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[Fiji 1986]
Instructions to Enumerators

Part 1. Introduction

1. The census is a count of the country's population which is combined with collecting other information about the people.

2. It is designed to tell us how many of us there are, where we live, how we earn our living, and whether the population is changing in numbers and if so, in what ways and how fast.

[p. 1-3, comprising enumerator equipment and physical instructions, are omitted here]

Part 2. General Instructions

Census Night

20. Census night is the night of Sunday, August 31, 1986.

21. You are responsible for enumerating everyone in your area at midnight on that night.

The Household

22. Those persons who usually eat together food prepared for them in the same kitchen and who together share the work and cost of providing the food are called a household.

23. The household is the most convenient small group of persons for the purpose of the census and you will enumerate the population by household.

24. Very often the household will be a family living in a single dwelling.

[p. 4]

25. If two or more groups of persons, each of which has its own separate eating and housekeeping arrangements, live in the same dwelling, treat them as separate households.

26. A domestic servant who eats with the household should be included with the household. If the servant cooks and eats separately, he/she should be enumerated as living in a separate household.

27. In the same way, a visitor or any of his/her children who eat with the household are counted as members of the household.

28. A household may consist of one or more persons and may occupy a whole building, part of a building, or many buildings.

29. Sometimes groups of people live together but cannot be said to belong to a household. Ships' crews and persons in hospitals, colleges and prisons are examples.

30. Supervisors will make arrangements for enumerating such people and you may be instructed to help with these special cases. Persons in institutions or on board ship should be treated as if they belonged to a single household. The name of the institution or vessel should be written at the top of the questionnaire so as to make it clear that it is not a private household.

31. Those working in institutions but who live in their own household should be enumerated with their own households and not with the institution. Thus a nurse on night duty should be counted with her household and not with patients in the hospital.

32. Hotels will be supplied with a stock of questionnaires and envelopes. On the evening of census night, managers will give each guest a questionnaire and an envelope. All persons staying in the hotel on census night will be required to complete a questionnaire, seal it in the envelope and hand it to the Reception next morning. Envelopes with completed questionnaires will be collected from the Manager.

33. Enumeration of persons in hotels will be the responsibility of Superintendents and Supervisors but you may be instructed to issue and collect the forms.

Whom should you interview?

34. You must interview as many persons as may be necessary to enable you to obtain particulars of all persons who were in the household on census night. See as many persons as possible.

Whom should you enumerate?

35. Enumerate all persons who were in the household on Census night.

36. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept with the household but who were absent on Census night and did not sleep in any other house. Examples are night fishermen, police officers and nurses on night duty, persons working a night shift in a hotel. Such persons are to be enumerated with the household.

[p. 5]

What happens if there is no one at home

37. It may happen that when you visit a house that is inhabited you are unable to obtain any information, either because nobody is at home or because the adult occupants are away at the time.

38. You must inquire from those at home when the best time to call back is. If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors when the members of the household are likely to be at home and arrange your next visit for that time.

39. Try and send word ahead of you to say when you will be visiting households.

40. If after three visits you have not succeeded in finding anyone at home, make a note of the place and tell your Supervisor.

[p. 5-6, comprising information on the packaging and labels of forms, is omitted here.]


Part III. How to fill in the questionnaire

General Rules

50. Complete the questionnaire yourself. Use the pens provided. Keep the questionnaire clean. Write legibly, in capitals.

51. The questionnaire is in two parts. The first is for all persons in the household. The second is for information about the household.

52. The form for persons in the household is in three sections. The first is for all persons. You will ask questions 1-13 of all persons and make written entries using one column for each person. The second is for all persons born in 1971 or before. The third section is for women born in 1971 or before. Ask questions 18-22 of all women born in 1971 or before and make written entries for each.

53. Complete this part of the questionnaire before entering the household particulars.

54. Complete a separate questionnaire for each household. If there are more than ten persons in the household, continue on the next page. Write 'continued' at the foot of the first page and at the top of the second. Change the person number on the second and subsequent pages. The first person on the second page will usually be number '11', the second person '12, and so on.

55. If information is given to you by someone other than the person concerned and some details are unknown, you may write 'not known' or 'NK' in the appropriate box. Make every effort to obtain full and correct answers and to avoid the use of 'NK'.'

56. If you make a mistake, cross it out neatly with a single line and correct it. If there is no room to make the correction, draw a line through the whole of the column for the person, write along it 'mistake' and complete a new column for the person.

57. If you make a mistake involving a whole household, draw a diagonal line across the questionnaire, write along it 'spoilt' and complete a fresh questionnaire for the household. Never tear a spoilt questionnaire out of the book.

The interview and the questions

58. When you arrive at a house, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator.

59. Ask, "Who is the head of this household?"

60. The head of the household is the person who is regarded by the members of the household as its head, and may be a man or a woman. If the head of the household is not present, ask for the next senior person.

[p. 8]

61. Explain that you must record particulars of everyone who was present in the household on census night.

62. First, enter the name of the village at the top right hand corner of the form.

63. Next enter the household number. You will allocate this number yourself. The first household you enumerate will be 1, the second 2, and so on upwards.

64. Then complete the main body of the questionnaire and finally complete the household section.

65. The instructions which follow deal with what is required and will help explain the notes printed on the questionnaire. Study them together.

66. The instructions also deal with the way in which you are to ask the questions. It is your job to learn them and to ask them as they are set out in these instructions and on the questionnaire. It is important that each enumerator should ask census questions in exactly the same way, otherwise there will be misunderstanding and mistakes.

67. As far as possible, obtain information directly from the person concerned.

68. Your first job is to make a list of all persons who were in the household on census night. Starting with the head of the household, if he or she was present, or with the person in charge of the household at that time.

Questions 1 and 2 - Name and relationship

69. Ask, "Who stayed here on census night?"

70. It is important that you list the names in a set order so that you have a clear picture of the household from the very beginning.

71. List members of the household by family. Start with the head and his wife and unmarried children, beginning with the eldest and working down to the youngest. Then enter married children and their spouses and children. Then list other relatives and their wives and children who were in the household on census night. Finally list those who are not related to the head or anyone else in the household.

72. Very young children are sometimes forgotten, so pay particular attention to getting all babies counted. If the infant has no name, write "Baby of ____" and enter the mother's person number.

73. Remember to enquire about and to include night workers.

[p. 9]

74. When you have written the names of all who were in the household on census night read over the list and ask, "Is that correct?" If not, correct the list. Then ask, "Was there anyone else here on census night?" If there was, include them.

Then look about you. If you see infants or children whose mothers are included, or very old or infirm people, ask further questions, "What about that child? Is he or she listed? Was that old man here on census night? Are there any night workers?" You must be sure that everyone who was present on census night is included.

75. We do not require the person's full name. It will be enough for the purposes of the census to record the name by which the person is known so that he or she may be identified by supervisors and superintendents checking your work.

76. At the same time as you write names on line 1, enter the relationship on line 2.

77. Write "Head" under the name of the head of household. Then write the relationship of each person to the head or to his/her parents if they are present, or show the relationship to the husband/wife.

78. Relate children to their parents, if present, and husbands and wives, if present. In other cases relate persons to the head of the household.

79. Since every person will be entered under the number at the top of the column, his/her relationship may easily be written as "Wife of 1", "Son of 1 and 2", "Daughter of 4", and so on.

80. Describe the relationships accurately. Be particularly careful to distinguish between children born of the parents and adopted or step children.

81. Where a man and woman live together, although not married, you should treat them as man and wife if they regard themselves as such. The census is not concerned with the form of marriage.

82. The following relationships will cover all the cases with which the census is concerned: Head, Wife, Husband, Son (S), Daughter (D), Adopted Son (AS), Adopted Daughter (AD), Grandson (GS), Granddaughter (GD), Mother, and Father.

For all other relatives write "Relative". If the persons is in none of these categories write "Other". For persons in institutions it will be sufficient to write "Patient", "Prisoner", or as the case may be.

83. Where several persons who are not related are living in a household, name one as head and describe the rest as "Partner".

[p. 10]

Question 3 - Sex

84. "Is this person male or female?" Write M for males and F for females.

85. Usually the person's sex will be clear to you from the name and relationship but if you don't know, ask. Never guess. Be particularly careful to get the sex of infants right. Check that the sex you record is compatible with relationship -- don't write M for persons shown as wives or daughters, nor F for persons shown as husbands or sons.

Question 4 - Date of birth

86. "When was this person born?" Write the day, the month and the year of birth.

87. Whether or not the day and month are known, you must enter a year of birth for all persons.

88. And for children born 1980-1986 you must try particularly hard to get at least the month and the year.

89. This question is one of the most important in the census and it may be the most difficult to answer. You will find many people who do not know their date of birth. In these cases you will have to estimate the year of birth.

90. The best source of information will be birth certificates or baptismal certificates and some families have a Bible in which birth dates are recorded. Ask to see any documents which are available.

91. Some people may not know their date of birth but may know their age. Ask, "How old is this person?" If the age is known, calculate the year of birth.

92. One reliable birthdate in the household may help you to work out the birthdates of other members of the household if it is known whether they are younger or older and by how many years.

93. If all else fails, make the best estimate you can, judging by such things as the person's appearance and position in the household and by using your common sense knowledge that parents are seldom younger than sixteen years of age when their first child is born, that women do not usually bear children below the age of twelve or over fifty years, that people who were in the same class at school are generally closely similar in age and so on.

94. If you are entering only the year of birth, because day and month are not known, write the year in full -- for example, 1942 or 1969. In this way there can be no confusion between year of birth and age.

[p. 11]

Question 5 - Ethnic group

95. "Is this person Chinese, part-Chinese, European, Fijian, Indian, part-European, Rotuman, Banaban, Samoan, Tongan, etc.?"

96. Record the group or race to which the person considers he or she belongs. If there is any doubt as to the person's racial origin, record the father's.

97. You may write F for Fijian and I for Indian. Write other groups/races in full.

Question 6 - Marital status

98. "Is this person married?"

99. For persons who have never been married, including children, write "NM".

100. People living together as man and wife should be shown as married whether or not they have been through any civil or religious ceremonies. The census is not concerned with who is legally married and who is not. Accept the answer as it is given to you.

101. Widowed is for a person, male or female, who has been married but whose spouse has died and who has not remarried at the time of the census.

102. Separated or divorced is for a person who has been married but who has divorced or separated and is living as such at the time of the census. Accept the answer as it is given you.

103. You may use the following abbreviations:

NM - for never married
M - for married
WID - for widowed
SEP - for separated
DIV - for divorced

Question 7 - Real father

104. "Is this person's real father alive?"

105. Write "Alive" or "Dead" in respect of the person's real, natural father. (Not a father who may have adopted the person being enumerated)

[p. 12]

106. "Is this person's real mother alive?"

107. Write "Alive" or "Dead" in respect of the person's real mother, that is, the woman who bore him/her. (Not a mother who may have adopted the person being enumerated)

108. If the person's real mother is alive, ask: "Was this person's mother in the household on census night?"

109. If the answer is "Yes" and the person's real mother was present in the household, write the mother's person number. (If, for example, the person's real mother was present and her particulars are recorded in column 2, write her person number '2'). This allows 'mothers' and their 'own children' to be linked by person number in the one household.

110. If the person's mother was not in the household but was somewhere else, write "Not Present" which you may shorten to "NP".

Question 9 - Religion

111. "What is this person's religion?"

112. People are not compelled to answer this question. If a person refuses to state a religion or objects to doing so, write "Objects".

113. Write the religion and the denomination of the person -- for example, "Christian Methodist", "Hindu - Arya Samaj", or "Muslim - Amadhya".

114. If the person has no religion write "None".

115. Once you have established the religion of the head of the household you may ask, "Are all members of the household of the same religion?"

116. If they are, you may write the initials rather than writing religion and denomination in full for all members of the household. Thus, if the head and everyone else in the household are of the Methodist Church you should write "Christian Methodist" for the head and you may write "CM" for the rest.

Question 10 - Place of birth

117. "Where was this person's mother living when he or she was born?"

118. The question is put in this way because we wish to know the mother's usual place of residence at the time and not the location of the hospital in which she may have borne the person.

[p. 13]

119. If the person was born in Fiji write first the name of the province. On the second line write the name of the town, if the place was urban. If the place was rural, write the village or settlement.

120. It is important for the census to distinguish between urban and rural areas. In this sense 'urban' means the whole of the urban or built-up area, not just the gazetted [officially listed] city or town boundaries. For example, Kinoya is urban even though it is outside the Suva City boundary. If you receive an answer such as "Ba" or "Nadi" or "Labasa", ask whether the person is referring to the urban or to the rural area surrounding it. Add the letter 'U' for urban or 'R' for rural as appropriate.

121. If the person was born on one of the small islands such as those in the Lomaiviti, Lau, or Yasawa groups write the name of the island rather than the name of the village.

122. If the person was born outside Fiji write the name of the country - for example, India, New Zealand, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, etc.

Question 11 - Where living in 1981

123. "Where was this person living in 1981?"

124. For persons who were living in Fiji write first the name of the province, and on the second line write the name of the town or of the village or settlement if the place was rural. Distinguish urban from rural places by adding the letters 'U' for urban or 'R' for rural as appropriate.

125. If the person was born on one of the small islands such as those in the Lomaiviti, Lau, or Yasawa groups write the name of the island rather than the name of the village.

126. Record the province and locality where the person normally lived and worked in 1981. A person who may have been away from home temporarily should be shown where he or she normally lived.

127. If the person changed residence in 1981, record the place where he or she was living on 31 August.

128. For persons who were living outside Fiji write the name of the country.

129. If the person was born in 1982 or after, write "Not Born", which you may shorten to "NB".

130. It is necessary to make enquiry for each member of the household. Do not assume that all members of the household lived in the same place five years ago -- members may have been separated for schooling or work and others may have joined the household on marriage, widowhood, adoption, for schooling or for other reasons.

[p. 14]

Question 12 - School attendance

131. "Is this person attending school this year?"

132. A person is either:

Attending school - write "At"
Has left school - write "Left"
Or has never been to school - write "Never"

In this sense, 'school' means any educational establishment in which primary or secondary education is given on a full-time basis.

Question 13 - Educational attainment

133. "What is the highest level of education this person has attained?"

134. State the highest class or form the person reached or is attending if still at school. If the person has never been to school, write "none". You may shorten class and form by writing "CI 4" or "F 3" or as the case may be.

135. If the person has been to secondary school, has left secondary school and has successfully completed some post-secondary training or gained some post-secondary qualification, write details -- in such cases give degrees by their usual initials. Enter "Teach TC", "Med. FSM", "Nurse FSM" or as appropriate for other training. If the person has more than one post-secondary qualification, enter the one the person considers most important.

136. If the person attended an informal or unrecognized school outside the formal primary/secondary system, such as a Bible class, write "Unrecognized" which you may shorten to "Unrec".

137. This completes the questions which are to be asked of all persons. Make sure there is an entry in each box and that the entry is correct.

[p. 15]

138. The next set of questions, 14 to 17, apply to all persons born in 1971 or before. Look back at the year of birth you have entered for each person. For those born 1972-1984, write "N/A" for question 14 and leave the rest of the column blank.

139. Questions 14-17 are concerned with how people provide for themselves, how they make their living.

140. In the week before census night, almost everyone in Fiji will have done something to provide for himself or herself. It is your job to discover and record what each person did.

141. Ask the questions as they are set out here and on the questionnaire and talk about each member of the household until you understand what he or she did in the way of making a living last week. Make entries on the questionnaire only when you have the picture clear in your mind.

Question 14 - Type of activity last week

142. "What did this person do last week?"

143. A person either worked last week or did not.

144. By work we mean any activity concerned with providing the necessities of life for the person or the person's family or household. The question applies to women as well as men.

145. Anyone who was active last week, in any way, in providing for themselves or the household worked. It does not matter whether they had a job or were paid for what they did. A person who farmed, fished, cut copra, looked after livestock, replaced thatch on a roof, or cultivated in a vegetable garden worked. So did a person who was in paid employment.

146. Those who worked fall into two categories for the purposes of the census -- those who worked mainly for money last week and those who provided for themselves in other ways.

Cash work: A person who was employed last week or who worked mainly for cash is a cash worker. Such a person may have had a paid job or may have worked on his or her own account making, growing, or selling things for money.

Other work: Many people provide for themselves or their families in other ways than by working for cash. Such people may perform a variety of tasks in growing, gathering produce, or fishing to feed their families and may sell some produce. But such people are not mainly working to sell produce for cash.

147. A person may have combined cash work and other last week. In such cases write "cash work".

[p. 16]

148. A person may not have worked last week because he or she was temporarily absent from work by reason of being on holiday, sickness, or for some other reason. In such cases ask about the person's normal activity. A teacher on holiday, for example, may not have been teaching last week because the schools were closed. Such people should be regarded as having worked.

149. If a person did no work, ask: "What was the reason?"

150. There are many reasons why a person may have done no work last week. Those which are most important to the census are:

Looking for work: This applies to people who would have worked, who wanted to work and who actively looked for work last week. The test is, "Did this person do anything about finding work?"

Not looking for work: This category applies to those of working age who were capable of working but who did no work last week and did nothing about finding work, either because they knew there were no jobs available or because they did not want to work. The test is, 'Did this person do anything to provide for himself or herself?' If he or she did so, enter "cash work" or "other work" as appropriate. Only if the person did nothing last week and was dependent upon others for food or shelter should you enter "Not looking".

Housewife: This applies to those who did not work last week and were occupied with purely domestic duties around the house. Many housewives combine domestic duties with working outside the house -- in the garden, collecting food, or in paid employment. In such cases you should write "cash work" or "other work" as appropriate.

Student: If the person is attending school, a training course, or a university full-time, write "Student". Full-time students will be on holiday at the time of the census and some may have worked last week but for the purpose of the census such people should be entered as "Student".

Other: There are other reasons why a person may have done no work last week. Ask and record the reason -- 'too old', 'disabled', 'pensioner', 'patient', or as the case may be.

151. Questions 15, 16 and 17 apply to all persons who worked last week -- that is to all persons for whom you have entered "cash work" or "other work". For the rest, leave blank.

[p. 17]

Question 15 - Occupation

152. We require an exact description of the kind of work the person did last week. Ask, "What kind of work did this person do last week?"

153. It is sometimes difficult to get an exact answer but you should always aim to provide a two or three word description of the person's job. A vague single word description is not enough. Avoid general terms such as 'manager', 'clerk', 'mechanic', 'foreman', 'teacher', 'operator', or 'laborer'. Record exactly what a person did -- for example, 'sales manager', 'typist clerk', 'motor mechanic', 'foreman, carpenter', 'primary teacher', 'forklift operator', 'stevedore'.

154. You will find it best to speak to the person concerned whenever possible. Members of the household are often vague as to the occupations of others.

155. If the person is employed you may find that you get a more accurate idea of his/her job by asking for the job title and recording that.

156. A person may have done more than one kind of job last week. In such a case you should record his main job -- the one he spends most time at -- that which he usually does.

157. If the person combines paid employment with unpaid work you should record the paid job rather than the unpaid job -- for example, if the person is a bus driver and worked last weekend on his farm he should be entered as 'bus driver' and if the person is a housewife who went to market to sell food she should be entered as 'market food seller'.

158. A person engaged temporarily on the census should state his/her usual occupation. Thus if you are a secondary school teacher and are working as a census supervisor or enumerator, your occupation should be recorded as 'secondary teacher'.

159. Many people may be described generally as 'farmer'. It is particularly important that we know exactly what kind of farmers they are.

160. Farmers in Fiji fall into two main categories. Those who live and farm in Fijian villages on communal land and those who farm outside the Fijian village system.

161. A Fijian living in his/her village, sharing the communal life of the village, who worked in village agriculture last week and who did no other work may be described as 'villager'. Such a person may perform a variety of tasks in growing or gathering produce, hunting, or fishing to feed and clothe his/her family and may sell some produce but is not a commercial farmer.

162. Some Fijian villagers grow crops such as dalo, yaqona, or ginger mainly for sale. Such persons should be described as 'growing dalo' or 'growing yaqona' or as the case may be and not as 'villager'.

163. In describing the occupations of persons who farm outside the Fijian village system you must be precise -- for example, write 'cane farmer', 'rice grower', 'dairyman', or 'poultry farm worker'. Avoid the vague word -- do not write 'farmer' or 'laborer'.

[p. 18]

164. Many of these farmers engage in more than one activity but in describing the work done you should pick out the person's main crop or activity -- the one to which he/she devotes most time -- the one which he/she regards as most important -- the one which is commercial. You will thus be able to describe a person as 'growing coconuts', 'raising cattle', 'market gardening', and so on.

165. The term 'cane farmer' should be used only of the person who owns or leases the land on which the cane is grown. Others working on the farm should be described as 'cane farm workers' unless they do a specific job such as 'cane cutter'. The same distinction should be made between those who own, lease or operate dairy farms, cattle farms, or copra plantations and those who work on them.

Question 16 - Industry

166. You have described the person's own job, which is his occupation. Next we have to consider the kind of business, product or service produced by the worker and his/her fellow workers. For example, a person may be a typist working for a mining company, in a building contractor's office, in a hotel, for a bus company, in a department store, for the Government or for a law firm. The person's occupation is 'typist' but the product, business or service is different in each case.

167. If the person is employed as a cash worker, ask: "Who does this person work for?" or "Where does this person work?"

168. Enter the name of the company, firm or organization for which he or she works.

169. Some large companies make, produce or sell more than one kind of product and the same is true of large Departments of Government. In such cases state the branch or section for which the person works. For example, a large company like Carpenters engages in many kinds of activity and you should distinguish the branch for which the person works by writing 'Carpenters Shipping', 'Carpenters Travel', or as the case may be.

170. In the same way large Government Departments at the PWD engage in different kinds of work and you should distinguish this by writing 'PWD roads', 'PWD mech. workshops', 'PWD water', or as the case may be, but not just 'PWD'.

171. If the person is self-employed, works in a family business or has done other work, ask: "What is this person's trade or business?"

172. Write in two or three words about what kind of business or activity is carried on -- what is made or produced -- what services are provided -- what goods are sold -- what crops are grown.

173. Be precise. Avoid vague answers. Good answers, for example, are 'shoe repair', 'making furniture', 'bus company', 'retail store'. Bad answers are 'repair', 'factory', 'business', 'private enterprise', 'self-employed' -- we must know what is repaired, what the factory makes, what kind of business, what sort of private enterprise, what the self-employed makes or sells.

[p. 19]

Question 17 - Employment status

174. "How is this person paid?"

175. We are concerned with the way in which people are rewarded for their work. Everyone who worked last week was rewarded in one of the following ways:

Wages or salary: Such people are employed and are paid regularly in cash. A wage earner is paid in cash on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis. A salary earner has his or her pay assessed on an annual basis. Write 'wage' or 'salary' as appropriate.

By sale: Such people are paid in cash when they sell some thing or some service. They are self-employed and do not receive a wage or salary. A cane farmer is paid for the cane he or she sells. A person who runs his own shop is paid for each article sold. A market vendor is paid for the food sold. The same is true of people who grow vegetables, root crops, raise chickens or catch fish to sell. For such people write 'sale'.

By job done: This category includes casual workers and everyone who is paid on a contract, task or piece work basis. They do not receive a regular wage or salary. This kind of arrangement is common in rural areas -- for example, in cane cutting gangs or fencing on contract -- as well as in urban areas -- for example, grass cutters, casual laborers and stevedores. For such people write 'job'.

Unpaid: Such people work but do not receive regular wages. Very often they work in the family business or farm and are members of the family who are provided with food and lodging and share in the benefits of any profits which arise from the joint family work but do not receive cash on a regular basis. For such people write 'unpaid'.

[p. 20]

176. The next set of questions, 18 to 22, applies to all women born in 1971 or before.

177. An answer is required of all women in this category whether or not they are married, whether or not they are still attending school, and whether or not you think they may have borne children.

178. If the person is male or is a girl born 1972 to 1986, write 'N/A' on line 18 and leave the rest of the column blank.

179. If possible speak to the woman herself. She will know about the children she has borne and will be able to answer the questions more accurately than anyone else.

180. The census is concerned with all the children a woman has borne. Include children who have grown up and left home, children borne by the woman to other men as well as to her present husband, her children who are living away from home and children who have died even if they died shortly after birth. Be careful to include very young babies.

181. Do not include adopted children, step children or children who may be staying in the household but were not borne by the woman herself.

182. We are concerned with the number of children the woman has borne alive. '0' is a number. If the appropriate number on any line is '0', then write '0'. Do not leave lines blank and do not use any other symbol.

183. A child born alive is one who cries after being born. The census is concerned with children born alive. Do not include still births -- that is, children who did not cry.

184. Ask, "Has this woman borne any children?"

185. If the woman has never borne any children alive, write '0' for boys and '0' for girls.

186. If the woman has borne a child or children, ask: "How many were with her on census night?"

187. Write the number of boys and the number of girls who were in this household on census night on line 18. If the answer is 'none', write '0' in the appropriate box.

188. "How many were elsewhere on census night?"

189. Write the number of boys and the number of girls whom the woman has borne who were not in the household on census night. If the answer is 'none', write '0' in the appropriate box.

190. "How many have died?"

191. Write the number of boys and girls whom the woman has borne alive but who have since died. If the answer is 'none', write '0' in the appropriate box.

[p. 21]

192. You have recorded details of all the children the woman has borne alive. You are next required to record particulars of her most recent live birth -- that is, of the last child she had borne alive.

193. "When was the last child born?"

194. Whenever possible record the day, month and year.

195. If the day is not known, record at least the month and year for all children born between 1980 and 1986 even if it takes time to establish the month by questioning the mother and other members of the household.

196. For children born before 1980 it will be enough to record the year of birth.

197. "Is the child still alive?"

198. Write 'yes' or 'no' as appropriate.

199. You have completed particulars of persons in the household. Now check:

- that there is no one else you should have included
- that no line has been left blank if it should have been completed
- that others can read what you have written
- that the information you have recorded agrees item with item

200. If you find things have gone wrong or that there are mistakes or omissions, make them right. The record must be complete and accurate before you turn the page and complete the information about the household.

201. When you are satisfied that the particulars of all persons are correctly recorded, turn over the page and complete the household section of the questionnaire.

202. Record the household particulars on the back of the first page relating to the household. If you have used two or more pages for particulars of persons because there were more than ten persons in the household, draw a diagonal line across the household particulars on the second and subsequent pages.

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Question 1 - Type of living quarters

203. An independent dwelling is a detached dwelling housing a single household and which is not joined to any other dwelling by one or more walls and is not in a building used also as a shop or a factory. A building housing two or more households may be a block of flats, an apartment building or a set of town houses. A hotel or lodging house is self-explanatory. There are other types of living quarters -- caravans or mobile homes, ships, tents. In such cases describe them and tick the category 'Other'. If the living quarters are in a building used also as a factory, shop or for other commercial purposes, state the fact and tick 'Other'. If you are not sure which category to tick, describe the living quarters and tick 'Other'.

Question 2 - Construction of outer walls

204. If the outer walls fall into more than one category, tick the main one.

Question 3 - Number of rooms

205. A room is a space in the living quarters which is enclosed by walls and which is large enough to contain a bed for an adult.

206. We are concerned with rooms used for living -- that is bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, servant's quarters and kitchens. Do not include toilets, bathrooms, passageways or verandahs.

207. If the household shares one or more rooms with another, write the number of rooms for its exclusive use and then the number shared -- for example, '3 rooms + 1 shared kitchen'.

Question 4 - Water supply

208. We are concerned with the supply on which the household mainly relies -- from which the household gets its water for most of the time.

209. 'Drying up' does not include occasional failures by a municipal or communal piped water system.

Questions 5, 6, 7 and 8 are self-explanatory.


Question 9 - Tenure

210. This question refers to the arrangements by which a household occupies its living quarters. Ask, "Does this household pay rent for its living quarters?"

211. If the answer is 'no', the household either owns the living quarters or occupies them in some other way.

Owning means that the household or a member of it owns the living quarters or is paying for them by installments or by home finance. No rent is paid, nor does the household occupy its quarters with someone else's permission.

If the household pays no rent but does not own its living quarters, it either occupies them with an employer's permission, as in the case of live-in domestic servants, or in some other way which you should describe.

We are concerned to distinguish squatter housing from other housing. If you are working in a squatter area or settlement, tick the box 'squatter' irrespective of whether the household owns or rents the living quarters or occupies them in some other way.

212. If the answer is 'yes' and the household does pay rent for its living quarters, ask: "Who is the rent paid to?" and tick the appropriate box.

213. If you cannot decide on the right box, describe the arrangements by which the household occupies its quarters and tick the last box.

214. Check the entries you have made to be sure they are complete and correct. If you find mistakes or omissions, ask further questions and correct the record. It must be complete and accurate before you leave the household.

215. When you are satisfied that all is in order, complete the summary information for the household on the front cover.

216. Finally, place the self-adhesive label bearing the household number where it will be seen easily and where it is convenient to the household.

217. When you complete a book, sign it in the space provided for the enumerator's signature. Your signature is your certificate that the information recorded is complete and correct.