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[Fiji 1966]
Instructions to Enumerators

Part I - General

1. You have been appointed an enumerator for the Census of Fiji, 1966, and by your acceptance of this appointment you are responsible for the enumeration of those people living in the Area which has been described to you by your Census Supervisor. This is a very important work because the information outlined during the Census must be accurate and complete and this can only happen if you carry out your duties very carefully and thoroughly.

2. Your duties as an Enumerator are set out in this book, and you should study it carefully so that you know exactly what you must do during the Census enumeration. As the instructions are lengthy, they are divided into parts, each of which needs to be read and re-read until you are familiar with the whole procedure. If there is anything which you do not understand, you should consult your Census Supervisor. He will explain it and you must carry out any instruction in regard to the taking of the Census which may be given to you by him.

3. As well as these instructions, you will receive for your Census work:

(a) A letter appointing you as an Enumerator (Warrant of Appointment), Form 5;
(b) A supply of Household Schedules, Form 1;
(c) A supply of Record/ Compilation books, Form 2, sufficient for the Area you have to cover.

Your Warrant of Appointment tells you the number of Forms 1 and 2 with which you have been issued, and the number which has been given to your Area.

4. Your first duty will be to obtain a thorough knowledge of this Area, making yourself well acquainted with its boundaries and planning the route which you will take from village to village, and from house to house, within that Area. You should talk with the Enumerators of the Areas which lie on either side of yours and decide with them where their Areas end and yours begins so that no house near to the boundaries of the various Areas is overlooked or recorded twice. Find out if there are any persons who sleep away from villages or settlements, they may be plantation workers or persons sleeping out in the open or in boats, but if they live in your Area, you must include them.

5. General Plan of Enumeration: The date set for the Census of Fiji is Monday 12th September, 1966. It will be your responsibility to obtain the name and all the required particulars of every person who passes the night of Census date in any household in your Area, and is alive at midnight on that night, These names and particulars should be recorded carefully and accurately on the Household Schedule Form, using one (or more if required) schedule for each household.

6. It would not be possible for you to enumerate your whole area on one day. It has, therefore, been arranged that starting from Friday, 2nd September, 1966, you should enumerate all persons who are expected to pass Census night in your Area and that on Tuesday, 13th September, or during the next two days, you should go back to every household in your Area in order to check your first records, crossing off persons who have died or left your Area, adding newly born children or new arrivals, and changing the record of marital status and of occupations of persons who may change their marital status or jobs after the first enumeration and before the night of 12th September, 1966.

7. You are, therefore, required to make two visits to every house in which people are living in your Area. The first in the eleven days before Census night, and the second on 13th September or during the two following days. Each time you must cover your whole Area, taking the same route each time, so that the households which were enumerated first will also be checked first. The first enumeration must be finished before the night of 12th September and your second visit by Friday, 16th September. When this has been done, all the Household Schedule Forms and the Record/Compilation Books for your Area must be handed to your Supervisor not later than Saturday, 17th September.

8. Relations with the Public: As much information as possible about the Census has been given to the people, so that your visit will be expected and the Householder will know the kind of questions which he will be asked. You should, however, always carry with you your Warrant of Appointment which will serve to establish your identity and your authority and which should he shown to anyone who queries your right to ask the Census questions. You should also be ready to explain to any person the reasons for, and the importance of, the Census.
At the end of this book, some of the reasons for the Census are given.

9. You should send a message to the people in your Area telling them the days on which you will be visiting to make the first enumeration, and during that visit you should tell them the time you will be returning for the second visit. The head of each household, and his wife, should be asked to be present when you make both visits as the wife will probably know better the ages of their children. You should try and arrange to do the enumeration at a time when people are normally in their houses.

10. You are permitted to enter every house in your Area in order to obtain the Census information, but you must ask only those questions which will give you the information which is to be recorded. It is the duty of all members of the public to give any such information when you question them; and it is further the duty of any person in a household to furnish Census information about any or every other member of the household. Normally the head of the household should be able to give the details of any visitor's or servants in his house as well as those of his own family. However, if he does not know the details and any such visitors or servants are unwilling to give them to him, they should give them to you directly and in confidence.

11. You should always try to gain the co-operation and willing assistance of the persons whom you question. If a person is unwilling to answer your questions or answers them untruthfully, you should try to find the reason: for this and overcome them. You may find for example, that some persons are reluctant to disclose the true nature of the work they do because they fear that this may be used for purpose of taxation, and some may be reluctant to declare the presence of young infants whose births have not been registered.

12. It may help you if you tell the people that all the information they give you is confidential, that you are not allowed to give it to anyone except the Supervisor and that he in turn is not allowed to give it to anyone except the Census Commissioner. The information, in the form it is given to you, will not be given to any other department of Government and after the Census Commissioner receives it, it will be transferred to cards which have no personal names on them, and these cards will be used to compile tables, or summarize. Only then, and in that form, will, the information be made public and given to other departments of Government.
When the tables have been compiled the Household Schedules will be destroyed. No one therefore need have any worries that the information they give you will be used to see, for example, if they have paid their taxation or registered the birth of their children.

13. If, in spite of all your explanations, anyone is still unwilling to answer your questions or if you are sure he is answering them untruthfully, you should report the case to your Supervisor. Although persons are required by law to give you the information (except regarding their religion), you should not threaten them with any penalties if they do not. You should also always remember that the information given to you must only be used by you in the course of your Census work. There are penalties under the law if an enumerator uses this information in any other way.

Part II - First Enumeration

14. General description of duties: Before you begin the enumeration remember that you are not merely writing down answers as given to you by people in the households. Use your judgment at every step to make sure that what is told to you is sensible in itself. This is why you should try to think of the enumeration is being carried out in two stages - finding the answer to each question, and then checking every statement.

15. During the eleven days beginning on the 2nd September, you must carry out the first enumeration of the people in your Area on the Household Schedules provided. These forms are printed in English and, except for personal or place names, every entry which you make on these forms must be written in English. Every house or building in your Area in which people live must be visited during the first enumeration, and if it is likely to be inhabited on Census night, a household number must be given to it, a schedule must be prepared and any persons who are expected to be found there on Census night must be entered on the schedule. You should go through your Area in a systematic manner, following some simple route and dividing each village into strips or blocks, in each of which the enumeration must be carefully completed before you proceed to the next. If there are houses on both sides of the road through a village, never cross backwards and forwards from one side to the other, but use the road as a dividing line and work down through the houses on one side of the road and then come back up the other side. There will then be no danger of your omitting one house from the
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16. Meaning of household A household will usually consist of a group of persons all of the same family and living in a single dwelling house. In general, the key to the definition of a household for the Census is that its members should normally eat together food prepared for them in the same kitchen and that they should share in the cost, collection and preparation of this food. However, in determining what a household is, you will encounter situations where it will be necessary to extend this definition and to take into account not only the eating and house-keeping arrangements, but also the sleeping arrangements. This will particularly apply to related family groups such as those where a married son sleeps with his wife (or a married daughter sleeps with her husband), and any children they may have, in a house apart from the remainder of the family, yet all share in the eating and house-keeping arrangements. In a case such as this, it is better to treat this as two separate households, with a separate Household Schedule, for each. Similarly, if there are two children married, and each couple, either with or without children, sleeps in a separate house while sharing in the eating arrangements, there should be three separate Household Schedules for this particular group of people -- each schedule with its own number (See paragraphs 19, 20 and 22).

17. The extended definition of a household should apply only in instances such as these where the people sleeping apart form a separate biological family unit. In all other cases, even though the various members of a household may be distributed throughout two or more houses for sleeping, they should not be recorded as separate households. Hence, if the head of a household sleeps with his sons in one house, and his wife sleeps with the daughters in another, all of these should be regarded as forming just one household.

18. There will be cases when the rules, given in paragraphs 16 and 17 to use in deciding what is a household, will not apply and some further guides which will help you are:

(a) A servant who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises belongs to the household.
(b) Servants who sleep away from the household in which they work should be included in the household in which they sleep.
(c) A visitor and any of his children, who are fed from the family kitchen, also count as members of the household.
(d) A boarding school, or hotel, supplying meals forms a single household.
(e) If there is more than one household living in a single house and if each of these households makes its own separate arrangements for eating, these should be regarded as separate households (and be entered on different schedules).
(f) An institution such as a hospital, a boarding school or a gaol, may be a single household, but if within it there are separate quarters for all or any of the staff, such quarters are separate households.
(g) Any vessel, which is in port in your Area at midnight on the night of 12th September, or arrives in port the following morning without having been enumerated elsewhere, should be regarded as a household in your Area.

19. How to record a household: Each household which you will visit should be recorded by writing the name of its head on a separate line in your Record/Compilation Book. Each of these lines is numbered, and a household will automatically take the number of the line on which the name of its head is written. If you make a mistake, or if for any other reason you have to cancel an entry on any line, write "Cancelled" on that line and do not attempt to use the number for another household.

20. After you have written the name of the head of the household and the date of your visit in your Record/Compilation Book, write the number which then belongs to that household on the line "Schedule Number" in the top left-hand corner of the Household Schedule. This helps you to identify both the household and the schedule for that household on your second visit. In the space provided on the top right-hand corner of the schedule you should a1so write the name of the Island (not the Island Group); the number which has been given to your Area; and the name of the town, village, settlement, locality or estate, crossing out whichever of these terms does not apply. Any additional details, such as street names and house numbers in towns which you may need to identify the household on your second visit should also be written in this space. If the household to be recorded is a hotel or an institution such as a hospital or school or prison, this should be clearly stated here.

21. Next you must fill in the section "For Indian Households only: What language do the members of this Household speak amongst themselves", which is at the top of the schedule on the left-hand side. To save you writing, the nine alternatives to this question have been printed on the schedule, with a small numbered square alongside each. To indicate which of these squares is the correct one for any particular Indian household, you should put a cross in the appropriate square, leaving the remaining squares blank. If, for example, the members of the Indian household speak Hindustani themselves, you should put a cross in square number 8. If the members of the Indian household speak Fijian or English, or an Indian language which is not shown on this form in everyday conversations, you should mark the square labeled "All other". Only one square should be marked for this question and for all households other than Indian household, this question should be struck out by drawing a line diagonally across the space it occupies on the schedule.

22. If there are two or more separate households living in the same house, each household must be recorded separately using one (or more if required) schedule for each. The schedule number of each household in such a house will be the same as the number of the line on which you write the name of its head in your Record/Compilation Book.

23. The Household Schedule contains spaces to record the names and particulars of ten persons. If there are more than ten persons in any household, a second schedule on which you must write the same Household Schedule Number as the first should be used, and the words "Sheet 2" written after the Schedule Number on the second form. In such a case, you should also write "See Sheet 2" in the space headed "Number of persons in this Household" at the bottom of the schedule form, and also put the figure "1" (or "2" etc., if three or more schedules are needed) in front of the figures 1 to 10 for each member of the household on the left-hand side of the second schedule. The details regarding Island, Area Number, Village, etc., should be written again in the top right-hand corner of the second schedule.

24. All persons in an institution such as a hospital or a prison (unless they live in separate houses as described in paragraph 18 (f) above) or aboard a ship, should be listed on the same schedule (or schedules if there are more than ten persons). If the institution is very large, the details on the schedules will be filled in by the head of the institution and all the enumerator needs to do is to give him the schedule forms and collect them afterwards. However smaller institutions should be enumerated by you in the way described here.

25. Persons to be enumerated: Every person who is expected to be present at midnight on 12th September must be enumerated on the schedule. If there is any doubt about a person being in a house at that time, but who is living there during your first enumeration, you should include that person on the schedule for that house. If you find on your second visit that this person was absent from the household on the night of 12th September he (or she), and all the particulars about him, should be struck off the schedule by drawing lines through the entries. On the other hand, if it is only thought a visitor will be in a house on Census night, but has not arrived at the time of your first enumeration, do not record that visitor then. If he (or she) did arrive in the house and was there on Census night, the visitor's name and particulars should be entered on your second visit.

26. The way in which the personal details relating to each member of the household are to be recorded is explained in paragraphs 28 to 63.

27. Examination by Supervisor. When about one-tenth of the first enumeration has been carried out, you should take the completed schedules, and your Record/Compilation Book, to your Supervisor for checking. If the Supervisor finds that insufficient or apparently incorrect information has been obtained, you must revisit the household concerned in order to correct the entries. For the rest of the first enumeration the Supervisor will arrange convenient times with you for checking your work. All work must have been carefully examined and corrected before the night of 12th September.

Part III
Instructions for Filling-up the Personal Particulars on the Household Schedule

28. For the meaning of a household and the circumstances in which a member of that household should be entered on the schedule, see paragraphs 16 to 25. The following instructions refer only to the personal particulars on the schedule and help to explain the brief instructions printed at the top of each column on the schedule. They should, therefore be studied carefully along with the headings printed on the Household Schedule.

29. An answer must be written in every column of every schedule, except:
(a) in column 5, for all men and boys and for all girls less than 15 years old,
(b) in column 11, for all boys and girls less than 15 years old, and
(c) in column 12, for any child who is too young to be attending school, i.e. aged less than six years.

In each of these cases you should draw a line diagonally across the appropriate columns.

30. Column I: Name: For Fijians write personal names only; for Indians write personal names and father's name. For other persons write their surname (or family name) in block letters and give all their names, (e.g. John William SMITH). You should list by name every person who stays the night of Monday, 12th September in each and every house, or who arrives in a house on the morning of Tuesday, 13th September and has not been enumerated elsewhere.
No one else must be included. Enter the name of the head of the household on the first line opposite the Number 1, and then the remaining persons in some convenient order of age and family groups. The best type of order is explained in paragraph 33 below.

31. Column 2: Relationship to Head of Household, such as Head, Wife, Son, Daughter, Adopted Son, Son-in-Law, Daughter-in-Law, ____, Visitor, Boarder, Servant: Against the person who is Head of the Household "Head" should be written, and against the other people in the house, their relationship to the head, such as wife, son, etc. should be written. These relationships should be described accurately, and careful distinction should be made between children by blood, step-children and adopted children. Where a man and woman live together, although unmarried, they should be regarded as man and wife. If someone in a household is not related to the head, he should be shown as a visitor, or servant, or whatever his position in the house is. If a visitor or similar person with no family relationship to the head is enumerated on line 6, and has with him a son, for example, who is also unrelated to the head, the son should be described as "Visitor, son of No. 6".

32. Where several persons with no family relationship share the responsibility of a household, one should be selected as head and the other described as "Partners". In an institution such as a hospital or a prison, where there is no head of the household and, therefore, no relationship to the head, the inmates should be described in this column as "Patients" or "Prisoners".

33. If there is only one family group of parents and children in a household, then the order in which this should be recorded is -- Father (Head), Mother (Wife), and then the children starting with the oldest and working down to the youngest. If there is a household in which, for example, the eldest son is married and is living with his wife and their children in the same house as his parents, then the order should be Head, Wife, Son, Daughter-in-Law, Grandchildren (i.e. those who are the children of the eldest son and his wife), and then the remaining children of the head and his wife listed in descending order according to their age if they are also living in the house. Persons who are not related to the head of the household (Visitors), or those who are more distantly related to him (e.g. aunts, the head's parents etc.) should be recorded last.

34. Column 3: Sex: If a person is a man or boy write "M"; it a woman or girl write "F". It should be noted as a check that the sex stated in this column must correspond with the stated relationship to the head of the household. For example, a brother or a son, or an uncle or a nephew must be a male; a sister or a daughter, or an aunt or a niece must be a female.

35. Column 4: Age: This should be shown in completed years, i.e., for a new-born child and children aged less than one year write their ages as "0"; if a child is aged more than one year but less than two years -- if it is aged one year and eleven months for example -- it should be recorded as '1".

36. Many people, particularly old people, may not know their age and you will have to help them work it out. One way of doing this is to ask about how old the person was at the time of a well-known happening in the past, the date of which is known, and then add his age at that time to the difference between the date of the happening and 1966. Or you could ask whether the person is older or younger than someone in the village whose age is known and who appears to be about the same age. For example, if a man does not know his age you could begin by asking him if he remembers the big influenza endemic which occurred in 1918 and if he does how old was he then? Was he less than 5 years old? Or more than 5 years old? If he was less than 5 years old, was he 4 years, or 3 years, or 2 years, etc.? If he was more than 5 years old, was he less than 10 years old? If he was less than 10 years you should try to find out which of the ages between 5 years and 9 years he was then. If he was more than 10 years old, was he less than 15 years? If he was less than 15 years old, you should try again to discover his exact age; if he was older than 15 years, you should then ask was he less than 20 years old? By continuing your questions in this manner, you should be able to arrive at a fair estimate of his age in 1918 and if you add 48 to this you can write down his age, now in 1966. You can discover the age of this man's wife by asking whether she is older than her husband or whether she is younger and by how many years is she older or younger? If the age of the eldest child of these parents is known you can find the ages of the parents by enquiring how old they were when this child was born, and adding these ages to the present age of the child. You should remember that it is unlikely that either parent would be younger than 15 or 16 years at the birth of their first child and this fact should always be used as a check on the accuracy of ages given by, or estimated for, the parents.

37. Some people may be able to tell you the years in which they were born and by subtracting this from 1966 you can calculate their age. Their year of birth is to be recorded in Column 8.

38. Column 5: These three questions are to be asked only of women aged 15 years or more than 15 years, and for all women of these ages you must write down:

(a) the total number of children born to her including any who may be dead or who died as soon as they were born, and whether they are living in the same household as their mother or not;
(b) the number of children born to her who are still living whether they are living in the same household as their mother or not
(c) her age when her first child (even if it is now dead) was born.

Once again you may have to use some roundabout way of finding his age. If the first child is still alive and its age is known, you can subtract its age from its mother to get her age when the child was born. In answers to questions (a) and (b) above, you must be careful not to include any step-child or adopted child in the household or children whom the women is only looking after but whom she did not bear, and to include any of her children by blood who may have been adopted by other households or are living elsewhere.

39. If a woman aged 15 years or more than 15 years has had no children born to her, write
"0" in each of the three columns. For women less than 15 years and all men, draw a line diagonally across the three columns.

40. Column 6: Marital status: The abbreviations shown at the top of the column should be used to describe whether a person has never married (N.M.), is married (M), is widowed (W), or is divorced (D). Persons whose husband (or wife) has died or who have been divorced should be recorded as widowed or divorced only if they have not married again. The only people who should be recorded as divorcee are those who have received a certificate confirming their divorce.

41. Column 7: Place of Birth: For all persons, if they were born in Fiji, you should write the name of the Province in which they were born; if they were born outside Fiji write the name of the Island Group (not just the name of the Island); for example, Tonga, Western Samoa, etc. For people born elsewhere put the name of the country which is New Zealand, England, etc.

42. Column 8: Date of birth: The exact year of birth and, if known, the month of that year should be recorded. As in Question 4 (paragraph 36), there may be some persons who will not know the year in which they were born. Again you may be able to help them by suggesting dates which seem likely. Since the person's age is the number of years which have passed since his birth, the answer to this question should tally with the answer to question 4. If these two conflict, you should try to find out tactfully which is the more correct and alter the other accordingly. For example, if a person says he is aged 58 at the time of the Census, and then says he was born in 1902, this is impossible -- he should be 64 in 1966 if he was born in 1902.

43. Is this person Chinese or part-Chinese, European, Fijian, Indian, Part-European, Samoan, Tongan, etc. etc.? When there is any doubt as to a person's racial origin, the answer to be written is the race to which the person himself considers he belongs.

44. Column 10: Religion: If a person is a Christian you should record the exact denomination, such as Church of England or Methodist or Roman Catholic or Presbyterian, to which he belongs. If he is not a Christian, you should write the name of his religion, also the name of the sect of this religion whose doctrine he follows. A Hindu, for example, would be recorded as being "Hindu - Arya Samaj" or "Hindu - Sanatan Dharam" or "Hindu - Kabir Panthi" and so on. Similarly a Moslem should be recorded as being "Moslem - Ahmadya" or "Moslem- Sunni", and so on. But if the person does not belong to any Christian denomination or any non-Christian religion, you should write "No religion". The answer to this question is not compulsory and if a person is not willing to state his religion write "Objects to State".

45. Column 1 1: Education: This question is to be asked only for persons aged 15 years or more than 15 years. For persons less than 15 years, draw a line diagonally across this column.
If a person aged 15 years or over has

(a) not attended school full-time at all after reaching the age of five, the answer should be "0";
(b) attended school full-time for at least one year, but for not more than six years after reaching the age of five you should write down " 1", or "2", or "3", or "4" or "5", or "6", as appropriate. Only completed years at school should be shown. The Fiji Correspondence School is regarded as a School for this purpose;
(c) attended school full-time for more than six years, after reaching the age of five the answer should be given as "6+".

46. Column 12: What work does this person do? And for whom and where does he do it? This is perhaps the most difficult part of the Schedule and the answer which you record for these questions should give an exact description of the work each person is engaged upon at the time of the Census. The instructions given in paragraphs 47 to 64 are designed to help you give accurate descriptions of the work which each person in your Area may do. For this reason, they are divided into several different sections according to the various types of agriculture which are practiced in the Colony, and some of the various occupations which may be found in township and urban areas. Your Supervisor will tell you which of these sections relate particularly to your area and you should use these as a guide for the simplest and most concise way of describing a person's occupation.

Agricultural Occupations

47. In Fijian Village: A Fijian, living in his village and sharing in the communal life of the
village at the time of the enumeration, should be described as "Villager" with a further qualification according to whether or not he produces some particular crop or commodity for sale. Depending on which produce he sells, he may, therefore, be described in the following terms:

(a) Villager, with no cash crop.
(b) Villager, cuts copra for sale.
(c) Villager, grows sugarcane for sale.
(d) Villager, grows bananas for sale.
(e) Villager, grows rice for sale.
(f) Villager, grows vegetables for sale.
(g) Villager, raises cattle for sale.

In a description such as (f), there is no need to specify which vegetables are being grown; the
word "vegetables" can be used to cover dalo, kumalas, yams, tapioca, potatoes, yaqona, tobacco, etc. Similarly, if a man raises cattle or pigs or goats, either for sale of the animals for meat or for the sale of their milk, cream or ghee, a description such as (g) will suffice.

48. Apart from Fijian Villagers, the majority of people engaged in agriculture (including Fijian "galala") cultivate one of the two main crops of the Colony -- coconuts and sugarcane and one or other of these will constitute their principal crop or activity. In addition to these, there will be some persons whose principal activity is growing bananas or shipping bananas; some whose principal crop will be rice or other grain crops, and some will grow various types of vegetables and fruits for sale. Some may be engaged principally in raising cattle or pigs or goats, others in dairy farming. In many cases you will find that people engage in more than one of these various activities, but in describing the work done by a man engaged in agriculture, you should pick out first his principal crop or activity, the one to which he devotes the greater part of his time and which he considers is the more important to him as a source of income. If his principal crop is either coconuts or sugar-cane, you should then ask whether he cultivates any other crop or produce which he sells and which he ranks as next in importance to his principal crop. Such will constitute his subsidiary crop.

49. Coconuts as Principal Crop: On a coconut plantation or estate there will usually be an owner or a lessee or a manager, one (or more) overseer or foreman, book-keeper, timekeeper or weight-checker, together with wage-earning labourers and piece-workers. For each of these people, the answer to the question "for whom and where do they work?" is "on copra estate" and some descriptive terms for the work each may do have been suggested above. If you cannot specify exactly what work the wage-earning labourers do - such as "vate attendant on copra estate" or "kiln attendant on copra estate" - they should be described as "worker on copra estate".

50. If there is some subsidiary crop cultivated on a coconut plantation or estate, or if cattle or pigs or goats are raised, either for sale of the animals for meat or for the sale of their milk, cream or ghee, you should indicate such facts in your description by adding "with bananas" or "with rice" or "with vegetables" or "with cattle", etc., after the words "on copra estate".

51. Sugar-Cane as Principal Crop: A sugar-cane farm or estate is usually owned or leased by one person, who may employ other members of his family, or persons not related to him, to help him cultivate the land. The term "cane farmer" should be used only for the person who owns or leases the land on which sugar-cane is grown; other persons working on such a cane farm should be described as "worker on cane farm" (even if the land is owned or leased by a father or older brother) unless there is some specific description such as "foreman" or "overseer" or "cane-cutter" (provided he is not a registered cane grower) for the work which they are doing at the time of the Census.

52. When some subsidiary crop or produce is cultivated on a cane farm or estate, you should indicate this by adding the words "with rice'" or "with vegetables" or "with cattle", etc., after your initial description.

53. All Other Principal Crops: For persons engaged in all other forms of cultivation, where neither coconuts nor sugar-cane constitutes the principal crop, the answer to the question "for whom and where does he work?" should show clearly which is the principal crop or commodity produced from the land, whether it be bananas or pineapples or other fruits, rice or maize or vegetables such as dalo, tapioca, yams, kumalas, tobacco, yaqona, etc. etc. A description such as "rice farmer" or "banana grower" should be used only for persons who own or lease the land on which these crops are grown. Failing any more specific description of their work, persons employed to assist in the cultivation or harvesting of such crops should be described as "workers on rice farm" or "worker on banana plantation", etc. etc.

54. Dairy Farming: The answer to the second part of Question 12 for all people engaged in dairying is "on dairy farm" , and you should state whether each person concerned is the owner or manager or foreman or overseer or book-keeper or herdsman or dairy-hand, etc. etc. Failing any more specific description for a person in paid employment on a dairy farm, he may be described as "worker on dairy farm". If a dairy farm is run in conjunction with a butter factory, you should distinguish between workers in each of these; "in butter factory" being the place of work for all people employed in the butter factory as distinct from those working on the dairy farm.

55. Cattle, Stock and Poultry Raising: Apart from persons working on dairy farms, there may be some who are engaged principally in the raising of cattle, or horses or pigs or goats or poultry, either as the owners or managers of herds or estates or farms, or as paid employees, tending the animals. In your description of their work, you should indicate which animals are their principal concern by stating whether their place of work is "on cattle farm" (or "on cattle estate"), "on pig farm", "on poultry farm", etc. etc.

56. Forestry and Sawmilling: Persons engaged in logging or felling trees, or in cutting firewood, may be described simply as "logger of trees" or "feller of trees" or "fire-wood cutter" respectively. People who haul the logs from the forest to the sawmill may be described as "hauler of logs", or, depending on whether bullocks or tractors are used for hauling, as "bullock-driver hauling logs" or "tractor-driver hauling logs'.

57. If a man works at a sawmill, you should state whether he is the owner or manager or foreman or overseer or book-keeper or sawyer or benchman or other paid worker at the sawmill, "at sawmill" being the answer to the question "for whom and where does he work?"

58. Mining and Quarrying: The place of work for people engaged in mining will be either "in gold mine" or "in manganese mine", and whichever is applicable should be added to your description of the work each person does. A person employed in quarrying, either for road metal or for building stone, should be shown simply as "quarry-man".

Occupations in Townships and Urban Areas

59. Industrial and Commercial occupations. For persons engaged in either making or repairing or selling goods, you should state their particular trade or occupation and the name of the shop or factory or company which employs them, adding where necessary the nature of its business. This is the general rule to be followed for people in all business or commercial organizations or offices.

60. Just before the Census, persons working for the South Pacific Sugar Mills Limited, either on their estates or in their mills or on their railways, will be given a card showing their name, and their "occupational classification" which will consist of a number and a descriptive term for the work they do. When you are recording such a person on a schedule, you should copy the "occupational classification" directly from the card, adding the initials "S.P.S.M. Ltd" after it.

61. Government Departments: For persons working in the various departments of Government you should record their exact title or position and the name of the department or branch of the administration in which they are working.

62. It is only necessary for occupations to be given for people aged 15 years or over. Where children are attending school, this should be stated in this column. If a child is too young to attend school, you should draw a line diagonally across this Column to indicate this. If someone aged 15 years or over is still going to school, write "student".

63. Some women aged 15 years or over may have jobs, such as clerks, and will, therefore, be described as explained above. Most women, however, look after their homes and children and their occupation should be given as "home duties". A similar description should be given to any daughters of the household who do not attend school and whose only occupation is to assist their mother in these household duties.

64. General: Since it is not possible to detail all the classes of work which you may encounter in your Area, the following are some general rules for your guidance, particularly in those instances which have not been specifically mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs.

(a) It is important to answer both parts of Question 12, so as to provide an adequate description of the work which each person does.
(b) Except for a man who owns or leases land for cultivation, the work which you record for each person should be the work they are engaged upon at the time of the Census.
(c) If a person is doing more than one job, you should record the one to which he devotes the greater part of his day, the only exceptions to this being those agricultural occupations mentioned in paragraphs 48 to 52.
(d) Persons who have retired from some occupation or profession, either because of age or illness, should be described as "Retired". Anyone who has suffered a serious injury (such as losing an arm or leg) and cannot work, should be recorded as, "Incapacitated through injury"
(e) If a person is doing no particular work at the time of the Census and is neither retired from some occupation or profession, nor a pensioner, nor an inmate of an institution, you should record him as "unemployed". (This may apply to some Fijians who are living away from their villages and to other persons who perform casual work from time to time but are not actually so engaged at the time of the enumeration.)
(f) Amongst women, the term "Home Duties" should be used only for those who look after their homes and children, or for daughters or elderly female relatives who may assist them. A servant living in (or away from) a private household should be described as "Domestic Servant". For all other women in paid employment the rules (a) to (e) above apply.

Conclusion

65. When you have completed these particulars to each member of the household, leaving no column blank for any person listed by name, you should check the schedule through to be sure that no member of the household, either man, woman, child or infant, has been forgotten; that you have recorded, the sex of each person correctly, and that the ages of the parents and ages of their various children are consistent. Above all else, these forms should make sense. A woman can give birth to children only for a limited period during her life-time, and this child-bearing period starts when she is about 14 or 15 years old and finishes when she is aged about 45 or 50 years. Consequently it would not be possible for a woman aged 21 years to have a child aged 13 years unless the child was a step-child or an adopted child. Nor would it be possible for a woman aged 62 years to have a child of her own aged 3 years. These are the kind of inconsistencies you should guard against in your records, and it would, therefore, be better if you write each person's age in pencil first, and re-write it in ink only when you have checked this figure against the year of birth you have recorded and against the ages of the other members of the household.

Part IV - Final Enumeration
66. On the second round of all households in your Area on 13th September or within the next two days, you will check that all persons listed on each Household Schedule were present in their household on the night of 12th September, and that the details you have recorded about each member are correct.

67. Any person who has died or unexpectedly left the Area in the period between the first enumeration and midnight on the night of 12th-13th September should be struck off the schedule along with all the details about him. If a person was only temporarily absent from a household at midnight on l2th September, e.g. if he was out fishing, but was back again the next morning, he should stay on the schedule. Any new-born children or new arrivals in your Area during this time should be added to the appropriate schedules along with all details about them.

68. When you are satisfied that every member of a household has been enumerated, you must count up the number of males and the number of females listed on the schedule, and write these numbers in the space provided in the bottom right-hand corner of the schedule. You will then add these numbers together to get the total number of persons living in the household, and this number should be the same as the number of the line on which the last member of the household was recorded.

69. For a household which contains more than ten persons and for which you have used a second schedule, the numbers of males and females and the total number of persons in such a household should be written on the second sheet, and across the space for these numbers on the first sheet you should write "See Sheet 2".

70. These numbers of males, females and persons in the household must then be entered in your Record/Compilation Book on the same line as the name of the head of the household is written. You should also enter the date of the day on which you paid your second call on the household to check your provisional record.

71. Having done this, you should then enquire as to the livestock which are kept by this household and record these numbers in the appropriate columns in your Record/Compilation Book. The livestock should be distinguished according to whether they are:

(a) Cows - Female cattle which have produced a calf.
(b) Bulls - Uncastrated male cattle used for breeding.
(c) Working Bullocks - Male cattle used for draught work.
(d) Heifers - Female cattle (including calves) which have not yet produced a calf.
(e) Steers - Castrated male cattle of any age (including calves) which are not used for draft work.
(f) Goats - All goats irrespective of age and sex.
(g) Pigs - All pigs irrespective of age and sex.

It will be for you to judge whether or not the question about pigs should he asked for any particular household. You will know the religion of the head and members of the household and if you have reason to think that you may give offence by enquiring whether there are any pigs belonging to the household, then you should not enquire.

Part V - Summary

72. This final section of your Instructions summarizes briefly what you must do on each of your two visits to each house in your Area.

(a) On your first visit to a house you should ask for the name of the head of the household and enter his name in your Record/Compilation Book.
(b) The number of the line on which you have written this name becomes the number of the schedule for this household, and you should write this on the top left-hand corner of the Household Schedule, Form 1.
(c) If you have not already done so, you should then fill in the geographical details in the right-hand corner of this form, with any additional details required for the identification of the household. (See paragraph 20.)
(d) Next, for Indian Households Only: What language do the members of this household speak amongst themselves? This section should be completed for every Indian household.
(e) If a dwelling is shared by two or more households, each household must be recorded separately, using one (or more if required) schedule for each.
(f) You then write down the personal particulars of each person, as explained in Part III of these instructions, paragraphs 28 to 65. This completes the first enumeration of this household.
(g) On your second visit to this household, you check that all of the people recorded in the first enumeration were present in the Household on the night of 12th September. If anyone died or unexpectedly left the household before midnight on that night, they should be struck off the schedule. If any child was born or any person arrived in this household between your first visit and midnight on this night, their names and particulars should be entered on the schedule tor the household.
(h) You then count up the number of males and the number of females in the household, and write these numbers and the total in the bottom right-hand space of the schedule,
(For a household which contains more than ten persons, see paragraph 69.)
(i) These numbers and the date of your second visit should then be entered in your Record/compilation book in the spaces provided for this household.
(j) Finally, the numbers of each of the various categories of livestock belonging to the household should be recorded in the Record/Compilation Book.

73. This completes the enumeration for a household, and when you have done this for every household in your Area, you must make sure that the number of completed Household Schedules is the same as the number of households listed in your Record/Compilation Book. The schedules arranged in numerical order with Schedule No. 1 all top, and the Record/Compilation Book should be tied together in a bundle, and banded to your supervisor not later than Saturday, 17th September, 1966

Reasons for the Census

1. To find out us accurately as possible the number of people living in the Colony.
2. To find out about the growth of population in towns and urban areas.
3. To find out how many people move from their place of birth to other places in the Colony.
4. To help in deciding which parts of the Colony have too many people living in them, and, therefore, to decide from which parts it is most necessary to help people move to live elsewhere.
5. To make estimates of what size the population might be in ten or fifteen years' time.
6. To find out where the largest number of children of school age, or those who will soon become of school age, live, so that the Government and the Missions know which areas most need schools.
7. To help the Medical Department to decide which areas need greater medical and sanitary attention through having large numbers of people and young children living in them.
8. To help the Government decide, by knowing the numbers of skilled and unskilled workers in various industries, what kinds of training facilities should be provided.
9. To help people, who may be trying to establish some industry, to decide which are suitable areas in which to find labour.
10. To find out what work people do and where they do it to help the Government draw up plans for future social and economic development.