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Population Census 1996
Instructions to Enumerators

[Table of contents in the original document is not presented here.]


Part 1 - Introduction

The Census

1. The census is a count of the country's population which is combined with collecting other information about the people.

2. It is designed to tell us how many of us there are, where we live, how we earn our living and whether the population is changing in numbers and if so, in what ways and how fast. All this is found out from the snapshot we capture on the census night.

The Census organization

3. The Census Commissioner is responsible to the Government for the census as a whole. The country is divided into districts in each of which there is a Census Superintendent, who will generally be the District Officer, and who is in charge of the work in his district. He will be helped by Supervisors. Districts are in turn divided into enumerator's areas and each is the responsibility of an enumerator who is required to visit every household in his area and to record the information which is required.

Your job

4. Your job is to enumerate everyone who was in your area on Census Night. It is to ask the questions and to record the answers that are required. It is the most important single job in the census. You must make every effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them correctly.

5. The success of the census depends upon the public's willing help and it is your job to obtain this by being polite, patient and tactful always.

6. The information you obtain is confidential and will be used to compile statistics. You are not permitted to discuss it, gossip about it or show your records to anyone not employed on the census. Make all entries on the questionnaire yourself. Do not leave your questionnaire books lying around where unauthorized persons may have access to them.

7. You may ask such questions as are necessary to enable you to complete the questionnaire. Under the Census Act, it is the duty of all adults to give you such information about themselves and members of the household.

8. Penalties are provided for if either yourself or members of the public fail in their duties.

[Sections on approaching the public and equipment in the original document are not presented here.]


Part 2 - General instructions

The enumeration area

16. You will be allocated an area [EA] and you will be responsible for visiting every household in it and for recording the particulars required of every person and household.

17. You will be given a map of your area. Make sure that you understand it and that you know your area and its boundaries before you start work. If you are not sure about the boundaries or are uncertain whether a particular place is inside your area or outside it ask your Supervisor and get your question answered before you start work. Even though you may be sure about the boundaries yourself you must, before you set out, speak to your Supervisor and to the enumerators who will be working in neighboring areas and make sure that you all agree on the boundaries.

18. The map was made sometime before the enumeration and there may be inhabited places which are not listed or marked. It is your duty to discover and to visit any such places as you travel round your area and to enumerate the inhabitants. Remember particularly to enquire about 'vakagalala' and similar isolated farms or huts at every place you visit. Remember also to enquire about squatter settlements which may be hidden away out of sight of roads or paths. Write the names of such places on the list and mark them on the map. In the same way you should make a note of any places which may have been abandoned since the map was made.

19. Plan your journey so that you visit each place and each household in turn. Work in an orderly way and you will save yourself much walking and a great deal of trouble.

Census night

20. Census night is the night of Sunday 25 August 1996.

21. You are responsible for enumerating everyone in your area at midnight on that night.

The household

22. Those persons who usually eat together food prepared for them in the same kitchen and who together share the work and cost of providing the food are called a household.

23. The household is the most convenient small group of persons for the purpose of the census and you will enumerate the population by household.

24. Very often the household will be a family living in a single dwelling.

25. If two or more groups of persons, each of which has its own separate eating and housekeeping arrangements, live in the same dwelling treat them as separate households.

26. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included with the household. If the servant cooks and eats separately he/she should be enumerated as a separate household.

27. In the same way a visitor or any of his/her children who eat with the household are counted as members of the household.

28. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building, part of a building or many buildings.

29. Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to a household. Ships crews and persons in hospitals, colleges and prisons are examples.

30. Supervisors will make arrangements for enumerating such people and you may be instructed to help with these special cases. Persons in institutions or on board ships should be


treated as if they belong to a single household. The name of the institution or vessel should be written at the top of the questionnaires so as to make it clear that it is not a private household.

31. Those working in institutions but who live in their own households should be enumerated with their own households and not with the institution. Thus a nurse on night duty should be counted with her household and not with patients in the hospital.

32. Hotels will be supplied with a stock of questionnaires and envelopes. On the evening of census night, managers will give each guest a questionnaire and an envelope. All persons staying in the hotel on census night will be required to complete a questionnaire, seal it in the envelope and hand it to Reception next morning. Envelopes with completed questionnaires will be collected from the Manager.

33. Enumeration of persons in hotels will be the responsibility of Superintendents and Supervisors but you may be instructed to issue and collect the forms.

Whom should you interview?

34. You must interview as many persons as may be necessary to enable you to obtain particulars of all persons who were in the household on census night. See as many persons as possible. You should time your visit to ensure that most working members are home when you interview the household.

Whom should you enumerate?

35. Enumerate all persons who were in the household on Census night.

36. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept with the household but who were absent on Census night and did not sleep in any other house. Examples are night fishermen, police officers and nurses on night duty, persons working a night shift in a hotel. Such persons are to be enumerated with the household.


What happens if there is no one at home?

37. It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because nobody is at home or because the adult occupants are away at the time.

38. You must enquire from those at home when the best time to call back is. If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors when the members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit for that time.

39. Try and send word ahead of you to say when you will be visiting households.

40. If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the place and tell your Supervisor.

The questionnaire

41. All the information required at the census is to be recorded on the questionnaires which will be issued to you in bound books of fifty forms. None should be taken out or destroyed. You will have to account for all of them.

42. Detailed instructions for completing the questionnaire are given in Part 3 of these Instructions.

[Pages 8-9 which include sections on checking work and labeling forms in the original document are not presented here]


Part 3 - How to fill in the questionnaire

General rules

50. Complete the questionnaire yourself.
Use the pens provided.
Keep the questionnaire clean.
Write legibly, in capitals.

51. The questionnaire is in two parts. The first is for all persons in the household. The second is for information about the household in general:

own account household income in 1996
disabled persons,
housing condition and tenure,
waste disposal, and
an inventory of household durables.

52. The form for persons in the household is in three sections.

The first is for all persons. You will ask questions D1 to D13 of all persons and make written entries using one column for each person.

The second is for all persons born in 1981 or before.
Ask questions D14 to D17 of all persons born in 1981 or before.

The third section is for women born in 1981 or before. Ask questions F1 to F5 of all women born in 1981 or before and make written entries for each.

53. Complete this part of the questionnaire before entering the household particulars.


54. Complete a separate questionnaire for each household. If there are more than ten persons in the household, continue on the next page. Write "continued" at the foot of the first page and at the top of the second. Change the person number on the second and subsequent pages. The first person on the second page will usually be number "11" the second person "12" and so on.

55. If information is given to you by someone other than the person concerned and some details are unknown, you may write "not known" or "NK" in the appropriate box. Make every effort to obtain full and correct answers and to avoid the use of "NK".

56. If you make a mistake, cross it out neatly with a single line and correct it. If there is no room to make the correction, draw a line through the whole of the column for the person, write along it "mistake" and complete a new column for the person.

57. If you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the questionnaire, write along it "spoilt" and complete a fresh questionnaire for the household. Never tear a spoilt questionnaire out of the book.

The interview and the questions

58. When you arrive at a house, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator.

59. Ask,
"Who is the head of this household?"

60. The head of the household is the person who is regarded by the members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. If the head of the household is not present, ask for the next senior person.
61. Explain that you must record particulars of everyone who was present in the household on census night.


62. The EA you are allocated may have more than one commonly known village locality or settlement. First, enter the name of the village locality or settlement at the top right hand corner of the form. Where no locality, settlement or village names are in usage write as detailed address as possible to enable a lay person in the office to identify the place on the map.

63. Next enter the household number. You will allocate this number yourself. The first household you enumerate will be 1, the second 2 and so on upwards.

64. Then complete the main body of the questionnaire and finally complete the particulars related to own account money activity in the household during 1996 and disabled persons and the household section.

65. The instructions which follow deal with what is required and will help explain the notes printed on the questionnaire. Study them together.

66. The instructions also deal with the way in which you are to ask the questions. It is your job to learn them and to ask them as they are set out in these Instructions and on the questionnaire. It is important that each enumerator should ask census questions in exactly the same way, otherwise there will be misunderstanding and mistakes.

67. As far as possible, obtain information directly from the person concerned.

68. Your first job is to make a list of all persons who were in the household on census night. Starting with the head of the household, if he or she was present, or with the person in charge of the household at that time.


Questions D1 and D2 - Name and relationship

69. Ask,
"Who stayed here on census night?"

70. It is important that you list the names in a set order so that you have a clear picture of the household from the very beginning.

71. List members of the household by family.

Start with the head and his wife and unmarried children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest.

Then enter married children and their spouses and children.

Then list other relatives and their wives and children who were in the household on census night.

Finally list those who are not related to the head or anyone else in the household.

72. Very young children are sometimes forgotten, so pay particular attention to getting all babies counted. If the infant has no name, write "Baby of ---" and enter the mother's person number.

73. Remember to enquire about and to include night workers.

74. When you have written the names of all who were in the household on census night read over the list and,


'Is that correct?'

If not, correct the list. Then ask,

'Was there anyone else here on census night?'

If there was, include them.

Then look about you. If you see infants or children whose mothers are included, or very old or infirm people, ask further questions, "What about that child? Is he or she listed? Was the old man here on census night? Are there any night workers?" You must be sure that everyone who was present on census night is included.

75. We do not require the person's full name. It will be enough for the purposes of the census to record the name by which the person is known so that he or she may be identified by supervisors and superintendents checking your work.

76. At the same time as you write names on line 1, enter the relationship on line 2.

77. Write 'head' under the name of the head of the household. Then write the relationship of each person to the head or to his/her parents if they are present, or show the relationship husband/wife.

78. Relate children to their parents, if present, and husbands and wives, if present. In other cases relate persons to the head of the household.

79. Since every person will be entered under the number at the top of the column, his/her relationship may easily be written as 'Wife of 1', 'Son of 1 and 2', 'Daughter of 4' and so on.
80. Describe relationships accurately. Be particularly careful to distinguish between children born of the parents and adopted or step children.


81. Where a man and woman live together, although not married, you should treat them as husband and wife if they regard themselves as such. The census is not concerned with the form of marriage.

82. The following relationships will cover all the cases with which the census is concerned:

Daughter [D]
Adopted son [AS]
Adopted daughter [AD]
Grandson [GS]
Granddaughter [GD]

For all other relatives write 'Relative'. If the person is in none of these categories write 'Other'. For persons in institutions it will be sufficient to write 'Patient', 'Prisoner' or as the case may be.

83. Where several persons who are not related are living in a household, name one as head and describe the rest as 'Partner'.


Question D3 - Sex

84. Ask,
'Is this person male or female?'

Write M for males and F for females.

85. Usually the person's sex will be clear to you from the name and relationship but if you don't know, ask. Never guess. Be particularly careful to get the sex of infants right. Check that the sex you record is compatible with relationship - don't write M for persons shown as wives or daughters, nor F for persons shown as husbands or sons.

Question D4 - Date of birth

86. Ask,
'When was this person born?'

Write the day, the month and the year of birth.

87. Whether or not the day and month are known, you must enter a year of birth for all persons.

88.And for children born 1990-1996 you must try particularly hard to get at least the month and the year.

89. This question is one of the most important in the census and it may be the most difficult to answer. You will find many people who do not know their date of birth. In these cases you will have to estimate the year of birth.


90. The best source of information will be birth certificates or baptismal certificates and some families have a Bible in which birth dates are recorded. Ask to see any documents which are available.

91. Some people may not know their date of birth but may know their age.
'How old is this person?'

If the age is known, calculate the year of birth.

92. One reliable birthdate in the household may help you to work out the birthdates of other members of the household if it is known whether they are younger or older and by how many years.

93. If all else fails, make the best estimate you can, judging by such things as the person's appearance and position in the household and by using your common sense knowledge that parents are seldom younger than sixteen years of age when their first child is born, that women do not usually bear children below the age of twelve or over fifty years, that people who were in the same class at school are generally closely similar in age and so on.

94. If you are entering only the year of birth, because day and month are not known, write the year in full - for example, 1942 or 1969. In this way there can be no confusion between year of birth and age.

Question D5 - Ethnic group

95. Ask,
'Is this person Chinese, European, Fijian, Indian, Part-European, Rotuman, Banaban, Samoan, Tongan, etc?'


96. Record the group or race to which the person considers he or she belongs. If there is any doubt as to the person's racial origin, record the father's.

97. You may write 'F' for Fijian and 'I' for Indian. Write other groups/races in full.

Question D6 - Marital status

98. Ask,
'Is this person married?'

99. For persons who have never been married, including children, write 'NM'.

100. People living together as husband and wife should be shown as married whether or not they have been through any civil or religious ceremonies. The census is not concerned with who is legally married and who is not. Accept the answer as it is given to you.

101. Widowed is for a person, male or female, who has been married but whose spouse has died and who has not remarried at the time of the census.

102. Separated or divorced is for a person who has been married but who has divorced or separated and is living as such at the time of the census. Accept the answer as it is given to you.

103. You may use the following abbreviations,

NM for never married
M for married
WID for widowed
SEP for separated
DIV for divorced


Question D7 - Real father

104. Ask,
'Is this person's real father alive?'

105. Write 'Alive' or 'Dead' in respect of the person's real, natural father. [Not a father who may have adopted the person being enumerated].

Question D8 - Real mother

106. Ask,
'Is this person's real mother alive?'

107. Write 'Alive' or 'Dead' in respect of the person's real mother, that is, the woman who bore him/her. [Not a mother who may have adopted the person being enumerated].

108. If the person's real mother is alive,
'Was this person's mother in the household on census night?'

109. If the answer is 'Yes' and the person's real mother was present in the household, write the mother's person number. [If, for example, the person's real mother was present and her particulars are recorded in column 2, write her person number '2']. This allows 'mothers' and their 'own children' to be linked by person number in the one household.

110. If the person's mother was not in the household but was somewhere else, write 'Not Present' which you may shorten to 'NP'.


Question D9 - Religion

111. Ask,
'What is this person's religion?'

112. People are not compelled to answer this question. If a person refuses to state a religion or objects to doing so, write 'Objects'.

113. Write the religion and the denomination of the person - for example, 'Christian Methodist', 'Hindu - Arya Samaj' or Muslim - Ahmadiya', 'Sikh'.

114. If the person has no religion, write 'None'.

115. Once you have established the religion of the head of the household you may,
'Are all members of the household of the same religion?'

116. If they are, you may write the initials rather than writing religion and denomination in full for all members of the household. Thus, if the head and everyone else in the household are of the Methodist Church you should write 'Christian Methodist' for the head and you may write 'CM' for the rest.

Question D10 - Place of birth

117. Ask,
'Where was this person's mother living when he or she was born?'

118. The question is put in this way because we wish to know the mother's usual place of residence at the time and not the location of the hospital in which she may have borne the person.


119. If the person was born in Fiji write first the name of the province. On the second line write the name of the town, street and ward if the place was urban. If the place was rural, write the village, settlement or locality. Describe the village, locality and settlement such that coders in the office may identify the geographical location on the map. Descriptive phrases that classify and qualify are best. eg. Vunivau settlement, east of Labasa Town; Vunivau settlement, near Dama, Bua, [the former is within the new Labasa Urban boundary while the latter is a settlement in Bua province]; Tomuka settlement, off Naikabula Road, Lautoka [is now part of Lautoka urban].

120. It is important for the census to distinguish between urban and rural places. In this sense 'urban' means the whole of the urban or built up areas, not just the gazetted city or town boundaries. For example, Kinoya is urban even though it is outside the Suva City boundary. If you receive an answer such as 'Ba' or 'Nadi' or 'Labasa' ask whether the person is referring to the urban or to the rural area surrounding it. Add the letter 'U' for urban or 'R' for rural as appropriate.

121. If the person was born on one of the small islands such as those in the Lomaiviti, Lau or Yasawa groups write the name of the island together with the name of the village.

122. If the person was born outside Fiji write the name of the country - for example, India, New Zealand, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu etc.

Question D11 - Where living in 1991

123. Ask, 'Where was this person living in 1991?'

124. For persons who were living in Fiji write first the name of the province, and on the second line write the name of the town or of the village or settlement if the place was rural. Describe the village, locality or settlement such that coders in the office may identify the geographical location on the map. Descriptive phases that classify and qualify are best eg.


'Vunivau settlement' east of Labasa Town; Vunivau settlement near Dama, Bua; Tomuka settlement off Naikabula Road, Lautoka. If you receive an answer such as Ba or Nadi or Labasa, ask whether the person is referring to the urban or rural area surrounding it. Distinguish urban from rural places by adding the letters 'U' for urban or 'R' for rural as appropriate.

125. If the person was living on one of the small islands such as those in the Lomaiviti, Lau or Yasawa groups write the name of the island together with the name of the village.

126. Record the province, village, settlement or locality where the person normally lived and worked in 1991. A person who may have been away from home temporarily should be shown where he or she normally lived.

127. If the person changed residence in 1991, record the place where he or she was living on 25 August, 1991.

128. For persons who were living outside Fiji write the name of the country.

129. If the person was born in 1992 or after, write 'Not Born' [NB].

130. It is necessary to make enquiry for each member of the household. Do not assume that all members of the household lived in the same place five years ago - members may have been separated for schooling or work and others may have joined the household on marriage, widowhood, adoption, for schooling or for other reasons.

Question D12 - School attendance

131. Ask,
'Is this person attending school this year?'

132. A person is either


attending school - write 'AT'.
has left school - write 'LEFT'.
or has never been to school - write 'NB'.

In this sense 'school' means any educational establishment in which kindergarten, primary, secondary or university or tertiary education is given on a full time basis.

Question D13 - Educational attainment

133. Ask,
'What is the highest level of education this person has attained?'

134. State the highest class or form the person reached or is attending if still at school, in which case insert:

'kindy' for kindergarten
primary class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
secondary form 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
university year eg. Degree 1, Diploma 2 or Certificate 1
other tertiary eg. FIT

If the person has never been to school, write 'none'. You may shorten class and form by writing 'Cl 4' or 'F3' or as the case may be.

135. If the person has left school, state his highest qualification. In case the person has successfully completed some post-secondary training or gained some post-secondary qualification write details.

In case of degrees, diplomas, and certificates, specify main field of study eg.


BSc Physics,
BA Sociology,
Post Graduate Diploma - Marine Biology,
Certificate - Quantity Survey,
Diploma in pre-school teaching

If the person has more than one post-secondary qualification, enter the one the person considers most important.

136. If the person attended an informal or unrecognised school outside the formal primary/secondary system, such as a Bible class, write 'Unrecognised' which you may shorten to 'Unrec'.

137. This completes the questions which are to be asked of all persons. Make sure there is an entry in each person's box and that the entry is correct.


Economic activity last week

For all persons born in 1981 or before
138. The next set of questions, D14 to D17, apply to all persons born in 1981 or before. Look back at the year of birth you have entered for each person. For those born 1982-1996 write 'N/A' for question D14[a] and leave the rest of the column [D14-D17] blank.

139. Questions D14-D17 are concerned with how people provide for themselves, how they make their living. It is restricted to persons 15 years of age and over.

140. In the week before census night, almost everyone in Fiji will have done something to provide for himself or herself. It is your job to discover and record what each person did.

141. Ask the questions as they are set out here and on the questionnaire and talk about each member of the household until you understand what he or she did in the way of making a living last week. Make entries on the questionnaire only when you have the picture clear in your mind.

Question D14 - Type of activity last week

142. Question 14[a]
Did this person do any work for money last week?

Money work here means:
A wage and salary job.
Business, shop, taxi/carrier business, repair shop
Grow things for sale
Raise animals for sale
Catch fish, collect shells for sale


Provide services for money

You should write 'M' against money work. Include also persons who had a job but were either sick or on leave or did not attend work for some other reason.

For persons who did not work for money last week write 'NO' in this box.

143. Question 14[b]
'How many days did this person work for money last week?'

For persons like wage/salary earners in regular work this is easy to work out as their working hours are fixed. For those with jobs but were sick or were away from work for some other reason you should put the normal working days.

People earning money from other than wage/salary job often work more irregular times. Make a rough estimate of hours or half days worked each day of last week. Add up these hours and divide by 7 [average number of hours people work in a day] to obtain the number of days worked last week.

If the person worked on more than one money earning activity last week, record the one the person spent the most time on.

Number of days worked should be reported against Q14[b].

Up to one full day write '1'.
For between 1 and 2 full days write '2'.
For between 2 and 3 full days write '3'.
For between 3 and 4 full days write '4'.
For between 4 and 5 full days write '5'.
For between 5 and 6 full days write '6'.


For between 6 and 7 full days write '7'.

144. In case the person did not work for money ie. answered 'NO' in box against 14[a],
'Did you actively look for money, cash work last week'.

If the person:

wrote letters
visited offices or job sites
asked friends to obtain cash work

write 'UNEMP' [for unemployed]

and if the person did not look for money earning work
write '0'.

145. For those persons responding with 'M' in D14[a], you should also complete

D14[b] Number of days worked last week.
D14[c] Did the person do any subsistence work as well
D15 Describe the task performed last week.
D16 The type of activity, service or product produced at place of work.
D17 How was the person paid

weekly wages
fortnightly/monthly salary
by sale of crops, livestock
for job done
unpaid family worker


146. Question D14[c]

Did the person plant crops, collect shells or fish or provide anything for own use in any other way?'

If 'Yes' write 'SUBS' [subsistence] otherwise write 'NO'.

Subsistence type of work is not aimed at earning money. It includes work in food gardens or collecting of food, sea-shells, catching fish for own use. It is also communal work, assisting in cleaning village, building house, construction of road or water system in a settlement.

147. Question D14[d]

So far you have classified

person who has worked for money 'M'
person who has worked for money as well as 'SUBS'
person who was actively looking for work 'UNEMP'
person who provided for himself 'SUBS'

Therefore for persons who are classed in 14[a] as 'M' or 14[b] as 'UNEMP' or 14[c] as 'SUBS'. Write 'NA' in 14[d] box.

For other classify in one of the following category:


'STUDENT' if the person is attending school or a training course full time. Full time students will be on holiday at the time of the census and some may have worked last week, but for the purpose of the census, such people should be entered as 'STUDENT'.

'NOT LOOKING FOR WORK' This category applies to persons who were capable of working but did not work last week and did nothing about finding work, either because they knew there were no jobs available or because they did not want to work.

Did this person do anything to provide for himself or herself?

If 'yes' then go back to either 14[a] for money work 'M'
or 14[c] for subsistence work 'SUBS' as appropriate.

Only if person did nothing and was dependent on someone else for food and shelter you should enter 'not looking'.

Full time homemaker.- This applies to those persons who did no work for money 'M' or Subsistence 'SUBS' or did not actively look for work last week 'UNEMP' and were occupied with purely domestic duties around the house.

Many housewives combine domestic duties with working outside the house - in the garden, collecting food [SUBS] or in paid employment [M]. Such cases should be reclassified along the appropriate box.

Retired person has regular income and does not have to work anymore.
Disabled person who suffered some form of permanent mental or physical disability and cannot work.


Other.- There may be other reasons why a person may not have worked last week, apart from persons who had a job but were either sick or on leave. Specify as the case may be.

When a person worked for money last week ie. 'M' in 14[a] or was 'UNEMP' in 14[b] or 'SUBS' in 14[c], write 'NA' [not applicable] in the box for 14[d].

Summarizing question D14

Only the following combination of answers for D14[a], [b], [c] and [d] are correct.

If 14(a) is 'M'

then 14(b) is 1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7 days
14(c) is 'SUBS'
14(d) is 'NA'

14(b) is 1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7 days
14(c) is No
14(d) is NA

After this you fill D15-D17
If 14(a) is 'NO'
then there are 4 options


14[b] is '0'
14[c] is 'SUBS'
14[d] is NA

14[b] is 'UNEMP'
14[c] is 'SUBS'
14[d] is NA

14[b] is 0
14[c] is NO
14[d] is Other reason student, homemaker, etc

14[b] is UNEMP
14[c] is NO
14[d] is NA

After this you SKIP Questions D15-D17.

148. Questions on:
Occupation D15
Industry D16
and Employment status D17

are only for persons who worked for money last week; i.e. answered 'M' in question D14[a]. For all others put a diagonal line through the boxes D15-D17.

Question D15 - Occupation

149. We require an exact description of the kind of work the person did last week.
'What kind of work did this person do last week?'

150. It is sometimes difficult to get an exact answer but you should always aim to provide a two or three word description of the person's job.


A vague single word description is not enough. Avoid general terms such as 'manager', 'clerical', 'mechanic', 'foreman', 'teacher', 'operator', or 'laborer'. Record exactly what a person did - for example, 'sales manager', typist clerk', 'motor mechanic', 'foreman carpenter' 'primary teacher', 'forklift operator', 'stevedore'.

151. Many people may be described generally as 'farmer'. It is particularly important that we know exactly what kind of farmers they are.

Some Fijian villagers grow crops such as dalo, yaqona or ginger mainly for sale. Such persons should be described as 'growing dalo' or 'growing yaqona' or as the case may be.

In describing the occupations of persons who farm outside the Fijian village system you must be precise - for example, write 'cane farmer', 'rice grower', 'dairyman' or 'poultry farm worker'. Avoid the vague word - do not write 'farmer' or 'laborer'.

Many of these farmers engage in more than one activity but in describing the work done you should pick out the person's main crop or activity - the one to which he/she devotes most time - the one which he/she regards as most important - the one which is commercial. You will thus be able to describe a person as 'growing coconuts', 'raising cattle', 'market gardening' and so on.

The term 'cane farmer' should be used only of the person who owns or leases the land on which the cane is grown. Others working on the farm should be described as 'cane farm workers' unless they do a specific job such as 'cane cutter'. The same distinction should be made between those who own, lease or operate dairy farms, cattle farms or copra plantations and those who work on them.


152. You will find it best to speak to the person concerned whenever possible. Members of the household are often vague as to the occupation of others. If the person is in employment you may find that you get a more accurate idea of his/her job by asking for the job title and recording that.

153. A person may have done more than one kind of job last week. In such a case you should record his/her main job - the one he/she spends most time at - that which he/she usually does.

154. If the person combines paid employment with unpaid work you should record the paid job rather than the unpaid job - for example, if the person is a bus driver and worked last weekend on his farm he should be entered as 'bus driver' and if the person is a housewife who went to market to sell food she should be entered as 'market food seller'.

155. A person engaged temporarily on the census should state his/her usual occupation. Thus if you are a secondary school teacher and are working as a census supervisor or enumerator your occupation should be as 'secondary teacher'.

Question D16 - Industry

156. You have described the person's own job, which is his occupation. We have next to consider the kind of business, product or service produced by the worker and his/her fellow workers. For example, a person may be a typist working for

a mining company
in a building contractors office
in a hotel
for a bus company
in a department store
for the government


for a firm of lawyers.

The person's occupation is 'typist' but the product, business or service is different in each case.

157. Ask,
'Who does this person work for?'
or 'Where does this person work?'

Enter the name of the company, firm or organization for which he or she works.

Some large companies make, produce or sell more than one kind of product and the same is true of large departments of government. In such cases state the branch or section for which the person works.

For example, a large company like Carpenters engages in many kinds of activity and you should distinguish the branch for which the person works by writing - 'Carpenters Shipping', - Carpenters Travel', - or as the case may be.

Similarly, large government departments such as the PWD engage in different kinds of work and you should distinguish this by writing - 'PWD roads', - 'PWD mechanical workshops', 'PWD Water' or -as the case may be, but not just 'PWD'.


158. If the person is self-employed, or works in a family business.
'What is this person's trade or business?'

159. Write in two or three words what kind of business or activity is carried on:

what is made or produced
what services are provided
what goods are sold
what crops are grown.

160. Be precise. Avoid vague answers.
For example:

Good Answers--Bad Answers
'shoe repair'--'repair'
'making furniture'--'factory'
'bus company'--'business'
'retail store'--'private enterprise'
'car repairs'--'self-employed'

We must know what is repaired, what the factory makes, what kind of business, what sort of private enterprise, what the self-employed person makes or sells.

Question D17 - Employment status

161. Ask,
'How is this person paid?'

162. We are concerned with the way in which people are rewarded for their work. Everyone who worked last week was rewarded in one of the following ways:


Wage or salary

Such people are employed and are paid regularly in cash.
A wage earner is paid in cash on an hourly, daily or weekly basis. A salary earner has his or her pay assessed on an annual basis. Write 'wage' or 'salary' as appropriate.

By sale

Such people are paid in cash when they sell some thing or some service. They are self-employed and do not receive a wage or salary.

A cane farmer is paid for the cane he or she sells. A person who runs his own shop is paid for each article sold. A market vendor is paid for the food sold. The same is true of people who grow vegetables or root crops, or raise chickens, or catch fish to sell. For such people write 'sale'.

By job done

This category includes casual workers and everyone who is paid on a contract, task or piece work basis. They do not receive a regular wage or salary. This kind of arrangement is common in rural areas - for example, in cane cutting gangs or fencing on contract - as well as in urban areas - for example, grass cutters, casual laborers and stevedores. For such people write 'job'.



Such people work but do not receive regular wages. Very often they work in the family business or farm and are members of the family who are provided with food and lodging and share in the benefits of any profits which arise from the joint family work but do not receive cash on a regular basis. For such people write 'unpaid'.


Children ever born

To women born in 1981 or before

The next set of questions, F1 to F5, apply to all women born in 1981 or before.

163. An answer is required of all women in this category whether or not they are married, whether or not they are still attending school, and whether or not you think they may have borne children.

If the person is male or is a girl born 1982 to 1996, write 'N/A' on line F1 and leave the rest of the column blank.

If possible speak to the woman herself. She will know about the children she has borne and will be able to answer the questions more accurately than anyone else.

The census is concerned with all the children a woman has borne. Include children who have grown up and left home, children borne by the woman to other men as well as to her present husband, her children who are living away from home and children who have died even if they died shortly after birth. Be careful to include very young babies.

Do not include adopted children, step children or children who may be staying in the household but were not borne by the woman herself.

We are concerned with the number of children the woman has borne alive. '0' is a number. If the appropriate number of any line is '0', then write '0'. Do not leave lines blank and do not use any other symbol. It is just as important to record women who have not given birth as it to record those who have.


A child born alive is one who cries after being born. The census is concerned with children born alive. Do not include still births - that is children who did not cry and were born dead.

Question F1

164. Ask,
'Has this woman borne any children?'

If the woman has never borne any children alive, write '0' for boys and '0' for girls.

If the woman has borne a child or children,
'How many were here on census night?'

Write the number of boys and the number of girls who were in the household on census night on line F1. If the answer is 'none' write '0' in the appropriate box.

Question F2

165. Ask,
'How many were elsewhere on census night?'

Write the number of boys and girls whom the woman has borne who were not in the household on census night. If the answer is 'none' write '0' in the appropriate box.


Question F3

166. Ask,
'How many have died?'

Write the number of boys and girls whom the woman has borne alive but who have since died. If the answer is 'none' write '0' in the appropriate box.

167. You have recorded details of all the children the woman has borne alive. You are next required to record particulars of her most recent live birth - that is of the last child she has borne alive.

Question F4

168. Ask,
'When was the last child born?'

Whenever possible record the day, month and year.

If the day is not known, record at least the month and year for all children born between 1990 and 1996 even if it takes time to establish the month by questioning the mother and other members of the household. It is important that we know the exact birthdate of children aged 5 years and less.

For children born before 1990 it will be enough to record the year of birth.

Question F5

169. Ask,
'Is the child still alive?'
Write 'yes' or 'no' as appropriate.


170. You have completed particulars of persons in the household.
Now check,

that there is no one else you should have included
that no line has been left blank if it should have been completed
that others can read what you have written
that the information you have recorded agrees item with item.

171. If you find things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions put them right. The record must be complete and accurate before you turn the page.

172. When you are satisfied that the particulars of all persons are correctly recorded, turn over the page and complete the information required on money activity of household during 1996 and disability of persons in the households and other information regarding the household and housing.

173. Record these particulars on the back of the first page relating to the household. If you have used two or more pages for particulars of persons because there were more than ten persons in the household, draw a diagonal line across the household particulars on second and subsequent pages. If particulars for an individual relate to persons in second page change the person numbers in the block relating to Questions on Disability: C1 through C3.


Money activity in the household during 1996

174. Ask,
'This year [1996] did any person in the household [excluding visitors and those doing it in wage/salary job] earn money from the following activities'.

Explain to the people in the household that this question is different from Questions D14 through D17 where the reference period was last week. There are also other differences:

They refer to the activities of the household as a total.

They should not include money earnings of visitors who happened to be in the household during the census night. Activities of household members elsewhere on census night should not be included.

The wage/salary earnings of the household members should not be reported. Money earnings referred to here are from own account activities. Money earnings of household members working for other people should not be reported here.

Where money earning own account activity was shared between members of two separate households, it should be counted in both households.

The reference period is from the beginning of January 1996 up until the 25th of August. A shorter period will be considered for those household established after January 1996.


175. Tick appropriate 'Yes' box if a household member did grow vegetables, root crops, copra, rice or other crops for sale on the market.

It does not matter if the household produces most of the food crops for own use and only a little is sold or if the household produces most for sale and only a little for own use, in both cases tick 'Yes' boxes.

176. Ask the same question for each economic activity under M1 through M6.

Make sure that either 'Yes' or 'No' boxes under each activity is 'ticked' as appropriate.

177. At question M6 ask household members -

'Has this household made money from any other business or activity this year'.

If the answer is no write 'No' on the space provided. When the answer is YES ask which type of activity and write in a few words on the space provided line eg. making furniture, making dress, repair car.



Question C1

178. Ask,
'Does any person in this household have any disability or health problem that is long term?'

By long term we mean any condition or illness which has lasted for 6 months or more.

Exercise patience here, disability is very hard to assess outside clinical tests. Probe gently but persistently. People are either unwilling to admit that family members have disability or may forget them altogether.

If the answer is 'Yes" circle the appropriate person(s) number(s). For larger households write person number above an unused person number eg. P12 instead of unused 'P10'.

Question C2

179. In each case run through the following series of questions:
'Does this person as a result of this condition has difficulties with or cannot do?'

Tick appropriate box under person's number in each case if following is true.


Everyday activities people his/her age can do.

Communicating, mixing with others or socializing.

Any other activity that people his/her age usually do.

Or If answer to all of the above is not true or no, then tick appropriate box under person(s) Number for

No difficulty with any of these.

180. In each case when the answer is 'Yes' tick the cell under the person's number. A person may answer 'No' to one or all of the above questions. If the respondent answers 'No' to all questions. Leave boxes blank and tick under appropriate Person Number in the box for:

No difficulty with any of the above.

Question C3

181. Ask,
'What is the nature of this persons disability?'

Insert the appropriate code in the correct cell.

1. sight - when the person is either partially or totally blind

2. intelligence - when the person has only partial or no control over his mental faculty

3. hearing - when the person is either partially or fully deaf
4. physical - when the person has loss of motion or limbs

5. age - when extreme old age prevents a person from performing the functions mentioned in C2.

6. other - specify any other disability other than categorized by codes 1 to 5 above eg. speech.

Household and housing

182. Question H1 - Type of living quarters

1. A one family house detached from any other house is a dwelling housing a single household and which is not joined to any other dwelling by one or more walls and is not in a building used also as a shop or a factory.

2. A one family house attached to one or more houses is a dwelling which shares a common wall with another dwelling.

3. A building housing two or more apartments may be a block of flats, an apartment building or a set of town houses.

4. A building with two or more households which shares a kitchen or toilet is self-explanatory.

5. A dwelling attached to a shop or other non-residential building. People may live in dwellings made above their shops or is attached to factories and workshops.

6. A lodging house is like a hostel where people either share rooms or have separate rooms but share either cooking or washing facilities.

7. A hotel as separate from a lodging house is self-explanatory.

8. Other types of living quarters - caravans or mobile houses, ships, tents. When living quarters do not fit into any of the above 7 categories, describe them, after putting in other category.


183. Question H2 - Construction of outer walls

If the outer walls fall into more than one category, tick the main one.

184. Question H3 - Number of rooms

A room is a space in the living quarters which is enclosed by walls and which is large enough to contain a bed for an adult.

We are concerned with rooms used for living - that is bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, servants' quarters and kitchens. Do not include toilets, bathrooms, passageways or verandahs.

If the household shares one or more rooms with another, write the number of rooms for its exclusive use and then the number shared - for example, '3 rooms + 1 shared kitchen'.

185. Question H4 - Main water supply

We are concerned with the supply on which the household mainly relies - from which the household gets its water for most of the time.

'Drying up' does not include occasional failures of a municipal or communal piped water system.

186. Questions H5, H5A, H6, H7 and H8 are self-explanatory


187. Question H9 - Tenure - The living quarters

This question refers to the arrangements by which a household occupies its living quarters.
'Does this household pay rent for its living quarters?'

188. If the answer is 'no', the household either owns the living quarters or occupies them in some other way.

Owning means that the household or a member of it owns the living quarters or is paying for them by installments. No rent is paid, nor does the household occupy its quarters with someone else's permission.

If the household pays no rent but does not own its living quarters, it either occupies them with an employer's permission, as in the case of living-in domestic servants, or in some other way which you should describe.

189. If the answer is 'yes' and the household does pay rent for its living quarters,
'Who is the rent paid to?'

and insert the appropriate code.

If you cannot decide on the category box, describe the arrangements by which the household occupies its quarters under 'other'.


190. Question H10 - Tenure: The land

191. Ask,
"Who owns the land on which the household's living quarters is situated".

Insert the relevant code.

1. Owned outright freehold land.

2. Leased from state.

3. Leased from NLTB.

4. Occupied without legal arrangement. [State or freehold land].
People living on freehold or state land or reclaimed land [mangroves] should be included in here. People living without legal arrangement on Native Land should be included under 5.

5. Occupied Native land with informal arrangement.
This will include households which may occupy mataqali land and either pay rent or live rent free with the mataqali's permission. But there is no legal tenure or lease. Fijians living rent free on land belonging to another mataqali should be included here.

6. Occupied through traditional village tenure. These are Fijian households living on their own mataqali land and do not pay rent.

7. Other - generally household with special arrangement for use of land not classifiable under codes 1 through 6. Describe as the case may be.


192. Question H11 - Dwelling adequacy

You are to look at pictures of dwellings at Appendix A and decide what category to place the particular dwelling under. A selection of the following subjective categories are provided:

1. superior
2. well above average
3. average
4. well below average
5. inferior
6. other - specify why this dwelling cannot be categorized under 1 through 5.

193. Question H12 - How is household waste disposed

We are trying to take stock of waste disposal arrangement a household has. Tick more than one box if a household 'burns' as well as 'buries' the household waste.

194. Question H13 - Household durables

Place a tick against the box for the relevant household durable. It does not matter if they have more than one of each item. Place a tick only if the household owns the item. Households having use of cars/vans provided by employers should tick 'Yes'.


195. This completes your interview for this household.

Check the entries you have made to be sure they are complete and correct. If you find mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct the record. It must be complete and accurate before you leave the household.

When you are satisfied that all is in order, complete the summary information for the household in the box that follows and transcribe this information to the front cover.

Finally, place the self-adhesive label bearing the household number where it will be seen easily and where it is convenient to the household.

When you complete a book, sign it in the space provided for the enumerators signature. Your signature is your certificate that the information recorded is complete and correct.