Government of Ghana
2000 Population and Housing Census
What to do during enumeration period
6.1 When does enumeration begin
Enumeration of all persons in households and all living quarters must start on the morning of 27th March 2000 for the Census. For the floating population, i.e. outdoor sleepers and transients, enumeration must start a minute after midnight on Census Night (Refer to chapters 7 and 8). Locations of outdoor sleepers should be identified and proper arrangements should be made for their enumeration, e.g. if they are many, arrange with your supervisor for other enumerators to assist.
Note that you must enumerate the inmates of institutions and persons who would be at sea in Ghana's territorial waters about a week before Census Night. Then soon after Census night you must visit the institutions again to update the information on the questionnaires (Refer to chapter 9 for detailed instructions.)
[Section 6.2 has been omitted.]
6.3 What is a house, compound or a housing unit?
A house or compound is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. The essential features are separateness and independence. An enclosure may be considered as
separate if it is surrounded by walls, fences, etc., so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking their meals or protecting themselves from hazards of climate such as storms and the sun.
You must also treat as a house or compound any shelter used as living quarters at the time of the census, e.g., a hut or a group of huts, containers and kiosks. It may contain one or more households.
A compound need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or a hedge. For example, a house, kitchen and toilet may constitute one compound whether or not they are surrounded by a wall, etc.
A housing unit is a single room or group of rooms (or other structure) arranged for human habitation and occupied or intended for occupancy as separate and independent living quarters by a person living alone or persons living together.
In localities where the houses are numbered, you must regard each house number as identifying a separate house or compound. However, if two structurally separate houses bear the same house number, you must regard them as two separate houses and give them two different serial numbers. In addition, give some other description to distinguish one from the other, e.g. House No.A15, owned by Amadu and House No.A15, occupied by Mr. Kwame.
7.1 What is the unit of enumeration?
For the purpose of this Census the units of enumeration are the individual and the housing units. In private houses or compounds an additional unit of enumeration in which persons will be identified is the household. In institutions the unit is the hall, house, wards, cells, etc., of residence, and for outdoor sleepers, it is their location. This chapter deals with household units and institutions while chapter 13 discusses housing conditions.
A household consists of a person or a group of persons who live together in the same house or compound, share the same house-keeping arrangements and are catered for as one unit. It is important to remember that members of a household are not necessarily related (by blood or marriage) because house helpers may form part of a household. On the other hand, not all those related in the same house or compound are necessarily members of the same household. Two brothers who live in the same house with their wives and children may or may not form separate households depending on their catering arrangements. The same can be said of a father and his married children. Thus in many cases, a house or compound may be broken into separate households.
Dividing a house or compound into households may not be easy. However, the following examples must guide you in deciding who must form a household:
b. In large family houses where you have more than two generations of people living in the same house, you must not automatically treat the grandfather, his married children and their families as forming one household. First, find out which members of his/her house have a common catering arrangement and regard each such unit as a household. He/she may, for example, have four sons, each of whom has a separate arrangement for the preparation of food for his own "family". Each of these units must be treated as a household. If the father shares meals with one of his married children, he must be classified as part of that household. An exception to the above principle is where in a house or compound, a man has several wives with each wife and her children occupying their own set of rooms in the house, and the man eats successively with each of his wives. In such a case, the man, his wives, their children, etc., must be treated as one household.
c. You may also come across a married man who does not live in the same house as his wife or wives. The children may take their meals in their respective mothers' houses. But if the children sleep in their father's house, they must be considered as forming one household with the father (not the mother). Each mother then constitutes a separate household.
If a house, barracks or quarters are divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one household. The broad principle is that two households can live in one house but one household cannot live in two houses or compounds, as in the latter case, it must be regarded as two separate households.
d. A lodger who sleeps and eats at least one meal a day with the household must be considered as a member of that household.
e. A househelp and his family who live in a house or in an out-house in the same compound as the employer but prepare their own food and eat separately must not be considered as members of the employer's household. They must be considered as forming a separate household. However, a househelp who eats and sleeps with the family of the employer must be considered as a member of the employer's household.
g. It will be seen from the example (f) above that one person may constitute a household if the person lives alone in a house or part of a house, or even if the person lives with others in one room but prepares and eats his/her meals separately.
h. The members of staff of institutions must be treated as members of households. They must never be treated as inmates of institutions.
7.3 Who is a usual member of the household?
A usual member of the household is a person who (whether present or absent on Census Night) has spent at least the last six months with the household.
The following, however, must also be considered as usual members of the household, even though they do not satisfy the residential requirements:
b. Seasonal workers who return home after a season.
c. Students in boarding schools or hostels except students who have spent six months or more before Census Night outside the country and those who were outside the country on Census Night and intend to stay outside the country for the next six months or more.
d. Soldiers in barracks where they are catered for as a group.
7.4 Who is a member of an institution?
For the purpose of the Census, any inmate of an institution who slept in that particular institution on Census Night must be considered as a member of that institution and enumerated as such. The following are examples of such institutions:
b. Hospitals including mental hospitals, maternity homes, divine healers' and herbalists' establishments, rehabilitation centres and similar institutions for the physically and mentally handicapped.
c. Prisons including borstal institutions, remand homes and industrial schools.
d. Service barracks including army camps, military academies, police training schools and colleges.
Note that staff members living in private households in the institutions specified in (a), (b), (c) and (d) above must be counted as living in private houses and must not be considered as inmates of institutions.
7.5 Who constitute the floating population?
There are certain categories of persons such as outdoor sleepers and transients who may be counted more than once or may not be enumerated at all if care is not taken. These persons constitute the floating population.
The following are examples of persons in this category:
b. Persons who spent Census Night in hotels, rest houses, transit quarters, road camps and labour transit camps.
d. Soldiers on field exercise.
e. Fishermen and other persons who were at sea in Ghana's territorial waters on Census Night.
f. All persons who slept in lorry parks, markets, in front of stores and offices, public bathrooms, petrol filling stations, railway stations, veranda, pavements, churches and all such places which are not houses or compounds.
g. Beggars and vagrants (mentally sick or otherwise).
Persons at funerals, dances, parties, etc., on Census Night must not be treated as part of the floating population without further probing. If the respondent spent Census Night at such a social gathering he must be enumerated in the house to which he finally returned after the function. For instance, if Kwamena Appiah after the social function went to sleep with a friend after Census Night the former must be enumerated in the friend's household.
7.6 Census Night - All enumeration must relate to Census Night
In order to meet one of the essential requirements for a modern census, a Census Night has to be designated. It is a reference time to which all enumeration must relate. Note that only persons alive in Ghana at midnight of this day must be enumerated. Census Night is being publicised in advance throughout the country so that it will be easily remembered by everyone. Remember that all the questions you ask must relate to Census Night unless you have specific instructions to the contrary in this manual, e.g., the economic and housing questions.
Note that between the Census Night and the time of enumeration, the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after Census Night you must enumerate him as living on Census Night; if a baby was born after Census Night you must not enumerate him. Visitors are enumerated if they spent Census Night in the household.
7.7 Who should be enumerated in the inside pages of the questionnaire
Every person who spent Census Night, in a household, an institution or out of doors in your EA must be enumerated. All usual members of a household and their visitors who spent Census Night in the house must be enumerated on the inside pages of the household questionnaire. All usual members or other persons who did not spend Census Night in the house must not be enumerated in the inside pages of the household questionnaire for that particular household.
7.8 Look out for special omissions
There are certain types of persons who are likely to be omitted. Make sure to enumerate the following categories of persons who spent Census Night in the household:
b. All persons who died after Census Night but who were alive on Census Night;
c. All physically or mentally sick persons;
d. All old men and women;
e. All visitors, especially those not present at the time of enumeration;
f. All servants/domestic employees.
In short you must enumerate every human being of whatever sex, age, social or family status and health conditions who spent Census Night in the household or in an institution or slept out of doors in your EA.
Note that the following should not be enumerated:
b. Persons who died before Census Night.
[Rest of chapter 7 and chapters 8-10 have been omitted.]
How to record entries on the front
page of the Questionnaire
11.1 Entries on the front page of the Questionnaire
On the front page of the questionnaire are spaces provided for general information:
(A01) Region name
(A02) District name
(A03) Locality name
(A04) Detailed address of house/compound/group quarters
(A05) Enumeration area code (base)
(A06) Locality code
(A07) Serial No. of house/compound/group quarters
(A08) Serial No. of household within house/compound or subgroup of group quarters
(A09) Date enumeration started
(A10) Date enumeration completed
(A11a) Supplementary completed
(A11b) Continuation forms
(A12) Type of residence
(A14) Total No. of Household Status A
(A15) Total No. of Household Status B
(A16) Total No. of Household Status C
(A17) Total No. of persons enumerated (Status A and B)
(A13) Household listing (Next to the front Page)
11.2 How to fill out the general information entries
(A01) Region Name: Write the name of the region where you are conducting that particular enumeration.
(A02) District Name: Write the name of the district where you are conducting the enumeration.
(A03) Locality Name: Write in the space provided the name of the locality, which may be a town or village where you are actually conducting that particular enumeration. Note that in rural areas you may have many localities in one enumeration area. Therefore the questionnaires for each such locality must have the name of the particular locality written on them.
(A04) Detailed address of house/compound/group quarters: The address you write here must be the same as what you recorded in column 2 of the "Enumerator's Visitation Record (EVR) book". This must be so accurate that another person can use the address to find the location of a particular house or compound on a second visit. If the streets are named and the houses numbered, you must write the House Number and the name of the street e.g. C49/2 Castle Road, Adabraka. Otherwise write a precise description of the location of the house or compound/group quarters. For example, (i) Kwesi Mensah's house on the main street directly opposite Nyame Bekyere Chop Bar, or (ii) Mumuni Adama's h'se, third compound after the chief's palace.
For A01- A04, each letter must be written in a box. Leave a space between names/words as shown below
[An example has been omitted.]
Note that the address of house or compound on both the EVR and the questionnaire must agree. If it becomes necessary to correct any address in the Visitation Record you must also correct it on the questionnaire.
In the case of an institution or location of the floating population, the precise name of the institution or place must be written in the space provided e.g. University of Ghana, Asankragwa Secondary School, Nsawam Prison, Agogo Hospital, Pokuase Mobil Filling Station, etc.
(A05) Enumeration area code (base): Copy this number in ten digits from the Enumeration Area Description (PHC2) on all the questionnaires you use. Before going to the field you may copy this number at home on all the questionnaires you expect to use for a particular day.
(A06) Locality code: Write the locality code which is on PHC2 in the boxes provided.
(A07) Serial No. of house/compound/group quarters (within the E.A.): Copy this number in three digits from column 1 of the EVR on all the questionnaires you use for all the households in a particular house, compound/group quarters. For instance, if you enumerate five households in one house or compound all the questionnaires for these households must bear the same serial number. Note that subgroups within each group quarters must be numbered serially.
(A08) Serial No of household within house/compound or group quarters Every household you enumerate in each house, compound or group quarters must be given a serial number in two digits. Therefore the first household you enumerate in a house must be given the number 01, the second household 02 the third household 03 and so on.
(A09) Date enumeration started: Before you start writing out the names of persons in the household you must write in the space provided the date enumeration started in household. Write in day and month when interviewing started.
(A10) Date enumeration completed: When enumeration of the household members has been completed you must record in the space provided under "Date Completed" the day and month the interview was completed for the household.
(A11a) Supplementary completed: If more than one questionnaire is used for a household mark X in the Yes box, otherwise mark No.
(A11b) Continuation Form: If A11a is Yes, mark X in the appropriate box to distinguish original from continuation form.
(A12) Type of residence: Mark X in the relevant box provided for the type of residence. Option 01, 02, 03, are for households while options 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12 and 13 are for institutions and the floating population.
Note that option 03 (homeless households) should be marked for only households of two or more persons sleeping outdoors.
Mark 13 for an individual outdoor sleeper.
(A14) Total No. of persons enumerated as Status A: You must write and mark, in the box provided, the total number of persons enumerated in the household with Status A.
(A15) Total No. of persons enumerated as Status B: You must write and mark, in the box provided, the total number of persons enumerated in the household with Status B.
(A16) Total No, of persons enumerated as Status C: You must write and mark, in the box provided, the total number of persons enumerated in the household with Status C.
Note that A14, A15, and A16 are to be filled in for persons enumerated in households only.
(A17) Total Persons Enumerated: You must write and mark, in the box provided, the total count of usual members who spent Census Night in the household i.e. Status A and visitors who spent Census Night in the household i.e. Status B, i.e. Status A + Status B.
For persons enumerated in institutions, group quarters and non-household, floating population, you must write and mark in the box provided the total number of persons who were enumerated in a particular institution or location of the floating population. If you enumerated ten persons at a petrol filling station for example, you must record 0010 and mark same in the appropriate box provided.
(A13) Household Listing: You must first write down the full name, relationship to the head or temporary head of household sex and age of each usual member of the household and each visitor who slept in the house on Census Night; indicate in column provided under "member status" whether a listed person is a usual member who slept in the house/compound on Census Night or whether he/she is a visitor, i.e. guest of any member of the household who slept in the house on Census Night or a usual member who did not sleep in the house on Census Night. If a household member did not sleep in the house on Census Night, (Status C), write the name of the town/village and the region/country where he/she has travelled to in the space provided under "Town/Village", "Region/Country" as well as "months absent". Refer to next page for your illustrations.
Listing of persons must be in the following order:
Usual member(s) of household present on Census Night.
List in the following order (where applicable)
2. Next eldest spouse followed by her children who were present on Census Night;
3. Continue with spouse and their children until you finish with spouses and their children present on Census Night;
4. Any additional member present on Census Night and whose mother was not there on Census Night;
5. Parents of head;
6. Parents of spouse;
7. Other relatives;
8. Other members;
Any household member(s) absent on Census Night.
You must note that the method of listing the names first is meant to ensure completeness of coverage within the household. If this is not done the respondent may forget to give information on all the eligible members.
Note that in case of persons with Status C, you must in addition fill the name, relationship to head or temporary head of household, sex and age; record the place where the absentee usual member spent Census Night. In the last three columns you are required to record the name of the town or village; the region/country where the town or village is situated; and then write in completed months how long he/she was absent up to Census Night. For example, if the person has been away for two months three weeks write down "2" in the space provided. If he/she has been absent for less than one month, write down "0". Note that if the person has been away for six months or more he/she must not be considered as a usual member of the household.
If the usual head of household was absent on Census Night, his/her name must never be entered as head in the relationship column but rather specify whether this absent person is the husband, brother, mother, etc., of the temporary head.
Note that A13, i.e. household listing, can be found on the second page of the questionnaire.
11.3 Important points to note about head of household, names, sex and age
Who is the head of the household?:- The head of household is generally the person who is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the household. He/she is not necessarily the oldest person in the household. Your main guide as to who is the head is the one who will be pointed out to you as the head when you ask.
If the head of household was away on Census Night you must ask for the person who took charge of the household when the usual head was away. This person thus becomes the
"Temporary head of household" and all other relationships must refer to this person and not to the usual head who was absent.
Enter the name of this person on the first line of the household listing and write in the relationship column temporary head and relate all other relationships to this person. For instance, if the usual head of household was away and the wife becomes the temporary head all the relationships must refer to this wife. Thus the usual head (who will be classified under Status C) becomes the "husband" and his sister's son will be recorded as other relative and not "sister's son".
Full Name:- Write in the spaces provided in the first column of the Household Listing (A13) the full names of all respondents. The names you put down must be such that if a second visit is paid to the house during or after the final enumeration, the persons to whom the names refer can be easily identified.
Persons with more than one Name:- If a person has two names, one for official use and the other for use at home, write down the name(s) by which he/she is best known in the neighbourhood or village where he/she is being enumerated and then write his/her other name(s) in parenthesis. For example, Ato Safo (Charles Mensah).
Babies who have not been named:- Occasionally, you will come across babies who were born before Census Night but who have not been named by the time you call to enumerate. In such cases write down only the day name (e.g. Kwame, Akua, Abla, etc.) of the baby together with the mother's name. For example, if the newly born baby's day name is Kwame and the mother's name is Akua Mansa the name you must put down is Baby Kwame, Akua Mansa's son.
Persons who refuse to give out their names:- Sometimes you may come across a person who will refuse to give you his/her name although he/she may be quite prepared to give you answers to the remaining questions. Explain to such a person that the law strictly forbids the disclosure to unauthorised persons of any census information.
The name is required only for identification purposes in connection with later checks on the accuracy of the information being collected. If he/she still refuses to give his/her name assign a letter of the alphabet such as A, B or C to him/her and proceed to record the other facts.
After completion of the questionnaire you might be able to obtain the person's name from other sources, e.g. neighbours, chiefs, etc.
Persons with identical names:- You may also come across households where two or more persons have identical names. In such a case you must record also the nick-names, or any other names by which they are distinguished in the household or by neighbours and friends, e.g., Kofi Kyamba Panyin and Kofi Kyamba Kakraba. Failing this you must distinguish them by physical characteristics such as height or fatness or shortness. Thus, for instance you can have Abongo Jato (fair coloured) or Kofi Dogo (tall).
Sex:- It is important to ask for the sex of the person when information is being given to you by a third person. Do not infer the sex from the name or names of the person. Bear in mind that some names can be misleading in this respect e.g. Kafui. Some people also use George as a short form of Georgina and Ben for Bernice.
How to fill out the "relationship to head of household" column:- What is required in the relationship column is the relationship of every member of the household, including guests and visitors, to the head or temporary head of household. Most relationships are established either by blood (descent) or by marriage (affinal). This means that your brother and sister's son are your blood relatives whilst your wife, wife's mother, or wife's sister are your relatives by marriage.
You must refer to the list of relationships to be used in question P01. The relationship must always be written as if it were defined by the head himself/herself. For example, if the head replies in the following manner:
b. B is my brother - write brother
c. C is my wife - write wife
d. D is my father - write father
On the other hand, if you ask a member of the household about his or her relationship to the head of the household you have to invert the relationship before you enter it. If, for example, a person tells you that:
b. The head is my mother's brother - you will write other relative
c. The head is my son - you will write father or mother.
Always remember to avoid such vague terms as nephew, cousin, uncle, etc., which do not denote exact relationships. Nephew may mean brother's son or sister's son and these must be coded as "other relative".
Make sure that the blood relationships specified are true biological relationships. A son must mean the head's own true son and not his brother's son, etc. Half-brothers, e.g. persons having one mother but different fathers, or one father but different mothers must be recorded as brothers. Similarly, half-sisters must be recorded as sisters. (adopted son/daughter must be classified as son/daughter).
Any other relationships must be clearly stated e.g. parent/parent-in-law, grandchild, etc. Other household members who are not related to the head of the household such as lodgers, guest, friend, etc, must be classified as non-relatives. Paid unrelated househelp(s) must also be classified as non-relative(s).
Age on 26th March 2000 (Census Night):- The age of every person must be stated in completed years only. For those who know their birthdays the age to record is the age as at last birthday. "Age in completed years only" means that all the ages must be recorded in full years discarding fractions of years and months. For instance 15 years 11 months must be written down as 15. Do not write down months. Only years are required. All infants who are less than one year old must be recorded as being "0" year old.
What to do when a person does not know his/her age:-
(i) For such a person, use the following method to estimate his/her age:-
b. Ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.
c. Then use this information to work out his/her age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he/she was about 15 years when Ghana attained her independence this persons must be 15 + 43 (i.e. 6th March 1957 to 26th March 2000) = 58 years.
(ii) If this method fails, you must try the following approach:-
b. Then select from your list of local, regional or national historical events some events which occurred about the time when according to your estimate, he/she must have been born.
c. Ask whether he/she has heard about any of these events.
d. If he/she has, ask him/her to give you an indication of how old he/she was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he/she was born.
e. Then from this information work out his/her age.
(iii) If this second approach also does not elicit the required information, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old however small she
may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following method:-
b. Determine the age of her oldest child.
c. Then assume that the average woman in Ghana gives birth to her first child at about 18. Without further probing, you must not base your assumption on the oldest living child. There is the likelihood that in certain cases the first child died later on or that the woman had miscarriages or stillborn children before the oldest living child was born. Therefore, if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or stillbirth before the oldest living child was born you must make your estimation from the year of the first miscarriage, still-birth or live birth.
Note also that some women do not have children early in life while others have children earlier than what generally obtains in the community. Therefore, in every case you must find out whether she had her first child, miscarriage or stillbirth at the usual age before you assume she was aged 18 years at her first pregnancy.
(iv) Only as a last resort should you estimate a person's age from physical features.
(v) If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person, then obviously you have to rely on the information supplied by the third person in estimating the age in respect of the person who is absent. Under no circumstance must you leave the age column blank.
How to record individual entries
12.1 The layout of the inside pages of the questionnaire
This part of the questionnaire is divided into columns and rows. There are 10 columns numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. Each column is used to solicit information on one person in the household. A column usually consists of a line of one or more boxes. In recording answers for an individual, make sure you mark the appropriate column and box.
For example, if in the relationship column the respondent is the head of the household, write the code 1 in the box against "cross check header code": after that, mark "X" in the box provided against 1 which is the code for a head of household as shown below.
[An example has been omitted.]
Put the digit "1" before number '0' to make it 10 if there are up to 10 members in a household.
12.2 What to do when two or more questionnaires are used for a household or group quarters
There is provision on one questionnaire for the enumeration of 10 persons. If there are more than 10 persons in a household or in a group quarters you must continue enumeration on a new questionnaire. This new questionnaire is a continuation of the first one and must be treated as such. You must continue the numbering of persons on the new questionnaire by entering the digit "1" before the digit already printed on the second questionnaire to form 11,12,13 etc. and for the last one you will have to prefix the "0" with 2 to make 20, and so on.
Remember that whenever you use more than one questionnaire for any one household or group quarters, you must clip all the questionnaires together. Make sure that you write that reference number on both the original (main) questionnaire and the continuation (supplementary) questionnaires.
12.3 Individual entries
Remember that these individual entries are restricted to usual members and visitors who spent Census Night in the house (i.e. persons listed as A or B on the member status column in A13) and persons in group quarters (i.e. institutional and floating population) who qualify to be enumerated.
You have already entered the full names of the respondents in the questionnaire. Copy these out from the household listing (A13) to spaces provided for eligible members. It should be in the same order you listed persons under status A and B. Refer to next page for illustration.
P01 Relationship: What is the relationship of (name) to the head of household?
You have already entered this on the listing page (A13) of the questionnaire. Write the appropriate code in the cross check header code and mark an X in the box corresponding exactly to what you have recorded. Mark X against code 0 for group/outdoor sleeper (institutional and floating population). Where there are households within the floating population (homeless household), code the appropriate relationship and not 0.
Two boxes are provided in this column. Mark X in the appropriate box according to whether the respondent is male = M or female = F. Copy this information from the household listing (A13). Note that for persons in group quarters you must ask. For example, if the respondent is male, mark "X" in one of the two boxes provided as shown below.
[An example has been omitted.]
For further information see chapter 11.
P03 Age: How old is (name)? (Age in completed years)
The age of every person must be written and marked in completed years only. For those who know their birthdays, the age to mark is the age at last birthday. "Age in completed years only" means that all the ages must be written in full years, discarding fractions of years and months. For instance, 18 years 11 months must be marked as 18. Do not mark the months. Only years are required. All infants who are less than one year must be recorded as being "0" year old. For those aged 99 years or more, code 99.
Example I: If a household member is 11 months, write 00 in the two boxes for the cross check header code and mark as show below.
[The exposition of the example has been omitted.]
Example 2: If the household member is 1 year 11 months. Write 01 in the two boxes for the cross check header code and mark as shown below.
[The exposition of the example has been omitted.]
P04 Nationality: What is (name's) nationality?
You are required to differentiate between a Ghanaian by birth and a Ghanaian by naturalisation as well as all other nationals. Other nationals have been grouped into ECOWAS nationals (See Appendix 2 - for list of ECOWAS and African countries), Africans who are not from ECOWAS countries and non-Africans
1.Ghanaian by birth:
b. A child of not more than seven (7) years of age found in Ghana whose parents are not known.
2. Ghanaian by naturalization: For the purpose of this census, a Ghanaian by naturalisation would include the following:
Citizenship by Registration: A person who acquired citizenship by registration.
Naturalization: A person who acquired Ghanaian citizenship by naturalization.
Note that if a person is aged 21 years or over and claims to be a citizen of another country, he/she cannot be regarded as a citizen of Ghana.
3. Other ECOWAS National
A citizen of any of the ECOWAS Countries; these include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroun, Cote D'ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.
4. African, Other than ECOWAS National
Write in and mark this option for all persons who are Africans but not from any of the ECOWAS states.
Write in and mark this option for persons who are from other continents other than Africa e.g. Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia.
P05 Ethnicity: To which ethnic group does (name) belong?
This question relates to only Ghanaians by birth. Obtain from these persons what their ethnic group is and mark according to the number provided in the box. A list of ethnic groups in their alphabetical order and their codes has been provided in Appendix 3.
For example, if the respondent is a Ga and the code No. is 20 for Ga, you must first write Ga in the space provided against "description" and then write the code number 20 in the boxes provided against "enter code" e.g. write ethnicity GA
P06a Born in this town/village: Was (name) born in this town or village?
In this Census, the town or village (locality) of birth of a person is the town or village (locality) of usual residence of the mother at the time of birth. For example, the following cannot be regarded as birthplace:
b. the hometown of the mother's mother or,
c. some other locality where the mother had gone for a short visit.
Note that the town or village of birth of such person will be the town or village in which the mother lives and not the locality where the hospital is located or locality of residence of the mother's mother or the locality visited.
If, however, the mother's length of stay outside her locality of usual residence is six months or more or the mother has the intention of staying in the new place for six months or more the "actual town/locality of physical birth" will be considered as the birthplace of the person in question. For example, Akua Mansa who normally resides with her husband at New Tafo (Eastern region) went to Accra (Greater Accra) to deliver her child in her mother's house. In such a case, the place of birth of her child will be New Tafo and not Accra. If, however, she stays in Accra for six months or more, then the birthplace of her child will be Accra and not New Tafo.
P06b Birthplace outside this village/town: In what region or country was (name) born?
As in P06a, the region or country of birth is the place in which the mother of the individual resided at the time of the person's birth and not where the birth actually took place.
Note that for those born outside Ghana (foreign born), Code 96 is to be marked for persons who were born in other ECOWAS states; Code 97 for African country other than ECOWAS state (see Appendix 2) and mark code 98 for non-African countries.
P07 Usual place of residence: In what district is (name's) usual residence?
The district of usual residence is the district where the enumerated person usually resides. This may be the same or different from the place where he/she was present at the time of enumeration or where the person slept on Census Night.
Although most persons will have no difficulty in stating their district of residence, some confusion may arise in a number of special cases, where persons may appear to have more than one usual residence. These might include:
b. students living in a school or town away from their parental home,
c. members of the armed forces living at a military installation but still maintaining private living quarters away from the installation and
d. persons who sleep away from their homes during the working days but return home during week-ends.
In such cases consider where the person spends most of his/her days or time as his/her usual place of residence. The parental home of students who return to their parents to spend holidays should be regarded as their usual place of residence.
Problems may also arise with persons who have been at the place where they are enumerated for sometime but do not consider themselves to be residents of this place because they intend to return to their previous residence at some future time, and also with persons who have left the country temporarily but are expected to return after sometime.
In such a case, consider the person as a usual resident if he/she had lived there for at least six months or has the intension of staying for the next six months. See Appendix 4, for names and capitals of the districts and their codes.
P08 Place of residence 5 years ago: If (name) is 5 years or older: In what district was (name's) usual place of residence 5 years ago?
The principle for answering this question is the same as in P07.
If there has been multiple movements during the period, however, then the answer should relate to the last place of usual residence.
See Appendix 4, for names and capitals of the districts and their codes
P09 Religion: What is (name's) religious affiliation?
Write in the cross check header code the appropriate answer and mark X in the box provided against the mentioned religious affiliation.
Four types of Christians are categorised:
2. Protestant - These are made up of mainly the Churches that belong the
Christian Council and include; Anglican, Methodist, Presbytarian, AME Zion, Lutheran, E.P. Church, Salvation Army, F'eden Church, etc.
3. Pentecostal/Charismatic- It comprises Churches which are mainly under the Ghana Pentecostal Council and include: the Apostolic Church, Foursquare Gospel Church, Christ Apostolic Church, Assemblies of God, Church of Pentecost, International Central Gospel Church, Action Chapel, Praise Valley Temple, Rhema Christian Centre, Word Miracle Church International, International Bible Worship Centre, Victory Bible Church, Jubilee International Church, Light House Chapel, etc.
Mosama Disco Christo Church, Church of Christ, Kristo Asafo, Odifo Nkansah/Awoyo, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Jehovah Witness, Church Universal and Triumphant, Salvation Army, etc.
5. Islam (Moslem) - These are made up of people who mainly use the Holy
Quoran as their book of instruction. They include the following sects: Al-Suna, Tijani, Alhamadiyya and orthodox Moslems
6. Traditional Religion- Includes all the indigenous Ghanaian religions like the
worship of "abosom" or "small gods" "tigare", Africania Religion and other different forms of ancestor worship.
7. No Religion - Some people do not have any religious beliefs and thus do
not belong to any religion.
8. Other Specify - These include Eckankar, Bahai, Hinduism, Buddhism,
Hare-Khrisna, Yoga and all Transcedental Meditation religions.
P10 Marital status: "If (name) is 12 years or older", what is (name's) current marital status?
Question P10 is to be asked of persons who are 12 years or older. Six main options, "Married", "Informal/Loose union/living together", "Separated", "Divorced", "Widowed", "Never married (Single)" have been provided. Only one answer must be marked and your answer must refer to marital status at Census Night.
Married: are persons who at the reference time (26th March 2000) had marriage partners whether they were staying in the same house or not. "Married" includes persons in all types of marriages e.g. civil, traditional and common law.
Occasionally, you may come across a respondent who has been divorced or widowed before his or her present marriage. You must treat such a person as married now. Enter code 1 and mark X in the appropriate box for all such persons.
Informal/loose union/living together: Write 2 in the cross check header code and mark an X in the box for this if a relationship has been contracted by two adults and living together without civil or traditional recognition.
Separated: Enter code 3 and mark an X for all persons who because of a dispute or other reasons were no longer staying as "married partners" but whose marriage had not been declared customarily or legally dissolved. Note that the mere fact that the two married partners are not staying in the same house does not necessarily mean that the two are separated. Normally a "Separated" person has his/her case before the "elders of one of the families" or before a law court. A separation need not lead to a divorce.
Divorced: Enter code 4 and mark X for all persons who at the reference time have had their marriage formally annulled - either in court or by custom and have not remarried.
Widowed: Enter code 5 and mark X for persons who at the reference time had lost their marriage partners through death and have not remarried.
Never married (single): Write and mark X for persons who have never been married.
P11 Literacy: If (name) is 15 years or older. In what language can (name) read and write?
This question relates to the respondent's ability to read and write any language. Note that a respondent is considered literate if he/she can read and write a simple statement with understanding. This is quite different from the respondent being able to write or distinguish between the various letters of the alphabet and counting numbers.
You should be careful in case where the person(s) concerned did not have any formal education or spent a few years in a primary school and has now forgotten how to read and write.
Note that if a respondent can only read but cannot write or vice versa you must not consider such a person as literate. Similarly, if a person was literate sometime ago but cannot read and write with understanding at the time of the interview then you must consider him/her illiterate and mark X in the box for code 1 i.e. not literate. For instance, if a person completed middle form 4 or JSS 3 and can no longer read and write with understanding you must consider him/her illiterate.
P12: Educational characteristics: Ask all persons 3 years or older
P12a School attendance: Has (name) ever attended/attending school now?
This question refers to full time education in an educational institution such as, nursery, kindergarten (pre-school), primary, middle, junior secondary, secondary, vocational, commercial or technical, senior secondary, teacher training college, university or similar type of school where a person spends or has spent at least four (4) hours a day receiving general education in which the emphasis is not on vocational skill or trade training.
This definition excludes night schools, trade schools such as flair catering, motor driving schools, adult literacy school, etc. It also excludes on-the-job training establishments like National Productivity Institute, Auditor-General's Training School, Accountant-General Training School, Labour College, Commercial Bank Training School, etc. It excludes Arabic schools where only reading and writing of the Quoran are taught. This does not mean that schools where Arabic is taught must automatically be excluded because there are recognised schools where Arabic and other subjects are taught.
Three Options: never, now, past are provided for this question and you must write and mark only one of them:
b. Now - Write and mark box 2, if the person is still receiving full-time education at the time of the Census. It includes those who are on vacation at the time of the Census and would be going back to school.
c. Past - Write and mark box 3, if the person received full-time education in the past and is no longer receiving it.
P12b If now or past in 12a: What is the highest level of schooling (name) attending/attended?
This question seeks to elicit information on the highest level of formal schooling attended/attending. Seven levels have been identified. They are (i) Pre-school, (ii) Primary (iii) Middle/JSS (iv) Secondary/SSS (v) Vocational/Technical/Commercial (vi) Post Secondary (Agric/Nursing/Teacher Training) and (vii) Tertiary (e.g. Polytechnic or University). If the person or respondent dropped out of school at a level it means he/she had not completed that level but has attended that level. Note that the interest here is to find the highest level ever attended or attending and not completed, mark the appropriate box applicable to the person.
In some cases you will come across people who through correspondence, distant or adult education have attained some level of schooling. In such cases find the equivalent level of schooling and write and mark the appropriate box.
P12c What is the highest grade (name) completed at that level?
The highest grade completed, is the last full class, form or year completed and not the present/current one being attended. For example if the person is now in primary class five (5), then the highest grade (class) completed will be Primary four (4) since he/she has not yet completed Primary five (5). Similarly, a child who is currently or who dropped out during the second term in JSS 1, will have "0" (Zero) recorded, because no grade has been completed at that level. Record the equivalent grade for persons who have attained some level of schooling through distant, correspondence or adult education. Thus if the grade is unobtainable, the equivalence of the number of years devoted to that particular type of school will provide the required information.
An example of how to complete P12b and P12c: If a child is currently in the third year of primary school then mark an X for code "2" in P12b and write 2 and mark in the box at P12c.
P13 Type of activity: questions are to be asked of only persons aged 7 years or older; and refer to the seven days before census night
P13a Did (name) work for pay or profit or family gain?
Those who worked - For the purpose of this census, the following categories of persons must be regarded as having worked and a yes box marked:
a. All those aged 7 years and older who were in regular employment during the 7 days before Census Night and who may or may not have done some active work during the reference period.
b. All those aged 7 years or older who worked for at least one hour for pay or profit or family gain during the seven days before Census Night
c. All those aged 7 years or older who during the reference period worked on their own farms or went out to fish or engaged in trading for at least one hour even though they may not have sold any produce during the period.
d. Domestic employees aged 7 years or older who worked for at least one hour and were remunerated for their work either in kind or in cash.
e. Apprentices (i.e. persons learning a trade and who normally work under supervision of qualified workers) aged 7 years or older and who worked for at least one hour during the reference period e.g. apprentice carpenters, apprentice fitters, apprentice gold smiths, apprentice masons, etc.
f. All persons aged 7 years or older who worked without pay for one hour or more in an establishment or farm operated by a member of their family. This category of persons known as unpaid family workers include the following:
ii. Children aged 7 years or older who during the reference period helped in the father's or any family member's farm or shop or assisted them in other economic activities such as cocoa shelling.
You must also remember to exclude as family workers all persons aged 7 years or older who helped family members in their economic activities but were full-time students in educational institutions. These persons must be treated as students. Similarly, a University student who is temporarily doing some work during the holidays should not be regarded as working even though he/she may have worked for 7 days or less during that period.
A box has been provided for this question and you must mark an X in the appropriate box. If a person tells you that he/she did some work (as defined above) for at least one hour during the seven days preceding Census Night, you must mark the Yes box. Otherwise mark the No box.
If the Yes box is marked, P13b must be left blank. This means that as soon as you mark Yes, skip P13b and proceed to ask P13c.
P13b If no, how was (name) occupied?
This question is restricted to persons who did not do any work for pay or profit or family gain during the seven days before Census Night, i.e. those for whom the "No" box was marked in P13a. For these persons, write in and mark the appropriate code.
a. Had job but did not work - Mark box 1 for any person who during the reference period did not do any work for pay or profit or family gain although he/she had a job to which he/she could return. Persons who come under this category may or may not be paid during their absence from their jobs and include the following who were temporarily absent from their jobs for any of the following reasons:
ii. Off-season, e.g. farmers or fishermen who did not do any work because it was their off-season. Note that in certain parts of the country, particularly in the northern and upper regions, work on the farms takes place during certain months of the year while in other months the farmers remain virtually idle. The same applies to fishermen.
iii. Temporarily ill without pay, but would return to a fixed job after recovery, e.g. workers on sick leave or on admission at hospitals.
iv. Labour dispute, strike or lockout.
v. Temporary lay-off with definite instructions to return to work at a specific date. Such workers include permanent farm labourers, workers in various enterprises and establishments whose work has been interrupted temporarily for lack of raw materials and or other reasons.
vi Bad weather, i.e. persons not working because of bad weather. For example, farmers who could not go to their farms because the paths leading to their farms were flooded; fishermen who could not fish because of stormy weather, masons who did not work because of bad weather, etc.
Note: If the person had a job but did not work, then after marking 1, skip to P14.
b. "Unemployed"- Mark box 2 for any person who did not work and had no fixed job during the seven days preceding Census Night but was actively looking for work (e.g. by visiting employment agencies, writing applications, seeing relatives for help in securing jobs, etc.). This category also includes any person who was not looking for work because he/she believed that no work was available for him/her.
Note that a person should not be classified as unemployed simply because he/she was without work during the seven days preceding Census Night. The person should, during the period, have been actively looking for work or must have given up looking for work because he/she became despaired of getting any work. Otherwise he/she or she must be classified as other. (See (h) below, voluntarily unemployed)
c. Homemaker- Mark box 3 for a person of either sex who was wholly engaged in household duties and was not paid for this work. If such a person traded one full working day in the seven days preceding Census Night or worked regularly some hours daily or engaged in some other economic enterprise (e.g. worked on a farm or in a bar) or did any part-time work (e.g. typing, dressmaking) for which the person was paid or did any work on the family farm or business for one hour or more without pay, the person must not be classified as homemaker but must be grouped with the working population. You must not assume that a married person who did not do any work during the reference period is necessarily a homemaker.
d. Student - Mark box 4 for a person aged 7 years or older who is pursuing full-time education in an educational institution and for whom the "Now" box (i.e. box 2) has been marked in question P12a.
e. Old age- Mark box 5 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because of old age.
f. Pensioner- Mark box 6 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because he/she has attained the age of 60 years in an establishment and is on pension. Such persons are normally paid government pension or Social Security every month.
g. Persons with Disability - Mark box 7 for any person who did not work during the seven days preceding Census Night because the person has a disability. A person with a disability is one whose impairment inhibits his/her ability to work or participate or perform an activity in a manner or within the range considered normal. (An impairment refers to any physical, functional or psychological defect, which results from illness, injury or congenital malformation people who are born with disability).
h. Other:- An answer, which does not fall into any of the above categories, must be marked in the Other box. The main types of persons who come under this group are:-
ii. Hospital patient and not going to return to a fixed job;
iii. Voluntarily unemployed i.e. not employed although able to work and not interested in seeking work (e.g. beggars);
iv. Too young to work.
Note: Question P13b is to be answered for only those who answer No in P13a.
If the answer in P13b = 1 or 2 (i.e. had job but did not work = 1 or unemployed = 2) then continue asking the rest of the questions from P14.
If the answer in P13b = 3 or more (i.e. 3, 4, . . . . 8) and the person is a male or a female less than 12 years old then you need not ask the person the rest of the questions.
You, however, need to ask the next member the population questions, starting from P01. If the person is a female and 12 years or older then skip to P18.
P13c How many days did (name) work for pay or profit or family gain?
Number of days worked would help to ensure an accurate measurement of the full contribution of persons who were in the work force or who worked briefly during the time period. It should include activities which, while not leading directly to produced goods or services, are still defined as part of the tasks and duties of the job, such as time spent preparing, repairing or maintaining the workplace instruments. In practice it will also include inactive time spent in the course of performing these activities, such as time spent waiting or standing by, and other short breaks. Exclude longer meal breaks, sickness and conflicts.
P13d How many hours did (name) work for pay or profit or family gain?
In order not to confuse the respondent, it would be better to find out the number of hours worked each day for the period. The total number of hours could be obtained by adding the hours together for the number of days worked.
If the person has a fixed number of hours worked each day then multiply the answer in P13c (i.e. no. of days worked) by the number of hours worked each day.
Note if the person worked 99 hours or more code 99 and mark.
P14: Occupation-"Answer for the employed (i.e. P13a=Yes) and (those who had jobs but did not work) (i.e. 13b=1) and unemployed (i.e. P13b = 2) What kind of work did (name) do? For unemployed, last kind of work. Describe work and refer to appendix 5 for code list.
Note that this question must be asked only of the employed and the unemployed.
For the unemployed, we are interested in the last kind of work the person did before he/she became unemployed. For example, if he/she was an Accounts Clerk before he/she became unemployed you have to write in the space provided "Accounts Clerk". However, there are certain unemployed who have never worked before, e.g. students or vocational trainees who have just finished school or completed their period of training and who are actively looking for a job. For such persons write in the space provided "Now seeking employment" and code according to appendix.
Note that for the employed you must write down what work the respondent actually did during the seven days preceding Census Night and not what he/she is trained to do or what he/she used to do. For instance, if the respondent has been trained as a lorry driver but actually worked as construction labourer during the 7 days preceding Census Night, you must write down construction labourer.
Remember to write down a detailed and exact description of the work the respondent actually did. For example, the term labourer is too vague. Hence, be more precise by indicating whether the person was office cleaner, building labourer, gardener, farm labourer, tree feller, etc.
For members of the Armed Forces (i.e., Army, Air Force and Navy) you must go into greater detail to find out the actual rank and the occupational specialisation of the person. A soldier may be a motor vehicle driver, tailor, wireless operator, mechanic, gunner, staff nurse, etc. Similarly, you must not take an officer for an answer but inquire for further details. The officer may be a teacher, an electrical engineer, a medical officer, a pilot, etc. Soldiers and officers not having a particular trade or occupation must be entered as soldier (private), soldier (corporal), soldier (lieutenant), etc.
You must also distinguish between the following:
b. Food maker
c. Food maker and seller.
Note that whenever you specify a seller or maker of a particular commodity which is only understood in the area concerned you must also write in brackets after it whether that commodity is food, drink, etc. For instance, you may write seller of aheyi (non-alcoholic drink), maker of tubani or wakye (food).
After you have specified or written the type of work the person did 7 days before Census Night, or the last kind of work for those unemployed, code according to appendix.
P15: Industry -- In what kind of industry was (name) mainly working? (For unemployed, last kind of work) describe and refer to appendix 6 for code list.
Industry refers to the main economic activity of the establishment where the person/ respondent works; or if unemployed his/her last work or job. Establishment applies not only to big enterprises such as Pioneer Biscuit Factory, Ghana Commercial Bank, etc. but also to the small ones as well, e.g. Kwesi Nimo's farm, place of petty trading in market or Fati's Kiosk "under the tree." Note that it is the economic activity Fati carries on under the tree that is to be specified.
The following examples may help you understand what industry is about and what you must write or describe in the spaces which have been provided. Code according to appendix 6.
b. A carpenter gives Novotel as the name of the establishment where he/she worked. You must write catering or hotel services as the major economic activity of the establishment.
c. The major economic activity of all educational institutions e.g. University of Ghana, Ghana Secondary, Government Technical School, is education even though the persons employed in these institutions may be doing different types of jobs.
d. For a craftsman who is employed by a construction company which is undertaking a contract with an educational institution, you must write down building construction but not education.
e. A self-employed who lays blocks is classified under construction.
Note that the answer you put down must be the same for all persons employed by the same establishment or in the case of a multi-purpose establishment a department of it.
Examples of such multi-purpose establishments are City and Municipal Assemblies, SSNIT, UNILEVER, etc. A Metropolitan Assembly, for instance, may have the following functions: local administration, education services, health services, etc. Similarly, UNILEVER, may have departments with the following as the main economic activity - wholesale or retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, transports services, textile printing, etc.
Thus for a respondent employed by such big establishments, you must record the main economic activity of the particular branch/department in that establishment where the respondent worked.
Another example is the market place. Different economic activities are carried on at such places, for example cloth selling, food selling, dressmaking/tailoring/embroidering, corn milling, chop bar activities, hairdressing/barbering, etc. You must specify the economic activity of the respondents at the market.
Below are examples of some economic activities that fall under agriculture, forestry, trade, and hotels and restaurants.
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry -- Growing of crops -- food crops and cash crops; cereals and grains; vegetables and horticultural products; fruits, nuts, coffee, cocoa and others; harvesting, weeding and other activities.
Rearing of animals -- sheep, cattle, poultry, pigs, hunting and trapping of game.
Forestry -- Planting and growing of trees; conserving of forest and forestry management; logging and felling of trees, charcoal burning, etc..
Gathering wild forest materials -- snails, mushrooms, firewood and charcoal burning.
Vehicles and motorcyles - Sale of new and used vehicles; repairs and maintenance; sale of parts and accessories; car washing and polishing.
Retail of fuels and lubricants -- sale of kerosene, petrol, diesel, engine oils from fuel filling stations.
b. Wholesale Trade
Bulk sale of all goods -- food and agricultural materials, textiles, household goods, etc.
Re-sale (sale without transforming) of new and used goods to the general public for personal or household use by shops, markets, hawkers, peddlers and auctioneers. Sale by department stores, supermarkets, food and beverage shops, pharmacies and drug stores, hardware and paint shops; textile trading; selling in markets, along pavements and on veranda.
Hotels and Restaurants
b. Restaurants, bars and canteens -- sale of prepared food and drinks for immediate consumption on the premises or as take-aways -- restaurants, chop bars, fast foods, catering activities, drinking bars, canteens.
P16 Employment status: What was (name's) employment status in that establishment/ industry?
Seven boxes have been provided for this question and where the answer corresponds to one of these you must write the code and mark the appropriate box. Note that you must mark only one box for each respondent.
a. Employee- Mark this box for a person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer.
b. Self-employed without employees- Mark this box for a person who operates his/her own enterprise (e.g., a farmer, kenkey seller, carpenter) and who does not employ anybody to work for him/her in the operation of his/her enterprise (except perhaps apprentices or members of his/her family). Note that apprentices must not be classified as employees. You must, however, make sure that the assistants of such a person are apprentices and not paid employees before classifying the respondent in this group.
c. Self-employed with employees- Mark this box for a person who operates his/her own enterprise directly or through another person (e.g. a manager or caretaker) and who for the operation of this enterprise hires one or more employees. Note that the persons considered employees here exclude unpaid family workers and apprentices, whether they are given an allowance or not.
d. Unpaid family worker-- Mark this box for a person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member of his or her family without payment of wages or salary.
e. Apprentice- Refers to a worker who is learning a trade and who normally works under the supervision of a qualified worker. He/she may or may not be given an allowance.
f. Domestic employee (househelp)-- These are persons who are engaged to render household service with or without pay.
Other - To this category belong all persons who do not fall into any of the above groups
P17 Employment sector: In what sector was (name) mainly working?
This question relates to the sector of employment in which (name) is working. The following explanations of employment sectors have been given to guide you choose the appropriate option:
1. Public: The public sector is made up of establishments that are largely regulated, owned or controlled by the central or local government e.g. Ministries, District Assemblies, NCWD, National Commission on Children, National Mobilization Programme, etc.
2. Private formal: Establishments owned and controlled by private person(s). They are formal in the sense that they have established procedures for keeping records, recruitments, promotion and dismissal, e.g. Mobil, Shell, Darko Farms, Japan Motors, etc.
3. Private Informal: These are establishments owned and controlled by private person(s). They are informal in the sense that they have no established procedures for keeping records, recruitment, promotion and dismissals e.g. Kumasi Magazine garages, Abossey Okai spare parts shops, Kejetia market trading, table tops, etc.
4. Semi Public/Parastatal: These are corporations and boards that are partly owned or fully owned by the government. They do not however, depend on the consolidated fund or government funds. They normally generate their own income and have some autonomy e.g. ECG, VRA, Ghana Telecom.
5. NGO's/International Organizations: These are non-profit making organisations which aim at providing services/facilities/assistance to the government and communities. There are two main types of NGO's
ii. International NGO's e.g. Save the Children Fund, International Needs, Water Aid, Help Age, World Vision International, ADRA, Care International, etc.
International Organizations include the following: UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, FAO, UNFPA, WHO, OAU, ECA, World Bank, etc.
6. Other: e.g. religious groups.
P18 Children ever born: "answer for females 12 years and older (for females under 12 years and all males go to next member)"
Question P18 is to be asked of only of females who have ever had a live birth. A live birth is defined as the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been out or the placenta is attached.
P18a Male children ever born: How many male children has (name) ever born alive? (living with you or elsewhere or dead)
The question is to find out if the respondent has ever given birth to a male child and the number. Probe, for some women may forget to tell you about male children who died very young. The number includes those of her own male children staying with her, those staying elsewhere and those who died.
P18b Female children ever born: How many female children has (name) ever born alive? (living with you or elsewhere or dead)
The question seeks to find out the number of female children that the respondent has ever given birth to. Probe, for some women may forget to tell you about female children who died very young. The number includes those of her own female children staying with her, those staying elsewhere and those died.
P19a Male children surviving: How many male children ever born alive to (name) are still surviving? (living with you or elsewhere)
The question is to find out the number of male children (name) ever born alive who are still living. The number surviving includes those male children staying with (name) and those staying elsewhere.
P19b Female children surviving: How many female children ever born alive to (name) are still surviving? (living with you or elsewhere)
You are to find out the number of female children (name) ever born alive who are still living. The number still living includes those female children staying with (name) and those staying elsewhere.
Note: Questions on children who have died are among the most difficult on which to obtain accurate data. Some respondents may fail to mention children who died very young therefore if a respondent answers No, it is important to probe by asking "Any baby who cried or showed signs of life but survived only a few hours or days?" Some respondents may be reluctant to talk about this subject and may become sad or upset that you are asking such questions. Be sympathetic and tactful in such situations. Say that you know that the subject is painful, but that the information is important.
P20 Number of children born in the last 12 months: How many children has (name) born in the last 12 months? (If 4 or more, mark 4)
Write the number of children born in the 12 months preceding the Census, (i.e. from 25th March 1999 to 26th March 2000). Except for multiple births (twins, triplets) the number should be zero (0) or one (1).
The housing questions are administered with respect to households. The questions are asked with regard to the living quarters and their occupants. Living quarters originally intended for habitation and used wholly for other purposes at the time of the census must be excluded from the census coverage, while shelters not intended for habitation but occupied at the time of the census must be included. For each household being interviewed, the head or any responsible member will provide the responses.
It may not always be necessary for the enumerator to ask certain questions if the information can be obtained through direct observation. This is particularly the case with questions on construction materials. If you are not sure, ask politely, e.g. a mud house covered/plastered with cement is a mud house.
13.2 How to complete the housing questions
H01: In what type of dwelling does the household live?
This question refers to the place where the household lives (living quarters) i.e. the space occupied by the household. The living quarters is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. It could be a building or some form of space or shelter arranged for human habitation which was occupied at the time of the Census (e.g. a hut or group of huts). It may contain one or more households. The essential features of living quarters are separateness and independence. An enclosure may be considered as separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc. and covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking meals or protecting themselves from the hazards of climate and the environment. Such an enclosure may be considered as independent when it has direct access from outside the structure (e.g. from the street) or from a public or common staircase, passage or grounds, i.e. when the occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through any body else's living quarters.
Attached rooms having an independent entrance, or detached rooms for habitation and being used as part of the living quarters should be counted as part of the living quarters. Thus, living quarters may be constituted of rooms or group of rooms with independent entrances or by separate buildings.
01. Separate House: refers to a building, which consists of a single detached housing unit or a single detached living quarters. In some cases, facilities usually provided by a set of living quarters are located in two or more separate detached structures, such as when a kitchen is in a separate structure.
02. Semi-detached House: refers to a single housing unit that is attached to another single housing unit. The adjoining housing units would usually have a common dividing wall which extends from ground to the roof. Row houses are included under this category.
03. Flat/Apartment: is a dwelling/living quarters located in a building, which contains several sets of housing units. The Flat/Apartment building usually consists of several floors.
04. Compound house (rooms): refers to living quarters (room or set of rooms) which are located within a compound, typically referred to as compound house. (A compound need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or hedge).
05. Several huts/buildings (same compound): refers to living quarters made up of a group of huts or buildings located on the same compound which are being used as the place of abode by one or more households.
06. Hotel/hostel: This group comprises permanent structures which provide lodging on a fee basis and in which the number of borders or lodgers exceed five. Examples include hotels, motels, inns, hostels, etc. (Enumerate rooms as households where persons/households reside permanently in hotels/hostels).
07. Tent: A moveable shelter made of cloth supported by a framework of poles and ropes, used especially by campers, Red Cross men or refugees.
08. Improvised Home (Kiosk/Container): An improvised housing unit is an independent makeshift shelter or structure built of waste materials and without a predetermined plan, for the purpose of habitation, which is being used as living quarters at the time of the census. Included in this category are squatters huts, kiosks, containers, etc. as well as any similar premises arranged and used as living quarters, which does not comply with general accepted standard of habitation. This type of housing unit is usually found in urban and sub-urban areas, particularly at the peripheries of principal cities.
09.Living Quarters attached to/inside the shop, office, etc.: This category comprises housing units that are located in buildings that have not been built/constructed for human habitation but which are actually in use as living quarters at the time of the census. They include housing units in cornmilling structures, warehouses, offices, shops, etc.
Premises that have been converted for human habitation, although not initially designed/constructed for this purpose must not be included in this category e.g. an old school block which later on is converted into living quarters, old cocoa sheds, etc.
10. Other (Specify): If a type of dwelling/living quarters does not fall into any of the above categories you must specify it in the space provided for Other (specify): Dilapidated buildings marked for demolition but which are still inhabited, caves and other natural shelters fall within this category.
H02: What is the main construction material used for outer walls of this dwelling?
This question refers to the construction materials of the external (outer) walls of the dwelling in which the household lives. If there are a number of separate buildings/structures in which the household lives, the material used for the construction of the walls of the largest building/structure must be recorded. Similarly, if the walls are constructed of more than one material, the predominant material must be reported.
1. Mud/mud bricks/earth: This refers to outer walls which have been constructed with mud (earth) only. In certain cases, this mud covers a wattle (sticks or twigs) framework. Unburnt mud bricks also fall in this category.
2. Wood: This category includes walls which have been constructed with wood such as wooden planks, boards, tree stems/wooden branches or some other form of timber.
3. Metal sheets or slate/asbestos: These refer mainly to corrugated iron, zinc or aluminium sheets and asbestos that have been used for the construction of outer walls of dwellings.
4. Stone: This refers to walls of dwellings which consist mainly of stones or rocks.
5. Burnt bricks: This category is made up of walls which have been constructed with burnt bricks.
6. Cement blocks/concrete: This category refers to walls which have been built with cement blocks or which have been built with reinforced concrete. Walls of dwellings that have been constructed with cement blocks are more common than those constructed with reinforced concrete. Note that in many cases houses built with cement blocks will be plastered over with a mixture of cement and sand.
7. Landcrete: This refers to blocks made from a mixture of cement and local earth. The cement in the mixture is of a lower proportion than what is used in concrete and cement blocks. The use of landcrete is not widespread. It is found mainly in small towns and the peripheries of larger towns.
8. Bamboo: This refers to walls that have been made up of bamboo.
9. Palm leaves or thatch (grass) or raffia: Included in this category are palm leaves, raffia and any kind of grass/straw or leaves.
10. Other (specify): Materials used for the outer walls of dwellings which do not fall in any of the above categories must be specified in the space provided.
H03: What is the main construction material used for the floor of the dwelling?
This question collects information on the main materials used for the construction of the floor of the living quarters.
1. Earth/mud bricks: This category of floors are made up of earth, swish or mud bricks.
2. Wood: This refers to floors that have been constructed with wood, such as wooden planks, boards, tree stems or some other form of timber.
3. Stone: This category comprises floors made of stone(s) and rock surfaces.
4. Burnt bricks: Floors made with burnt bricks must be classified in this category.
5. Cement/concrete: This category refers to concrete or cement floors.
6. Vinyl tiles: Tough flexible plastic, used for floors.
7. Ceramic/marble tiles: Ceramic, marble/granite and porcelain tiles must be captured in this category.
8. Terrazzo: Terrazzo floors made with chippings and concrete/cement. It may be polished or rough.
9. Other (specify): Materials used for the construction of floors of dwellings which do not fall in any of the categories indicated above must be specified in space provided.
H04: What is the main roofing materials used for this dwelling?
The main material used for the construction of the roof of the living quarters must be captured in the following categories.
1. Thatch, palm leaves or raffia: Any kind of grass/straw/reeds (thatch), palm leaves or raffia; as well as, any other form of leaves must be captured in this category.
2. Bamboo: Refers to roofs made with bamboo.
3. Mud/mud bricks: This category of roofs are made up of earth/swish/mud bricks.
4. Wood: This category comprises roofs that have been constructed with wooden materials such as planks, boards, wooden tiles, etc.
5. Corrugated metal sheets: These refer mainly to corrugated iron, zinc or aluminum sheets that have been used for roofing the dwelling.
6. Slate/asbestos: This category refers to slate/asbestos sheets that have been used to roof the dwelling/living quarters.
7. Cement/concrete: This refers to concrete roofs. Cement/Concrete roofs are mainly found in towns/cities and are seldom used for dwelling houses, though they are often used for office buildings and for shops.
8. Roofing tiles: These are roofing materials made of earth hardened by baking.
9. Other (specify): All other materials used for roofing of dwellings (e.g. plastic sheets or polythene, etc.) which do not fall into any of the above stated categories must be specified in the space provided.
H05: Tenure/holding arrangement: What is the present holding/tenancy arrangement with regard to this household?
Tenure refers to the arrangements under which the household occupies all or part of the living quarters (housing unit or compound).
The classification of households by tenure is as follows:-
1. Owning: Where the household or a member of the household owns the living quarters (housing unit or compound). This category includes housing units that are being purchased.
2. Renting: Refers to an arrangement where some amount is paid periodically (weekly, monthly, etc.) for the space (living quarters) occupied by the household. It includes situations where (i) members of a household rents all or part of the housing unit/compound as a main tenant or (ii) member of a household rents part of housing unit/compound as a sub-tenant.
3. Rent-Free: Refers to a situation where the household occupies their premises (living quarter) rent-free (i.e. free from cash rent) with or without the permission of the owner.
4. Perching: Perching generally refers to an arrangement where a person/household moves in to join another household in their living quarters, usually for a short term duration (on temporary basis) while the former makes arrangements to relocate.
H06. Ownership type: Who owns this dwelling?
This question refers to the type of ownership of the living quarters themselves and not the land on which the living quarters stand. Type of ownership must not be confused with tenure, which is discussed in question H05. This question therefore collects information on:
b. Whether the living quarters are privately owned (by individual households, private corporations, cooperatives, housing associations, etc.); and
c. Whether the living quarters are fully paid for, being purchased in instalments or mortgaged. The living quarters are classified by type of ownership as follows:
1. Owned by household member: Where the living quarters is used wholly or partly for own occupation by the owner who owes nothing on the dwelling.
2. Being purchased: Refers to living quarters that is being purchased and paid for by instalment e.g. under mortgaged arrangement, loans from banks or individuals by a household member
3. Relative not member of household: Refers to living quarters owned by a person who is not member of the household but related to the household member(s).
4. Other private individual: This category refers to the living quarters (housing units/compound) which are owned by other households/persons not related to the occupants.
5. Private employer: This refers to living quarters (housing unit) that have been provided by the employer (private employer) to the household. The private employer may or may not own the housing unit.
6. Other private agency: This refers to living quarters (housing unit) that are privately owned by other private agencies, corporations, cooperatives housing associations, estate developers, etc.
7. Public/government ownership: Included in this category are living quarters owned by the public sector, such as the central government, local government, (district assemblies) public boards and corporations.
8. Other (specify): All other types of ownership of living quarters which do not fall into the categories indicated above must be specified in the space provided.
A room is defined as a space in the housing unit or other living quarters enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, or at least to a height of 2 metres, of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult, that is, at least 4 square metres.
H07a How many rooms does this household occupy?
Information on rooms provide an indication of overcrowding and adequacy of dwelling stock. It also reflects the socio-economic condition of the household. Here count living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms but not bathrooms and kitchens.
H07b Sleeping rooms: How many of the rooms in H07a are designed primarily for sleeping?
Only information on sleeping room(s) intended for sleeping purposes must be collected unless the room/place has been specifically converted for that purpose. Conversion here means a change of its original use.
Sleeping rooms must exclude kitchens, dining rooms, studies, habitable attics, rooms used for professional or business purposes (e.g. stores) or garages, unless these are used as sleeping places. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, passageways, veranda and lobbies should also not be counted as rooms.
When a person or household sleeps in a room which is also at the same time used for business purposes, e.g. shop/store or office or workshop, the room must be recorded and the information must have been appropriately recorded in question H01 (category 09) above.
H08. Lighting: What is the main source of lighting for your dwelling?
This refers to the main source of light in the living quarters during the night.
1. Electricity: Includes electricity from the mains (ECG/Community) supply as well as private generating plants and other sources (industrial plant, mine, etc.).
2. Kerosene lamp: Ordinary kerosene lamp with glass mark and wick.
3. Gas lamp: Includes lamps which use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well as pressure lamps which are pumped before being lighted.
4. Solar energy: Lighting derived from solar (sun's) energy.
5. No light: Where there is no source of lighting at night in the living quarters.
6. Other (specify): All other types of lighting which are not captured in the above categories must be specified. They include candle light, torch/flash light, other kerosene lamp or oil lamp without glass mark e.g. "bobo/pakas", fire, etc.)
H09. Water supply: What is the main source of drinking water for this household?
The focus of this question is the main source of drinking water available for the use of the household.
Sometimes there is a standpipe in a house but only some households are entitled to use it. Where a household is not entitled to use the standpipe in the house but has to draw its water
from other sources e.g. well or stream, the appropriate source of drinking water must be captured.
1. Pipe-borne inside: This includes water piped into the living quarters/house through an inside plumbing system.
2. Pipe-borne outside: e.g. A standpipe either outside the compound or a public standpipe.
3. Tanker supply: Water supplied by tankers
4. Well: A hole sunk deep into the earth to reach the water table where water is collected.
5. Bore-hole: Hand dug or drilled well with pump.
6. Spring/rain water: Spring is where water gushes out from underground water sources or flows down slopes along rock or cliff surfaces. Rainwater is water collected into a container for use during rainfalls.
7. River/stream: Water flowing from its sources to the downstream towards a specific direction.
8. Dugout/pond/lake/dam: Where a surface area is dug for collection of rain water or hole in the ground with water in it or large sheet of water with land all round it or wall or bank built to keep back water..
9. Other (specify): Any other sources of water not specified under 1 - 8.
H10a. Toilet facilities: What type of toilet is used by this household?
A toilet is an installation for the disposal of human excreta. The enumerator must find out the type of toilet facility that the household uses. If the response to this question (H10a) is any of the options from 05 to 07, skip question H10b and go to question H11.
1. Water closet (WC): Refers to flush toilet . A flush toilet is an installation connected with piped water, arranged for humans to discharge their wastes and from which the wastes are flushed by water.
2. Pit latrine: Refers to the deep pits which are used as latrines mainly in rural areas of the country. They are not ventilated i.e. no specific channels have been provided for fumes to escape.
3. KVIP: Means Kumasi Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine. This is an improvement over the pit latrine, in that there has been an addition of a pipe that provides a channel for fumes to escape. All types of ventilated pit latrines are included in this category.
4. Bucket/pan: Refers to the type of latrine which consists of a pan/bucket and a seat. The pan/bucket is usually removed for disposal of the waste.
5. Toilet facility in another house (different house): Refers to the situation where the household being enumerated uses the toilet of other living quarters.
6. Public toilet (WC, KVIP, pit, pan, etc): Where members of the household use a communal or public facility.
7. No facility (bush, beach, field): This category applies where there is no toilet of any kind available for the use of the household as well as when the respondent answers that they use the bush, beach or field.
8. Other (specify)
H10b. Is the toilet used exclusively by the household?
For living quarters reported as having a toilet (i.e. Q10a: categories 1, 2, 3 and 4) question 10b must be asked in order to find out whether the toilet is used exclusively by the household being enumerated or it is shared with other households.
H11. Cooking fuel: What is the main source of cooking fuel for this household?
This question refers to the fuel predominantly used by the household for the preparation of principal meals. If two fuels are used, mark the one used most often. The classification of fuels used for cooking includes: wood, coconut husk, charcoal, gas, electricity and kerosene.
Any other type of fuel used for cooking which is not listed as a category must be marked as "Other".
H12. Cooking space (kitchen): What type of cooking space does your household have?
This question seeks to obtain information on whether the living quarters has a kitchen (separate room equipped for the preparation of the principal meals and intended primarily for that purpose), or whether some other space is set aside for cooking, or whether there is no special place set aside for cooking.
The categories for cooking space include the following:-
1. No Cooking: Where no cooking occurs in the household
2. Separate room for exclusive use of household: Room in this case excludes temporary structures or sheds which may be used for cooking in the courtyard. To be regarded as a kitchen the room used must be enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering and it must be equipped for the cooking of the principal meals of the household and intended primarily for that purpose. Category 02 refers to a kitchen used exclusively by the household being enumerated.
3. Separate room shared with other household(s): Where the kitchen is being used by more than one household.
4. Enclosure without roof: Where the cooking space has walls but without any roof.
5. Structure with roof but without walls: Where the cooking space is a structure with roof but without walls (e.g. shed) in the house/compound.
6. Bedroom/hall (living room):Where the cooking space is co-terminus with the bedroom or living room. (i.e. preparation of principal meals for the household occurs in the bedroom/living room).
7. Veranda: Preparation of the principal meals occurs on the veranda.
8. Open space in compound: Open space in compound without any roof or wall used for cooking meals.
9. Other (specify): All other types of space used for cooking not mentioned above must be specified in the space provided.
H13. Bathing facilities: What type of bathing facility is used by this household?
This question refers to where members of the household have their bath. It distinguishes between the availability of a separate room for bathing in the living quarters, an open cubicle for bathing in the house, a public bath house and other forms of bathing space.
H14. Solid waste disposal: How does your household dispose of rubbish (solid waste)?
This question refers to the collection and disposal of solid waste (rubbish) generated by members of the household (or occupants of the living quarters).
2. Burned by household: Where the household burns the rubbish.
3. Public dump: Where the household disposes solid waste at a locally recognised place (borla).
4. Dumped elsewhere: Where the household disposes solid waste indiscriminately in the bush, along streets or river banks.
5. Buried by household: Where the household buries its solid waste (refuse/rubbish).
6. Other (specify): All other types of solid waste disposal not mentioned earlier must be specified in the space provided.
H15. Liquid waste disposal: How does your household dispose of liquid waste?
This refers to liquid waste water from kitchen, bathroom and washing of clothes produced by the household or occupants of the living quarters. The liquid waste may be disposed of through the sewerage system, or thrown onto the street or gutter or by some other means.
2. Thrown onto the street/outside: Where liquid waste is disposes indiscriminately on the street or outside the house.
3. Thrown onto gutters: Where liquid waste is thrown onto the gutter.
4. Thrown onto compound: Liquid waste is thrown indiscriminately onto the compound.
5. Other (specify): Any other means of disposing of liquid waste not specified by 1 - 4.
What to do after enumeration
14.1 Final review of enumeration work
All along you have been reviewing your work daily to correct any mistakes you might have made in writing down the respondents' answers. To ensure that no mistakes have been overlooked, you are to make the following final checks.
14.2 Questionnaire PHC 1
b. Check the front page of the questionnaire and verify that all entries for household and group quarters are made and the (X) marking are in their appropriate boxes.
c. Check A13 (listing page) and ensure that all eligible members are correctly listed.
d. Carefully verify that the name, relationship, sex and age of all eligible persons in A13 (Listing Page) are correctly copied against "names of eligible members", status A and B and under P01, P02 and P03 respectively.
e. Check and satisfy yourself that each eligible member is enumerated and that all questions relevant to each member have been correctly answered and marked (X) in the appropriate column.
f. Check and make sure that there are no missing entries by thoroughly going through columns and rows of the questionnaire.
g. Ensure that where you used more than one questionnaire for one institution/ household, you have securely clipped them together.
You completed columns 1 - 3 of EVR when you were listing structures/compound/houses, and columns 4 - 10 during enumeration. Now, carry out the following checks.
b. Check and verify that you have honoured all call-backs and made all necessary remarks under column 11.
c. Add up each of columns 3-9 separately and record the answers in the row marked "Total". Do this separately for each locality, including new localities discovered (if any).
d. Complete the last page (EVR summary) according to the instructions given.
e. Reconcile EVR entries with entries in questionnaires
a. Complete columns 1-6 by copying the relevant information from PHC 2.
b. Copy from the summary page of the EVR. Workout the totals of columns 8 plus 10 (male) and 9 plus 11 (female) for the EA in the boxes provided and mark accordingly.
c. Rush this form to your supervisor as quickly as possible.
14.5 Completion of PHC 4 (Final summary sheet)
Copy A1 -- A7 from your PHC 2. Note that in the case of A5 (locality name) and A7 (locality code), you may have more than one locality in your EA. Copy these from the PHC 2 (attached to your EA Map) to your Summary Sheet.
You have already recorded locality facilities in your EVR. Two boxes (Yes and No) are provided for each facility on this PHC 4 (B1, B2, B3). Mark the appropriate box. If you mark NO for any facility in any locality, indicate the approximate distance to the nearest facility, in kilometres by marking the appropriate box(es) in the columns and rows provided. For example, if the distance to a facility is 13 kilometres write 13 and mark in appropriate box as shown, below:
[The example is omitted here.]
14.6 Enumerator's material receipt and submission of returnable materials
Now, complete the Enumerator's Material Receipt and put back the following materials in the satchel:
b. All questionnaires, i.e. completed, spoiled, cancelled and unused. Note that the total number returned questionnaires must be equal to the total number received and signed for.
d. EA Map
e. PHC 2 (EA Map Description)
f. Identity Card
g. All unused call-back cards
h. Enumerator's Manual
i. All unused clips
j. Clip Board
Return the satchel with its contents together with the pair of boots, torchlight/lantern and raincoat.
It is important that you obtain a signed and dated receipt from your Supervisor.
[Appendices also contain codes for various questions in the enumeration form.]