Form number 10
Minister of State
Ministry of the Interior and Decentralization
National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
General Population Census 1982
Manual for Enumerators
This manual includes two parts:
- The first part contains general information, which you should know thoroughly, about the census.
Read it before the first training session
- The second part deals with individual cases and contains an alphabetical glossary
An appendix to the enumerator's manual completes these various instructions and will help you in your work.
[Foreword and Table of Contents were not translated into English.]
[Pages 3 - 13 were not translated into English.]
4. The Questionnaires
In this chapter you will find:
- The definitions of a house and of dwelling
- Explanations on how to fill out the building questionnaire and the housing form, as well as some explanations about the personal form.
During the first reading, which you do before the training class which precedes the collection of data, it is not absolutely necessary for you to read all the explanations contained in this chapter. It is nonetheless recommended that you at least read about the definitions of a house (paragraph 4.1.1) and of a dwelling. (paragraph 4.2.1).
4.1.1 Definition of a House.
In census vocabulary, the word house has an extremely broad meaning, equivalent to that of "building," regardless of whether or not it is inhabited
You will establish a building questionnaire:
- Make- shift housing
- Partially inhabited buildings of any type which are under construction
3. For any grouping of administrative buildings, industrial or commercial, even if uninhabited.
The facing table specifies instances when a building questionnaire: should not be established.
In certain specific cases (for example, large developments, worker's housing developments, duplexes, farms, factories, etc.) you may wonder if one or several building questionnaires should be established. Here are some directions which will help you decide.
The rule is to consider a residential building with a certain independence as a separate building, requiring a separate building questionnaire, i.e.:
Not connected with neighboring buildings on the inside.
- In the case of a worker's housing development (mining village in mining areas), you will establish as many building questionnaires as there are individual houses; similarly, in the case of a duplex, you will establish two building questionnaires.
- In the case of a large housing development (as in large public assistance projects) you will consider each portion of the development with a separate entrance, either onto the street, the yard, a private courtyard or private street, as a separate building when the sections of the development bear letters or numbers (stair or building A, B, C etc., or 1, 2, 3, etc.) This is the case even if there is a common entrance to the street, with a single street address and a caretaker in common.
Case of a Farm
The assorted agricultural buildings related to a single farm and grouped in a single place (house, stables, barn, etc.) need only one building questionnaire, even if some of the buildings are on the other side of the road or lane.
[The following text is on the left column of the table on top of page 15]
Establish a building questionnaire:
- Individual houses (generally comprising a single dwelling);
- Apartment buildings (always comprising several dwellings);
- Inhabited shelters associated with temporary worksites;
- Shelters or huts which are in fact inhabited, even if these are temporary buildings, in poor condition or unfit for human habitation (shantytown huts, etc);
- Industrial buildings (factories, warehouses, etc.);
- Commercial buildings (banks, movie theaters, hotels, service stations, etc.);
- Administrative buildings (city halls, court houses, fire stations, etc.);
- Hospitals, clinics, retirement homes, sanatoriums, etc.;
- Academic institutions (schools, technical colleges, boarding schools, etc);
- Various public buildings (post offices, train stations, churches, etc.);
- Important public monuments, castles, etc.;
- Stadiums and associated buildings (ticket windows, dressing rooms, showers, etc.);
And for new buildings:
- If they are inhabited, even partially, and even if they are not completely finished (1);
- If they are finished, even if they are not yet inhabited.
[Footnote] (1) A building which has had its electricity connected is considered finished.
[The following text is on the right column of the same table]
Do not establish a building questionnaire
- Buildings under construction which are not yet inhabited
- Buildings in ruins, or which have become completely uninhabitable (i.e., which no longer have any possibility of being inhabited again) due to age or fire or other devastation (unless they are still inhabited at the time the census is taken);
- Unimportant buildings which are not used for habitation (gardeners sheds, shelters, private garages, outlying hangars, etc.);
- Mobile homes, RVs, other types of portable housing;
- Sporting fields (soccer, tennis, etc.)
[End of table]
Case of Industrial, Commercial or Administrative Buildings.
You will establish a single building questionnaire for the various buildings (workshops, hangars, etc.) of a single establishment. Thus, you will establish just one building questionnaire for a train station and its various annexes (machine storage, signal boxes, etc.)
4.1.2 Using a building questionnaire.
Remember that you must fill out this form. Under no circumstances should you leave it with the residents or the caretaker.
During the first round you will establish a building questionnaire for every house, and take information about the following:
- The exact address heading from the first page. Fill it out as precisely as possible (see paragraph 3.6, heading d); in the case of a building with more than 72 dwellings, which you will have to separate, indicate the location of each of the sections;
- Page 4 (building characteristics)
While you are collecting information (first round and following rounds), you should not fill in:
- The boxes relating to the district number and the building- order number (which is not related to the street address).
- The list of dwellings
It is only after you have collected the information and are at home that you should complete pages 1,2 and 3 of the building questionnaire, as indicated in the instructions in chapter 5.
4.1.3 Page 4 of the building questionnaire
Read the following text of various questions related to building characteristics in order to understand the meaning of the different questions being asked.
In most cases, the answer consists of checking off a box.
Here are some additional explanations related to some questions.
Question 1: Type of Building
Type 2. The following (among others) are to be classified under this type (makeshift housing or temporary construction used as a dwelling):
- Temporary shelters or housing [barraquements] built as lodging for workers of a temporary construction site.
- Stationary boats which are not seaworthy (if they are inhabited)
In the case of a building in ruins, collect census data only in those dwellings which are occupied.
Buildings constructed as dwellings but more or less unfit for a normal dwelling, due either to age or poor maintenance, should not be classed as type 2 buildings, but as a class 4 or class 5 building, as long as they have not fallen into complete ruin, even if their facilities no longer fall within the present- day norm of building infrastructure.
Types 4 and 5. Buildings which do not fall into categories 1 through 3 will be classed as type 4 or 5, according as they are used mainly as a dwelling or mainly for industrial, commercial or administrative, etc., purposes.
By convention, houses which include both a single dwelling and a single professional space (store, artist's workshop) will be classified within type 5.
Question 2: Belonging to a public housing development
Normally, City Hall will have already indicated if there are public housing developments [habitations á loyer modéré] in your district, and will have indicated the name of the agency which owns it.
You will be able to get this information by asking the owner, the caretaker, long- time residents of the building (or the neighborhood). Some buildings have the building completion date engraved on the facade. Lacking direct information, you can classify the buildings by comparing them with others which are typical of a certain time period. The city hall may be able to indicate if there are sizeable blocks in your district built at specific time periods.
For buildings completed beginning in 1961 (headings 5, 6 and 7), specify the year of completion.
In case of renovation or the addition of more floors, indicate the year of the renovation or addition.
Question 4: Number of floors above the ground floor
In the specific instance of a building which includes more than 72 dwellings and which you must divide into more than 2 parts by level (for example: from the ground floor to the 14th floor, and from the 15 to the 28th floor), indicate on each building questionnaire the actual number of floors which the building has (28 in the example given here).
Box 3 should not be checked unless the building has a permanent installation of gas bottles (which installation is outside of the dwellings). If, in the notable case of a private house or a farm, inhabitants use portable gas bottles, check off box number 4.
There are in fact 2 questions, 8a and 8b.
Do not check off boxes 1 unless there are sewer pipes in the district which are capable of transporting sewage and household waste water. If you are unsure, check with city hall.
1.- The case of cooperative housing [immeubles collectifs].
Cooperative housing is said to have a shared heating plant when it is fed, in most of the dwellings, by a single source of heat (a boiler, for example); buildings having integrated electric heat or forced- air heat [chauffage central par air pulsé] are considered in the same way.
As for the source of shared heat [chaleur commune] it can be:
- The building's own heat. In this case, check off box number 3;
- Common to a group of buildings (generally neighboring buildings): in this case, check off box number 2 ;
- Common to a large number of buildings scattered throughout a common area depending on a common or inter- municipal establishment: in this case, check off box number 1.
Check off box number 4 in all other cases, even if it is a cooperative building in which most of the dwellings have individual central heating.
2. The case of single family houses
For a single family house with central heat, check box number 3.
However, if the heating for a group of single family houses is provided by collective heat (other than urban heat) check box 2.
3. If you have checked boxes 2 or 3 of the main question (whether it be related to a cooperative building [immeuble collectif] or a single family house, don't forget to specify the fuel used.
1. A farm is a production unit subject to an ongoing unique management, which is involved in agricultural production, is located in a determined place (a headquarters) and includes at least one hectare of arable agricultural land (workable land, prairies, other cultivation, other farmland, but not including woods/forests, heaths, building sites, parks and ornamental gardens)
- Or, otherwise, 20 units of specialized cultivation, (market gardens, flowers, vineyards, orchards, hops, tobacco, botanical nursery),
- Or, otherwise, very productive or well- known cultivation in a smaller area, for example, 10 units of vineyards which have been awarded a recognized status [appellation contrôle],
Or, otherwise, a certain minimum of animals (a milk cow, a mother sow, a broodmare),
This definition is applied regardless of the principal activity of the person who farms.
2. The agricultural building (type 1 building) which functions as the place of resident for the owner will be considered the headquarters/seat of management [siège d'exploitation].
3. As far as the orientation of agricultural production, it may be understood by "farm with a principal production" a farm in which a single one of the five indicated orientations on the first line/indent [alinéa] of question 10b provides greater than 2/3 of the total sales.
4.2 The Housing Form
During the first round, you should take an inventory of the dwellings in each building, whether or not they are occupied, and draw up a housing form for each one.
Generally, the idea of dwelling is not ambiguous, given that the definition used by the census coincides with the standard meaning of the term. However, in some specific cases, the definition of dwelling lies, of necessity, with convention. The census has some conventions which are specific to it and which you should know thoroughly. By applying the rules stated below, you alone must decide if a specific premises, room or suite of rooms should be considered a separate dwelling: you should not let the residents themselves decide according to their individual assessment. It is only by doing this that the census of dwellings [locaux d'habitation] will have the desired accuracy.
Dwelling will be understood to mean all premises which are at the same time:
- used to live in
We will consider these 3 conditions one by one.
1. The premises (a single room or a suite of rooms) must be separate, i.e., it must be completely enclosed by walls or dividers [cloisons]; it should not connect with any other premises, unless by the common areas of the building (stairs, entry, etc.).
2. The premises should be independent, i.e., it should possess an independent entrance to the outside, without it being necessary to cross any other premises occupied by others, either directly or through common areas of the building, to exit the dwelling.
3. The premises must be used for living; you will keep track of the present layout of the premises and not of the intended layout of the building. Thus, you will not establish a housing form for previous dwellings which have been completely modified as (or used as) offices, workshops, etc. However, you will establish a housing form for makeshift accommodations (building type 2 on question 1 of the building questionnaire) which serves as a shelter for a person, a household or a family, lacking any other residence.
You will keep track of the present layout of the premises and not the intended layout (while being built).
For example, if 2 dwellings have been joined by opening a passage between the two to make an apartment inhabited by a single household, you will establish only one housing form.
However, you will establish 2 housing forms when 1 dwelling has been divided into 2 independent parts (each part possessing its own individual access, with any passage between the two having been blocked and each part inhabited by separate groups of people).
Important Special Case
There are instances where 2 households, using the meaning that one normally gives to the term (1) live together in the same dwelling and share certain facilities (kitchen, toilet, etc.). In such a case, you should establish a single form (since it is a question of a housing form).
This case presents itself notably when one non- independent part of a dwelling is rented, sublet or lent to tenants, sub- tenants, lodgers or other people lodged there. This part will not be subject to [faire l'objet de] a separate housing form. The people lodged in these conditions will be written down on list A (page 2 of the form) of the landlord after the persons of his/her household, even if they take their meals at another location.
4.2.2 Page 1 of the Housing Form
Before dropping off the housing form, you will need to fill in the lower box on page 1 yourself (except the number of #2 forms collected).
If the building includes several dwellings, you should indicate precisely their location in the building. Particularly, in the case of buildings with several levels, specify,
- If necessary, the stairway;
- In all cases, the floor;
- If necessary, the dwelling number marked on the door;
- or, lacking all else, the status on the landing (when getting off the elevator, or stairways if there is not elevator).
You should classify each dwelling in one of the categories 1 through 7. Read carefully the following directions, which will clarify for you the idea of lodging [logement] in some specific instances.
The first 5 housing categories are related to "principal residences." When people have several residences, their principal residence is the one where they spend most of the year.
Category 2 - Assisted Living [Logement- foyer pour personnes agées]
Assisted living for the elderly is positioned halfway between collective housing [hébergement collectif] (retirement home, hospice) and single housing.
Such dwellings are normally found in establishments which provide optional collective services (communal restaurant) to people lodged there (normally able- bodied), while allowing for independent living. Such lodgings should also fulfill the following conditions:
- Be equipped with at least one facility for cooking
[Footnote] (1) A group of persons living together (for example, taking their meals together) is often designated as a household. And, in an even more restrictive sense, household is sometimes synonymous with couple.
Category 3 - Independent Rooms Rented, Sublet, or Lent to Individuals.
Some dwellings sometimes have an independent annex, i.e., it gives access to the outside, either directly or through common areas of the building, without it being necessary to cross the premises occupied by other people. This is the case, for example, of dwellings which have a maid's room located on another floor (which is common in the Paris metropolitan area).
If the owner of the main lodging has such an annex for himself (to house a member of the family, a servant, etc.) or if the independent room is unoccupied at the time of the census, it is not necessary to establish a separate housing form for it.
If, however, the annex is rented, sublet or lent to individuals, you should establish a separate form by checking off box 3 in the lodging category and adding the name of the owner of the main lodging (this information will eventually allow the main dwelling and its annex to be considered as a separate dwelling for certain uses of the census).
Category 4 - Furnished Room in a Hotel, a Furnished Room, etc.
Some clients of these establishments reside there most of the year (for example, students who live most of the school year in a hotel room); others don't have another residence.
In such cases, you will establish a housing form for each room (or, possibly, apartment) occupied by a single household or a person living alone.
For rooms which are occupied by transient clients, a housing form is not established (see the second part of the manual, paragraph A.1.1).
Category 5 - Make- shift Housing or Temporary Construction Used as Dwelling
This category will of course be used for all principal residences of a type 2 building (question 1 on the building questionnaire).
You will likewise classify an improvised shelter in a location not suited for lodging (cellar, attic, barn, shop, workshop, etc.) located inside of an ordinary building.
Specify fully the nature of the locale.
Category 1 - Ordinary Lodging
This category includes all dwellings except the exceptional cases listed in categories 2 and 5, provided that they are occupied as a principal residence. This is the category that you will most often encounter.
Category 7 - Secondary Residence
This category includes all ordinary dwellings used as secondary residences: country homes, villas, vacation housing, etc.
You will also classify in this category furnished dwellings or apartments, rented or for rent during the tourist season at seaside and winter resorts, spa towns [stations climatiques], etc., as well as apartment- type hotels ["résidences hoteliers"] and other types of "unmarked accommodations" [hébergements banalisés] (see these terms in the alphabetical glossary.)
A dwelling used as a secondary resident must obviously be the subject of a housing form. However, personal forms should not be established for those people who may be occupying it when the census takes place. Indeed, these people are already in list A in the housing form established at the site of their principal residence, i.e., where they normally live.
The only exception is when these people may be away from their customary place of residence when the census is taken and where no one can fill out their forms in their stead. In this case, you will consider them as transient and you will classify their personal forms collected as such in folder # 20, verifying that no one has been listed on list A in the housing form established for the secondary residence.
Category 6 - Vacant dwelling
This category includes ordinary vacant dwellings, i.e., unoccupied as either a principal or secondary residence.
Normally, such dwelling is available for sale or rent, but not necessarily. For example, mark box 6 for a new dwelling, already allotted but not yet occupied by its renter or owner. In this case, do not establish a personal form for the future occupants.
Notes on Dwelling Categories 6 and 7
For vacant dwellings and secondary residences:
- Write out in full at the top of page 1 of the housing form, the notice "vacant dwelling" or "secondary residence."
- Fill out page 4 of the form as well as you can (except questions 4, 5 and 12) with the help of the information that you are able to gather from neighbors or the town hall;
- No one should be written down on lists A and B; cross out pages 2 and 3
- There should be no personal form filed in the housing form.
Category 8 - RV's, Campers, Mobile Homes
This category comes under the special case of the fixed- date March 4, 1982 census (see the 2nd part of the manual, paragraph A.1.3).
In the collection phase, as with the building questionnaire you should not fill out the boxes related to the district, building and dwelling numbers at the top of page 1.
4.2.3 Pages 2 and 3 of the Housing Form
It is up to the residents to fill in lists A and B. Nonetheless, as we have indicated in paragraph 3.3.3, you should, during the first round, turn in as many personal forms as there are people using the dwelling as their principal residence. It is thus important that you know the census rules well.
Read carefully the explanations given to the residents on pages 2 and 3 of the form.
It is specified that only the people who normally live in the dwelling under consideration should be written down on lists A and B, excluding those who are there by chance at the time of the census.
After eliminating those people explicitly enumerated in the heading of list B, the general rule is to write down in list A all people considering the dwelling to be their customary principal residence and to establish a personal form for each of these people.
For most people, the customary residence corresponds with their dwelling [domicile], but there may be exceptions. Indeed, you should understand by the term customary residence the place that is normally lived in, which can be separate from legal residence.
The customary residence thus constitutes an actual situation and not a legal situation.
The forms of people written down in list B are to be filled out at the place where those people normally stay (even if, exceptionally, they are not there during the census), i.e., according to the situation:
- In a population that is counted separately (armed forces personnel, including those who are stationed outside of metropolitan France [la métropole] and sailors on board ships of the national navy; boarding- school students, patients in a sanatorium, preventorium, inhalatorium, psychiatric hospital);
- Or in collective housing (elderly staying in a retirement home, students living in university housing);
- Or in another type of housing (children in infant daycare, children placed in other houses [placés comme gens de maison], etc.; students staying in a hotel room or in private housing during the school year).
When you gather the forms, verify that the completed personal forms and list A correspond:
- You should have a personal form for all persons knowingly [á bon escient] written down on list A;
- If some
personal forms were established for people correctly written down on form B, destroy those forms.
1. Regarding lists A and B
It sometimes happens that a head of household or his/her spouse, resides at his/her place of work during the week and returns to his/her family home on the weekend. In this case, they should be enumerated with their family and not at their place of work.
As for those who are ill and being treated in a care facility, only those who are staying in a sanitarium, a preventorium, an inhalatorium or a psychiatric hospital should be written down on list B. People staying in a regular hospital or clinic (for example, those undergoing an operation) or maternity hospital should be written down on list A.
2. Frame [cadre] C (Transient Persons)
The explanations given in frame [cadre] C ask the inhabitants to turn in to you separately the personal forms established for transient persons, i.e., people who will be absent from their customary place of residence during the collection phase and for whom no one in the dwelling can answer. These forms should be turned into to you separately.
During the collection/collecting/gathering rounds:
- Verify that these people are written down on neither list A nor list B and that their customary address is written down in the frame [cadre] at the bottom of the reverse side of the personal form (question 2 of the latter does not need to be filled in);
- Make sure that none of the personal forms among those filed in the housing forms have the frame [cadre] "For Transient Persons" filled out;
- File the forms for transient persons in folder #20.
As you collect the forms, turn them in to the town hall so that they can be sent to the town halls of the customary dwellings of those involved. Don't forget to fill out folder #20 each time you turn in the documents, (you will receive the same pay for these forms as you do for the others.)
3. Frame [cadre] D
This frame [cadre] will allow you to become familiar with the special cases that may arise. When you collect the housing form, check to see if a person has been written down. If they have, make a decision:
- If a form has been filled out incorrectly, destroy it and cross out that person from list A;
- If, however, the person was not written down on list A when they should have been, write him/her in and have the form filled out.
4. The case of foreigners
a. The following should not be enumerated:
- Foreigners in France temporarily (tourists, business travelers);
- Foreign workers in border areas who come to France on a daily basis to work and who return to their own country in the evening;
- Seasonal foreign workers, i.e., those who are not living permanently in France but who are living here for a limited time period (a few weeks, or two or three months) and return to their country once the "season" is over;
- Foreigners residing in an embassy (diplomats and personnel).
b. On the other hand, all aliens who have settled in France should be enumerated i.e.,:
- Aliens who work in France, as well as their families if necessary, excepting those cases listed above (border workers, seasonal workers, diplomats), but including public officials staying "in town";
- Foreign students;
- Generally, all aliens who live in France, in other words, who occupy a dwelling which functions as their principal residence (those who have a secondary residence should not be enumerated, even if they are occupying it at time the census is taken; the dwelling, of course, must be enumerated).
4.2.4 Page 4 of the Housing Form.
This form is to be filled out by the inhabitants.
Nevertheless, in the case of vacant dwellings and secondary residences, you yourself should answer the questions (other than 4, 5 and 12). In addition, during the collection of the forms, you should make sure that they have been correctly filled out. It is also possible that some residents will ask you for explanations.
It is therefore necessary that you read carefully the text of the 12 questions relating to the makeup and equipment of the dwelling and that you become familiar with the supplemental explanations given in the appendix to this manual.
We would like to clarify here that, in the question of principal residences, you should take special care to ensure, while you are on the premises, that each of the questions has been answered (with the exception of question 2 and 5, which may not have one.
4.3 The Personal Form (1)
Even though this form is to be filled out entirely by the inhabitants, it is necessary for you to understand clearly the meaning of the different questions and the way to answer them, notably in view of verifying answers and giving explanations to people who may ask you for them.
Read carefully the text of the questions as well as the supplemental questions that appear on the explanatory notice intended for residents, and those (questions) given in the appendix to this manual.
Here let us simply specify that:
- In all cases, questions 1 through 7 must have received a response;
- Even if an answer seems evident, it must be asked (for example: question 4 is also to be filled out for a child; the box "yes" of question 8 must be checked off for a child of 10 who goes to school, even though such schooling is required; a person who responded "bakery worker" to question 12 must also check off the "paid employee" box on question 13.)
- The address to indicate in question 2 is always that of the dwelling, i.e., the one you will have written down on the housing form (except in the case of transient persons, for whom the question will remain unanswered).
[Footnote] (1) The personal form in question in this paragraph is form #2, used in general cases. Special forms are used for enumerating the population counted separately.
[Pages 23 - 40 were not translated into English.]