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Republic of Ghana
1984 Population Census
Enumerator's Manual

Census Office, Accra
November, 1981

[Table of contents of the original document is not presented here.]

pg. 1

Chapter 1
The concept of a population census

1. What is a population census?

A Population Census is the official enumeration of persons in a country at a specified time. This enumeration also implies the collection, compilation, evaluation, analysis and publication of demographic, social and economic statistics relating to this population.

2. The essential features of a population census.

This Population Census of Ghana, like the 1970 one, will follow as much as possible of all the essential features of a modern Population Census as recommended by the United Nations. It is of extreme importance that the recommendations are followed because it is upon this basis that Ghana can compare her data with those of other countries.

The four essential features recommended by the U.N. for the 1980 round of population censuses are the following:

(a) All persons (who qualify for enumeration) should be enumerated separately.
(b) The census operation should be confined to a well-defined territory, should cover all persons present or residing in the territory and that nobody in this defined territory should be enumerated more than once or omitted.
(c) The census should refer to a well-defined reference period or particular point in time. For Ghana's
1982 Population Census the reference period is census night, 21st March 1982.
(d) The census should be conducted at regular intervals.
3. Why are we conducting the census in 1982?

A population census has many uses. In the first place it will give us the total number and characteristics of persons in every Ghanaian town or village. This information will be of great help to the central government, regional, district and local authorities in planning their various educational, health and other social services. The information derived from the census will also help businessmen to plan their activities which will be of use in the economic development of this country.

Since the last census there have been many changes in the structure of the population. Our census will thus help us up-date our census data thereby ascertaining the specific changes in the structure of the population since 1970.

pg. 2

Foreign countries and other world bodies also need the same information when planning technical or economic assistance for this country.

4. Is this the first census in the country?

This is not the first population census to be taken in this country. Even before the advent of the British administration our local chiefs used to count their subjects. However, the first population census undertaken by the British administration in this country was conducted in 1891, i.e. 91 years ago. Since then Ghana has been conducting censuses at ten-yearly intervals except in 1941 when the 1939-45 War interrupted the series. There were population censuses in 1948 and 1960. The last population census was conducted in 1970. However, owing to certain political developments during the latter part of the last decade it was not possible to conduct a population census in 1980 and thereby maintain the decennial tradition. The 1982 census then will be the ninth census to be conducted in Ghana.

[Chapters 2-4 of the original document are not presented here.]

pg. 12

Chapter 5
Preliminary operations before enumeration period

1. Training programme for all enumerators

Every person who will be recruited for training as an enumerator for this population census will be expected to attend a residential training course. During this course, lectures will be given covering ? all aspects of your work. In addition to the lectures you will do both home and field exercises. In the field exercises you will fill out actual census questionnaires. You should treat both the lectures and the exercises seriously because it is only after the training course that the enumerators will be chosen. Attendance at classes, which is compulsory, will not necessarily equip you for the job. If your performance at classes and in the home and field exercises does not measure up to the required standards you may not be taken on as an enumerator.

2. Documents and materials you will receive before the census

For the successful execution of your duties as an enumerator you will be provided with the following documents and materials:

(a) Census officer's badge
(b) Identity card
(c) Enumerator's satchel
(d) Both types of census questionnaire
(e) Enumerator's manual
(f) Enumerator's visitation record
(g) Map of your enumeration area (E.A.)
(h) Two copies of final enumeration area description (form G.P.C.1)
(i) Receipt book for floating population (special area only)
(j) Call-back cards (urban E.A.s only)
(k) Two ball-point pens
(l) Green tags
(m) One packet clips
(n) Chalk
(o) Enumerator's materials receipt form
3. Enumerator's materials receipt form

You should complete the appropriate part of the enumerator's materials receipt form whenever you receive any documents or materials from your field supervisor, and the latter will do the same whenever you hand over any documents or materials to him.

pg. 13

4. Your E.A. map and the E.A. description.

In urban areas your E.A. map will show the name of the E.A. on top of the map and the boundary description at the bottom. But in the rural areas the map will not only show your particular E.A. but will also show some other E.A.s in the same supervision area. Your own E.A. is indicated in red pencil. The name of the local council appears at the top of the rural area map. However, with regard to localities with two or more E.A.s in rural areas the name of the local council appears at the bottom of the map. The key to the map is at the bottom.

You will also be given a form headed final enumeration area description (form G.P.C. I). This contains a description of the E.A. boundary and so you should become thoroughly familiar with it.

About one month before census night (i.e. around 21st February) you should in the company of your field supervisor and the other enumerators in the supervision area check the boundary of your own E.A. This should be done by walking round it paying particular attention to the localities at the boundary of the E.A. This exercise can be done in stages.

5. What is a locality?

A locality is any nucleated and physically distinct settlement which has a name or a locally recognized status. Thus a locality may be a single house, a hamlet, a camp, a village, a town or a city. Generally a distance of 200 yards is taken as the maximum open space or non-built-up area permitted between two parts of the same locality. Settlements beyond this distance should normally be regarded as separate localities.

Note that in certain parts of the country particularly in the Frafra, Builsa, Kasena-Nankani, Kusasi, Krobo, Adangbe and Shai areas this maximum limit of 200 yards may not be applicable. In these areas some of the compounds or houses in a particular locality are separated by farms or open spaces measuring more than 200 yards but bearing the same area name. In these places you should record the name given to the area followed by the specific name for these separated compounds or houses. For instance, if the whole area is called Awendadze and the specific names of some of the isolated compounds or houses are Barbor,
Tuntum, etc., you should write down as the name of the isolated localities Awendadze Barbor, Awendadze Tuntum, etc. In such cases you should never write down Awendadze Villages or Awendadze Localities.

You should not suffix No. I, No. 2, etc., to the names of any of such localities if these are not specific names given by the inhabitants. In short never put down any name which is not known in the area.

pg. 14

6. New settlements and localities and other changes in the E.A.

Do not assume that the list of localities on form G.P.C. 1 is complete because there may be other localities in the E.A. which do not appear on the list or the map. Though the E.A. map and form G.P.C. 1 should indicate all villages and hamlets in the E.A., it is possible that some of these may have been overlooked, some may no longer be in existence and new ones may have been founded since the completion of the geographical field work.

If a street name has been changed alter it on the map and on the G.P.C. 1. Also, if the location of a locality in the field is not the same as that given on G.P.C. 1 or on the map make the necessary correction on the relevant documents. You should also inform your field supervisor of any other difficulties in the course of your census duties. If you come across a village or hamlet which falls within your E.A. but which is not on your list add it to the list of localities on Form G.P.C. 1. Write the name in the first column of the table headed "name". Then make a brief but meaningful description of this "new locality" in the last column headed "position". You should also make a rough indication of its location on your E.A. map. This should also apply to a locality listed on G.P.C. 1 for which no description of location has been provided or which is not plotted on the map. If on the other hand you find that a locality listed on
Form G.P.C. 1 is no more in existence, you should write in the space marked "position" the reason for the nonexistence of this particular locality, e.g. inhabitants moved to another locality. You may get this information from any reliable person in the area preferably the chief or odikro of the neighbouring locality. Finally report the matter to your field supervisor.

7. Contacting the chief or odikro and introducing the census

In the rural areas it is necessary to contact the chief or the odikro and inform him of your mission before you start your enumeration. Briefly explain to him the objectives of the census. You should impress upon him that the information collected will be treated as confidential. Lastly do not forget to mention the fact that the census will provide the basic data required for the planning of economic and social services, e.g. the provision of water, health services, schools, feeder roads, etc.

8. Planning your itinerary

In the rural areas you should draw up your itinerary for the enumeration and submit this to your field supervisor for discussion and approval. If you cannot contact him immediately do not wait but go straight ahead with the enumeration.

The order of your visits should be systematic and orderly. You are the best person to judge how you can cover all the

pg. 15

houses. The purpose of this itinerary is to fix approximately the date when you expect to visit each locality or area. But if you get ahead of your schedule, do not stop. This itinerary will not show the order of visiting houses in each locality since it is drawn up before you visit the localities. Later on, when you are in the locality, and after you have completed the house-listing, you should draw up an itinerary showing the order in which you will enumerate the houses. You should prepare this with the co-operation of the chief. This will make the enumeration easier. You could work out an agreement with the chief so that the inhabitants of a village or part of a village are instructed to stay at home on the day scheduled for enumeration.

In the urban areas you should arrange to meet your field supervisor at a specified time and place so that the latter can accompany you to the field.

pg. 16

Chapter 6
What to do during enumeration period

1. When does enumeration begin?

Enumeration of all persons in households should start on the morning of Monday 22nd March 1982. For the floating population, i.e. outdoor sleepers and transients, enumeration should start a minute after midnight on census night.

Note that you should enumerate the inmates of institutions and persons who would be at sea in Ghana's territorial waters about a week before census night (refer to chapter 9 for detailed instructions.)

2. Listing of buildings in your E.A.

Before you start recording particulars about persons who qualify to be enumerated you have to make a complete list of all the buildings in the E.A. in your enumerator's visitation record. This procedure applies mainly to E.A.s which have not more than one locality. But in the case of rural areas where there might be several localities in an E.A? you have to list all the buildings in one locality first, enumerate the people and then move on to another locality in the E.A. Listing will ensure that every house in the E.A. has been covered. The listing is done by visiting every building and writing in chalk the serial number of the building on the front door or on the wall near the front door or at a conspicuous spot on the building.

This listing operation should be done systematically especially in areas where the houses are built so haphazardly that you may miss some houses if you are not very careful.

The best way to list the houses is to divide your area into segments and then proceed to write down the addresses of houses orderly.

In the congested urban areas you can, for example, take a small area bounded on all sides by streets and starting from one corner, proceed to list all the houses on one side of the street till you come to the end of that street. Start again from the other end of the street and then proceed to list the houses adjacent to the first row of houses you have listed. Continue in this manner till you have covered the whole area. This procedure which we generally refer to as the "serpentine order" can be illustrated thus:

pg. 17

[A graph showing the order for buildings listing is not presented here.]

For the non-institutional population in institutions you should remember to list the houses in which they live when you start your house-listing operation after census night. For instance if Mr. John Adama is a housemaster in a secondary school and lives in the same block as some of the inmates of the school you should assign a serial number to this block and enter all the relevant data only about Mr. John Adama's household and nothing about the inmates who would have been enumerated already.

If after the house-listing operation you come across houses or compounds which were missed, you should list these "new" houses or compounds at the end of your list for the locality.

3. What is a house or compound?

A house or compound is a structurally separate and independent place of abode. The essential features are separateness and independence. An enclosure may be considered as separate if it is surrounded by walls, fences, etc. so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons in the community for the purpose of sleeping, preparing and taking their meals or protecting themselves from hazards of climate such as storms and the sun.

You should also treat as a house or compound any shelter used as living quarters at the time of the census, e.g. a hut or a group of huts. It may contain one or more households. In localities where the houses are numbered, you should regard each house number as identifying a separate house or compound. However, if' two structurally separate houses bear the same house number, you should regard them as two separate houses and give them two different serial numbers. In addition, give some other description to distinguish one from the other, e.g. House No. Al5, owned by Amadu and House No. Al5, occupied by Mr. Kwame.

A compound need not be surrounded by a wall, fence or a hedge. For example, a house boy's quarters, garage, kitchen and toilet may constitute? one compound whether or not they are surrounded by a wall, etc.

pg. 18

4. How to complete the enumerator's visitation record

This is the document in which you will keep a record of your enumeration. This record should include the address of each house or compound or structure in your enumeration area, the number of households in the house, the total number of persons enumerated in the house and the total number of questionnaires used. You are also required to obtain information about the main source of water supply, health and educational facility /facilities available in each locality in your E.A.

Instructions for filling out this visitation record can be found in the inside pages of this booklet, but you must always remember to fill out one line for each house or compound.

5. Need to make appointments

All work by enumerators must be finished if possible by 11th March, 1984. In order to complete your enumeration before the Easter holidays, you should work steadily every day. It is therefore important to make appointments so that you will have work to do every day. In rural areas, the chief may help you by asking some people to stay at home each day. If you miss a day's work because the people are all on their farms, you will probably not finish your work in time. On no account should you hand over your satchel to your field supervisor without finishing your work. Your honorarium will only be paid on the successful completion of your work.

Note, however, that if you are unable to complete your enumeration by Thursday (8th April) you should suspend your work from that date to 12th April (both days inclusive).

6. The use of call-back cards

In many cases, you will find that when you enter a house there will be no one around to give you the required information. Since we do not want to miss any person from this census, you ought to call back when the persons are likely to be at home. In urban areas, you will be provided with cards on which you must indicate when you will call again. Leave this card in the house and try to call again at the time you have stated.

In rural areas, you should not use call-back cards but you may leave a message with neighbours stating when you will call again. Do not leave any house out of the enumeration simply because you do not meet the inmates when you call. Try to visit the house at least three times. If on your third visit you still do not meet anybody in the house, make a note about this house in your enumerator's visitation record and report the matter to your field supervisor. In cases where you are unable to contact your field supervisor because you may be working in a remote village, you must decide on your own how best to obtain the necessary information, e.g. from neighbours, from the chief, etc.

pg. 19

Chapter 7
Whom to enumerate

1. What is the unit of enumeration?

For the purpose of this census the unit of enumeration is the individual. But in private houses or compounds an additional unit of enumeration in which persons will be identified is the household. In institutions the additional unit is the hall, house, etc. of residence, and for outdoor sleepers it is their location.

2. What is a household?

A household consists of a person or a group of persons who live together in the same house or compound, share the same house-keeping arrangements and are catered for as one unit. It is important to remember that members of a household are not necessarily related (by blood or marriage) because maid-servants may form part of a household. On the other hand, not all those living in the same house or compound are necessarily members of the same household. Two brothers who live in the same house with their wives and children may or may not form separate households depending on their catering arrangements. The same can be said of a father and his married children. Thus in many cases, a house or compound may be broken into separate households.

Dividing a house or compound into households may not be easy. However, the following examples should guide you in deciding who should form a household:

(a) In general, a household consists of a man, his wife, children and some other relatives or a maid-servant who may be living with them.

(b) In large family houses where you have more than two generations of people living in the same house, you must not automatically treat the grandfather, his married children and their families as forming one household. First, find out which members of his house have a common catering arrangement and regard each such unit as a household. He may, for example, have four sons, each of whom has a separate arrangement for the preparation of food for his own "family". Each of these units must be treated as a household. If the father shares meals with one of his married children, he should be classified as part of that household. An exception

pg. 20

to the above principle is where in a house or compound, a man has several wives with each wife and her children occupying their own set of rooms in the house, and the man eats successively with each of his wives. In such a case, the man, his wives, their children, etc., should be treated as one household.

(c) You may also come across a married man who does not live in the same house as his wife or wife.
The children may take their meals in their respective mothers' houses. But if the children sleep in their father's house, they should be considered as forming one household with the father (not the mother).

(d) A lodger who sleeps and eats at least one meal a day with the household should be considered as a member of that household.

(e) A servant or steward and his family who live in a house or in an outhouse in the same compound as the employer but prepare their own food and eat separately should not be considered as members of the employer's household. They should be considered as forming a separate household. However, a maid-servant or servant who eats and sleeps with the family of the employer should be considered as a member of the employer's household.

(f) If two or more unrelated persons live together in one flat or in one room, they may or may not be regarded as one household depending on whether or not they have a common catering arrangement.

(g) It will be seen from the example (f) above that one person may constitute a household if the person lives alone in a house or part of a house, or even if the person lives with others in one room but prepares and eats his meals separately.

(h) The members of staff of institutions, except night watchmen, should be treated as members of households. They should never be treated as inmates of institutions.

3. Who is a usual member of the household?

A usual member of the household is a person who (whether present or absent on census night) has spent at least the last six months with the household.

The following, however, should also be considered as usual members of the household, although they do not satisfy the residential requirements:

pg. 21

(a) Persons who have not spent the last six months with the household but who have the intention of staying there for at least the next six months, e.g. workers on transfer.
(b) Seasonal workers who return home after a season.
(c) Students in boarding schools or hostels except students who have spent six months or more before census night outside the country and those who were outside the country on census night and intend to stay outside the country for the next six months or more.
(d) Soldiers in barracks where they are catered for as a group.

4. Who is a member of an institution?

For the purpose of the census, any inmate of an institution who slept in that particular institution on census night should be considered as a member of that institution and enumerated as such. The following are institutions:

(a) Educational institutions, e.g., boarding schools, universities, training colleges, blind schools seminaries, convents, children's homes, orphanages, nurseries, hostels (e.g. Y.W.C.A.), etc.
(b) Hospitals including mental hospitals, maternity homes, divine healers' and herbalists' establishments, rehabilitation centres and similar institutions for the physically and mentally handicapped, and convalescent homes.
(c) Prisons including borstal institutions, remand homes and Industrial Schools.
(d) Service barracks including army camps, military academies, police training schools and colleges. Note that staff members living in private households in the institutions specified in (a), (b), (c) and (d) above should be counted as living in private houses and should not be considered as inmates of institutions.

5. Who constitute the floating population?

There are certain categories of persons such as outdoor sleepers and transients who may be counted more than once or may not be enumerated at all if care is not taken. These persons constitute the floating population.

The following are examples of persons in this category:

(a) Persons who on census night were travelling in lorries, trains or on foot and therefore did not sleep in any house or compound on that night, e.g. cattle drivers.
pg. 22
(b) Persons who spent census night in hotels, rest houses, transit quarters, road camps and labour transit camps.
(c) Persons at airport, on ships, at ferries, at international border stations.
(d) Soldiers on field exercise.
(e) Fishermen and other persons who were at sea in Ghana's territorial waters on census night.
(f) All persons who slept in lorry parks, markets, in front of stores and offices, public bathrooms, petrol filling stations, railway stations, verandahs, pavements and all such places which are not houses or compounds.
(g) Watchmen.
(h) Beggars and vagrants (mad or otherwise).

Persons at funerals, dances, parties, etc., on census night should not be treated as part of the floating population without further probing. If the respondent spent census night at such a social gathering he should be enumerated in the house to which he finally returned when he left the function. For instance, if Kwamena Appiah after the social function went to sleep with a friend after census night the former should be enumerated in the friend's household.

6. Census night - All enumeration must relate to census night

In order to meet one of the essential requirements for a modern census, Sunday 21st March 1982 has been selected as census night- a reference time to which all enumeration should relate. Note that only persons alive in Ghana at midnight of this day should be enumerated. Census night is being publicized in advance throughout the country so that it will be easily remembered by everyone. Remember that all the questions you ask must relate to census night unless you have specific instructions to the contrary in this manual, e.g. the economic questions.

Note that between the census night and the time of enumeration, the composition of a particular household may have changed. If somebody died after census night you should enumerate him as living on census night; if a baby was born after census night you should not enumerate him. Visitors are enumerated if they spent census night in the household.

7. Who should be enumerated in the inside pages of the questionnaire.

Every person who spent census night, i.e. the 21st of March, 1982 in a household, an institution or out of doors in your E.A. should be enumerated. All usual members of a household and their visitors who spent census night in the house should be enumerated on the inside -pages of the household questionnaire. All usual members or other persons who did not spend census night in the house

pg. 23

should not be enumerated on the inside pages of the household questionnaire for that particular household.

8. Look out for special omissions

There are certain types of persons who are likely to be omitted. Make sure to enumerate the following categories of persons who spent census night in the household:

(a) All newly born babies in the household who were born alive before census night. It does not matter at all whether they have not been named or whether they have died since census night.
(b) All persons who died after census night but who were alive on census night.
(c) All physically or mentally sick persons.
(d) All old men and women.
(e) All visitors, especially those not present at the time of enumeration.
(f) All servants.

In short you should enumerate every human being of whatever sex, age, social or family status and health conditions who spent census night in the household or in an institution or slept out of doors in your E.A.

Note that the following should not be enumerated:

(a) Babies born after census night.
(b) Persons who died before census night.
9. Look out for the following who should not be enumerated anywhere.

Note also that persons (relatives or non-relatives) who may be present in the household at the time of enumeration but who spent census night in a different house or compound should not be enumerated in this household.

10. Enumeration of all census officials including yourself.

You should enumerate all census officials who spent census night in their respective houses in the usual way on Form H. Census officials who were engaged on census duties during census night should also be enumerated in their usual houses provided they returned to their usual places of residence in the early hours of the following day. However if a census official leaves his house and spends census night with a friend he should be enumerated in the friend's household as a visitor.

11. Who should be interviewed

Though we require information on every person, who qualifies to be enumerated, it is not likely that you will obtain information directly from every individual. In some cases you will have to rely on some persons in the house or compound you visit to give you information about persons who may be absent when you call but who spent census night in the house and should therefore be enumerated.

pg. 24

In such cases make sure that you obtain the information from reliable persons. You should never rely on the following persons to supply you with the information required:

(a) Young children
(b) Strangers
(c) Mentally sick persons

Remember that in most cases you will have to use your own judgment to decide on whom to rely.

pg. 25

Chapter 8
Types of census enumeration forms

1. Census enumeration forms

Two types of forms, i.e. Form H and Form G, will be used to enumerate persons who qualify for enumeration in this population census. Form H will be used to enumerate persons in private households and Form G for inmates of institutions and the floating population.

2. Form H - Household questionnaire

This is the Form which will be used to enumerate all persons in households. It will be known as the household questionnaire and will be used to enumerate all usual members of households and their visitors who spent census night in private houses as well as persons on night duty but who normally live in private houses, e.g. nurses, policemen, prison warders, census officials, etc. Note that night watchmen and persons who are travelling on duty on census night, e.g. railway locomotive drivers on night trains, should be enumerated on Form G.

3. Form G - Group quarters questionnaire

This Form is to be used to enumerate all inmates of institutions and the floating population. For persons in institutions, remember that it should be used to enumerate the inmates who were present in the institution on census night.

pg. 26

Chapter 9
How to enumerate the different categories of the population

1. Enumeration of persons in households on Form H.

As previously stated you will start the house-listing operation on the morning of Monday 22nd March, 1982. After this operation you should start the enumeration of persons who spent census night in the households within these houses or compounds.

It is important to remember that you should enumerate different households on separate questionnaires. If you use two or more questionnaires for one household you should clip the questionnaires for this household together.

Remember to include workers on duty on census night as well as visitors or usual members of a household who may not be present at the time of your visit but who spent census night with the household.

2. Enumeration of inmates of institutions on Form G.

All inmates of institutions will be enumerated in advance on the group quarters questionnaire (i.e. Form G).

In these institutions the filling out of the questionnaire will be done with the aid of the heads of the institutions and other members of staff who should supply certain basic information from existing records.

The field supervisor for the area should contact the head of the institution three weeks before census night. He should explain the group quarters questionnaire to the head or the officer-in-charge of the institution and leave a specimen copy with him to enable him to collect information which may not be readily available.

You (the enumerator) should record the entries in respect of the inmates of the institution with the help of the staff. This advance enumeration should be done a week before census night. Then, on Monday 22nd March the enumerator should visit the institution again to up-date the information on the questionnaires. Inmates who did not spend census night in the institutions should have their particulars deleted whilst those who were not covered in the advance enumeration but who spent census night in the institution should be enumerated.

The advance enumeration technique is restricted to inmates of institutions. Members of staff in these institutions except night watchmen should be enumerated in the same way as persons in households.

pg. 27

3a. Enumeration of the floating population on Form G

For the floating population, you should treat each address, e.g. Babile Market, as listing unit. Thus the address you write down in the enumerator's visitation record and on Form G should be applicable to all the respondents you enumerate at that location.

For convenience, the floating population will be subdivided into three groups:

(i) Out-door sleepers.
(ii) Semi-stable floating population
(iii) Fishermen and others at sea on census night and persons in field camps (e.g. forest rangers, soldiers on field exercise).
3b. Enumeration of outdoor sleepers immediately after census night (use Form G)

Those who will be enumerated as outdoor sleepers immediately after census night are the following:

(i) Persons who on census night were travelling in lorries, trains or on foot and therefore did not sleep in any house on that night. An example is the cattle driver.
(ii) Persons who on census night slept in lorry parks, in or around markets, in front of stores and offices, in public bathrooms, at petrol filling stations, at railway stations, on verandahs, on pavements, and any place similar to the above which are not houses or compounds.
Note that persons resident in a house who sleep on the verandahs of the houses in which they live should be enumerated in the usual way on Form H.
(iii) Beggars and vagrants (mad or otherwise). Enumeration of the outdoor sleepers is the most problematic and so, great care should be taken to ensure complete coverage. The field supervisor should undertake a preliminary survey of all places with this type of population and allocate enumerators to these places on the basis of one enumerator to about 20 out-door sleepers. For security reasons the field supervisor should see to it that the enumerators work in pairs and are provided with lanterns.

Both the field supervisor and the enumerators should note that the success of this operation depends on the fact that all enumeration should be done immediately after census mid-night (i.e. in the very early hours of Monday 22nd March).

Remember that most mad persons normally move within the same area even though they do not sleep in any house. It is possible that some persons in the area may be able to give you information about them. Where no one can tell you anything about a mad person just write down his

pg. 28

sex and estimated age and record that the person is mad in the space provided for "full name". Then leave the rest of the items blank. You should do your best to enumerate all of them on census night. If you meet a mad person on a second or subsequent days of enumeration in your E.A., do not enumerate him unless you have very good reasons to believe that he has not already been enumerated.

3c. Enumeration of the semi-stable floating population (use Form G)

In this category are persons who on census night slept in:

(i) Hotels
(ii) Rest-houses
(iii) Transit quarters
(iv) Labour transit camps
(v) Hostels

Or persons who on census night stayed

(vi) in airports (as travellers)
(vii) in harbours
(viii) on ships within Ghana's territorial waters
(ix) at ferries
(x) at international border stations

For persons under (i) to (v), it is necessary that you visit these places before midnight of Sunday 21st March. Your field supervisor will see to it that you have a complete list of such ''institutions" in your E.A. long before census night and where necessary other enumerators will be assigned to help you cover them. You should visit these places about 9.00 p.m. on census night and with the permission of the authorities stay there till midnight in order to enumerate all those likely to sleep there that night. On the following day you should go there to check whether those enumerated actually slept there on census night. Where any changes have occurred, the forms should be duly amended.

However, for persons in categories (vi) to (x) you are expected to be present at midnight on census night and start enumerating them a minute after midnight. Here too the field supervisor should see to it that there is a ratio of one enumerator to about 20 of such persons and that all these places are adequately covered and enumerated immediately after census night.

3d. Enumeration of fishermen and other persons at sea on census night and persons in field camps (use Form G)

In the fishing communities along the coast you should contact the fishermen a week before census night and inquire from them whether they would be away at sea within Ghana's territorial waters on census night. Those who would be out at sea on census night should be enumerated

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a few days before census night. However, you should go to the houses of these fishermen on the following morning or as soon as possible after census night to record any changes that might have taken place during census night.

For persons in field camps, contact the officers in charge four days before census night and record particulars of everybody in the camp. Then after census night you should check up whether these persons actually spent census night in the field camp and amend the questionnaires where necessary.

[Chapters 10-11 of the original document are not presented here.]

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Chapter 12
How to record entries on the front page of each questionnaire

1. Entries on the front pages of Form H and Form G.

At the top of the front pages of both Form H and Form G, spaces have been provided for certain items which are called group entries. These entries refer to all members of a household or persons in group quarters.

The following are the group entries on Form H:

(a) Enumeration area number
(b) Detailed address of houses or compound
(c) Name of town or village
(d) Town or village code (for office use)
(e) Serial number of house or compound within the E.A.
(f) Serial number of household within houses
(g) Type of residence code (for office use)
(h) Socio-economic code (for office use)
(i) Household pattern (for office use)
On Form G you will find the following group entries:
(a) Enumeration area number
(b) Name of institution
(c) Detailed address of institution or location of outdoor sleepers
(d) Name of town or village
(e) Town or village code (for office use)
(f) Serial number of house or location of outdoor sleepers within the E.A.
(g) Sex of persons
(h) Type of residence code (for office use)
(i) Socio-economic code (for office use)
(j) Total number of persons enumerated

In addition to the group entries there are lists A, B and C on the front page of Form H. List A is for usual members of the household who were present on census night, List B for visitors who, on census night, slept with the household, and List C for usual members who were absent on census night.

2. How to fill out the group entries on Form H.

(a) Enumeration area number -- Copy this number in eight digits from the final enumeration area
description (Form G.P.C. 1) on all the questionnaires you use. Before going to the field you may

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copy this number at home on all the questionnaires you expect to use for a particular day.

(b) Detailed address of house or compound-The address you will write here should be the same as that you recorded in column 2 of the Enumerator's visitation record. This should be so accurate that another person can use the address to find the location of a particular house or compound on a second visit. If the streets are named and the houses numbered, you should write down in this space the house number and the name of the street, e.g. C.49/2 Castle Road, Adabraka. Otherwise write a precise description of the location of the house or compound. For example (i) Kwesi Mensah's house on the main street directly opposite nyame bekyere chop bar. (ii) Mumuni Adama's house, third compound after chief's compound on the way to the Methodist church.

Note that the address of house or compound on both the enumerator's visitation record and the questionnaire should agree. If it becomes necessary to correct any address in the visitation record you must also correct it on the questionnaire.

(c) Name of town or village- Write in this space the name of the town or village where you are conducting that particular enumeration. Note that in the rural areas you may have many localities in one enumeration area, therefore the questionnaires for each such locality should have the name of the particular locality written on them.

(d) Town or village code (for office use)- Do not write anything in these boxes.

(e) Serial number of house or compound within the E.A- Copy this number in three digits from column I of the enumerator's visitation record on all the questionnaires you use for all the households in a particular house or compound. For instance, if you enumerate five households in one house or compound, all the questionnaires for these households should bear the same serial number of house or compound.

(f) Serial number of household within house- Every household you enumerate in each house or compound you visit should be given a serial number in two digits. Therefore the first household you enumerate in a house should be given the number 01, the second household 02, the third household 03 and so on.

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(g) Type of residence code (for office use)- Do not write anything in this box.

(h) Socio-economic code (for office use)- Do not write anything in these boxes.

(i) Household pattern (for office use)- Do not writ anything in these boxes.

3. How to fill out the group entries on Form G

(a) Enumeration area number- Same as in Section 2a of this chapter.

(b) Name of institution- The precise name of the institution should be written in this space, e.g. Navrongo Secondary School, University of Cape Coast, Police Training College, Ankaful Prisons, Effia-Nkwanta Hospital, etc.

(c) Detailed address of institution or location of outdoor sleepers- The address you will record here should be the same as the one in column 2 of the enumerator's visitation record. It should be so detailed and meaningful that another person can use the address to find the institution or the location of outdoor sleepers in question. Remember that post office box numbers should not be recorded here. What is wanted is the exact description of the location of the place. For the educational institutions you should also give the address with reference to the 'houses', or 'halls', e.g. Mensah Sarbah Hall, University of Ghana, Theresa House; Bolgatanga Women's Training College. For further instructions see Section 2b of this Chapter.

(d) Name of town or village- Same as in Section 2c of this chapter.

(e) Town or village code (for office use)- Do not write anything in these boxes.

(f) Serial number of house or location of outdoor sleepers within the E.A- Same as in Section 2e of this chapter.

(g) Sex of persons-Note that the first box has been pre-coded. Write in the other box the figure 1 if all persons in the institution or at that location are males and 3 if they are all females and 5 if there are both males and females (i.e. mixed).

(h) Type of residence code (for office use)- Do not write anything in this box.

(i) Socio-economic code (for office use)- Do not write anything in these boxes.

(j) Total number of persons enumerated- You should write in four digits the total number of persons who were enumerated in a particular institution or

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location of the floating population. This total should appear only on the first questionnaire for a particular institution or location. If you enumerate twelve persons at a petrol filling station you should record 0012 in the boxes.

4. When to enter the dates enumeration was started and completed in a household on Form H

After you have completed the group entries on Form H, and before you start writing out the names of persons in the household, you should write in the space for 'date enumeration started in Household' the date you started interviewing members of the household.

When enumeration in the household has been completed you should also record this date in the space provided for it below List C.

Note that if more than one Form H is used for a household these two dates should appear only on the first page of the first questionnaire.

5a. How to fill out List A on the front page of Form H

You should first write down in List A on the front page of Form H the name, sex and relationship to the head or temporary head of household of each usual member of the household who slept in the house on census night.

You should write down first the name of the head of household. If the head of household was absent during the reference night, find out who is responsible for the household in his absence and record his or her name, provided that this person slept in the household on census night.

In polygamous households, after you have written down the name of the head of household, you should write the name of the senior wife followed by the names of her children in the order of seniority. Then write down the name of the second wife and her children, the third and so on.

You should note that the method of listing the names first is meant to ensure completeness of coverage within the household. If this is not done the person who is giving you the information required may forget after an interview of about half an hour whom he has reported and whom he has not. To guard against this, you should write down all the names first.

5b. How to fill out List B on the front page of Form H

As you did in List A above, you have to record in List B the full name, sex and relationship to the head or temporary head of the household of every visitor, i.e. guest of any member of the household who slept in the house on census night. You are also required to write in the space provided the name of the town or village and the region where the visitor usually lives.

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5c. How to fill out List C on the front page of Form H

The entries in this list are restricted to the usual members of the household who were absent from the house on census night.

In this list you should, in addition to full name, sex and relationship to head or temporary head of household record age, address on census night and the duration of absence of every usual member of the household who was absent on census night.

The "address on census night" refers to the place where the absentee usual member spent census night. In the two spaces, you are required to record only the name of the town or village and the region where this town or village is situated. You are also expected to write in completed months how long he was absent up to census night. For example, if the person has been away for two months three weeks, write down "2" in the space provided; if he has been absent for less than one month write down "0". Note that if the person has been away for six months or more he should not be considered as a usual member of the household.

If the usual head of household was absent on census night, his name should be entered on the first line in List C. Remember, however, to indicate in the relationship column, the relationship of this person to the temporary head entered in List A. Thus you should never enter head in the relationship column in List C, but specify whether this absent person is the husband, brother, mother, etc., of the temporary head.

6. Total number of persons in the house/compound

On the right-hand side of List A, three boxes have been provided for recording the total number of persons enumerated in the inside pages of the questionnaire in each house or compound. This should be written down after you have satisfied yourself that all persons who qualify for enumeration in the house or compound in question have been enumerated.

The entry should be recorded in three digits and on the first questionnaire used for enumerating the first household in the house or compound. For example, if you enumerate three households in a particular house and the total number of persons enumerated in the inside pages of the questionnaires (i.e. those on Lists A and B) in the three households are 5, 7 and 6, the figure you have to record in the boxes of the first questionnaire for the first household is 018. The boxes for the second and subsequent questionnaires for the house should be left blank. Note that this figure should agree with the totals of columns 5 and 6 of the Enumerator's visitation record.

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7a. Total number of persons on Lists A, B and C

On the right-hand side of these lists on Form H are boxes in which you should put down the total number of persons in each list. The number of digits in which you are to record the totals should be according to the number of boxes provided. For example if you list four persons in List A, you should record 04 in the two boxes provided.

7b. Total of Lists A and B on Form H

Four boxes, two pre-coded and two blank, have been provided for recording the total number of persons in Lists A and B.

You are expected to add the number of persons on Lists A and B and put the total in the two blank boxes. Thus if the total number of persons in Lists A and B is five, you will record 05 in the two blank boxes so that entries in the four boxes will read:

[An example of the total of lists A and B is not presented here.]

Similarly if the total you obtain is 29 the entries will be:

[An example of the total of lists A and B is not presented here.]

If you use more than one questionnaire for a household, you should add up the number of persons listed on each questionnaire and put the total in the appropriate boxes of the first questionnaire for the household. The boxes on the second and subsequent questionnaires should be left blank.

8a. Full name

Write in the spaces provided, the full names of all respondents. The names you put down should be such that if a second visit is paid to the house during or after the final enumeration, the persons to whom the names refer can be easily identified.

8b. Persons with more than one name

If a person has two names, one for "official" use and the other for use at home, write down the name or names by which he is best known in the neighbourhood or village where he is being enumerated and then write his other name(s) in parenthesis. For example, Ato Safo (Charles Mensah).

8c. Babies who have not been named

Occasionally you will come across babies who were born before census night but who have not been named by the time you call to enumerate. In such cases write down

pg. 42

only the day name (e.g. Kwame, Akua, Abla, etc.) of the baby together with the mother's name. For example, if the newly born baby's name is Kwame and the mother's name is Akua Mansa, the name you should put down is Kwame, Akua Mansa's son. In those tribes where an unnamed child is not called even by the day name, just write down Akua Mansa's son.

8d. Persons who refuse to give out their names

Sometimes you may come across a person who will refuse to give you his name although he may be quite prepared to give you answers to the remaining questions. Explain to such a person that the law strictly forbids the disclosure to unauthorised persons of any census information.

The name is required only for identification purposes in connection with later checks on the accuracy of the information being collected. If he still refuses to give his name, assign a letter of the alphabet such as A, B or C to him and proceed to record the other facts.

After completion of the questionnaire you might be able to obtain the person's name from other sources, e.g. neighbours, chiefs, etc.

8e. Persons with identical more persons have identical names

You may also come across households where two or names. In such a case you must record also the nick-names or any other names by which they are distinguished in the household or by neighbours and friends. e.g. Kofi Kyamba Payin and Kofi Kyamba Kakraba. Failing this, you must distinguish them by physical characteristics such as tallness or fatness or shortness. Thus for instance you can have Abongo Jato (fair coloured) or Kofi Dogo (tall).

9. Sex

Write "M" for males and "F" for females in the space provided.

It is important to ask for the sex of the person when information is being given to you by a third person. Do not infer the sex from the name or names to the person. Bear in mind that some names can be misleading in this respect. For example, some people use George as a short form for Georgina and Ben for Bernice.

10a. Who is the head of the household?

The head of a household is generally the person who is responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the household. He or she is not necessarily the oldest person in the household. However, your main guide as to who is the head is whoever will be pointed out to you as the head when you ask.

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If the head of the household was away on census night, you should ask for the person who took charge of the household when the usual head was away. This person thus becomes the "temporary head of household" and all other relationships should refer to this person and not to the usual head who was absent.

Enter the name of this person on the first line of List A and write in the relationship column temporary head and relate all other relationships to this person. For instance, if a usual head of household was away and the wife becomes the temporary head, all the relationships should refer to this wife. Thus the head (who will be recorded on the first line in List C) becomes the "husband" and his sister's son becomes "husband's sister's son" and not "sisters' Son".

10b. How to fill out the "relationship to head of household" column

What we want in the relationship column is the relationship of every member of the household, including guests and visitors to the head or temporary head of household. Most relationships are established either by blood (descent) or by marriage (affinal). This means that your brother and sister's son are your blood relatives whilst your wife, wife's mother or wife's sister are your relatives by marriage.

The relationship should always be written as if it were defined by the head himself. For example, if the head replies in the following manner:

(a) A is my son-write son
(b) B is my brother-write brother
(c) C is my wife-write wife
(d) Dis my father-write father

On the other hand, if you ask a member of the household about his or her relationship to the head of the household you have to invert the relationship before you enter it. If, for example, a person tells you that:

(a) The head is my father-you will write son or daughter (whichever is the correct one)
(b) The head is my mother's brother-you will write sister's daughter.
(c) The head is my son-you will write father or mother.

Always remember to avoid such vague terms as nephew, cousin, uncle, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, mother-in-law, etc. which do not denote exact relationships. Nephew may mean brother's son or sister's son and these should, therefore, be distinguished.

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Make sure that the blood relationships specified are true biological relationships. A son must mean the head's own true son and not his brother's, etc. However, half-brothers, i.e. persons having one mother but different fathers, or one father but different mothers should be recorded as brothers. Similarly half-sisters should be recorded as sisters.

Any other relationships should be fully specified, e.g. adopted son, adopted daughter, etc. Other household members who are not related to the head of the household such as lodgers and unrelated servants should be recorded as such, e.g. servant, guest, friend, etc.

As a guide to the, type of relationships to be specified a list has been compiled for you at the bottom of the front page of the household questionnaire (Form H).

Note that the relationship column should be left blank for all persons in institutions and the floating population.

11a. Age on 21st March 1982.

The age of every person must be stated in completed years only. For those who know their birthdays, the age to record is the age as at last birthday. Age in completed years only means that all the ages must be recorded in full years discarding fractions of years and months. For instance 15 years 11 months should be written down as 15. Do not write down months. Only years are required. All infants who are less than one year should be recorded as being "0" years old.

11b. What to do when a person does not know his age.

For such a person, use the following method to estimate his age:
(1) (a) Ask him to name any historical event (preferably a local one) which he has been told occurred around the time of his birth.
(b) Ask him to give you an indication of how old he was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his birth.
(c) Then use this information to work out his age. For example, if a respondent tells you that he was about 15 years when Ghana attained her independence, this person would be 15+25 (i.e. 6th March 1957 to 21st March, 1982=40 years.)

If this method fails, you should try the foil owing approach.
2. (a) Simply estimate how old he may be.
(b) Then select from your list of local, regional or national historical events (see Appendix I)

pg. 45

some events which occurred about the time when according to your estimate, he must have been born.
(c) Ask whether he has heard about any of these events.
(d) If he has, ask him to give you an indication of how old he was when this event occurred or how many years elapsed before he was born.
(e) Then from this information work out his age.

If this second approach also does not elicit the required information, then base your estimate on biological relationships. For instance, a woman who does not know her age but who has two or three children of her own is unlikely to be less than 15 years old, however small she may look. You may then try to work out her age by the following method:

3. (a) Determine the age of her oldest child.
(b) Then assume that the average woman in Ghana gives birth to her first child at about 18. However, without further probing, you should not base your assumption on the oldest child who is at present living. There is the likelihood that in certain cases the child died later on or that the woman had miscarriages or still-born children before the oldest living child was born. Therefore if the woman tells you that she had one miscarriage or still-born before the oldest living child was born, you should make your estimation from the year of the miscarriage, stillborn or live birth.
Note also that some women do not have children early in life whilst others have children earlier than what generally obtains in the community. Therefore in every case you must find out whether she had her first child, miscarriage or still-born at the usual age before you assume she was aged 18 years at her first pregnancy.
(c) Then use the information obtained by means of (A) and (B) above to estimate her age.

4. (a) Only as a last resort, should you estimate a person's age from his physical features.

If you are obtaining information about an absent person from a third person, then obviously you have to rely on the information supplied by the third person in estimating the age in respect of the person who is absent. Under no circumstances must you leave this column blank.

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Chapter 13
How to record individual entries

A. The layout of the inside pages of the questionnaire

This part of the questionnaire is divided into columns and rows. There are 11 columns numbered 1, 2, 3-11. Small letters of the alphabet are used to subdivide some of these into sub-columns.

For example, major column 8 is sub-divided into (a), (b) and (c). Each column refers specifically to a questionnaire item which is clearly stated in capital letters at the head of the column.

There are 10 rows. Each row is reserved for one person. This means that if you are writing down the particulars about one person you must use one row, starting from the left and moving along the line to the right.

Remember that these individual entries are restricted to usual members and visitors (i.e. persons in Lists A and B) who slept in the house on census night and persons in group quarters (i.e. institutional and floating population) who qualify to be enumerated.

B. What to do when two or more questionnaires are used for a household or group quarters

There is provision on one questionnaire for the enumeration of 10 persons. If there are more than 10 persons in a household or in group quarters you must continue enumeration on a new questionnaire. This new questionnaire is a continuation of the first one and must be treated as such. You must continue the numbering of persons on the new questionnaire by entering the digit "l" before the numbers already printed on the second questionnaire to form 11, 12, 13, etc., and for the last one you will have to prefix the "0" with 2 to form 20 and so on. When you use a third questionnaire you should put the number 2 before the existing numbers to form 21, 22, 23 and so on. Whenever you use more than one questionnaire for a household cancel the head in the relationship column of the additional questionnaire(s) and write down the appropriate relationship of the respondent to the head/temporary head of household.

Remember that whenever you use more than one questionnaire for any one household or group quarters you must clip all the questionnaires together.

C. Items in the inside pages of the questionnaire

Some of the following questions have been answered on the front page of the household questionnaire, therefore, there will be no need to ask these questions again. In such cases all you have to do is to copy the information in the appropriate cells.

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1. Full name

You have already entered the full names of the respondents in either list A or list B on the front page of Form H. Copy them out in the same order. For Form G the procedure will be the same as explained in chapter 12, section 8.

2. Sex

Two boxes have been provided in this column. Mark the appropriate box according to whether the respondent is male or female. For further information see chapter 12, section 9.

3. What was your age last birthday?

Same as chapter 12, section 11.

4. What is your relationship to the head of household?

You have already entered this on the front page of Form H. Copy it out in full. However, on Form G you should not write anything in this column.

5. Where were you born?

Two boxes and a dotted line have been provided in this column for recording the respondent's birthplace. In this census the birthplace of a person is the place of usual residence of the person's mother at the time of birth. For example, for a person born in (a) a hospital or maternity home outside the usual place of residence of the mother, (b) the hometown of the mother's mother or (c) some other locality where the mother had gone for a short visit, the birth place of this person will be the locality in which the mother normally lives and not the locality of the hospital, residence of the mother's mother or the place of visit.

If however, the mother's length of stay outside her locality of usual residence is six months or more or the mother has the intention of staying in the new place for six months or more the "actual place of physical birth" will be considered as the birthplace of the person in question. For example, Akua Mansa who normally resides with her husband at New Tafo went to Accra to deliver her child in her mother's house. In such a case the birthplace of her child will be New Tafo and not Accra. If, however, she stays in Accra for six months or more, then the birthplace of her child will be Accra and not New Tafo.

Put a cross in the first box marked "in this town/village" for all persons who were born in the same town or village in which you are conducting the enumeration. If, for example, you are conducting your enumeration in Bawku and the respondent was born in Bawku, you will mark this box. Remember that birthplace is not the same as hometown. In large localities like Accra, remember that the suburban localities like Madina, Akweteman, Kopevi, McCarthy Hill, Alogboshi, Kokroko and Haatso are not part.

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of the town proper and should be treated as "in another town/village in Ghana" but in the same region.

Mark the second box -"in another town/village in Ghana"- for all respondents who were not born in the town or village in which you are conducting the enumeration, but in some other town or village in Ghana. After marking the box, you should write down the name of the town/village in which the person was born and the Region in which this locality is situated.

Note that there are nine regions in Ghana. These are:

(a) Western
(b) Central
(c) Greater Accra
(d) Eastern
(e) Volta
(f) Ashanti
(g) Brong-Ahafo
(h) Northern
(i) Upper

Remember that Greater Accra Region comprises the following council areas:

(a) Accra City Council
(b) Terna District Council
(c) Ga Local Council
(d) Dangbe Local Council
(e) Shai Local Council

In appendix 2 you will find a list of all the traditional areas in Ghana by region with the names of all the ruling Paramount Chiefs. This will enable you to determine the region in which some towns or villages lie. Ask those who do not know the Region in which they were born to give you the name of the present Paramount Chief of the area in which they were born. The information contained in this appendix will help you to determine the Region in which the person was born.

Born outside Ghana- For a person who was born in a town or village outside this country, you will specify the country but not the town in which he was born. For instance, if the respondent was born in Lome, you should write down Togo; if he was born in Lagos, write down Nigeria; if he was born in Ouagadougou, write down Upper Volta.

In the case of persons from the neighbouring French-speaking West African countries who cannot tell you the actual country in which they were born, ask them to give

pg. 49

you the name of a big town, or the headquarters of their Commandant, in the country in which they were born. Refer to appendix 3 and use it to obtain the name of the country.

Avoid the word "French" which persons from French-speaking African countries usually give in response to the above question. If you get such a reply, probe further and get the correct response, i.e. the name of the country.

Again avoid names of the continents like Africa, Europe, America, or name of regions like the Middle East. North Africa, Latin America.

6. What is your nationality?

A box and a dotted line have been provided under this item and you are required to differentiate between a Ghanaian and all other nationals. A Ghanaian national is any person who falls into any of the following categories:

(a) A person born in Ghana one of whose parents is a Ghanaian citizen.
(b) A person born in Ghana, before the 6th day of March, 1957 and who within the meaning of the law in force in Ghana on that date was a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies or a British protected person. (Such a person has to register to become a Ghanaian citizen).
(c) A person born outside Ghana with at least one Ghanaian parent who acquired Ghanaian citizenship by birth or where both parents acquired Ghanaian citizenship otherwise than by birth before 22nd August, 1969.
(d) A person who acquired Ghanaian citizenship by registration.
(e) A person who acquired Ghanaian citizenship by naturalization.
(f} A person who was born in or outside Ghana if either of his parents is ?or was a Ghanaian citizen.
(g) Any woman who is or was married to a Ghanaian citizen and who applied to be registered as a citizen of Ghana.
(h) A child less than seven years old found in Ghana whose parents are not known.
(i) A child less than 16 years old who is adopted by a Ghanaian citizen.
(j) Any man who has been living in a monogamous marriage with a Ghanaian woman for not less than five continuous years and who has applied for a Ghanaian citizenship.

Note that if a person is aged 21 years or over and claims to be a citizen of another country, he cannot be regarded as a citizen of Ghana.

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The dotted line marked "if not Ghanaian, specify country" is for all those who are not Ghanaian nationals, i.e., all those who do not fall into the above categories. Note that you should indicate on this dotted line the name of the country of which these persons are nationals.

7. Full-time education.

The questions on full-time education are strictly limited, to persons aged five years and over. They refer to full-time education in an educational institution like primary, middle, secondary, commercial or technical school, teacher training college, university or similar type of school where a person spends or has spent at least four hours a day receiving general education in which the emphasis is not on vocational or trade training.

This definition excludes private tuition, correspondence courses, night schools, trade schools such as flair catering, motor driving schools, vocational training schools, etc. It also excludes on-the-job training establishments like productivity institute, auditor-general's training school, agricultural training school, forestry training school, textile training school, draughtsmanship school, military academy, police training school, survey school, labour college, etc. It also excludes ungraded schools like nurseries and the Arabic schools where nothing but the reading and writing of the Koran is taught. This does not mean that schools where Arabic is taught should automatically be excluded because there are recognized schools where Arabic and other subjects are taught.

1a. Have you attended or are you attending school now?

Three boxes marked never, past, now, are provided for this question and you should mark a cross in only one of them.

(a) Never- Mark a cross in this box if the person has never at any time received full-time education.
(b) Past- Mark a cross in this box if the person received full-time education in the past and is no longer receiving it.
(c) Now- Mark a cross in this box if the person is still receiving full-time education at the time of the Census.

1b. If now or past in 7a what is the highest grade (or year) attained in the regular school attended?

Boxes have been provided for recording the grade attained in the highest type of school attended by the respondent. You should therefore write in only one box for each respondent.

For a child in kindergarten write "1" in the box provided for kindergarten.

pg. 51

The following conversion table will help you to write the appropriate number in the box for respondents who attended the former "elementary" school and the comparatively new school system and reached a particular grade.

Note that the conversion should be done in terms of the "present system" [table].

[Column headings:]
(a) Old system
(b) Present system
(c) New system

Old system: Class 1
Present system: Primary 1
New system: Primary 1

Old system: Class 2
Present system: Primary 2
New system: Primary 2

Old system: Class 3
Present system: Primary 3
New system: Primary 3

Old system: Standard 1
Present system: Primary 4
New system: Primary 3

Old system: Standard 2
Present system: Primary 5
New system: Primary 4

Old system: Standard 3
Present system: Primary 6
New system: Primary 5

Old system: Standard 4
Present system: Middle 1
New system: Primary 6

Old system: Standard 5
Present system: Middle 2
New system: Primary 7

Old system: Standard 6
Present system: Middle 3
New system: Continuation 1

Old system: Standard 7
Present system: Middle 4
New system: Continuation 2

If the respondent completed middle form 4, you should write 4 in the box provided for middle. Likewise if the respondent completed continuation 1, you should write 3 in the box for middle. Similarly for a respondent who finished secondary form 5, you must write 5 in the box for secondary. For a respondent in upper sixth form in a secondary school you should write 6 in the box for secondary. It is important that you write out the figures clearly and boldly.

The dotted line marked "other specify" has been provided for recording the other types of school which do not fall into the categories above.

These include the following:

(a) Universities
(b) Teacher training colleges
(c) Commercial and technical schools
(d) Junior secondary schools

For teacher training colleges you should distinguish between the following types:

1. Cert. B
2. Cert. A (post middle)
3. Cert. A (post B)
4. Cert. A (post-secondary)
5. Specialist training college
6. Advanced teacher training, etc.
pg. 52

For these schools indicate on the dotted line marked "no. of years", the number of years spent or the highest grade attained in the school by the respondent, e.g. for those who obtained cert. A (post B) teacher's certificate write 2 in the space marked "no. of years".

8. Economic characteristics.

Questions 8, 9, 10 and 11 are restricted to persons aged 10 years and over.

8a. Did you do any work for pay or profit during the seven days before census night?

Two boxes have been provided for this question and you should mark a cross in the appropriate box according to the answer you receive. If a person tells you that he did some work (as defined below) for at least one day or for unpaid family workers? three days during the seven days preceding census night, you should mark a cross in the box marked yes. Otherwise you should mark a cross in in the other box marked no.

Note that whenever the yes box is marked, column 8b should be left blank. This means that as soon as you mark the yes box you must proceed to ask question 8c.

Those who worked-For the purpose of this Census the following categories of persons should be regarded as working and the yes box marked.

(a) All those aged 10 years and over who were in regular employment during the 7 days before census night but who may or may not have done any active work during the reference period.
(b) All those aged 10 years and over who worked for at least one day for pay or profit during the seven days before census night.
(c) All those aged 10 years and over who during the reference period worked on their own farms or went out to fish at least one day even though they may not have sold any produce daring the period.
(d) Domestic servants aged 10 years and over who worked for at least one day and were remunerated for their work either in kind or in money.
(e) Apprentice workers (i.e. persons learning a trade and who normally work under the supervision of qualified workers) aged 10 years and over and who worked for at least one day during the reference period.
(f) All persons aged 10 years and over who worked without pay for three days or more in an establishment or farm operated by a member of their family. This category of persons known as unpaid family workers includes the following:
pg. 53
(i) Wives who during the reference period worked in their husband's store or farm or other economic enterprise. If these wives are paid, they should not be classified as unpaid family workers or homemakers.
(ii) Children aged 10 years and over who during the reference period helped in the father's or any family member's farm or shop or assisted them in other economic activities such as cocoa selling.

Note that paid family workers should be classified as having worked in the usual way. You should also remember to exclude as family workers all persons aged 10 years and over who helped family members in their economic activities but were full-time students in educational institutions. These persons should be treated as students.

8b. If no, how were you mainly occupied?

This question is restricted to persons who did not do any work for pay or profit during the seven days before census night, i.e. those for whom the "no" box was marked. For these persons, four boxes and a dotted line have been provided and you are expected to mark a cross in one of the boxes or write down what the person did on the dotted line.

(a) Had job but did not work- Mark a cross in this box for any person who during the reference period did not do any work for pay or profit although he had a job to which he could return. Persons who come under this category may or may not be paid during their absence from their jobs and include the following who were temporarily absent from their jobs for any of the following reasons:

(i) On leave without pay but with definite instructions to return to work after a certain period. Note that persons on study leave who are receiving full-time education in an educational institution, e.g. teachers on study leave, etc. should be regarded as students.

(ii) Off-season, e.g. farmers or fishermen who did not do any work because 1t was their off-season. Note that in certain parts of the country, particularly in the northern and upper regions work on the farms takes
pg. 54
place during certain months of the year while in other months the farmers remain virtually idle. The same applies to fishermen.

(iii) Temporarily ill without pay, but would return to a fixed job after recovery, e.g. workers on sick leave or on admission at hospitals.

(iv) Labour dispute, strike or lock-out.

(v) Temporary lay-off with definite instructions to return r o work at a specific date. Such workers include permanent farm labourers, workers in various enterprises and establishments whose work has been interrupted temporarily for lack of raw materials and or other reasons.

(vi) Bad weather, i.e. persons not working because of bad weather. For example, farmers who could not go to their farms because the paths leading to their farms were flooded; fishermen who could not fish because of stormy weather, masons who did not work because of bad weather, etc.

(b) "Unemployed"- Mark a cross in this box for any person who did not work and had no fixed job during the seven days preceding census night but was actively looking for work? (e.g. by visiting employment agencies, writing applications, seeing relatives for help in securing jobs, etc.). This category also includes any person who was not looking for work because he believed that no work was available for him.

Note that a person should not be classified as unemployed simply because he or she was without work during the seven days preceding census night. The person should, during the period, have been actively looking for work or should have given up looking for work because he had despaired of getting any work. Otherwise he or she should be classified as voluntarily unemployed (see below).

(c) A Homemaker- Mark a cross in this box for a person of either sex who was wholly engaged in household duties and was not paid for this work. If such a person traded one full working day in the

pg. 55

seven days preceding census night or worked regularly some hours daily or engaged in some other economic enterprise (e.g. worked on a farm or in a beer bar) or did any part-time work (e.g. typing, dressmaking) for which the person was paid or did any work on the family farm or business for three days or more without pay, the person should not be classified as homemaker but should be grouped with the working population. You should not assume that a married person who did not do any work during the reference period is necessarily a homemaker.

(d) Student- Mark a cross in .this box for a person aged 10 years or over who is pursuing full-time education in an educational institution and for whom the "now" box has been marked in question
1a.

(e) "Other specify''- An answer which does not fall into any of the above categories, i.e., homemaker, unemployed, student, should be written down on the dotted line marked "other, specify". The main types of persons who come under this group are:

(i) Vocational trainee-This refers to a trainee in an educational institution which aims at preparing the pupils solely for a trade or occupation other than teaching. For persons in this category you should record the type of trainee, e.g. vocational trainee (nurse), vocational trainee (priest). Note that vocational training differs from apprenticeship where persons work under experienced craftsmen to learn a craft or a trade, e.g. a private seamstress or a tailor's establishment where the main emphasis is on the practical aspects of the trade. Such persons should be considered as apprentice workers and treated as working.
(ii) Pensioned or retired
(iii) Living on independent income
(iv) Old
(v) Disabled
(iv) Prisoner
pg. 56
(vii) Hospital patient and not going to return to a fixed job
(viii) Voluntarily unemployed, i.e. not employed although able to work and not interested in seeking work
(ix) Too young to work

Note that the permanent and paid staff of educational institutions, hospitals, prisons and similar institutions should be regarded as working while the inmates even if they receive a small allowance should be regarded as not working and entered on the dotted line marked "other, specify".

Remember that the remaining questions, 9, 10 and 11 are for only those who during the reference period worked for pay or profit, "had jobs but did not work" and the "unemployed". ?

8c. For how many days did you work for pay or profit?

Note that what is required here is the actual number' of days the respondent worked or for which he was paid. You should mark the zero box for all those for whom the "no" box was marked in 8a.

9. If employed (i.e. worked or had job but did not work) what kind of work did you do? For unemployed, last kind of work.

Note that this question should be asked only of the employed and the unemployed.

For the unemployed we are interested in the last kind of work the person did before he became unemployed. For example if he was an accounts clerk before he became unemployed you have to write in the space provided "accounts clerk". However there are certain unemployed who have never worked before, e.g. students or vocational trainees who have just finished school or completed their period of training and who are actively looking for a job. For such persons write down in column 9 "new workers seeking employment".

Note that you should write down what work the respondent actually did daring the seven days preceding census night and not what he is trained to do or what he used to do. For instance, if the respondent has been trained as a lorry driver but actually worked as road labourer during the 7 days preceding census night, you should write down road laborer.

pg. 57

Remember to write down a detailed and exact description of the work the respondent actually did. For example, the term labourer is too vague. Hence, be more precise by indicating whether the person was office cleaner, building labourer, gardener, farm labourer, three feller, etc.

Avoid other vague terms like businessman, petty trader, malam, trader, manager, civil servant, engineer which cover several groups of persons occupying different grades and doing different kinds of work.

Therefore, always specify the exact work done by the respondent. For instance you should give the following information about teachers and engineers.

For teachers, specify the following groups:

University Lecturer
Teacher-Training tutor
Secondary School teacher
Commercial School teacher
Technical School teacher
Middle School teacher
Primary School teacher
Day-nursery teacher
Specialist teacher (Physical Education)
Teacher of deaf, blind, mentally retarded children, etc.

For engineer you should specify the type of engineer the respondent is, e.g:

Aeronautical Engineer
Civil Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Electronic Engineer
Hydraulic Engineer
Mechanical Engineer
Mining Engineer
Nautical Engineer, etc.

For members of the armed forces (i.e., army, air force and navy) you should go into greater detail to find out the actual rank and the occupational specialization of the person. A soldier may be a motor vehicle driver, tailor, wireless operator, fitter, gunner, staff nurse, etc. Similarly you should not take an officer for an answer but inquire for further details. The officer may be a teacher, an electrical engineer, a medical officer, a pilot. Soldiers and officers not having a particular trade or occupation should be entered as soldier (private), soldier (corporal), soldier (lieutenant), etc.

pg. 58

You should also distinguish between the following:

(a) Food seller
(b) Food maker
(c) Food seller and maker

Note that whenever you specify a seller or maker of a particular commodity which is only understood in the area concerned you should also write in brackets after it whether that commodity is food, drink, etc. For instance, you may write seller of aheyi (non-alcoholic drink), maker of tubani (food).

10. Industry.
The respondent's establishment will be described by two sub-items:

(a) Name and address of establishment.
(b) Major product or service of the establishment.

These two sub-columns should be filled accurately. Not only do they provide us with information on industrial activity but they also help the census office to process the information on occupation accurately. For instance, the type of work done by a "fireman" at Ghana Railways Corporation may be different from that performed by a "fireman" in a factory and so without the correct address and the main product or service of these establishments it would be difficult to classify the two occupations.

10a. If employed (i.e. worked or had job but did not work) what is the name and address of the establishment where you worked? For unemployed, last establishment.

You should note that this question is restricted to the employed and the unemployed. However if a person was unemployed and you entered "new workers seeking employment" in column 9 you should leave columns 10 and 11 blank.

"Establishment" simply means the place where the respondent worked. "establishment" applies not only to the big enterprises such as Pioneer Biscuit Factory, G.N.T.C., etc., but the small ones as well, e.g. Kwesi Nimo's farm, place of petty trading in market or Amina Dagomba's kiosk "under the tree". What is required is the name and a precise address of the respondent's establishment or place of work. Do not write the respondent's postal address.

If the establishment has no name, then you must write down the name of the owner of the establishment, e.g.

(i) Addey Mensah's Farm (Name) Near Boso (Address)
(ii) Trading Place of Oku Boateng (Name), Prempeh II, Street, Kumasi (Address)
(iii) Awolo Adjo (Name) Stall No. 137, Central Market Kumasi (Address).
pg. 59
(iv) Seidu Wangara's Shop (Name), Near Opera Cinema, Accra (Address).

Where a person does not stay at one place and sell, you should write down the respondent's house address as the address of establishment.

Please note that a market consists of establishment of varying sizes and character. The name of the owner of each such establishment should be written down as in example (iii) above.

Please avoid vague addresses like:

(i) Drug Store, Bechem
(ii) Farm, Pedu
(iii) Ghana Government, Accra
(iv) School, Tamale

Never use unrecognized abbreviations like K.K.T., B.B.S., etc., which may be understood only in the areas concerned.

Note that addresses like Post and Telecommunications, City Council (Accra), United Africa Company of Ghana (Terna), etc. are not enough. With big enterprises which have two or more departments engaged in different activities, you should always specify the branch in which the respondent worked, e.g. Sanitary Branch, City Council, Accra; Vehicle Assembly Branch, U.A.C. of Ghana, Terna.

You should remember that for the unemployed you should write the name and address of the establishment where the respondent last worked. Similarly for those who "had job but did not work", we want information about the establishment where they claim to have jobs.

10b. If employed (i.e. worked or had job but did not work) or unemployed, what is the main product or service of this establishment?

This sub-item refers to the establishment where the respondent worked and not to what the respondent produced. For instance, if a carpenter who makes window frames is employed by a firm which builds houses, the major product you must write down is houses, not window frames, .since houses are produced by the establishment where he worked.

Similarly, if a carpenter gives Ambassador Hotel as the name of the establishment where he worked, you should write catering or hotel services as the major product or service of the establishment. You must also note that the major product or service of all educational institutions, e.g. the University of Ghana, Mfantsipim School, Government Technical School, is education even though the persons employed in these institutions may be doing different types

pg. 60

of jobs. However for craftsmen employed by a construction company which has undertaken a contract with an educational institution you should write down building construction but not education.

Note that the answer for this particular sub-item must be the same for all persons employed by the same establishment, or in the case of a multi-purpose establishment a department of it.

Examples of such multi-purpose establishments are City and Municipal Councils, G.I.H.O.C., some big business concerns like the G.N.T.C., U.T.C., U.A.C., etc. A City Council, for instance, may have the following functions: Local Administration, Transport Services, Education Services, Health Services, etc. Similarly G.I.H.O.C., G.N.T.C., U.T.C., etc., may have departments with the following as the main product or service:-Leather Hand-bags, Tobacco, Wholesale or Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles and Transport Services.

Thus for a respondent employed by such big establishments, you should record the main product or service of the particular branch in that big establishment where the respondent worked.

Another example is the market. The establishments within the market may offer different services, such as fruit-selling, hair cutting and "banku" making. Also the establishments within the market may make different types of wearing apparel, e.g. shorts, shirts and dresses. Therefore, always specify the type of wearing apparel the respondent made.

Below are five groups of examples showing some establishments and their major product or service.

[Examples on establishments and their major product or service of the original document are not presented here.]

11. What was your employment status in this establishment?

Four boxes have been provided under this item and where the answer corresponds to one of these you should mark the appropriate box. Note that you should mark only one box for each respondent.

(a) Employee- Mark this box for a person who works for a public or private employer and is paid by this employer. Note that in certain establishments like the Electricity Corporation some employees work under the title "Apprentice". Such persons should be considered as employees.

(b) Self-employed without other employees- Mark this box for a person who operates his own enterprise (e.g., a farmer, kenkey seller, carpenter) and who does not employ anybody to work for him in the operation of his enterprise (except perhaps apprentices or members of his family). Note that apprentices should not be classified as employees,

pg. 72

so a carpenter or blacksmith, who works with apprentices only falls under this category. You should, however, make sure that the assistants of such a person are apprentices and not paid employees before classifying the respondent in this group.

(c) Self-employed and employs others- Mark this box for a person who operates his own enterprise directly or through another person (e.g. a manager or caretaker) and who for the operation of this enterprise hires one or more employees whom he pays. Note that the persons considered employees here exclude unpaid family workers and apprentices whether paid or unpaid.

(d) Unpaid family worker- Mark this box for a person who helps in running an economic enterprise operated by a member of his or her family without payment of wages or salary.

(e) Other, specify- To this category belong all persons who do not fall into any of the above groups. You should write down the person's employment status on the dotted line provided. Some of the types of workers you are likely to encounter here are caretaker in agriculture (Abusa, Abunu, etc.), Paramount Chief and Apprentice.

(i) Caretaker (Abusa, Abunu, etc.) should not be confused with a family worker. A Caretaker or Abusa is a person who looks after or manages another person's farm and who receives a share of the proceeds of the farm as payment for his services in operating the farm. The terms abusa (meaning one third) and abunu (one half) express the economic relationship between the land-tenant and the land-owner. You should note that this group is found only in agriculture and fishing and should not ?be confused with workers in other industries who are sometimes called "caretakers" e.g. a caretaker of a government rest-house, who is in fact a government employee. The Caretaker may or may not be a relative of the owner of the farm.

(ii) Chief refers to a Paramount Chief or any other chief who devotes more time to Local Administration than to any other
pg. 73
activity. Note that many chiefs have their own farms. Therefore the only criterion to use in differentiating between a chief (who may also be an employer or self-employed) is the amount of time devoted to each work.

(iii) Apprentice refers to a worker who is learning a trade and who normally works under the supervision of a qualified worker. He is given an allowance.

pg. 74

Chapter 14
What to do after enumeration

1. Quick count of persons.

As soon as you complete enumeration of your enumeration area and you are absolutely sure that you have not omitted any person, quickly check all your questionnaires and make sure that the total number of persons enumerated by you in each locality agrees with the number you have written down in the summary of the Enumerator's visitation record. If you are satisfied that your figures are correct proceed to fill in the first copy of the Final enumeration area Description (Form G.P.C. 1).

2. How to complete the first copy of the final enumeration area description (Form G.P.C.1)

Parts of this form have been filled out already. What you have to do at this stage is to complete the remaining parts.

(a) Write down the total number of persons enumerated by you on Form H and Form G in each locality in the respective columns. Add up the number of persons on both Forms H and G for each locality and record the answer in the column marked "total''. Do this for each locality separately.
If you discovered during enumeration new localities in your E.A. not originally listed on your Form G.P.C. 1. the names of these localities and their respective populations should also be recorded on this form.
(b) Add up all the figures for your whole enumeration area.
(c) Check again to see that this total agrees with your summary in the Enumerator's visitation record.
(d) As soon as you are sure that your figures are correct, sign your name on the dotted line provided at the bottom right-hand corner of this form.
(e) Rush this copy to your field supervisor. The greatest importance is attached to these figures because it is on the basis of these that the census office will be able to supply urgent population data to the Government, the press and the public.

3. Make thorough check.

After you have completed the first copy of Form G.P.C. 1. make a thorough check of the entries in your Enumerator's visitation record and Questionnaires and then fill out the second copy of Form G.P.C. 1. The following are the stages you should go through:

pg. 75

Stage I-Go through your Enumerator's visitation record page by page and make sure that you have not forgotten to honour any call-backs and that all the required entries are properly completed.
Stage II-If you have re-copied some of the entries on new questionnaires see that the old ones are cancelled.
Stage III-If you are satisfied that everything is correct, count again the number of persons you enumerated in the various localities or in the areas assigned to you and fill out the second copy of Form G.P.C. I.
Stage IV-Make sure that there are no missing entries on the questionnaires and in the Enumerator's visitation record and that explanations are given in the latter for missing entries.

4. Delivery of all checked documents to your field supervisor

Note that serious errors cannot be corrected at the census head office therefore you must look out for them and correct them in the field. After the thorough check outlined in section 3 above, complete the enumerator's materials receipt and put back the following materials in the satchel:

(a) All questionnaires, i.e. completed, spoiled, cancelled and unused ones. Note that the total number returned should be equal to the total number received.
(b) Enumerator's visitation record.
(c) E.A. map.
(d) Final enumeration area description.
(e) Identity card.
(f) All unused call-back cards.
(g) Enumerator's manual.
(h) All unused clips.
(i) All unused green tags.
(j) Enumerator's materials receipt.

Return the Satchel with its contents to your field supervisor who will check your materials item by item with you. It is important that you obtain a receipt from him for all documents submitted to him.

pg. 76

5. Completion of enumerator's report form

Remember to complete fully the enumerator's report form (A 1). Note that if the space-provided for a particular item is not sufficient for your comments, continue your comments, on an additiona1 sheet.

If you follow all these instructions carefully, you should feel proud that you have done your best to achieve a successful Population Census for your country.

pg. 77

[Appendixes 1-8 of the original document are not presented here.]