, hunchback, albinism, etc. For such persons, shade the circle under the "yes" column and specify the type of disability in the space provided.

P19. Information, communication, and technology
Ask questions P19a and P19b if (name) is 12 years and older

P19a. Does (name) own a mobile phone?

The purpose of this question is to collect data on the number of persons aged 12 years and over who own mobile phones. Only the number of persons (male / female) who own mobile phones is required and not the number of mobile phones owned by each person. If a respondent owns a mobile phone, shade the circle under "yes". If he/she does not have a mobile phone, shade the circle for "no".

P19b. Does (name) use internet facility (at home, internet cafe, on phone, other mobile device, etc.)?

This question seeks to know the number of persons (male and female) aged 12 years and over who have access to internet facility at home, internet cafe, on phone, other mobile device, etc. An internet is a linked global network of computers in which users at one computer, if they have permission, get information from other computers in the network. Internet access is assumed to be not only via a computer - it may also be by mobile phones, PDA, game machine, digital television, etc. Note that if a respondent has at least used it, even if once in the past 12 months, he/she should be recorded as using the internet by shading the circle under the 'yes' column. If respondent does not use internet facility, shade the circle representing 'no' for that individual.

P20a. Number of children ever born alive (answer for females 12 years old and older): How many children has (name) ever born alive?

Question 20a is to be asked of only females aged 12 years and older. A live birth is defined as the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, which after separation, cried, breathed or showed any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Children born alive includes male and female children born alive and still living and those who have since died. It excludes children who did not show any signs of life at birth (still births/fetal deaths).

Information on the number of children born alive includes all children born alive during the lifetime of the female concerned up to the Census Night. The number recorded should include all male and female children born alive whether born in or out of marriage, born in present or previous marriage, or in a de facto union. It also includes all children of the female concerned living with her in the household as well as those living elsewhere. Excluded are adopted children, step children and children of other relations, e.g. sisters and cousins.

You should record the number of all live births of the female concerned by sex and in 2 digits. If the female concerned has not had any live birth during her lifetime, you should record 00 in the boxes provided and go the next eligible female.

P20b. Number of children surviving (answer for females 12 years and older): How many children ever born alive to [name] are still surviving (living with you or elsewhere)?

This includes all children (male and female children) born alive by the female concerned who are still living. It also includes all surviving children (male and female) of the woman living with her in the same household and those living elsewhere.

You should record the number of children born alive who are still alive by sex in 2 digits in the boxes provided. If the woman has no surviving children you should record 00 in the boxes provided.

You should note that the number of children surviving should not be more than the number of children ever born in P20a.

P20c. Number of children born alive in the past 12 months (answer for females 12 to 54 years): How many children has (name) born alive in the last 12 months?

Question P20c is to be asked of only females aged 12 to 54 years old who have had a live birth in the 12 months preceding Census Night. The number of births must be recorded by sex. It includes children born alive within this period but who have since died.

If any female respondent aged 12 - 54 had a live birth within the reference period, record the number of births by sex in the appropriate box/boxes. You should record this in the correct column number of the respondent. If no children were born alive by any female respondent aged 12 - 54 during the 12 months before Census Night, record 0 in the boxes provided for such respondent.

Questions in sections M, C, and G are to be administered to household population (i.e. non-household population should not be asked these questions). The questions are to be asked of either the head of the household or any adult member of the household.

M. Mortality

M01. Has any member of this household died in the past 12 months?

[Below the text there is a blank questions M01 from the enumeration form]

This question seeks to identify all household members who have died within a specific time period (i.e. 12 months) before Census Night. The information collected is used to estimate the level and pattern of mortality.

M02. If yes in M01, record the following information about each deceased person who died in the past months.

[Below the text an image of a blank mortality section from the enumeration form]

If the response to M01 is yes, then information should be sought for each household in terms of the total number of deaths in the 12-month period prior to the census date. For each deceased person reported, name, sex, age at death and whether death was due to accident, violence, homicide, suicide, etc. should be collected. Care should be taken to clearly specify the reference period to the respondent so as to avoid errors due to the misinterpretation of the period of death. Note that age at death should be recorded in completed years. For children less than one year at the time of death, record 00.

M02. (E) Did death occur while pregnant, during delivery or within 6 weeks after the end of a pregnancy or child birth?

This section is only for deceased females 12 - 54 years. It seeks to collect data on pregnancy-related deaths in the household in the 12 months before Census Night. A pregnancy-related death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 6 weeks (42 days) of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of cause. Find out whether at the time of death, the deceased was pregnant, giving birth or died within 6 weeks (42 days) following child birth or the termination of the pregnancy.

C. Information communication technology (ICT)

C01. Does the household have a fixed telephone line at home?

Question C01 seeks to find out if the household has a fixed telephone line at home e.g. Vodafone (formerly Ghana Telecom), Kasapa, etc. A fixed telephone line refers to a telephone line connecting a customer's terminal equipment (e.g. telephone set, facsimile machine) to the public switch telephone network. Take note that the telephone set or facsimile machine must be in the dwelling of the household.

If the household has a fixed line, shade the 'yes' circle. If the household does not have a fixed line, shade the circle corresponding to 'no'.

C02. Does the household or any member of the household own a desktop/laptop computer?

Question C02 also seeks to find out whether the household or any member of the household owns a personal/laptop computer. Note that computer here does not include equipment with embedded computing abilities such as mobile cellular phones, personal digital assistants or television sets.

Shade the circle for 'Yes' if the household has a desktop or laptop computer and 'No' if the household does not own a desktop or a laptop computer.

G. Agriculture activity (exclude backyard gardening)

G01. Does any member of your household cultivate crops or tree plants, rear livestock or breed fish for sale or family gain? (Exclude farm laborers).

a. Crop farming
b. Tree growing
c. Livestock rearing
d. Fish farming

Question G01 seeks information on members of the household who cultivate crops or tree plants, rear livestock or breed fish for sale or family gain. Exclude persons who do not have their own farms. Also exclude backyard farmers or persons who only worked as farm laborers on farms owned by other households. Persons who have been recorded as crop or livestock farmers and fish farmers in P14 are included. Also included are persons who, in addition to their occupation recorded in P14, engage in agricultural activity.

You should shade the "yes" circle if a member of the household engages in any of the listed agricultural activity. If no member of the household has engaged in the listed agricultural activities, you should shade the "no" circle and skip to H01.

G02. How many household members cultivate crops or tree plants, rear livestock or breed fish for sale or family gain

  • Include settler farmers
  • Include farm caretakers and farm managers
  • Exclude sea fishermen
  • Exclude absentee farm owners
  • Exclude workers of company plantations like BOPP, TOPP, etc.

Record the number of males and females in the household who cultivate crops or tree plants, rear livestock or breed fish for sale or family gain. If none, write 00 in the boxes.

G03a. What type(s) of crop farming and tree growing activity is your household engaged in?

In G03a, you should write down the type of crop farming and/or tree planting activity carried out during that period. For example, if maize was grown write down maize. A space has been provided to list a maximum of six crops cultivated or tree growing activities carried out during the reference period.

G03b.
In G03b, enter the appropriate code for each crop/tree growing activity listed in G03a (refer to appendix 5).

G03c.
In G03c, write in the appropriate box the farm size and indicate the unit of measurement used. For example, if farm size is 12 acres, write down 12 in the size boxes provided and enter 1 (code for acre) in the unit code box. Note that if the household has 2 or more maize fields (farms) located at different places, you should record that the household has a maize farm. The estimated size of the farm put together is the sum of the size for the 2 or more maize fields. If one acre of land is planted with maize, cassava and beans, the area of each crop of maize, cassava and beans should be recorded as one acre.

The sizes of farms/fields should be approximated to the nearest whole number. For example, if the size of a pepper farm is less than half of any unit (e.g. acre, pole, plot, hectare, rope, etc.) record 00. If the size of the farm/field is 1.4 which is less than 1.5, it should be approximated to 1. If it is 1.5 or more (i.e. 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9) it should be approximated to 2. You should also record the unit used for measuring farm size e.g. acre, hectare, pole, rope, etc. In addition, you should record the type of cropping practiced for each crop listed e.g. mixed cropping, intercropping or mono cropping.

G04.
Question G04 seeks information on the types and numbers of livestock and type of fishery activity(s) that the household is currently rearing. The interviewer should first list the name of the livestock or fishery activity in G04A and indicate the codes in their respective rows in G04B. For example, if the household is engaged in rearing pigs only, the interviewer should write 'pig' in G04A and code 10 in G04B and indicate the number of pigs that the household is rearing in G04C at the time of the visit.

A household is allowed to name a total of 4 animals, birds and fishery activity. For the fishery activities, the number of fingerlings bred should be recorded. You should record 00 if the answer is "don't know".

Concepts and definitions not listed elsewhere

i. Agricultural activity: Agriculture is usually defined to include all production activities in four broad areas or categories namely crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry (tree planting and logging).

ii. Aquaculture: Refers to the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, lobsters, shrimps, crabs and also aquatic plants

iii. Crop: Any plant that is grown and intended to be used as food, for example, cereals such as maize, millet and rice; roots and tubers such as cassava, yam and cocoyam; Tree crops such as plantain, cocoa, coffee and coconut; legumes such as beans; vegetables such as tomatoes and cabbage.

iv. Mixed cropping: It is a farming system in which two or more crops are grown on the same piece of land at the same time. Normally, there is no specific arrangement of the crops on the land, e.g.
  • Growing maize, cassava and cocoyam on a piece of land.
  • Growing plantain and maize on the same piece of land.
  • Growing pawpaw with banana on the same land.
v. Intercropping: It is a farming system in which a second (different) crop is introduced within the rows of a first crop planted in rows. Planting of the second crop could be at the early, middle or late growth stage of the first crop. E.g.
  • Intercropping plantain with maize.
  • Intercropping teak trees with grasses.
  • Intercropping maize with groundnut.
vi. Mono cropping: It is a farming system in which one particular crop is grown on a piece of land at a time.

vii. Tree growing: Tree growing activities include the stage of nursing of the seedlings, planting and maintenance (weeding, pruning, etc.) of the farm, until the trees are mature and harvested.

viii. Livestock: Refers to all animals, birds and insects kept or reared in captivity mainly for agricultural purposes. This includes large ruminants (cattle, buffaloes); small ruminants (sheep and goats), pigs; poultry; insects (bees and silkworms). Domestic animals, such as cats, dogs, are excluded unless they are being raised for food or other agricultural purposes.

ix. Fishery: Fishery activities here include fish farming or aquaculture.

x. Fish farming: The production of fish in a well demarcated water body.

Chapter 13: Housing conditions

13.1. Introduction

The housing questions are administered to households. The questions relate to the living quarters and their occupants. The head of household or any responsible household member can provide the responses.

It may not always be necessary for the enumerator to ask certain questions if the information can be obtained through direct observation. This is particularly the case with questions on construction materials. However, if you are not sure about anything, seek clarification from the respondent, e.g. if a house is covered/plastered with cement and you are not sure of what the original building material is, you should ask the respondent politely.

It is important to note that for vacant housing units fill only H01, H02 and H04.

13.2. How to complete the housing questions

H01. In what type of dwelling does the household live?

This question refers to the place where the household lives (living quarters) i.e. the space occupied by the household. A living quarter is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. It could be a building or some form of space or shelter arranged for human habitation which was occupied at the time of the census (e.g. a hut or group of huts). Living quarters originally intended for habitation and used wholly for other purposes at the time of the census must be excluded from the census coverage, while shelters not intended for habitation but occupied at the time of the census must be included. It may contain one or more households. The essential features of living quarters are separateness and independence. An enclosure may be considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc. and covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking meals or protecting themselves from the hazards of climate and the environment. Such an enclosure may be considered as independent when it has direct access from outside the structure (e.g. from the street) or from a public or common staircase, passage or grounds, i.e. occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through anybody else's living quarters.

Attached rooms having an independent entrance, or detached rooms for habitation and used as part of the living quarters should be counted as part of the living quarters. Thus, living quarters may be constituted of rooms or group of rooms with independent entrances, or of separate buildings.

Types of dwelling
Eleven categories have been provided for this question. You should shade the circle corresponding to the appropriate response for each dwelling.

01. Separate house - refers to a building, which consists of a single detached housing unit (two or single story) or a single detached living quarters.

02. Semi-detached house - refers to a single housing unit that is attached to another single housing unit. The adjoining housing units would usually have a common dividing wall which extends from ground to the roof. Row houses are included in this category. This could be single or story building.

03. Flat/apartment - It is a dwelling/living quarters located in a building, which contains several sets of housing units. The flat/apartment building usually consists of several floors. The housing units are accessed by a common stair way.

04. Compound house (rooms) - refers to living quarters (room or set of rooms) which are located within a compound, typically referred to as compound house. (A compound need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or hedge).

05. Huts/buildings (same compound) - refers to living quarters made up of a group of huts or buildings located on the same compound which are being used as the place of abode by one or more households.

06. Huts/buildings (different compounds) - refers to living quarters made up of a group of huts or buildings located on different compounds which are being used as the place of abode by one or more households.

07. Tent - A movable shelter made of cloth supported by a framework of poles and ropes, used especially by campers, Red Cross men/women or refugees.

08. Improvised home (kiosk/container, etc.) - An improvised housing unit is an independent makeshift shelter or structure built of materials such as wood, metal, cardboard or plastic sheets and without a predetermined plan, for the purpose of habitation, which is used as living quarters at the time of the census. Included in this category are squatters huts, kiosks, containers, etc. as well as any similar premises arranged and used as living quarters, which does not comply with generally accepted standard of habitation. This type of housing unit is usually found in urban and sub-urban areas, particularly at the peripheries of principal cities.

09. Living quarters attached to/inside the shop, office, etc. - This category comprises housing units that are located in buildings that have not been built / constructed for human habitation but which are actually in use as living quarters at the time of the census. They include housing units in corn milling structures, warehouses, offices, shops, etc.

Premises that have been converted for human habitation, although not initially designed/constructed for this purpose must not be included in this category e.g. an old school block or cocoa shed which later on is converted into living quarters, etc. This should be classified in category 11, other (specify).

10. Uncompleted building - This is a building or structure that has not been completed but which provides shelter for some households.

11. Other (specify) - If a type of dwelling/living quarters does not fall into any of the above categories you must specify it in the space provided for other (specify). Dilapidated buildings marked for demolition but which are still inhabited, caves and other natural shelters fall within this category.

H02. What is the main construction material used for outer walls of this dwelling?
This question refers to the construction materials of the external (outer) walls of the dwelling in which the household lives. If there are a number of separate buildings/structures in which the household lives, the material used for the construction of the walls of the largest building/structure must be recorded. Similarly, if the walls are constructed with more than one material, the predominant material must be reported. Note that outer wall is not the fence wall but the external wall of the dwelling. Ten categories have been provided for this question. You should mark the appropriate box.

01. Mud bricks/earth - This refers to outer walls which have been constructed with mud (earth) only. In certain cases, this mud covers a wattle (sticks or twigs) framework. In other cases, mud structures are plastered with cement. Such cases should be classified in this category. Dwelling unit constructed with un-burnt mud bricks also fall in this category.

02. Wood - This category includes walls which have been constructed with wood such as wooden planks, boards, tree stems/wooden branches, or some other form of timber.

03. Metal sheets or slate/asbestos - These refer mainly to corrugated iron, zinc or aluminum sheets and asbestos that have been used for the construction of outer walls of dwellings.

04. Stone - This refers to walls of dwellings which consist mainly of stones or rocks.

05. Burnt bricks - This category is made up of walls which have been constructed with burnt bricks.

06. Cement blocks/concrete - This category refers to walls which have been built with cement blocks or which have been built with reinforced concrete. Walls of dwellings that have been constructed with cement blocks are more common than those constructed with reinforced concrete. Note that in many cases houses built with cement blocks will be plastered over with a mixture of cement and sand.

07. Landcrete - This refers to blocks made from a mixture of cement and local earth. The cement in the mixture is usually of a lower proportion than what is used in concrete and cement blocks. The use of landcrete is not widespread. It is found mainly in small towns and the peripheries of larger towns.

08. Bamboo - This refers to walls that are made of bamboo.

09. Palm leaves or thatch (grass) or raffia - Included in this category are palm leaves, raffia and any kind of grass/straw or leaves used for the outer walls of the dwelling.

10. Other (specify) - Materials used for the outer walls of dwellings which do not fall in any of the above categories must be specified in the space provided.

H03. What is the main construction material used for the floor of the dwelling?

This question seeks` information on the main materials used for the construction of the floor of the living quarters. Nine categories have been provided for this section. You should shade the appropriate circle.

1. Mud/earth - This category of floors is made up of earth, swish, or un-burnt mud bricks.

2. Wood - This refers to floors that have been constructed with wood, such as parquet (wooden tiles), wooden planks, boards, tree stems or some other form of timber.

3. Stone - This category comprises floors made of stone(s) and rock surfaces.

4. Burnt bricks - Floors made with burnt bricks must be classified in this category.

5. Cement/concrete - This category refers to concrete or cement floors.

6. Vinyl tiles - These are tough flexible plastic, used for floors.

7. Ceramic / granite / porcelain / marble tiles - Dwelling units which have ceramic, marble/granite and porcelain tiles for floors must be classified in this category.

8. Terrazzo / terrazzo tiles - This category refers to terrazzo floors made with stone chippings and concrete/cement. It may be polished or rough.

9. Other (specify) - Materials used for the construction of floors of dwellings which do not fall into any of the categories indicated above must be specified in the space provided.

H04. What is the main material used for the roof of this dwelling?

The main material used for the construction of the roof of the living quarters has been classified into the following categories. You should shade the circle indicated against the appropriate response.

1. Mud / mud bricks / earth - This category of roofs is made up of earth / swish / un-burnt mud bricks.

2. Wood - This category comprises roofs that have been constructed with wooden materials such as planks, boards, etc.

3. Metal sheets - These refer mainly to corrugated iron, zinc or aluminum sheets that have been used for roofing the dwelling.

4. Slate/asbestos - This category refers to slate/asbestos sheets that have been used to roof the dwelling/living quarters.

5. Cement/concrete - This refers to concrete roofs. Cement/concrete roofs are mainly found in towns/cities and are seldom used to roof houses, though they are often used for office buildings and for shops.

6. Roofing tiles - These roofing materials are made of earth hardened by baking.

7. Bamboo - This refers to roofs made with bamboo.

8. Thatch, palm leaves, or raffia - Any kind of grass/straw/reeds (thatch), palm leaves or raffia; as well as any other form of leaves must be classified in this category.

9. Other (specify) - All other materials used for roofing of dwellings (e.g. plastic sheets or polythene, etc.) which do not fall into any of the above stated categories must be specified in the space provided.

H05. Tenure/holding arrangement: What is the present holding/tenancy arrangement with regard to this household?

Tenure refers to the arrangements under which the household occupies all or part of the living quarters (housing unit or compound). Six categories have been provided for this question. You should mark the appropriate box.

1. Owner occupied - If the household or a member of the household owns the living quarters (housing unit or compound), it should be classified under this category. This category also includes housing units that are being purchased.

2. Renting - This category refers to an arrangement where money is paid periodically (weekly, monthly, yearly etc.) for the space (living quarters) occupied by the household. It includes situations where:
(i) Members of a household rent all or part of the housing unit/compound as a main tenant or
(ii) Member of a household rents part of housing unit/compound as a sub-tenant.
3. Rent-free - This category refers to a situation where the household occupies their premises (living quarter) rent-free (i.e. free from cash rent) with or without the permission of the owner.

4. Perching - Perching generally refers to an arrangement where a person/household moves in to join another household in their living quarters; usually for short term (on temporary basis) while he/she makes arrangements to relocate.

5. Squatting - This category refers to a situation where the household occupies their premises without permission from owners and without paying for it.

6. Other (specify) - All other types of holding/tenancy arrangements of living quarters which do not fall into the categories indicated above must be specified in the space provided.

H06. Ownership type: Who owns this dwelling?

This question refers to the type of ownership of the living quarters themselves and not the land on which the living quarters are constructed. Type of ownership must not be confused with tenure, which is discussed in question H05.

Living quarters are classified by type of ownership as follows: Shade the appropriate circle.

1. Owned by household member - In this category the dwelling is owned wholly or partly by the household member (who owes nothing on the dwelling) and who is also occupying it with other household members.

2. Being purchased - This refers to living quarters being purchased by a household member and paid for in installments e.g. under mortgaged arrangement, loans from banks or individuals.

3. Relative not member of household - This refers to living quarters owned by a person who is not a member of the household but related to the household member(s).

4. Other private individual - This category refers to the living quarters (housing units/compound) which are owned by persons not related to the occupants.

5. Private employer - This refers to living quarters (housing unit) that have been provided by the employer (private employer) for the household. The private employer may or may not own the housing unit.

6. Other private agency - This refers to living quarters (housing unit) that are privately owned by other private agencies, corporations, cooperatives, housing associations, estate developers, etc.

7. Public / Government ownership - Included in this category are living quarters owned by the public sector, such as the central government, local government, (district assemblies) public boards and corporations.

8. Other (specify) - All other types of ownership of living quarters which do not fall into the categories indicated above must be specified in the space provided.

H07. Rooms

A room is defined as a space in the housing unit or other living quarters enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, or at least to a height of 2 meters, of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult, that is, at least 4 square meters. Note that there are cases of two or more persons sharing a single room that have separate catering arrangements. Such persons are therefore single person household. The number of rooms occupied by such households should be one (1) for each person.

H07a. How many rooms does this household occupy?

Information on rooms occupied by households provides an indication of overcrowding and adequacy of dwelling stock. It also reflects the socio-economic condition of the household. You should count living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms but not bathrooms and kitchens, and record the number in 2 digits.

H07b. Sleeping rooms - How many of the rooms are used for sleeping?

Only rooms used for sleeping must be counted unless the room/place has been specifically converted for sleeping. Conversion here means a change of its original use. Record the number of rooms used for sleeping in 2 digits.

Sleeping rooms must exclude the kitchen, dining room, study, habitable attic, rooms used for professional or business purposes (e.g. stores or garages,) unless these are used as sleeping places. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, passageways, veranda and lobbies should also not be counted as sleeping rooms.

When a person or household sleeps in a room which is also used for business purposes, e.g. shop/store or office or workshop, the room must be recorded and the information must be appropriately recorded in question H01 (category 10) above.

Note that if the number of rooms used by the household is more than 1, skip to H08.

H07c. Shared sleeping room - (For household using one sleeping room.) Does the household share this sleeping room with other households?

[Below the text there is an image of a blank question H07c from the enumeration form]

This question seeks to find out households who share one sleeping room. The Enumerator should find out if that sleeping room is being shared by other households. e.g., two friends who form separate households but use one sleeping room.

H07d. Number of households sharing one sleeping room - (if yes in H07c) How many households (including your household) share this sleeping room?

This question also seeks to find out the number of households who share one sleeping room. You should record the number of households who share this single room including the household of the respondent.

H08. Lighting: What is the main source of lighting for your dwelling?

This refers to the main source of light in the living quarters during the night.

01. Electricity (mains) - This category includes electricity from the mains (ECG / community).

02. Electricity (private generator) - This category includes electricity supply from private generating plants and other sources (industrial plant, mine, etc.)

03. Kerosene lamp - Households that use kerosene lamp with glass shield and wick should be classified under this category.

04. Gas lamp - This includes lamps which use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well as pressure lamps which are pumped before lighted.

05. Solar energy - In this category lighting is derived from solar (Sun's) energy.

06. Candle - This category covers lighting derived from candle.

07. Flashlight / torch - Households that use light from flashlight or torch should be classified under this category.

08. Firewood - This category refers to lighting from firewood.

09. Crop residue - This category refers to lighting from straw (e.g. from maize, rice, coconut husks and corn).

10. Other (specify) - All other types of lighting which are not captured in the above categories must be specified. They include other kerosene lamp or oil lamp without glass shield e.g. "bobo / pakas / awereba kanea", etc.)

H09a. Water supply - What is the main source of drinking water for this household?

The focus of this question is the main source of drinking water available for the use of the household.

Sometimes there is a standpipe in a house but only some households are entitled to use it. Where a household is not entitled to use the standpipe in the house but has to draw its water from other sources e.g. well or stream, the actual source of drinking water must be captured.

01. Pipe-borne into dwelling - This category includes water piped into the living quarters/house through an inside plumbing system.

02. Pipe-borne outside dwelling - Households that use water from a standpipe outside the compound or dwelling must be classified in this category.

03. Public tap/standpipe - This category refers to a public water point from which people can collect water. Public tap or standpipe can have one or more taps and are typically made of brickwork, masonry or concrete.

04. Bore-hole / pump / tube well - This category refers to hand dug or drilled well with pump. It also includes deep holes driven, bored or drilled, with the purpose of reaching groundwater supplies.

05. Protected well - This category refers to a hole sunk deep into the earth to reach the water table where water is collected. Protected wells are usually covered with a wooden, concrete or metal slab so that bird droppings and animals cannot fall into the well.

06. Rain water - This category refers to rainwater water collected during rainfall into a container for use.

07. Protected spring water - Spring is where water gushes out from underground water sources or flows down slopes along rock or cliff surfaces with a wall constructed (cement or similar) around it to regulate access to and protect the source.

08. Bottled water - This refers to water which is bottled and sold.

09. Sachet water - This refers water which is put into small sealed plastic bags and sold.

10. Tanker supply / vendor-provided - This category refers to water supplied by tankers.

11. Unprotected well - This is a hole sunk deep into the earth to reach the water table where water is collected. Note that these wells are not covered with anything, thus not protected from dirt.

12. Unprotected spring water - Spring is where water gushes out from underground water sources or flows down slopes along rock or cliff surfaces. Note that in this category no wall is constructed around it and access to the source is not regulated.

13. River / stream - This refers to water flowing from its source downstream towards a specific direction.

14. Dugout / pond / lake / dam / canal - This category refers to a surface area dug for collection of rain water or hole in the ground with water or a large sheet of water with land all round it or wall / bank built to keep back the water.

15. Other (specify) - Any other sources of water not specified under 1-14.

H09b. Water supply - What is the main source of water used by your household for other domestic purposes, such as cooking and washing?

This section refers to the main source of water available for the use of the household for other domestic purposes (for cooking, washing, bathing, etc.).

01. Pipe-borne into dwelling - This category includes water piped into the living quarters/house through an inside plumbing system.

02. Pipe-borne outside dwelling - Households that use water from a standpipe outside the compound or dwelling must be classified in this category.

03. Public tap / standpipe - This category refers to a public water point from which people can collect water. Public tap or standpipe can have one or more taps and are typically made of brickwork, masonry or concrete.

04. Bore-hole / pump / tube well - This category refers to hand dug or drilled well with pump. It also includes deep holes driven, bored or drilled, with the purpose of reaching groundwater supplies.

05. Protected well - This category refers a hole sunk deep into the earth to reach the water table where water is collected. Protected wells are usually covered with a wooden, concrete or metal slab so that bird droppings and animals cannot fall into the well.

06. Rain water - This category refers to rainwater collected during rainfall into a container for use.

07. Protected spring water - Spring is where water gushes out from underground water sources or flows down slopes along rock or cliff surfaces with a wall constructed (cement or similar) around it to regulate access to and protect the source.

08. Tanker supply / vendor-provided - This category refers to water supplied by tankers.

09. Unprotected well - This is a hole sunk deep into the earth to reach the water table where water is collected. Note that these wells are not covered with anything, thus not protected from dirt.

10. Unprotected spring water - Spring is where water gushes out from underground water sources or flows down slopes along rock or cliff surfaces. Note that in this category no wall is constructed around it. Access to the source is also not regulated.

11. River / stream - This refers to water flowing from its source downstream towards a specific direction.

12. Dugout / pond / lake / dam / canal - This category refers to a surface area dug for collection of rain water or hole in the ground with water or a large sheet of water with land all round it or wall / bank built to keep back the water.

13. Other (specify) - Refers to any other sources of water not specified under 1-12. Indicate 13 in the boxes on the top right corner and record the actual response in the space provided below the response codes.

H10. Cooking fuel: What is the main source of cooking fuel for this household?

This question refers to the fuel predominantly used by the household for the preparation of principal meals. If two types of fuel are used, record the one used most often. Ten categories have been provided for this question. You should shade the appropriate circle.

01. None, no cooking - This means no cooking fuel is used by the household being enumerated (i.e. the household does not cook)

02. Wood - This refers to the use of wood fire for cooking.

03. Gas - You should classify households which use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) under this category.

04. Electricity - This category includes electricity from the mains (ECG/Community) and private generating plants and other sources (industrial plant, mine, etc.)

05. Kerosene - This category refers to thin oil distilled from petroleum used as a fuel for cooking.

06. Charcoal - This is made from wood and used as a fuel, especially for cooking food.

07. Crop residue - This category includes straw from maize, paddy rice, coconut husks, groundnut shells etc. used as cooking fuel.

08. Saw dust - These are very small pieces of wood like dust that are produced when wood is milled. It is a residue of saw mills.

09. Animal waste - This category covers droppings of animals e.g. cow dung

10. Other (specify) - Any other type of fuel used for cooking which is not listed in the above categories must be marked as "Other" and specified in the space provided below.

H11. Cooking space (kitchen): What type of cooking space does your household have?

This question seeks to obtain information on whether the living quarters has a kitchen (separate room equipped for the preparation of the principal meals and intended primarily for that purpose), some other space set aside for cooking, or no special place set aside for cooking.

The categories for cooking space are the following:-

1. No cooking - In this category no cooking takes place in the household.

2. Separate room for exclusive use of household - Room in this case excludes temporary structures or sheds which may be used for cooking in the courtyard. To be regarded as a kitchen the room used must be enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering and it must be equipped for the cooking of the principal meals of the household and intended primarily for that purpose. This category refers to a kitchen used exclusively by the household being enumerated.

3. Separate room shared with other household(s) - In this category the kitchen is used by more than one household.

4. Enclosure without roof - In this category, the cooking space has walls but no roof.

5. Structure with roof but without walls - The cooking space in this case is a structure with roof but without walls (e.g. shed) in the house/compound.

6. Bedroom / hall (living room) - This type of cooking space is co-terminus with the bedroom or living room (i.e. preparation of principal meals for the household is carried out in the bedroom/living room).

7. Verandah - Preparation of the principal meals takes place on the verandah of the dwelling.

8. Open space in compound - In this category an open space in compound of the dwelling without any roof or wall is used for cooking meals.

9. Other (specify) - All other types of space used for cooking not mentioned above must be specified in the space provided.

H12. Bathing facilities: What type of bathing facility is used by this household?

This question refers to the place where members of the household have their bath. Bathing facilities are categorized into the following:

(1) Own bathroom for exclusive use - This category refers to households which have bathrooms for their own use (i.e. not shared with other households)

(2) Shared separate bathroom in the same house - Households which share a bathroom with other households in the same house should be classified in this category.

(3) Private open cubicle used for bathing - This category refers to open not roofed cubicle in the house used exclusively by the household.

(4) Shared open cubicle for bathing in the house - In this category the bathing cubicle in the house is shared with other households living in the house.

(5) Public bath house - This category refers to households which use public bathing facilities.

(6) Bathroom in another house - Households which use bathrooms in another house should be classified in this category.

(7) Open space around house - In this category there is no bathroom. Household members use the open space around the house for bathing.

(8) In a river/pond/lake/dam - Household members who have their bath in a river/pond/lake/dam should be classified under this category.

(9) Other (specify) - Other types of bathing space. You should record other types of bathing space used by the household not specified in the categories above.

H13a. Toilet facilities: What type of toilet facility is usually used by this household?

A toilet is an installation for the disposal of human excreta. The enumerator must find out the type of toilet facility that the household uses. If the response to this question is 01, 06 or 07, skip question H13b and H13c and go to question H14.

1. No facility (bush, beach, field) - This category applies to situations where there is no toilet of any kind available for the use of the household and cases where respondents use the bush, beach or field.

2. Water closet (WC) - This refers to flush toilet. A flush toilet is an installation connected to piped water, for humans to discharge their wastes and from which the wastes are flushed by water.

3. Pit latrine - This category refers to deep pits which are used as latrines mainly in rural areas of the country. They are not ventilated i.e. no specific channels have been provided for fumes to escape.

4. KVIP - The Kumasi ventilated improved pit (KVIP) latrine is an improvement over the pit latrine. A pipe is provided through which fumes escape. All types of ventilated pit latrines are included in this category.

5. Bucket / pan - This refers to the type of toilet facility which consists of a Pan/Bucket and a seat. The pan/bucket is usually removed for disposal of the waste.

6. Public toilet (WC, KVIP, Pit, Pan, etc.) - This category refers to cases where members of the household use a communal or public facility.

7. Other (specify) - All other types of toilet facility not mentioned above must be specified in the space provided

H13b. Do you share this toilet facility with other households?

For living quarters reported as having a toilet (i.e. categories 2, 3, 4 and 5 in H13a) question H13b must be asked in order to find out whether the toilet is used exclusively by the household being enumerated or is shared with other households.

Four response categories are provided for this question. These are:

1. Yes, with other household(s) in this house.
Households which share toilet facility in the house with other households also living in the same house should be classified under this category.

2. Yes, with other household(s) from different house.
This category refers to use of toilet facility in the house shared with other households from another house.

3. Yes, with other household(s) located in another house (Go to H14)
Households which use toilet facility located in another house with other households should be classified in this category.

4. No (go to H14)

H13c. How many households use this toilet facility?

This question refers to the number of households (not the number of persons) that use the toilet facility. Record the number in 2 digits.

H14. Solid waste disposal: How does your household dispose of rubbish (refuse)?

This question refers to the collection and disposal of solid waste (rubbish) generated by members of the household (or occupants of the living quarters).

1. Collected - This refers to a situation where the solid waste (rubbish) is either collected by authorized collectors or by self-appointed collectors.

2. Burned by household - In this category the household burns the rubbish.

3. Public Dump - This category refers to households that dispose of solid waste at a locally recognized place (refuse dump).

4. Dumped indiscriminately - This refers to households whose members dispose of solid waste indiscriminately in the bush, along streets or on river banks.

5. Buried by household - This refers to households whose members bury its solid waste (refuse/rubbish).

6. Other (specify) - All other types of solid waste disposal not mentioned above must be specified in the space provided.

H15. Liquid waste disposal: How does your household dispose of liquid waste?

This refers to liquid waste from kitchen, bathroom and washing of clothes, produced by the household or occupants of the living quarters. The liquid waste may be disposed of through the sewerage system, or thrown onto the street or gutter or by some other means.

1. Through the sewerage system - This category refers to liquid waste disposed of through a plumbing system into the sewerage system.

2. Through drainage system into a gutter - Liquid waste disposed through plumbing system into a gutter should be classified in this category.

3. Through drainage system into a pit (soak away) - This refers to liquid waste disposed through a plumbing system into a soak away.

4. Thrown onto the street / outside - This category refers to cases where liquid waste is disposed indiscriminately on the street or outside the house.

5. Thrown into gutters - This refers to liquid waste thrown directly into the gutter.

6. Thrown onto compound - In this category, liquid waste is thrown indiscriminately onto the compound.

7. Other (specify) - Any other means of disposing of liquid waste not captured by response codes 1-6.

[Chapter 14 and appendices from the original document are not presented here, including list of historical events, codes for countries, tribes, districts, and crops/livestock, as well as the description of enumerator's documents.]