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The 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia
Enumerator's Instructional Manual

Chapter One

Introduction

Ethiopia has so far conducted two National Population and Housing Censuses, one in May 1984 and the other in October 1994. A considerably large amount of resource and manpower was spent and mobilized in such huge endeavors. For example, 42,000 Enumerators and 8,000 Supervisors had taken part in the first census, excluding the permanent staff of the office that had also participated at various stages of the census process. Whereas for the second round census 68,250 Enumerators, 13,650 Supervisors, and about 3,000 staff of the Office were involved in the census undertaking.

The results of the censuses were produced in various forms including statistical and analytical reports and were made available to governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, individual researchers, etc. The results of such censuses were believed to have addressed the population and housing data needs of the country.

Even though the data produced by such two censuses have had a paramount importance in addressing the nation's data needs, their ability to reflect the overall current situation of the country is highly challenged as time passes by and as the data gets old. Population, being one of the prominent resources, a country should have an up-to-date and reliable data regarding the socio-economic and demographic conditions of its peoples. In the absence of such an up-to-date and reliable data it won't be possible to produce and articulate relevant plans and policies at various administrative levels. It is with such a concern that the Central Statistical Agency has almost on the last verge to conduct the third historical population and housing census in May 2007.

1. Definition of Population and Housing Census

A Population and Housing census is defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to all persons units in a country or a well-defined part of a country. It also encompasses the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing statistical data pertaining to all living quarters and the occupants thereof in a country or in a well-defined part of a country at a specified time.

2. Objectives of the 2007 Population and Housing Census

It has been more than 12 years since the second population and housing census was conducted in Ethiopia and so many changes must have been encountered in the various socio-economic and demographic arenas during such a long period of time. The droughts that have affected some parts of the country, the resettlement programs undertaken at different times, the Ethio-Eritrean border conflict, the various Population, Education, Health, Agriculture, Environment Protection, Industry Policies, etc. that have taken place after the census or shortly before it could be some of the incidents that might have brought these changes.

As stated earlier, because of the tremendous changes that had taken place in the country during the last 12 years, the 1994 census data fails to reflect the prevailing situations of the country. It, therefore, becomes very necessary to go for the third population and housing census in order to fill the basic data gap in the country. The major objectives of the 2007 Population and Housing Census are the following:

-To produce a timely and reliable data showing the size and composition of the population disaggregated by urban/rural, national, regional, zonal, woreda and kebele.
-To produce a timely and reliable data showing the various socio-economic characteristics of the population, such as ethnicity, religion, language, marital status, literacy status, educational status, employment condition, etc.
-To produce vital rates, such as fertility rates, mortality rates, migration rates, etc. that can be used as an input to make future population projections.
-To produce a timely and reliable data with regard to the size and conditions of housing units disaggregated by urban/rural, national, regional, zonal, woreda and kebele.
3. Uses of the 2007 Population and Housing Census

The statistical data produced by the 2007 population and housing census will have the following uses:

-To make policy decisions as to the socio-economic measures to be taken in the implementation and realization of the Sustainable Poverty Reduction Strategy Program and Millennium Development Goals and also to make accurate monitoring and evaluation activities in such regards.
-To make relevant plans and programs to bring about equitable and balanced growth and development among regions.
-To feasibly determine the flow of goods and services and of their demand and supply.
-To produce appropriate human resource organization and utilization policies and programs.
-To produce effective resettlement programs when the need to relocate the population arises.
-To take accurate administrative and political measures.
-To design and implement appropriate development oriented projects and to make righteous decisions with regard to their size, quality and spatial distribution.
-To produce relevant housing policy and to implement feasible housing programs.
-To serve as an essential input for various surveys and research activities.
4. Duties and Responsibilities of the Enumerator

The enumerator is one of the major players of the census undertaking and it is, thus, expected of him to act accordingly with diligence and commitment.

The major duties and responsibilities of the enumerator are enlisted as follows:

-He is supposed to make a conductive working environment by trying to have a positive relationship with the residents of the enumeration area and by avoiding from being involved in any unethical deeds. In addition to that he should restrain from being part in any kind of extracurricular activities whatsoever, be it business, political and religious advocacy, etc.
-He is supposed to introduce himself to the household and give some explanation about his visit prior to proceeding to his interviewing. He should also be very careful not to miss the essence of each question in the questionnaire while trying to give further explanation and he must not forget to properly thank the household for the cooperation extended to him before he leaves.
-The enumerator must be very aware that maintaining the neatness and readability of completed questionnaires is his at most and top responsibility.
-He is supposed to make necessary editing works while he is still in his enumeration area to deal with uncertainties arising from conflicting responses, wrongly marked/ labeled answers, non readable labeling and improper marking, etc. This important part of the enumerator's duty may require him even to make multiple revisits to households.
-The enumerator is supposed to take every possible care for the documents and other items that are at his disposal and he is also responsible to safely deliver them back after the completion of his work.
-The enumerator is legally obliged to keep the secrecy of the information/ data that he has collected and no personnel other than the ones from the implementing office are authorized to access the information.
5. Sequences of Duties of the Enumerators

An enumerator after being recruited under certain specified criteria is supposed to actively and regularly attend the necessary training program organized by the census implementing body.
After having successfully completed the training program, the enumerator shall be provided with documents and other materials necessary for his work.

When the enumerator reaches his place of work, he should first introduce himself and make an acquaintance with the kebele census committee. Then after, with the help of the members of the census committee and the supervisor, he is supposed to have a clear demarcation of the boundary of his enumeration area in conformity with the EA map.

The enumerator along with the kebele census committee and other enumerators in the kebele should participate in the colorful celebration of the census date, May 28, 2007, in the afternoon.
As of May 29, the enumerator will start to make his house to house canvassing to register households and housing units. While doing so, he should put the respective identification number of the housing unit on the upper left corner of the door or on any visible and suitable place near the door.

Selection of households eligible for long questionnaire administration shall be made based on the available household list.

Administration of long and short questionnaire will be done.

In the absence of an adult member of the household who can give an exact account of the members of the household, the enumerator is supposed to fill up revisit forms and should make sure that the data is secured at some other time accordingly.

Any incidence that might force the enumerator to collect faulty data/ information must be reported as soon as possible and the enumerator shall be hold responsible if he fails to do so.
The enumerator is supposed to put a check mark near the housing identification number that he had previously put on the upper left corner of the door, as an indication that he has successfully completed his interview in the household.

While checking completed questionnaires at the end of each day, if the enumerator finds mistakenly skipped questions, mistakenly skipped households, inconsistent responses, etc. he is supposed to go back to the household and make the necessary corrections.
The enumerator should make sure that completely unmarked and wrongly marked responses are properly taken care of.

The enumerator should not forget to put his identification number on all respective forms.
He should daily make summary of completed questionnaires by using the enumeration area summary form (Form 4).

When the supervisor confirms the completion of the census, the enumerator shall give back all the documents and other working materials that are at his disposal.
The enumerator must have the understanding that the questionnaires and forms are very expensive and delicate and it is expected of him to take as much care as possible, especially by protecting them from being folded or wrinkled, getting wet and dirty, etc.

6. Documents and Items Necessary for the Census

-Enumeration area control form
-Enumeration area map and description
-Household and housing unit registration form
-Long and short questionnaire
-Enumerator's manual
-Household re-visit forms (form 2)
-Enumeration area summary form (form 7)
-Enumerators bag, pencils, rubber, sharpener, chalk. etc.
N.B. The enumerator must make sure that he has received all the documents and items mentioned above on an exact account.

7. Sequences of Census Data Collection and Implementation.

In order to avoid duplication and omission of households and housing units during the census operation, and also to serve for further.

The cartographic operation, which is one of the most important pre census activities, is carried out all over the country to partition the smallest administrative bodies, the kebeles, into Enumeration Areas (EA).

The enumeration areas are very useful to avoid omission and duplication of households and housing units during census they also serve as a sampling frame for various socio-economic and demographic surveys. By making use of the enumeration area map, all housing units, households and every single individual in the households including visitors will be covered by the census.

An enumeration area is an area consisting of an overage of 150 - 200 households or housing unit and a supervision area encompasses on average 5 adjacent enumeration areas.
The enumerator shall collect the necessary data by making a house to house canvassing.
Generally:-

-The enumerator is supposed to conduct his data collection within his enumeration area.
-He shall be given an enumeration map since he should first know his working area.
-He is supposed to physically identify the boundaries of his enumeration area with the help of the EA map.
-He should register all housing units and households that are found in his enumeration area.
-He should be very careful to avoid omission and duplication of housing units and households and he should also be very careful not to encroach into other adjacent enumeration areas that are out of his domain.
-After the listing of households and housing units is completed, the enumerator shall select households eligible for long questionnaire administration, following pre-set rules and procedures.
-He shall also administer short questionnaire for the rest of the households.
-Even though it is customary to use the head of the household as the information source of the households, direct contact with household members is also an advantage to collect high quality data.

Sometimes it may not be possible to gather all the information resulted from households by making a single visit. Thus an enumerator may be forced to make properly arranged multiple visits to household he should inform his supervision if he fails to secure the requested information by making a maximum of 3 visits.

Chapter Two

How to Use Enumeration Area Map

Every enumerator shall be given an enumeration area map of his place of assignment along with its description and he will also be given any relevant information regarding his enumeration area by his supervisor. In addition, he is required to know the following details regarding his enumeration area map:

The enumerator should closely investigate and study his enumeration area map so that he can have a sufficient knowledge of the enumeration area he is assigned to. In doing so, he is required to further refer section A or B about the contents of his enumeration area map depending on whether his enumeration area is rural or urban.

The enumerator should repeatedly read the description of his enumeration area map given for the North, East, South and West directions and he should also physically identify the manmade and natural features indicated in the map.

The enumeration area boundary is one of the major features of the map and its primarily objective is to keep the enumerator with in his own domain while conducting the census. The enumerator should, therefore, have a clear knowledge of the boundary of his enumeration area. Sometimes the map may not incorporate some prominent features that are found in the enumeration area. Therefore, the enumerator should make the delineation of his boundary with any one of the members of the kebele leaders or with a person assigned to him.
By making use of the description of the map, the enumerator should start his delineation from the northern part and he can also make use of the names of the villages, rivers, adjacent kebeles, woredas, etc.

An enumerator may face some challenges while operating within his own enumeration area. Even though the cartographic area is done with every possible precaution so as to avoid omission and overlapping of landmasses, the enumerator may encounter such a problem. When such a problem arises, the enumerator should immediately inform the case to his supervisor and they should solve the problem together with adjacent enumerators and supervisors. It is only after such and other ambiguities are settled that the enumerator should start his listing.

If the total number of households and housing units are found to be larger than the ones indicated in the EA map and if he thinks that such a number will be beyond his capacity, he should immediately inform the case to his supervisor. In addition if he finds an obvious mistake on the EA map, he should not correct it by himself, rather he should inform the case to the supervisor and make the correction together. The content and description of EA maps is given subsequently and the enumerator should make a closer look so as to have a better understanding of EA maps.

A. Content of Rural Enumeration Area Maps

-Enumeration Area Identification, i.e. region, zone, woreda, and the name and code of the rural kebele.
-Name of the Kebele chairman under which the EA is found.
-Code of the Enumeration area.
-Household size of the Enumeration Area.
-Estimated area of the enumeration area.
-Accurate boundary layout of the enumeration area.
-Names and positions of the villages that are found in the enumeration area.
-Some prominent features like rivers, houses, roads, etc. that are found inside and near the boundary of the enumeration area.
-Names of adjacent regions, zones, woredas, kebeles or other enumeration areas.
-North direction indicator
-Scale of the Map
-Legend of the map

The enumerator should make sure that all the above points are included in his enumeration area map. A rural enumeration area map is presented in appendix 4 as an example.

B. Content of Urban Enumeration Area Maps

-Enumeration area identification, it. Region, zone and woreda.
-Name of the town with in which the enumeration area is found.
-Name or number of keftegna/ sub-city, and kebele with in which the enumeration area is found.
-Size of households and housing units of the enumeration area.
-Estimated area of the enumeration area.
-Accurate boundary and layout of the enumeration area.
-Some prominent features like rivers, houses, roads, etc. that are found inside and near the boundary of the enumeration area.
-Names of adjacent regions, zones, woredas, sub-city /keftegnas, kebeles, enumeration area, etc.
-North direction indicator
-Scale of the map
-Legend of the map.

The enumerator should make sure that all the above points are included in his enumeration area map. An urban enumeration area map is attached in appendix 4 as an example.

Chapter Three

Listing Form of Households and Housing Units (Form 1)

Usage of the Form

This form is used to list the households and housing units in each Enumeration Area (EA) and information like:

-Purpose of the housing unit
-The main product of the enterprise
-Services given by the enterprise and number of employees
-Head of the household
-Whether any member of the household engaged in agricultural activity or not will be collected

.

This form has two sections; the first section is used to collect information on identification particulars and the second about housing units and households.

Aim of Listing

To avoid omission and duplication of households and housing units during enumeration. To get sampling frame for socio-economic surveys which are going to be conducted after the census?

The following steps have to be done during listing:

-First the enumerator has to study or delineate the assigned EA,
-Notice the position of housing units, streets and villages,
-Listing must be started from the North West direction and should have to be followed clock wise direction,
-The enumerator has to use the symbol "X" to indicate the starting point of the listing on the EA map,
-The listing has to be done block by block or village by village,
-Enumeration has to begin on the point where the symbol "X" is indicated on the EA map. Successive serial number is usually written on the left side corner above the door of the housing unit using green chalk where rain and children could not reach it.
-During listing there is a possibility that some of the housing units are covered by forests and not easily seen by the enumerator. In this case the enumerator should have to consult his guide or residents to get and list such housing units.
-Listing is said to be completed when all the households and housing units are listed on the form. Care should have to be taken in towns where main housing units or buildings on the roadside cover some of the housing units behind them. In addition, there will be housing units built using plastics and cartons and the enumerator should have to make effort to get them for listing.
-Enumeration has to begin from the place where the symbol "X" is marked on the EA map during listing exercise. And the enumerator make a tick mark using a blue chalk on the serial number found on the door to indicate that the household and housing unit are enumerated.
Instruction for Filling Listing Form (Form 1)

In this form identification particulars of the enumeration area are going to be filled from columns 1 through 8. In addition, information about housing units and households will be collected from columns 9 through 17. After filling the boxes with the necessary codes the enumerator has to shade the codes given under each column with the appropriate pencil given for this purpose.

For example:- In form 1 under column 1 there are two boxes which are used for writing region codes. Under each box, the enumerator has to shade the appropriate number from 0 to 9 using pencil provided for this purpose.

Section 1:- Area Identification

Column 1:- Region
The two boxes under this column are used to fill in region codes. The code is transcribed from the enumeration map provided to him. After filling in the codes the enumerator must shade the codes using pencil.

Column 2:- Zone
Zone code where the enumeration area is found is recorded in the space provided carefully and these codes should be shaded.

Column 4- 5:- Town and Sub-city
For enumeration areas found in town take these codes from the EA map and shade them appropriately. For enumeration areas found in the country side codes 8 and 88 should have to be filled in and shaded in columns 4 and 5, respectively.

Column 6:- Supervision Area
The supervision area code in which the enumeration area is found could be taken from the EA Map.

Column 7:- Kebele
The kebele code where the EA is found could be taken from the EA map.

Column 8:- Enumeration Area (EA)
The EA code where the enumeration is going to be done will be found on the EA map. The boxes under the column will be filled in with these codes and should have to be shaded.

Note that: -It is important to make sure that the area identification codes through Columns 1 up to 8 are shaded.

Section 2:- Household and Housing Unit Information

In order to get the right information about households and housing units it is important to know the meaning of household and housing units.

Housing unit:

- a housing unit is a separate and independent part of the whole of a building or a group of buildings used or intended to be used for habitation by a household, or if not so, used or intended to be used as habitation and enterprise or only for enterprise purpose.

Separate housing units:

- a housing unit is said to be separated when all its side has walls and its roof is covered, so that the people who live in could not be seen by others when they are sleeping, preparing their food and eating. However, sometimes it is possible to get housing units their walls are constructed using plastics, cartons, etc. and the roofs also covered by plastics and used for habitation or commercial purpose. In such cases, even though it doesn't fulfills the definition we take it as a housing unit. However, if a housing unit is made of plastic materials...etc. and used only for sleeping and dismantled during daytime we do not consider it as a housing unit. Tents considered as a housing unit as long as they served as a residential or commercial units during enumeration.

A housing unit is independent:

- a housing unit is said to be independent when it has common passage or land...etc. to get out or to enter into it. It could also be called independent if it has a separate entrance from the other dwellings.

Residential housing unit:

- by residential housing unit we mean if it is separate and independent and constructed for residential purpose. Furthermore, even though it is not constructed for residential purpose if people live in it during listing we consider it as a residential housing unit. The housing unit could be completely used as residential purpose or some part as residential and the other for other purposes such as business, waving, woodwork, metalwork, etc. In a housing unit it is possible that there will be more than one household.

Household:

- a household consists of a group of persons who often live in the same housing unit or in connected premises and have common arrangements for cooking and eating their food. A household could consist of a single person, but usually, it consists of a husband, his wife, his children, relatives and non-relatives. The non-relatives could be friends, servants, employees, etc. As long as household members have the same arrangement for food it includes servants and guards, too.

To understand the concept of household it is important to know the following:

-Number of household members could be different from household to household. A person living alone could be considered as a household or individuals like guards, servants... etc. as long as they have the same living and cooking arrangement with a family they could be considered as member of the household.

-If a person left his family and found as a visitor in another household and if we kwon that he/she stayed there for six or more months before the census day we consider him/her as a regular household member in a household where we found him/her on the census day.

-If a marriage is monogamous a household include husband, spouse, children, adopted children, other relatives and non-relatives (like servants, guards... etc.) In a polygamous marriage (person who has more than one wife) if the wives, children relatives... etc. do not have the same cooking and living arrangement we consider the husband with the very first surviving wife as a member and the remaining wives will form their own household.

Two or more households living in a housing unit:

- It is possible that we can get more than one households in a housing unit.

Column 9:- Housing Unit Serial Number

In this column successive serial numbers will be given to the housing units and these numbers have to be shaded properly. These numbers are given to all residential housing units, Hotel/Hostels, to housing units which have double purpose like residential and enterprise, to collective quarters, and to others like not occupied housing units and to housing units under construction, too. T his number has to be written on the left side corner of the door or in a place where it could be seen easily and could not be reached by children and rain using green chalk like PHC/001, PHC/002...etc. where PHC stands for Population and Housing Census.
If two households live in a housing unit each household take separate row in column 13 but the same housing unit number should be given to each household in column 9.

On the other hand, in a compound there will be two or more dwelling units occupied by a household, in this case consider them as one and give them one housing unit serial number. However, if different households occupy the dwellings give different serial number to each of the housing units. In addition, if there are different buildings in a compound served for the same purpose consider them as one. You could find such buildings in a school, hospital, factory...etc.

Note that

Unoccupied housing units found in the rural areas, non-residential housing units like Churches, Mosques, Schools, and under construction houses... etc. as long as they fulfill the definition they should be given the serial number and listed on the listing form.

Column 10:- House Number/ Sub-Number

The house number is the housing identification number usually given by the kebele office or local administration. In the space provided this recorded and shaded properly. Sometimes, it is possible that a household occupy houses having different number. And we could also find more than one households in a dwelling that have a one number.

Before starting collecting information on housing number the enumerator should digest the following points:

-If more than one household are living in a house, this number will be given to each household repeatedly in column 10.

-For a household occupies more than one housing units with service quarters having different house number, the number on the main house will be written on column 10.

-If the housing unit service quarter mentioned on 2 are occupied by different households and not given the sub-number of the main house, the main house number could be filled for each service houses in column 10. On the contrary, if each of these service houses has their own number given by the kebele office we can use or write the number in column 10.

-If there are a number of houses in a compound occupied by different households but the number given by the kebele office is only one to the compound, then this number will be given to each household in column 10 repeatedly.

-For houses, which do not have number on the census day the enumerator should have to leave this column empty. Sometimes kebeles could be divided in to zones, in such cases; we could get similar house numbers in the zones. For instance, the house number 001 could be found in zones 1, 2, 3...etc. If you come across such cases you have to write the house number together with the zone number separated by "/".

-It is possible that a house could be divided into sub-houses and occupied by different households. If sub-numbers are given to each of the houses by the kebele office, then these numbers could be written next to the main number given to the building. For instance, if a building has main number 50 and if there are four houses in the building given sub-numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 these sub-numbers have to be written together with the main number separated by "/" e.g. 50/1, 50/2, 50/3 and 50/4.

Column 11:- Purpose of the housing unit
During listing each and every housing unit is coded according to its purpose. The following codes are used to distinguish housing units by their purpose.

1= Only for residential purpose.
2= For residential and enterprise
3= Hotel/Hostel
4= Other collective quarters
5= Other enterprise
6= Unoccupied
7= Under construction

Description for codes 1 through 7 is given below

1. Only for residential purpose:-
A housing unit is said to be used for residential purpose, if and only if, it is separate and independent and no other activities such as commercial, manufacturing, business...etc. are done in it. On this basis, during listing if a housing unit is used for only residence of conventional household members, then code 1 will be shaded.

2. For residential and enterprise: -
During listing if the housing unit is served as partially residential and partially enterprise for purposes, then code 2 should be shaded. For instance: - In a residential housing unit, if there is additional activity such as selling of local drinks like, "Tella", "Teji", or "Katikala", code 2 should be shaded. However, if these two activities are done in two separate and independent housing units each of the housing unit could be listed in a separate row and given different housing unit serial number in column 9.

Description about enterprise is given below. The term partial residential and partial enterprise does not include Hotel/Hostel and other collective quarters.
Enterprise: - is an establishment, which has its own fixed place and address, mostly managed by a private or more owners and engaged in service rendering, business, manufacturing ...etc. activities. Example; establishments engaged in manufacturing of shoes, bread, textiles, etc. and repair of shoes, transport, health, education, restaurant, bars, supermarkets...etc. are service rendering enterprises.

According to the above definition given for enterprise the purpose of a housing unit could be classified as partial residential and enterprise, if and only if, at least members of the household resides in it and run one or more formal or informal business activities in the same housing unit. For example a housing unit could be used as: -

Residential and selling of local drinks like "tella", "teji"...etc.
Residential and selling of food.
Residential and waving.
Residential and kiosks.
Residential and pottery.
Residential and metal work.
Residential and manufacturing and repair of shoes.
Residential and office works...etc.

Even though, the owner of the enterprise/ establishment does not live in, as long as, employees or individuals live in it, the purpose of the housing unit could be classified as partial residential and enterprise.

Collective quarter: - a collective quarter is a premise (a housing unit, a building or a compound) in which a number of unrelated or related persons reside together, and share common facilities. It includes, hotels, hostels, boarding schools, home for the aged , children's home, prisons, military barracks, monasteries, work camps, rehabilitation centers, children's home...etc. It is important to note that in the premises of some collective quarters, there may be private households.
3. Hotel/Hostel residence:
Hotel:- is an enterprise, which give:

Food and drinks service or
Drinks and bed room service or
Food, drinks and bed room services or
Only bed room services
Even though, it doesn't fulfill the criteria's listed from "a" through "d", as long as there are people who live in it and share common facilities we can classified it as hotel/hostel.

But, if it doesn't fulfill at least one of the criteria's listed above from "a" to "e' and if it is not a collective quarter code "5" will be shaded for it.

Hostel: - a structure in which many people live differently from regular households in one or more housing units and share common facilities like water, electricity, etc. together and could be administered by one manager.

Hotel/Hostel residents are those people who do not have other place to live and do not cook their food in the room where they are living in. On the contrary, if they cook their food in their room, they should be classified as regular households.

In a Hotel/Hostel if there are residents who live independently and cook their own food in the housing unit and live as regular households they are listed separately from that of Hotel/Hostel residents.

For example if the owner of the Hotel live separately from the hotel residents with his/her family in the hotel by cooking his/her own food, then the owner with his/her family will be listed in a column 9 of the listing form and the hotel residents are listed separately. The private households who live in the hostel will have separate housing unit serial.

4. Other collective quarters:-
Other collective quarters are, excluding Hotel/Hostel, where a number of unrelated or related persons reside together, and share common facilities. These include:- prisons, boarding schools, hospitals, military barracks, orphanages, home for aged, children's home, monasteries...etc.

Remember there could be regular households in a compound of other collective quarters.

Sometimes in big enterprises we could get collective quarter, in this case the enterprise and collective quarter assigned different housing unit serial number in column 9 of the listing form. For other collective quarters code "4" should be shaded.

5. Other enterprise:-
Other enterprise include, manufacturing industries, business centers, government offices, churches and mosques (excluding individual praying rooms) bars which don't have bed rooms, groceries, garages, stores, schools, etc. (excluding Hotel/Hostels and other collective quarters.)

During listing if the housing unit served as the one mentioned above, then code "5" should be shaded.

6. Unoccupied housing unit:-
Unoccupied housing unit is a house, which fulfills the given housing definition, but it is unoccupied for different reasons during listing operation. During listing if the housing unit doesn't serve for any purpose then code '6" should be shaded and skip column 12 through 16 of the listing form.

7. Housing unit under construction:-
A housing unit is said to be under construction if wall and roof is fitted, but the other part is not finished or not completed. However, during listing if it serves for some purpose we have to take the kind of service it is giving and shade the appropriate code.

For example: - if that housing unit under construction used for cottage industry during listing code 5 should have to be shaded instead of code "6". Skip column 12 through 16 for housing units under construction.

Column 12 - 13:- Only for codes 1, 2, 3, or 4 are filled in Column 11
These columns indicate housing units, which are used for residential and partially residential purposes.

Codes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in column 11 stand for: -
1= Residence only
2= Residence and enterprise
3= Hotel/Hostel
4= other collective quarters

These columns will be skipped for housing units, which have different codes other than given in the above.

Column 12:- Household, Hotel/Hostel, Collective Quarter's serial number
Successive serial numbers beginning from 001 is given to households, Hotel/Hostels and for Collective quarters and these numbers should have to be shaded. If more than one household are living in the same housing unit, then different household number must be given to each of the households living in it.

If there are private households in a compound of collective quarters, then they should have their own serial number different from the collective quarter. Care should be taken when filling in this column.

Column 13:- Name of Household head, Hotel/Hostel or other Collective Quarter

If the housing unit is used for residence or partial residence or if codes 1, 2, 3, or 4 are shaded in column 11, then the enumerator must record the name of the head of the household in column 13. In a housing unit where there is more than one household write the name of the heads in independent rows, but the housing unit serial number in column 9 will be the same for each head. On the contrary, the household serial number in column 12 will be different for each head.

Any member of the household who is recognized as the head by the other member of the household is called head of the household. The head of the household can be male or female. In a polygamous marriage where the wives have separate households, the wife or any other member (e.g. elder son) could be considered as head.

If the housing unit is Hotel/Hostel and no private household is resides in it write the name of the Hotel or Hostel in this column. In some cases, if private household(s) are live in the hotel/hostel or other collective quarters the name of the household(s) are recorded independently in the given column and different serial number are assigned for each of them.

Column 14:- Tick for randomly selected households for administration of long questionnaire

Corresponding to households selected for long questionnaire a tick mark should be made in this column in order to distinguish them from the others. In addition without selection all Hotel/Hostels and Other collective quarters are also administered using long questionnaire, so that, we have to make a tick mark for them, too.

Column 15:- Is there any household member fully or partly engaged in agriculture? If yes, what type of agriculture? If no one is engaged shade code 8

This column is concerned with only persons who are living in private households. Therefore, we have to follow codes 1 and 2 in column 11 and skip codes 3 through 7. First, investigate whether there is at least one member in a household who engaged in agricultural activity. If we find at least one, shade the appropriate code in this column.

Note that:
1. In urban areas: a household is said to be engaged in agricultural activity when it fulfills at least one of the following:

-Has one or more cattle or camel used for the purpose of breeding and agriculture or,
-Has two or more of sheep or goats or horses or mules and used for the purpose of agriculture or,
-When it has five or more of chickens and used for breeding or,
-When it has two or more of those mentioned above in a, b and c in mixed and used for agricultural purposes or,
-When it grows different crops in at least 250m2 of land or,
-When it has more than one beehive in which produce honey at least once during the last 12 months.

2. In rural areas: - regardless of the size of land and the number of livestock they possess, if a household engaged in any agricultural activity that household considered as agricultural household. However, concerning bee breeding the one mentioned for urban area also holds true for rural area.

Generally, agricultural codes for urban and rural areas are categorized as given below: -

1= Crops only:- Those who grow/produce temporary, permanent or mixed crops such as coffee, vegetables, fruits, "chat", "Enset", maze, "teff", tobacco, cotton etc... by using oxen or other animals or by hoe or by tractor or by using other tools code "1" could be shaded.

2= Livestock only:- Those who do not grow crops but engaged in breeding or fattening cattle, hens, goats, sheep, horses, mules, camel, bees, could be classified in this code.
Those who have few animals used only for ploughing could not be categorized here.

3= Other type of agriculture activity:- fishing, charcoal, forestry, flower production, nursery, etc. and similar activities could be classified here.

4= Both crop production and livestock:- those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in code 1and 2.

5= Crop and other agriculture:- includes those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in codes 1 and 3.

6= Livestock and other agriculture:- includes those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in 2 and 3.

7= Crop, livestock and other agriculture:- includes those who are engaged in mixed activities given codes 1, 2 and 3.

8= No member engaged in agriculture:- if there is no at least one member in the household who is engaged in agriculture it could be classified here.

Additional explanation for the above agricultural sectors is given below: -

Crop production: - when member(s) of a regular household fully engaged in agricultural activities (growing and harvesting) of permanent, temporary, or mixed crops we classify him in the crop production. Remember this person could have one or two livestock, which he can use for ploughing and threshing.
Note that: - the word fully is used here to distinguish crop production and livestock breeding or fattening.
Livestock production: - it is possible that a regular member of a household engaged fully in livestock production in such case we classify him in livestock breeding.

Domestic animals: - this includes oxen, cows, sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, poultry and bees.

Temporary crops: - annual or temporary crops are crops, which are grown in less than a year's time, sometimes only a few months with an objective to sow or replant again for additional production following the current. Continuously grown crops planted in rotation are also considered as temporary crops since each is harvested and destroyed by ploughing in preparation for each successive crop

Permanent crop: - crops, which are grown and occupy land for a long period of time, not requiring replanting for several years after each harvest, are considered as permanent crops. Example: - all fruit trees (i.e. orange, mandarin, banana, etc.) and trees for beverages (i.e. coffee, tea, gesho, etc.) are considered permanent crops.

Mixed crops: - means crops found in combination with other crop in a piece of land. Example: - temporary crops with another temporary crop or temporary with permanent crop or permanent with permanent crops.

Column 16:- Type of establishment
If the purpose of the housing unit coded in column 11 as codes 2 or 3 or 5, then in this column the type of establishment is will be asked and codes are shaded in appropriate place.

The following codes are used in this column:-

1 = Small or large scale manufacturing industry
2 = Cottage or handicraft industry
3 = Wholesale trade
4 = Retail trade
5 = Service trade
6 = Government or private office
7 = Others

1 = Small or large scale manufacturing industry:- is an industry which has a special address and fixed place and most of the time managed by one managers or owner and uses power-driven machine to produce one or more products.

During listing if the housing unit is served fully or partly as small or large-scale industry, then in this column code 1 will be shaded. Example:- Bakery, saw mills, flour mills, milling service, textile industries...etc.

Manufacturing:- is defined here as "the physical or chemical transformation of materials or components or commodities in to new products whether the work is performed by power driven machines or by hand, whether it is done in a factory or the worker's home, and whether the products are sold at wholesale or retail. The assembly of the component parts of manufactured products is also considered as manufacturing activities."

2 = Cottage or handicrafts industry:- is an industry, which has distinguished place and address and managed by one manger or owner and which doesn't use power to produce its product.. Example: - waving, pottery, metal work, producing "tella" or "tej" and selling them as a whole or in retail... etc. are classified here. During listing if the housing unit is served as cottage or handicrafts industry code 2 will be shaded.

3 = Wholesale trade:- refers to the resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, industries, commercial, industrial or professional users or to other wholesalers... etc. If the registered housing during listing is served as wholesale code 3 will be shaded in the column. Example: - importers, exporters, distributors of industrial and agricultural products, cooperatives association engaged in wholesale, fuel depot, are classified here. But if a manufacturing industry also sales its own product by wholesale or retail or exports the product it should be classified in code 1 or 2.

4 = Retail trade:- refers to the re-sale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to the general public for personal or household consumption or utilization. During listing if the housing unit served for running retail trade activity code 4 should be shaded for it. Example: - shops, Kiosk, supermarkets, Associations engaged in retail trade, sale of office furniture, boutique, retail of used goods, repair of personal and household equipment, (shoes, electrical equipment, watches, jewelry... etc.)

5 = Service trade:- The act of giving service on payment basis to individuals, households or enterprises. During listing if the housing unit is used for service trade activity code 5 will shaded for it.
Example of service trade: -

-Hotels, camping sites and other provision of short stay accommodation.
-Restaurants, bars and canteens;
-Renting of real states and buying and selling activities;
-Renting of machinery, equipment, personal, and household goods;
-Data processing activity;
-Maintenance and repair of office and accounting equipment;
-Advertising;
-Motion picture projection;
-Showing of cinema, theatre, dramatic arts, music, and other activities;
-Sporting and other entertainment activities;
-Washing and (dry-cleaning) of textiles and dying activities;
-Hairdressing and hair beauty treatment;
-Transport service giving activities (land transport, air transport, and shipping) travel agency...etc.
-Educational service (only those who earn from it)
-Health services (only those who earn from it);
-Power providing activities;
-Professional services;
-Accounting and auditing service activity.
-Architectural, engineering, and other technical service trades.
-Painters;
-Writers;
-Consultancy services... etc.

For those housing units, which are coded as hotel/hostel in column-11, here in this column code 5 should be shaded.

6 = Government or private offices:- during listing if the housing unit is used as government or private office and not used for residential purpose code 6 should be shaded. But if an office whether it is government or private engaged in manufacturing, business or service trade it should be shaded accordingly.

7 = Others:- those establishments which are engaged in mining, quarrying, production of electric power, petroleum production, construction works, etc. are classified here. In addition, international organizations, NGO's...etc. are included here.

Column 17:- Number of persons engaged
This column concerned only with those establishments, which have codes 1 through 5 in column 16. These establishments are engaged in small or large-scale manufacturing industries, cottage and handicrafts industries, whole, retail or service trade.

Number of person engaged: - These are person's aged 10 years and above taking part in the activity of the establishment/activity with or without payment. These include owners who participate in the activity paid or unpaid, family members who are participated, shareholders and permanent, contract or temporary workers.

If the establishment is based in the head office, it doesn't include those workers who are working in its branch. In addition, if that establishment is one of the branches persons engaged do not include those who are working in the head office and other branches.
Codes for number of persons engaged:

1 = Less than 10 workers,
2 = 10 to 20 workers,
3 = 21 to 49 workers,
4 = 50 to 99 workers,
5 = 100 and above workers.

Chapter Four

Method of selection of households administered by long questionnaire and how to fill forms used for supervising enumeration areas (EAs)

For the 2007 population and Housing Census of Ethiopia two types of questionnaires, namely; short and long are used. The long questionnaire is a detailed one which will be administered to sample households. The short questionnaire with a subset of the long questionnaire items corresponding to basic demographic and social characteristics (population size, sex, age, religion, mother tongue, ethnic group, disability and orphanage) are administered to the remaining (non sample) households.

The rationale for administering long questionnaire in the census on a sample basis is to improve timeliness in data collection, processing and decrease costs associated with data collection and processing by reducing volume of the data and consequently improve quality of the data. In each EA of all regions a one in five (20 Percent) households are systematically selected for the administration of the long questionnaire.

A. selection of sample households administered by long questionnaire

For selecting sample households in each EA the sampling frame is form 1 which is used for listing housing units and households. The selection will be done using column 12 and 13 in section 2 of form 1. Before starting sample household selection, the enumerator needs to make sure that the listing is completed in each EA without omission. In addition, he should have to check that the running numbers in column 12, which are given for household, are done without omission and duplication. Since all hotel/hostels and collective quarters residents are administered by long questionnaire without selection, make a tick in column 14 corresponding to them to distinguish them from the others. Next, by using column 12 of form 1 select one household from each of the intervals 001 - 005, 006 - 010, 011 - 015...etc. To do this the enumerator will be given a "random start" number by his/her field supervisor to carry out the selection of households which lie between 1 - 5 including 1 and 5.

This random start number helps the enumerator to decide (Know) which households are going to be selected from his EA. The household with serial number in the list corresponding to the random start number is taken as the first sample household to receive the long questionnaire. The remaining sample households in the EA are determined by adding "five" consecutively on serial number of the current sample household. This process continued until the list of households is exhausted in each EA.

If the random start number 1 assigned to an enumerator by his/her supervisor the household corresponds to household serial number serial number 001 in column12 will be the first selected household in that EA. And also if another enumerator gets random start number 2, the household corresponds serial number 002 is the first selected household for long questionnaire. The same will apply for enumerators who get 3, 4 and 5 as a starting number.

To get the second sample household each enumerator should have to add 5 on the serial number of the first selected household and to get the third sample household they have to add 5 on the second selected household serial number and continue in that fashion to get the last sample household.

For example:- an enumerator whose assigned 1 as a starting number, households corresponds to serial numbers 001, 006, 011, 016, 021, 031...etc. in column 12 will be the sample households. Similarly, enumerators who get 2 as a starting number will select households with serial numbers 002, 007, 012, 017... etc. to fill the long questionnaire. Then a tick mark should be made in column 14.

While, doing the selection the enumerator should have to understand that all selected samples are regular households. Whenever, the sample lay on collective quarters or hotel/hostel skip it and take the next household. Remember all residents of collective quarters and Hotel/Hostels are administered by long questionnaire.

For example: - Suppose the starting number given to an enumerator is 2 and if on form 1 in column 12 serial number 002 is a collective quarter which is ticked on column 14, then leave that and take the household with serial number 003 as the first and to get the second selected household add 5 on the first. Continue this procedure until the list of households is exhausted.

B. Form for supervising enumeration area (EA).

This form used to check how many of short and long questionnaire are filled in correctly by the enumerator.

In addition, on this form identification number for the enumerator is available. Every enumerator should have to know and remember this number any time. This form is will be filled in after the enumerator completed the enumeration for every household using short and long questionnaire.

First, the enumerator records the identification particulars of the EA on the left side of this form by taking it from the EA map. Then, on the right side under the box, which says "number of completed questionnaires", the enumerator records the number of short and long questionnaires he completely filled in the information.

After making every correction, the enumerator will write his name put his signature and date on the form. In addition, the supervisor will do the same after checking the correctness of the information on the questionnaires. Then the form should send to head office with completed short and long questionnaires.

Chapter Five

Instructions for Filling the Population and Housing Census Questionnaires

It is explained in chapter four that short and long questionnaires are prepared for the collection of information for the population and Housing census to be conducted at national level. The long questionnaire will be filled in for the sample selected households, for all hotels/hostels and for other collective quarters' inmates. It should be noticed again that the short questionnaire is to be filled in for the rest households (for unselected households) and for the homeless persons found in the enumeration area. The instruction given below is to fill in the long questionnaire and this instruction is again used to the short questionnaire because questions included in the short questionnaire are parts and parcels of the long questionnaire.

The long questionnaire will be filled in for the households/inmates found in the housing units which are check marked in column 14 of listing form. The long questionnaire has five sections and the instruction how to fill in each section is given below.

Remarks:-

-Make strong bold line downward over the number while shading the numbers in the boxes in the questionnaire. Do not shade the answerer outside the box.
-It is not allowed to use red color while shading the boxes.
-If a question does not concern the respondent you should skip the question without putting any mark in the boxes.
-If you shade the number in the boxes wrongly, you should erase properly and completely with the eraser given for this purpose.
-The forms and questionnaires should be handled with very great care. Some of the major cares to be taken using the handling of the forms and questionnaires are given below.
-It should not be folded.
-It should not be crumbled
-Any external things should not be touched (for example, water, food, mud. dust...etc.)
-It is not possible to write or put any mark outside the boxes provided to write names and numbers and to shade numbers.
-It is not possible to put any mark in the margin of the questionnaire
-The numbers recorded in the boxes should be shaded immediately.
-This helps the enumerators not to forget the number unshared

Section 1:- Area Identification

Information about the area identification of the enumeration area should be collected in column 1 - 8. Different information will be collected in each column and the boxes under each column are used to record the codes/numbers that are used to enter the information into the computer.

Column 1:- Region
The code of the region where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the boxes given under this column and this code should be appropriately shaded. The code of the region should be taken from the enumeration area map description form.

Column 2:- Zone
The code of the zone where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the boxes given under this column and this code should appropriately be shaded. The code of the zone should be taken from the enumeration area map description form.

Column 3:- Woreda
The code of the woreda where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the boxes given under this column and this code should appropriately be shaded. The code of the woreda should be taken from the enumeration area map description.

Columns 4- 5:- Town and Sub city
For urban enumeration areas the codes should be taken from the enumeration area maps description and filled in the boxes provided under these columns. For rural enumeration areas code 8 and 88 should be recorded in column 4 and in column 5, respectively. In any cases, the codes should be correctly shaded.

Column 6:- Supervision Area
The code of the supervision area where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the boxes given under this column and this code should correctly be shaded. The code of the supervision area should be taken from the enumeration area map description.

Column 7:- Kebele
The code of the kebele should be recorded in the boxes provided under this column and this code should be appropriately shaded. The code of the kebele should be taken from the enumeration area map description.

Column 8:- Enumeration Area
The code of the enumeration area where the enumeration is conducted should be filled in the boxes provided under this column and the code should be appropriately shaded. The code of the enumeration area should be taken from the enumeration area map.

Remark: Enumerators should notice that they should not forget to record and to shade area identifications for each questionnaire.

Section 2:- Type of Residence and Housing Identification

In this section the type of residence, housing unit serial number and serial number of the household should be filled in and appropriately shaded.

Question 1:- Type of residence

Data in this question will be collected to identify type of residence i.e. whether they are conventional household members, inmates of hotels/hostels, Orphanages, inmates of boarding school (including universities and colleges which have lodging services) inmates of correctional facilities, inmates of other collective quarters, pastoralists who are wandering from place to place in search of water and grass, and homeless persons who live at verandas, streets, ... etc.

In addition, conventional households who reside in collective quarters (those who are given separated household serial number and housing unit number in the listing form) should be shaded code 1 in this question. By identifying types of residence of the household or individuals to be interviewed, it is necessary to shade the appropriate code from the codes given below

-Conventional household
-Hotels/hostels
-Orphanages
-Boarding schools (including universities and colleges which have lodging facilities)
-Correctional facilities
-Other collective quarters
-Pastoralists who move from place to place in search of grass and water
-Homeless persons

Question 2:- Housing unit serial number

The housing unit serial number should be recorded with three digits in the boxes provided for each household and this number should be appropriately shaded. It should be noticed that this serial number could be found column 9 of form 1 (Listing form).

Question 3:- Household/Hotel/Hostel/ Other Collective Quarter serial number

The serial number for each household, hotel/hostel and other collective quarter should be written in the boxes provided and this number should be correctly shaded. This number could be taken from column 12 of form 1.The household serial number in these boxes will be written for the households who live in residential, partially residential houses or for the inmates of hotels/hostels or other collective quarters. In other words, the serial number of the household, hotel/hostel and other collective quarters will be recorded and shaded only for those that have codes 1, 2, 3 or 4 in column 11 of form 1.

In the short questionnaire, it should be reminded, this question will be filled in and be shaded for the conventional households and homeless persons.

Section 3:- Details of Persons in the Household

Before collecting information about household members, the definition of head of household and usual household member should be well appreciated. Therefore, the concept of household given in page in this manual should be appropriately understood.

A. Usual member of a household
A person is said to be a usual member of the household if he/she lives at least six months continuously with the household. In addition, a person is considered to be a usual member of the household if he /she has intention to live with the household forever even though he/she lived with the household less than six months. Persons who left their household temporarily for less than six months are considered as usual member of their households. However, persons are not considered as usual members of the household if they left their households for six months or above, or who left their households for less than six months but they have intention to stay there for more than six months.

The following members of the household are considered as usual household members.

-All persons who lived with the household for at least six month during the census day.
-All persons who have intention to stay with the household for six months and above even though they stayed with the household for less than six months. For example, a woman married to a man and went to her husband home, during the census day, she is considered as a usual member of her husband's household even though the time since she has started to live with the husband is less than six months. In addition, a person who got job went to live with other household forever, he is considered as the usual member of this household where he is found during the census even through he is living with this household for less than six months.
House maids who usually stay the nights with the household and who do not have another residence.
-Persons who left their household temporary for less than six months: for example persons who are at annual leave, persons who went to another place for holiday, inpatient persons, persons who went to visit relatives and persons who went to other places in related to their businesses.
-All persons who don't have permanent residence and who live with the household during the census: For example if individuals do not have permanent residence but they live in various houses, they are considered to be usual member of the house hold where they are found during the enumeration day.
-Students:- Students who left their households, relatives or usual place of residence to attending their education in regular schools, colleges, universities, ... etc. should be counted in the place where they are attending their learning. During the enumeration, if the students went back to their households or relatives due to learning break, they should be enumerated by considering as usual members of their households. Student who are attending their education by hiring service houses or who live with relatives far away their usual households, they should be enumerated in areas they actually live during the census even though they commute weekly or monthly to bring their ration or to visit their households. However, students who commute daily to attend their education are considered as usual members of their households

.

Orphanages, Boarding school students/ inmates of correctional facilities and other collective quarters.

Inmates of orphanages, Boarding school (including universities and colleges, which have lodging facilities), correctional facilities and other collective quarters (example: home for aged, monasteries ... etc.) should be enumerated as a member of the collective quarters during the census. However, person who are detained temporary in police station or in other temporal prison place should be counted as usual members of their households regardless the length of the time in these places.

B. Visitors

A visitor is any relative or non-relative person who is not a usual member of the household but spent the census night in the household.

C. Head of household

A head of household is a person who is usual member (male or female) in the household acknowledged as head by the other members. If a man has two or more wives who live in separate households, he will be enumerated as head of the household with his old alive wife (first married) if he is recognized as head. Other wives will be enumerated with their households as head or member of the households.

Question 1:- Serial number of members of the household and visitors

First the questionnaire is prepared to list up to eight members of a household. It should be noticed that this serial number in this question should be shaded for each member of the household starting from the head.

If the member of the members of the household is greater than eight, it is necessary to use additional questionnaire. In this situation, to show the additional questionnaire is a continuation of the previous one, it is necessary to shade the box provided in front of the message "you should shade this box if this questionnaire is a continuation for this household" on the upper left margin of the continuation questionnaire. Information about area identification and the rest of the questions should be filled in after this box is shaded when enumerators use additional questionnaires for the same household.

Question 2:- Names of usual members of the household visitors

In this question based on the definition and concept of household explained above, the usual members of the household starting from the head should be listed by posing first the question to the household "Please tell me all members who reside in this house and who eat their prepared food together". Lastly, the names of the visitors who spend the census night with the household should be listed. List all persons in the household in the following order.

-Head of the household
-Spouse of the head
-Children who live together in order of their age
-Other relatives
-Non-relatives (members who are not related)
-Visitors
Remarks:-
Care should be taken to enumerate every members of the household including recently born infants, old persons, and patients during the census.
For the purpose of facilitating the task of collecting information during enumerations the names residence status, relationship and sex of all the members f the households (questions 1-5) should be first filled in column wise, and then the rest concerning questions according to the age of members should be collected for each member of the household row wise up to the end of each page of the questionnaire.

Question 3:- Residence status

The residence status of all members of the household and visitors should be asked and the appropriate code should be shaded. The choices of the codes are given below.

-Resident present at the census day (usual member of the household who was present at the census day)
-Resident absent at the censes day (Usual member of the household who was absent at the census day
-Visitor (person who was not usual member of the household but spent the night with the household at the census day)
Remark:- Visitors should be listed after all usual members of the household has been listed and data for visitors will be collected only residence status, relationship, sex and age. The remaining questions (Questions) 7-32 and section 4) do not concern the visitors and should not record anything.

Question 4:- What is the relationship of [the respondent] to the head of the household?

Always the head of the household should be listed in the first line in question 2. For question 4, the person listed in the first line is the head of the household and code 1 that is the head of the household code should be shaded. Then by asking the respondent the code of the relationship of each member of the household to the head should be shaded by selection the appropriate code from the choices of the codes given under this question.

For example:- If the wife is listed next to the head of the household code 2, the code given in front of the spouse, should be shaded. If the head has more than one wife, code 2 should be shaded for all his wives. Concerning the children, code 3, the code given for the child of the head and/or spouse i.e. a child of both the head and the spouse, the child of the head only or the child of the spouse only should be shaded.

The relationship of the usual members of the household should be correctly identified and the appropriate code of the relationship for each member of the household should be selected from the codes given under this question. The choices of the relationship codes listed under this question are given below.

-Head
-Spouse (wife/husband)
-Son/daughter of the head and/or spouse
-Mother or father of head/spouse
-Sister or brother of head./spouse
-Nephew or niece
-Grandchild of head/spouse
-Other relative (adopted child, godchild... etc)
-Non - relatives

The codes of all inmates of hotel/hostel, inmates of other collective quarters and homeless persons should be code 9.

Question 5:- What is [the respondent]'s Sex?

In this question, the appropriate code of the sex of each member of the household according to their names listed in question 2 should be shaded. For example, if the member is male, code 1 should be shaded across the name of the member and if the member is female, code 2 should be shaded across the name of the member of the household. The codes of the sexes should not be shaded by guessing the sexes based on the names of the persons because the names of some persons use for box sexes. In addition to this, great care should be taken while shading the codes of the members' sexes because, in some areas, males are named by females' name and females are named by males' name.

Question 6:- What is [the respondent]'s Age in Years?

The correct age in completed years of each member of the household during the enumeration should be recorded in the boxes provided in this question and the appropriate code should be shaded. Age in completed years means recording the completed years by ignoring the months and days after the completed years. For example, if the age of a person is 15 years, 11 months and 29 days, only "15" should be recorded and shaded. If the age of an infant is less than one year, code 00 should be recorded and shaded in this question, and if the age of a person is 97 years and above Code "97" should be recorded and shaded in the space provided under this question.

It is expected to meet persons who do not know their ages exactly or who are not voluntary to tell their ages. In this case, great effort should be done without being fed up to get exact age of each members of the household as far as possible. To solve these problems, some of the possible techniques are given below.

Probing ages by mentioning historical events

It is necessary to estimate the age of the person by asking the respondent if there is a historical events occurred known nationally or specifically in that area when the person was born or by asking the respondent what was the age of the person during the occurrence of the event or by asking the respondent how long was the occurrence of the even before the person was born. For example, if the age of a person was 10 years during the eruption of the revolution in 1974, the age of the person in 2007 is almost 43 years (2007 - 1974 +10 = 43) and this code should be recorded and shaded. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the age of a person by relating the year in which the person was born with the year that the historical event was occurred and the list of the years in which the main events occurred is attached in appendix 2 of this enumerators' manual.

Computing age based on members who know their ages.

Some of the members of the household or neighbors may know their ages. In this case it is possible to estimate the age of a person by relating with the persons' ages who knew their age exactly.

It may be possible to estimate the ages of the members of the household if the exact age of a person among the members is known. For example, if the age of the first child of a household is known to be 13 years, it is possible to estimate the age of his mother to be at least 31 years. This estimation is done based on the expectation that mothers usually give birth to their first baby at the age of 18 years old and the age of the mother can be estimated as 18+13 = 31 years. It can be possible to estimate the ages of the persons who are relatives by comparing the age of one person to others. For example, mothers give birth to their children usually in two years interval. The age of the older child may be 9 years if the age of the younger child is exactly 7 years. Sometimes aged people exaggerate their ages. The ages of these people can be estimated by comparing with the ages of their first child and grandchildren's ages. Therefore, as far as possible appropriately estimated age of the member should be recorded if the age of one member of the household is exactly known.

In addition to this, it is possible to estimate the age of a member of the household if he/she knows the age at marriage and the number of years after marriage up to the time of the census. Some people want to tell their ages in 0 or 5 ending digits. Even though the respondents want to tell their ages in these digits, enumerators should make great effort to get exact ages of the respondents by using the above probing techniques. The ages of some people may off course, be 10, 15, 20, 25, ... etc.

Parents can easily remember specially the ages of their babies and children under age 10 years and these ages should be appropriately recorded in completed years. But sometimes there is a situation that is not possible to get the ages of infants easily, and in this case, great efforts should be done to estimate the appropriate age by applying the above probing techniques.

Based on the above appropriate probing techniques of getting ages and posing appropriate question to the respondent, the age of each members of the household in completed years should be recorded in the space provided in question 6 and the codes should be correctly shaded.

Remarks:- It is necessary to mention the name of the each member of the household when posing questions that have names in the questionnaire. For example, for the member of the household named Chaltu, the question "What is NAME's' age in years" should be asked as "What is Chaltu's age in years?"

Question 7:- What is [the respondent]'s Religion?

Religion is an affiliation with a group having specific religious or spiritual tenet. The code of the religion for each member of the household should be shaded by asking each member of the household. If the answer for the region question is "Christian", the appropriate code should be selected from the codes "1-3" that are given for the codes of Christian religions under this question and this code should be appropriately shaded. The religion of a baby who was born from Christian parents and his/ her age is not reached to baptize during the enumeration should be shaded the code of his/her parents' religion. By asking each member of the household, the appropriate code of the religion for each member of the household should be shaded. If any other religion is mentioned other than the religion listed from the codes "1-5", code 6 should be shaded.

It is not the appropriate way to try to guess the religions of all members of the household by taking the religion of the head of the household. Therefore, by asking each member of the household, the code of the religion for each member of the household should be shaded by selecting the appropriate code from the listed codes of religions given under this question. Spouses may have different religion and therefore religion question for each of them should be asked separately and the appropriate code should be shaded.

The religion for infants should be shaded the same religion as their parents. The religion of infants who was born from parents of different religions, should be shaded the code of the religion that his /her parents think that his/her religion will be in the future. The choices of the religion codes are given below.

1. Orthodox (Tewahido, Kibat, Tsega)
2. Protestant (Seventh Day Adventist, Pentecost, Lutheran, MekaneYesus, Baptist, Mennonite, Anglican, Presbyterian, Meserete Kirnstos, MuluWengel, KaleHiywot, etc.)
3. Catholic
4. Muslim (Islam)
5. Traditional beliefs
6. Other (for example:-Jehovah, Baha'i, Jewish, Hindu, ...etc)

Question 8:- What is [the respondent]'s Mother Tongue?

Mother tongue is the language that the person used to communicate with his household or parents during childhood. By asking the mother tongue of the person, the appropriate code should be recorded in the boxes provided based on the list of the codes of the language prepared in this manual and this code should be shaded appropriately.

To identify easily the names and codes of the languages, two lists of languages, that is, "list of names and codes for the main languages "and" list of names and codes for the branch languages" are given in pages 47 to 50 of this manual. The recording of the codes on the languages will be as follows.

The code of the language responded by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided and this code should be appropriately shaded. If there are people who do not want to tell their mother tongue, please, as far as possible, try to get the right answers by asking the respondents politely.

The appropriate code of the language responded by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided by taking the code from the list of the main languages. If it is difficult to find the code of the language from this list, it is possible to find the code of the language from the list of names and codes of branch languages.

A. List of names and codes of main languages

All languages are listed in this list and their settings are based on the main languages. The related languages and branch languages of the main language are given in bracket because they are given the same code. For example, "Chehagna", "Ezhagna", "Gumerigna" and "Enemorigna" are given in bracket under the main language "Guragigna" which is written outside the bracket because these languages are the branch languages of "Guragigna". To identify easily from the list, the main languages are listed in alphabetical order.

B. List of names and codes of branch languages

This list is prepared to list down alphabetically the related languages or branch languages of the main language listed in bracket under "the list of names and codes of the main Languages" (For example, Chehagna, Ezhagna, Gumerigna, Enamorigna). The main languages (for example Afarigna, Welaytigna) written outside the bracket alphabetically in the list of name and codes of the main languages are not listed again is this list.

The respondent responded may be the main or the branch language. If the response is main language, the code of the main language will be recorded, but if the response is branch language, the code of the main language should be recorded by identifying which one is its main or stem language. For example, if the response is "Chehagna" code "36" should be recorded in the boxes provided because the stem language of "Chehagna" is "Guragigna" and this code should be appropriately shaded.

If any other language is mentioned out of the list of the languages given, code "91" the code for "Other Ethiopian Languages" should be recorded in the space provided and this code should be appropriately shaded.

For infants or for persons who could not speak, the code of the language that is usually spoken in the household will be recorded.

If there are people who have forgotten totally their mother tongue or who could speak other language more than their mother tongue, the code of the language of their mother tongue should be recorded in the boxes provided.

For foreign language, if the mother tongue of the respondent is English, code "92" should be recorded in the boxes provided but if the mother tongue is another foreign language other than English, code "93" the code given for "other foreign language" should be recorded and this code should be appropriately shaded.

Remarks:-
Letters from "A" to "Z" listed in the list of the languages are used to facilitate the identification of the language from the list but they will not be recorded with the codes of the languages.
Code "13" should be recorded in this question for the people reside in Benishangul-Gumuz region and whose mother tongues are Arabic Language. But code "93" should be recorded for the people reside in other areas and whose mother tongues are Arabic language.

List of Names and Codes of Main Languages (For question 8)

Language, Code
Afarigna, 01
Agew-Awinigigna (konfeligna), 02
Agew-Kamyrigna (Kamtangigna), 03
Alabigna, 04
Amarigna, 05
Anyiwakgna (yembogna), 06
Argobigna, 07
Arigna (Bakogna,shangamogna), 08
Arborigna (Arbore,ulde), 09
Bachagna (Ganjuligna), 10
Basketigna (masketigna,Angiligna,Dolegna,Tamigna), 11
Benchigna (Benchenon), 12
Bertagna (Jebelawigna,Benshanguligna,Wutawutigna, Shogaligna,Meyugna,Undugna,Gebetogna, Fakarogna,Fakashigna,
Fakumankumigna, Arabigna), 13
Bodigna (Tumer), 14
Brayligna, 15
Burjigna (Dashigna,Bambaligna,Algagna), 16
Charigna(Tsarigna,Zaragna), 18
Dasenechgna (Gelebigna, Marlegna), 19
Dawurogna (Ometegna, Dometegna,Kulogna), 20
Debosgna, 21
Derashigna, 22
Dimegna, 23
Dizigna (majigna), 24
Dongigna, 25
Dorzigna, 29
Fedashigna, 28
Gamogna, 29
Gebatogna, 30
Gewadigna (Kuligna,Gobezegna Werziegna,Alie), 21
Gedeogna, 31
Gedichogna, 32
Gedoligna (Darashatigna,Dirashagna,Draytatigna,Durategna), 33
Goffigna (Genugna), 34
Gumuzigna (Ganzagna,Ganzogna,Begagna,Bagagna,Sayigna,Sesegna), 35
Guragiegna (Subat-Bet Chehagna,Enerigna,Enemorigna,Ezyagna,Gumerigna, Guragna,Megarebigna, Mugerigna,muherigna, Sodogna-Welenegna, Kistanigna,
Meskanigna,Wachogna), 36
Guagugna (Kuagugna), 37
Hadiyigna, 38
Hareriegna (Aderigna), 39
Hamerigna (Bashadigna, Banagna, Qarogna) , 40
Irobigna (Sahogna, Shahogna), 41
Keffagna (Kefficho), 42
Kembatigna, 43
Kontigna, 44
Komigna (Hayahayagna, medin,Akuama), 45
Konsogna (Karategna, Komosgna, Garategna), 46
Koregna, 47
Koygogna, 48
Koyrigna (Amaro, Amaricho,Baditi), 49
Kunamigna, 50
Maliegna, 53
Maogna (Anfilogna,Gewamigna,Komagna), 54
Marekogna (Labidigna), 55
Mashiligna, 56
Merigna, 57
Me'enigna (me'entgna, Mekenigna,Damigna), 58
Mellogna, 34
Messengogna, Mejengerigna, Majangigna,Ujangigna), 59
Mossigna(Bussagna), 61
Mursygna (Munigna,Murzugna, Muridi,Nyicalabongigna), 62
Murlegna, 63
Naogna (Nahogna,Tologna), 64
Nuwerigna, 65
Nyangatomigna (Turkanagna, Bumegna, Men, Bum, Rogegeno, Tobola), 66
Oromigna, 67
Oydigna, 68
Qebenigna, 69
Qechemigna(Qachenogna, Gatsamigna,Harurogna),70
Qewamigna, 71
Shekogna (Shako), 73
Shegna , 79
Shinashigna (Borogna, Shinichogna, Dengebogna), 74
Sidamigna, 75
Siltigna (Azernet, Berbere, Enekorgna, AlichonaWeriro,Werabe), 76
Somaligna, 77
Surmigna (Surigna, Tirmagna, Damagna, Zilmamigna, Chimagna), 78
Shekicho (Mochagna) , 72
Tigrigna, 80
Timbarogna, 81
Tsemayigna (Tsamagna,Dumegna, Kuweligna), 82
UPO, 83
Welaitigna, 84
Yemsagna (Yemigna, Yanagarogna), 86
Zeysegna, 87
Zerguligna, 89
Zlmamigna (Bele), 88
Other Ethiopian Languages, 91
English, 92
Other foreign Languages, 93
Karogna, 51
Kusumegna, 52
MMezhengerigna, 60
Benagna, 17

List of Names and Codes of Branch Languages (For Question 8)

Language, Code

Aderigna, 39
Akuama, 45
Alichona weriro, 76
Ale, 21
Algagna, 16
Amaricho, 49
Amaro, 49
Anfilogna, 54
Arabigna, 13
Angiligna, 11
Arboregna, 09
Azernet, 76
Baditi, 49
Bagagna, 35
Bakogna, 08
Bambaligna, 16
Banagna, 40
Bashadigna, 40
Begagna, 35
Benchenon, 12
Benshanguligna, 13
Bele, 88
Berbere, 79
Borogna, 74
Bum, 66
Bumegna, 66
Bussagna, 61
Chehagna, 36
Chimagna, 78
Damagna, 78
Dirashagna, 33
Darashatigna, 33
Dashigna, 16
Damigna, 58
Dengebogna, 74
Draytatigna, 33
Dolegna, 11
Dometegna, 20
Dimegna, 26
Durategna, 33
Endegagn, 36
Enekorgna, 76
Enerigna, 36
Enemorigna, 36
Ezyagna, 36
Fakarogna, 13
Fakashign, 13
Fakumkumigna, 13
Ganzagna, 35
Ganzogna, 35
Ganjuligna, 10
Garategna, 46
Gatsamigna, 70
Gebetogna, 13
Gelebigna, 19
Genugna, 34
Gewamigna, 54
Gobezegna, 21
Gumerigna, 36
Guragna, 36
Harurogna, 70
Hayahayagna, 45
Jebelawigna, 13
Kamtangigna, 03
Karategna, 46
Kefficho, 42
Komagna, 54
Komsogna, 46
Konfeligna, 02
Kistanigna, 36
Kuligna, 21
Kulogna, 20
Kuagugna, 37
Kaweligna, 82
Labigna, 55
Langogna, 90
Majangigna, 59
Majigna, 24
Marlegna, 19
Medingna, 45
Megarigna, 36
Mugerigna, 36
Men, 66
Me'entigna, 58
Mekenigna, 58
Meskanigna, 36
Mesketigna, 11
Meyugna, 13
Mejengerigna, 60
Muherigna, 36
Murdi, 62
Munigna, 62
Murzugna, 62
Mochagna, 72
Nahogna, 64
Nyicalabongigna, 62
Ometegna, 20
Qarogna, 51
Qachenogna, 70
Qewamigna, 71
Rogegeno, 66
Sahogna, 41
Sayigna, 35
Sebat Bet, 36
Sesegna, 35
Sitagna , 90
Sodogna, 36
Surigna, 78
Shahogna, 41
Shako, 73
Shangamogna, 08
Shekicho, 72
Shogaligna, 13
Shinichogna, 74
Tamigna, 11
Tigrawi, 80
Tirmagna, 78
Tobola , 67
Tologna, 64
Tsarigna, 18
Tsamagna, 82
Tumer, 14
Turkanagna, 66
Ujangigna, 59
Ulde, 09
Undugna, 13
Wachogna, 36
Welenegna, 36
Werabe, 76
Werziegna, 21
Wotawutigna, 13
Yangarogna, 86
Yembogna, 06
Yemigna, 86
Zaragna, 18
Zilmamigna, 88

Question 9:- What is [the respondent's] Ethnic Group?

By asking the types of Ethnic group of each member of the household, the appropriate code taken from the list of Ethnic Group should be recorded in the boxes provided and this code should be appropriately shaded. If the respondent could not tell his Ethnic Group, by confusing the meaning of Ethnic Group, additional explanation about ethnic group should be given, by saying "what is your race, origin, clan, tribe?." To identify the names and codes of Ethnic Groups easily, two lists, that is, "Names and codes of the main Ethnic Group list" and "the list for names and codes of the branch Ethnic Group" are given in pages 53 to 56. Based on this the recording of the codes of Ethnic group will be as follows.

The code of the Ethnic Group responded by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided and this code should be appropriately shaded. If there are people who do not want to tell their Ethnic Group, try to get the appropriate answer by asking the people politely as for as possible.

The appropriate code of the Ethnic Group responded by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided by referring the code from the list of the main Ethnic Groups and this code should be appropriately shaded. If it is difficult to obtain the code of the Ethnic Group from this list, it is possible to find the code of the Ethnic Group from the "list of names and codes of branch Ethnic Groups"

The respondent's response may be the main or the branch of Ethnic Group. If the response is the main Ethnic Group, the code of the main Ethnic Group will be recorded, and if the response is branch of the Ethnic Group, the code of the main Ethnic Group should be recorded by identifying which is its main/stem Ethnic Group. For example, If the response of the respondent is "Saynte", code "05" will be recorded in the space provided because the stem of "Saynte" is ''Amara'', and the code for Amahara Ethnic Group is "05". In the same thing, if the response of the respondent is "Cheha", code "36" should be recorded in the boxes provided because the stem of "Cheha" is "Gurage", and this code should be appropriately shaded.

A. List of names and codes of the main Ethnic Groups

Based on the main Ethnic Groups, all Ethnic Groups are listed in the list provided. The related names and branches of the main Ethnic Group are given in bracket because they are given one and the same code. For example, "Gondere", "Tegulete", "Saynte", "Menze" are listed in bracket under the main Ethnic Group "Amhara" which is written outside the bracket because these Ethnic Groups are the branches of "Amhara" Ethnic Group. To identity easily from the list, the main /stem Ethnic Groups are listed in alphabetical order.

B. List of names and codes of branch Ethnic Groups

This list is prepared to list down alphabetically all the related or branches of the main Ethnic Group listed in bracket (for example, "Erbore", "Ulde", "Mursie") under "the list of names and codes of the main Ethnics group''. The main Ethnic Groups (for example, "Afar", "Welayta") written outside the bracket alphabetically in the list of names and codes of the main Ethnic Groups are not listed again in this list.

If any other Ethnic Group is mentioned by the respondents out of the list of the Ethnic Group given, code "91" the code for "other Ethiopian Ethnic Groups" should be recorded in the space provided and this code should be appropriately shaded.

Persons who are born from parents of different Ethiopian Ethnic Groups or from Ethiopian and foreign citizens, and if their ages are 18 years and above, the code of the Ethnic Groups they choose should be recorded in the space provided. If they are below 18 years old, the codes of the Ethnic Groups that will be chosen by their parents should be recorded in the space provided and these codes should be shaded.

Person who were born from parents of different Ethiopian Ethnic Groups and if he/she does not want to tell ethnic group of either of his/her parents, code "92", the code for "person born from different ethnic group" should be recorded and shaded appropriately. But if he/she is voluntary to tell either of his/her parents Ethnic groups, the appropriate code should be recorded and shaded.

Code "93" should be recorded in the space provide and shaded for all Eritrean and code "94" should be given for Djiboutian. Code "95" should be recorded for citizens of Somalia. But for Ethiopian Somalis, code "77" should be recorded. Code "96" for Sudanese and code "98" for other foreign Africans should be recorded and shaded.

List of Names and codes of main Ethnic Groups (Question-9)

Ethnic Group , Code

Affar, 01
Agew-Awi (Konfele), 02
Agew-Kamyr (Kamtang), 03
Alaba, 04
Amara (Gondere, Gayente, Saynte, Farte, Gojjame, Dawunte, Walde, Laste, hewe, Tegulete, Jiruye, Yifate, Menze, Minjare, Bulge), 05
Anyiwak (Yembo), 06
Argoba , 07
Ari (Bako,Ara,Shangamo), 08
Arborie (Arbore, Ulde), 09
Bacha(Ganjule), 10
Basketo (Mesketo, Anjila, Dolo, Tama), 11
Bench, 12
Berta (Jebelawi, Benshangul, Wutawut, shogo,Undu,Meyu, Gebeto, Fakaro, Fakashi, Fukamkum), 13
Bodi (Tumer), 14
Brayle, 15
Burji (Dashi, Bambala, Alga), 16
Charra (Tsara, Zara), 18
Dasenech (Geleb, Geleba, Marle), 19
Dawuro (Omete ,Domete, Kulo), 20
Derashe, 22
Dime, 23
Dizi (Maji), 24
Donga, 25
Gamo (Dorzie, Zargula), 29
Gebato, 30
Gewada (Kule, Gobeze, Werzie, Alie), 21
Gedo, 31
Gedicho, 32
Gidole (Darashat, Dirasha, Draytat, Durate), 33
Goffa (Genu, Melu), 34
Gumuz (Ganza, Ganzo, Bega, Baga, Say, Sese), 35
Guragie (shebat Bet-Cheha, Endegay, Ener, Enemor, Ezya, Gumer, Gura, Megareb, mugger, Muher, Sodo- Kistane, Meskan, Welene, Wacho), 36
Guagu (kuagu), 37
Hadiya, 38
Hareri (Adere) , 39
Hamer (Bashada, Bana, Karo), 40
Irob (Saho, Shaho), 41
Keffa (Kefficho), 42
Kembata, 43
Konta, 44
Komo (Koma, Hayahaya, Medin, Akuama), 45
Konso (Karate,Komso, Garate), 46
Kore, 47
Koygo, 48
Koyra (Amaro, Amaricho, Baditu), 49
Kunama, 50
Malie, 53
Mao (Anfilo, Gewami, Bambishi, Koman), 54
Mareko (Libidi), 55
Mashola, 56
Mer, 57
Me'ent (Meken, Daim), 58
Messengo (Majang, Ujang), 59
Shekicho (Mocha), 72
Mossiya (Bussa), 61
Mursi (Mursu, Mun, Murdi, Murzu, Nyichalabong), 62
Murle, 63
Nao (Naho, Toto), 64
Nuwer (Abigar), 65
Bena, 17
Karo, 51
Kusume, 52
Mezhenger, 60
Nyangatom (Turkana, Bume, Men, Bum, Rogegeno, Tobola), 66
Oromo (Guji, Borena, Tulema, Kereyu, Gelan, Lika, Becho, Abichu, Selale, Arsi, Rayya, Mecha, Gerri, Ittu, Jille), 67
Oyda, 68
Qebena, 69
Qechem (Qecheno, Gatsam, Haruro), 70
Qewama, 71
Sheko (shako), 73
Shinasha (Boro, Shinichi, Dengebo), 74
Sidama, 75
Silte (Azernet, Berbere, Enekor, Alichona Weriro, Werabe), 76
Somalie, 77
Surma (Suri, Tirma, Dama, Zilmam, Chima), 78
Tigre (Tigrawy), 80
Timbaro (Kambaro), 81
Tsemay (Tsamay, Dume, Kuwele), 82
Upo, 83
Welaita, 84
Werji (Tigre Werji), 85
Yem (Yemsa, Yangaro), 86
Zeyse, 87
Zlmam (Bele), 88
Other Ethiopian National Groups, 91
From different parents , 92
Eritrean, 93
Djiboutian, 94
Somalian, 95
Kenyan, 96
Sudanese, 97
Other foreigners, 98

List of Names and Codes of Branch Ethnic Groups (Question-9)

Ethnic Group, Code

Abichu , 67
Abigar , 65
Adere, 39
Alichona Weriro, 76
Akuama, 45
Ale, 21
Alga, 16
Amaricho, 49
Amaro, 49
Anfilo, 54
Anjila, 11
Ara, 08
Arbore, 09
Arsi, 67
Asernet, 79
Baga, 35
Baditi, 49
Bako, 08
Bambala, 16
Bambishi, 54
Bashada, 40
Bana, 17
Becho, 67
Bele, 88
Bega, 35
Benshangul, 13
Berbere, 76
Borena , 67
Boro, 74
Bulge, 05
Bum, 66
Bume, 66
Bussa, 61
Cheha, 36
Chima, 78
Dama, 78
Darashat, 33
Dashi, 16
Daim, 58
Dawunte, 05
Dirasha, 33
Dengebo, 74
Draytat , 33
Dolo, 11
Domete, 20
Dime, 26
Durate, 33
Endegagn, 36
Enekor, 76
Ener, 36
Enemor, 36
Ezya, 36
Fakaro, 13
Fakashi, 13
Farte, 05
Fukomkum, 13
Ganza, 35
Ganzo, 35
Ganjule, 10
Garate, 46
Gaynte , 05
Gatsam, 70
Gebeto , 13
Gelan, 67
Geleb, 19
Geleba, 19
Genu, 34
Geri, 67
Gewami, 54
Gobezie, 21
Gojjame, 05
Gondere, 05
Guji, 67
Gumer, 36
Gura, 36
Haruro, 70
Hayahaya, 45
Ittu, 67
Jebelawi, 13
Jille, 67
Juruye, 05
Kamtang, 03
Karate, 46
Karo, 51
Kefficho, 42
Kereyu , 67
Koma, 45
Koman , 54
Komso, 46
Konfele, 02
Kistane, 36
Kule, 21
Kulo, 20
Kuagu, 37
Kuwele, 82
Laste, 05
Libido, 55
Lika, 67
Majang, 59
Maji, 24
Marle, 19
Medin, 45
Megareb, 36
Muger, 36
Men, 66
Menze, 05
Meken, 58
Meskan, 36
Mesketo, 11
Meyu, 13
Mejenger, 60
Mecha, 67
Minjare, 05
Muhur, 36
Murdi, 62
Mun, 62
Murzu, 62
Naho, 64
Nyicalabong, 62
Omete, 20
Qambara, 81
Qecheno, 70
Raya, 67
Rogegeno, 66
Saho, 41
Say, 35
Saynte, 05
Selale, 67
Sebat bet, 36
Sese, 35
Sodo, 36
Suri, 78
Shaho, 41
Shako, 73
Shangamo, 08
Shogo, 13
Shekicho, 72
Shewe, 05
Shinicho, 74
Tama, 11
Tegulete, 05
Tigrawi, 80
Tigre werji, 85
Tirma, 78
Tobola, 66
Tolo, 64
Tsara, 18
Tsamay, 82
Tulema, 67
Tumer, 14
Turkana, 66
Ujang, 59
Ulde, 09
Wacho, 36
Wadle, 05
Welene, 36
Werabe, 76
Werzie, 21
Wutawut, 13
Yangaro, 86
Yembo, 06
Yemsa, 86
Yifate, 05
Zara, 18
Zilmam, 88
Zargula, 29
Dorzie, 29
Hako, 73

Question 10 - 12: Disability and Mental Problem

These three questions will be asked to collect information on disability, type of disability and cause of disability as well as mental problem. Question 10 will be asked to identify whether each member of a household is disabled or has mental problem and for members of the household who are disabled type and cause of disability codes will be marked under question 11and 12 respectively. For members who have mental problems however, after recording types of disability question 12 will be skipped to question 13 as this question is not relevant for them. But those household members who have both problems meaning disability and mental problem are considered as disabled and code related to disability will be marked for them.

Question 10:- Does [the respondent] have seeing, hearing, speaking, standing, walking, sitting, body movement, non functional upper and lower limbs difficulties, mental problem or other mental/physical damage?

This question is used to verify whether or not each household members of the household has disability or mental problem. Since the question above is too long and the space is not adequate it is not provided on the questionnaire. Hence, note is given on questionnaire against its question number. Based on the note provided enumerators should read word by word for each respondents while interviewing from the inside cover of enumerator's manual or from laminated code folder. Though it is not difficult to identify persons who have mental problems, identification of the disabled members in each household is difficult and needs great care as it is not an easy task to verify whether there are disabled persons or not.

A person is called disabled if during birth or after birth his body part or his mental is damaged, lack of body part or congenital malformation and fails to do activities that other persons who have no such problems could do. In other expression, disabled are blinds or who have seeing problem, those who cannot totally hear or have hearing problems, who cannot totally speak or have speaking problems, who have body movement problem, non functional upper and lower limbs and includes those who has mental problems. Leprosy and epilepsy diseases are not on their own considered as disability. However, it should be noted that leprosy and epilepsy diseases could be causes of disability.

Though damage, lack of body part or congenital malformation are causes of disability, it should be noted that defects or lack of body part may not always lead to disability.

Example:
Even though it is a lack of body part, one eye blind person will not be considered as disabled if he/she has no seeing difficulty in the remaining one eye;
A person who does not totally hear with one of his/her ears will not be considered as disabled if hears clearly with other ear.
A person whose one his/her figure is cut is not regarded as disabled unless he/she has difficulty of walking due to this problem event though it is clearly a lack of body part.

Therefore, during data collection on disability enumerators should clearly explain to the respondents about disability using examples.

The word disability may not be clear for the respondents and they may regard as a disability those damages or lack of body part that might cause a disability. For instance, they may respond as disabilities body part problems which could cause of disability such as one eye blindness or seeing difficulty, one ear deafness or hearing problem, etc. Hence, enumerators should make great effort by posing additional questions and by probing respondents `to avoid not to wrongly record as disabled those who shouldn't and not to omit persons who are disabled.

Enumerators should address question 11 to each members of the household in person in order to identify household members with disability or ask a legible person, who can give complete information about the whole household members, to verify whether each one is disabled or not by mentioning their name one by one and then mark the correct code.

In addition, experiences obtained from other countries show that to simplify further the problem associated with the administration of question 10 mentioned above, inserting the name of each member in the space provided and explicitly addressing the question to the respondent is found to be useful. Hence, enumerators are expected to make efforts to collect adequate information on disability using this method.

Thus, as indicated above after addressing the question to each household member for those who have disability corresponding to the alternative response Yes mark code 1 then the next question meaning type of disability will be asked ; for those who has no disability mark code 2 corresponding to the alternative response No and then pass to question 13.

Note: Persons who couldn't perform some activities due to old age shouldn't be considered as disabled. But it should be born in mind that amongst the aged people there could be disabled persons.

Question 11:- Type of Disability or Problem?

For each household members that are identified as disabled or having mental problem under question 10, type of disability or problem should be identified and the correct code should be marked for this question. Enumerators should mark a correct response for those identified as disabled or having mental problem by associating the type of disability mentioned by respondents with the explanations given below.

List of the Type of Disability or Problem is provided below

1 = Blind:- Code 1 will be marked for those household members who mentioned that both of their eyes are blind due to accident occurred during or after birth.

2 = Have Seeing Difficulties
This refers to persons whose both eyes partly see because of the defects occurred to them during or after birth. Persons who have seeing difficulties are those who cannot count fingers with both of their eyes at a distance of two meters or those who cannot identify the feature of a person standing four meters away from them.
Note: Members who became one eye blind due to defects occurred to them and have similar problems mentioned above with the remaining eye are regarded as persons having seeing difficulties. Therefore, code 2 should be marked for disabled persons whose both eyes partly see.
3 = Deaf and those who can speak
For persons who were exposed to the problem of not hearing with both ears due to the defects occurred to them during or after birth meaning those who cannot even hear loud noise but can speak shade/mark code 3.

4 = Who have Hearing Difficulties
Code 4 will be shaded for persons who are not totally hearing with one ear and partly hear with other ear or those who hear partly with both ears due to defects that had occurred to them during or after birth Partly hearing means hearing only loud noise or not clearly hear.

5 = Dumb and those who can hear
Code 5 should be shaded for persons who became dumb/ totally unable to speak/ due to defects occurred to them during or after birth but who can hear.

6 = Have speaking Problem
Code 6 should be shaded for persons who does not speak like what normal person does or those who couldn't be clearly heard when they are speaking due to defects that had occurred to them during or after birth.

7 = Deaf and Unable to Speak
Code 7 should be shaded for persons who became deaf and dumb due to defects that had occurred to them during or after birth.

8 = Non Functioning Upper Limbs/Gripping; Stretching, .../
This refers to household members whose hands not functioning due to defects that had occurred to them during or after birth. It includes unable to use hands / for example for grasping, for writing/ due to lack of strength or weakness; feebleness, paralysis and others. These problems could be caused by problems of Nervous system, malformation of bone muscle, extremely shortened or elongated of hands. Therefore, based this explation code 8 will be shaded for those who mentioned problems related to hands or mainly related to hands.

9 = Non functioning Lower Limbs/Standing; Walking . .../
This refers to household members who cannot use their legs for various functions due to defects that had occurred to them during or after birth. It includes unable to use legs due to lack of strength or weakness; feebleness, paralysis and others. These problems could be caused by problems of nervous system, malformation of bone muscle, extremely shortened or elongated of legs. Therefore, based on this explanation code 9 will be shaded for those who mentioned problems related to legs or mainly related to legs.

10 = Body Movement Difficulties
This includes household members who due to defects that occurred to them during or after birth lost body balance for sitting, stagger, severe jerking unable to stand or move from place to place, unable to coordinate body movement /for instance eye and hand, turning neck/, unable to use body due to lack of strength,. It includes unable to use legs due to lack of strength or weakness; feebleness, paralysis and others. These problems may be caused by problems of nervous system, malformation of bone muscle, lack or extremely shortened or elongated of legs. Therefore, except problems of upper and lower limbs that are mentioned above code 10 will be shaded for those who mentioned body movement difficulties.

11= Mental Retardation
This refers to persons whose level of cognition, understanding of their surrounding social relationships and intelligence are extremely low compared to what is expected of their age. Among such people there are differences due to variations in the type and extent of injuries. Mentally retarded persons can be classified into three categories depending on their leaning capacities.
Learning Capacities
Children under this category though they have mental retardation, they can read, write and do mathematics and other subjects/ until limited grade level/. Studies show that they can attend formal education up to junior secondary level. Usually most of them cannot go beyond primary school level. Except their retardation in academic learning there are not significantly different from others.

Training Capacities
Though children under this category generally have mental retardation problem, they may have the capacity of training different skills of assisting themselves and developing social relationships. For this they need continuous training. However, it is not appropriate to force them to learn reading and writing skills as they lack the capacity.

Unable to train
This includes persons who can't help themselves and who always seek continuous and full assistances of others. They need the assistances of others in day to day routine activities such as feeding, wearing clothes and others. Besides thinking problem, some may have problems of usage of words, movement, social and emotional. Because of this, it is difficult for them to train on practical activities. After relating the situation of members' mental problem with the explanations given for mental retardation enumerators should shade code 11 if the case is verified to be mental retardation.
12 = Mental Disturbance
These are members who have no disability but have different cases related to mental problems. Thus, in question 12 enumerators should immediately shade code 12 for members identified to have mental disturbance in question 11. Enumerators should be cautious that members with mental retardation and epilepsy problems will not be considered as having mental disturbance.

13 = Others
Code 13 should be shaded for members who found to have other type of disability different from those mentioned above.
Note: When you encounter members who mention more than one disability probe the respondent to identify one which is the most severe and then shade the appropriate code.

Question 12:-Cause of Disability/Problem?

In this question cause of disability/ problem will be asked for those members who mentioned the type of disability in question 12. Therefore, identify and shade an appropriate code for each member from the alterative codes of cause of disability given below. For household members who have mental disturbance (in question 12 for whom code 12 was recorded) remember to skip to questions 14 since cause of disability is not applicable for them.

Cause of Disability/Problem:

1 = Vehicle accidents: Car, train, bicycle, motor bicycle, car accidents;
2 = Other accident: (falling, animal biting, falling from or kicked by animals, accident during work, electricity accident, being beaten, accidents caused by artilleries outside war front meaning bullet, , sharp edges, bomb accidents, ,land mines, accidents caused by hammering bomb and land mines, -gun fire, and other accidents.
3 = Polio
4 = Hanson Diseases
5 = Other Diseases (after birth) except Polio and Hanson / for instance: measles, small pox, meningitis, diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, STDs, etc./
6 = Accidents in the Uterus / after birth
7 = In the war/land mines: Lost their body parts in the war by any type of weapons such as bullet, bomb, buried land mines, sharp edges, etc. and regarding the accidents caused by buried land mines it can be in the war or anywhere outside war.
8 = Do Not Know/ If a respondent unable to state the cause/.
9 = Others / different from code1- code8/

Question 13-15:- Migration

Prior to collecting the required information on migration, it is very important to have a knowledge regarding what the concept migration stands for. Question like how a given individual is considered to be a migrant in a given locality during a census period and setting up the criteria to respond the question is so crucial. Based on the type of place of residence i.e urban and rural areas, different meanings and criteria are set to define migration or a person as a migrant. Therefore, before executing the actual data collection, it is necessary and mandatory to understand the meanings and criteria used to define the term migration or a migrant person for both urban and rural settings. Hence the detail on the meaning and criteria used to define migration for both rural and urban areas are different and given as follows.

In Rural Areas:
A person is considered to be a migrant during the time of the census if he/she is found to have crossed the defined boundary of the "woreda" where he/she was previously residing. Moreover, even though the person does not cross the boundary of the woreda but found to have shifted his/her usual place of residence from a given rural kebele to an urban area of the same woreda during the time of the census, he/she will be taken as a migrant. Nonetheless, an individual is not regarded as a migrant in condition where a person is found to have changed his/her usual place of residence from a given rural kebele or farmer association to another rural kebele of the same woreda.

In addition to the above criteria, the following cases have to be considered to identify whether an individual is a migrant or not in rural settings.

Whether the person decides to return back or stay where he/she is, if the individual reports that the length of duration from the period he/she left the woreda where he/she previously residing to the time of the census is six months or more, he/she will be considered as a migrant.
Even though the length of duration from the period the individual left the woreda where he/she previously residing to the time of the enumeration is less than six months and if he/she has no any intention to return back to his/her previous place of residence (woreda), the person will be considered as a migrant.

However, the person will not be considered as a migrant if the length of duration from the period the individual left the woreda where he/she previously residing to the time of the enumeration is less than six months and he/she has decided to return back to his/her previous place of residence (woreda).

In Urban Areas:
In urban areas a person will be enumerated as a migrant if the individual fulfills the following criteria;

The person is a migrant if the individual was born in or came from any other urban or rural dwellings of the country or if his/her previous usual place of residence was any urban areas of the same woreda or another woreda and the length of duration from the period he/she left his/her previous place of residence to the time of the census is six months or more.
Even though the length of duration from the period the individual left his/her previous place of residence to the time of enumeration is less than six months and if he/she has no any intention to return back to his/her previous place of residence, the person will be taken as a migrant.
However, the person will not be considered as a migrant if the length of duration from the period the individual left his/her previous place of residence to the time of enumeration is less than six months and he/she has decided to return back to his/her previous place of residence.

Question 13:- About Duration of Migration

For urban areas: What is the number of years [the respondent] has continuously lived in this urban area?

For rural areas: What is the number of years [the respondent] has continuously lived in this rural woreda?

The ways to present this question to the respondent are different according to the place where the area of enumerations is found. For the respondent residing in an urban enumeration area, the question will be asked as, "for how long you used to live continuously in this urban area?" However, if the place of enumeration is found in rural areas the question will be presented to the respondent as follows; "for how long you used to live continuously in this rural woreda?"

All members of a given household will be asked the question and the necessary code from the given options will be shaded for each member based on the response provided by the respondent.

In addition to what is stated previously, the following cases are imperative to have a clear understanding so as to collect the required information on migration during the period of census.

In some cases there are conditions where a person is born in a hospital or health service giving institution which is located out of the woreda in which his/her household is residing. Under this situation the place of birth of the person is considered to be the place where his/her household is residing rather than the hospital or health service giving institution. Because of this, the individual is not considered as a migrant during enumeration.

In a similar condition where a woman gave birth to a child in a residence of her parents or relatives and return back to her household, the place of birth of the child is the place where the mother and her household is living, not the residence of her parents or relatives.

There are conditions when individuals did not use to live in a rural part of a woreda or an urban area since birth but after sometimes they started to live continuously in that rural area of the woreda or urban area. Under this circumstance, such members of a household will be asked for how long they start to live continuously in the rural woreda or urban area and the necessary code will be assigned based on the information to be obtained. The information to be filled will be in completed years. For instance, if the information given is 3 years and one month, the number of years to be considered will be 3 years.

In order to clearly state the criteria given earlier to define migration or a migrant person and to enhance the understandings of the enumerator, the following examples are provided.

A. During enumeration persons who did not use to live in a rural part of the woreda (place of enumeration) since birth are divided in to two categories
Those who were born in any rural and urban areas of another woreda or urban areas of the same woreda;

Those who were born in the same rural area of a given woreda but after sometime they left they place of birth and stayed in other woreda or urban area of the same woreda but return back to their place of birth. This refers to those who returned back after stayed for six months or more away from their place of birth

For example,
A person called Megerssa Tullu was born in Chefa rural kebele of Ginir Woreda and he used to live in his place of birth continuously for 15 years since birth. Shortly he left his place of birth and started to live in Ginir town of the same woreda for 5 consecutive years. But the person returned back to his place of birth 2 years prior to the time of the census. Under this situation the number of years Megerssa Tullu have lived continuously in the woreda (area of enumeration) is the duration from the time he retuned back to Chefa rural kebele from Ginir town to the period of the census, two years. The fifteen years he used to live continuously in his place of birth after he was born is not considered.

B. At the time of census, persons who do not continuously live since the time of birth in the urban area are also grouped in to two.

Those who were born away from the place of enumeration: This refers to those who were born in other urban areas or any rural areas of the country.

Those who were born in the present area of enumeration but for some periods of time they had lived in other urban areas or any rural localities and shortly returned back to their place of birth or the current place of enumeration. This refers to those who once upon a time used to live continuously in other urban areas or any rural dwellings for six months or more but found to be in their place of birth during enumeration.

For example,
A man named Tesfaye Kebede was born in place of enumeration called Goro town of Goro woreda and he used to live in his place of birth continuously for 8 years since birth. Later on he left his place of birth and started to live in Meliyu town of the same woreda for 5 consecutive years. But the person is found to have returned back to his place of birth at the time of census. Under this condition the number of years individual has lived continuously in the area of enumeration is the duration from the time he retuned back to his place of birth or from Meliyu town to the period of the census. The 8 years he used to live continuously in his place of birth before he went to Meliyu town is not considered.

A person called Yimer Ali used to live continuously in his place of birth, Dessie town from the time of birth to age of 8. Shortly he left his place of birth and started to live in Nekemte town of Oromia Region for 5 years and later on he returned back to his place of birth 3 months prior to the time of census. Under this situation the number of years the person has lived continuously in the Dessie town (area of enumeration) is the duration from the time he retuned back to Dessie town from Nekemte town to the period of the census, i.e. only three months.
Based on the above given detailed examples and criteria, the codes for the possible responses for question 13 are given as follows:

0 = for those who used to live continuously for less than a year in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

1 = for those who used to live continuously for 1 year in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

2 = for those who used to live continuously for 2 years in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

3 = for those who used to live continuously for 3 years in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

4 = for those who used to live continuously for 4 years in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

5 = for those who used to live continuously for 5 to 6 years in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

6 = for those who used to live continuously for 7 to 9 years in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

7 = for those who used to live continuously for 10 years or more in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda

8 = for those who used to live continuously since birth in the place of enumeration; i.e. either urban or rural area of the woreda.

Hence, based on the response obtained from the respondent the necessary code from the given alternative will be taken and marked. For example, for a person who reports that he used to live continuously in the area of enumeration for less than a year, code 0 will be marked. Similarly, code 5 will be marked for those have been living for 5 to 6 years in the place of enumeration continuously etc...

Question 14:- Was [the respondent] previous address urban or rural?

This question will be asked to respondents who are given codes from 0 to 7 in question 13. After asking respondent about the last place of residence he/she used to live before starting to reside in the current place of enumeration, code 1 and code 2 will be assigned to those who report their last previous place of residence an urban and a rural area, respectively. For those who will be given code 8 in question 13, the enumerators should skip to question 16 without asking them question 13.

Question 15:- To which zone does this area belong?

This question will be asked to respondents who are given codes from 0 to 7 in question 13 or respondents who are found to be eligible to question 14. After asking the respondent about his/her last previous place of residence and marking the necessary code on question 14, the respondent will also be asked in which zone he/she used to live before coming to the current place of enumeration. The correct code for the response will be taken and marked from the given list of zone codes, which is attached to this manual in appendix 1.

There are conditions in which some respondents may not know the zone of their last previous place of residence. Instead they may know the major city or town, which is nearer to the place they came from. Under this case, the enumerator should try to clearly ask and have a clue (name of near-by town or city) to identify the zone where the respondents used to live for the last time. For this purpose the list of zones with corresponding towns and cities is attached with this manual (see Appendix 1). For those who will be given code 8 on question 13, question 15 will not be asked and hence enumerators should skip to next question (question 16).

Question 16-17:- About Maternal or Paternal Orphanhood

Empirical research findings in developing countries show that the number of orphans is increasing chillingly through time. This results a greater social and economic pandemonium in the society. Particularly an escalating number of children and youth become victims of the death of either one of their parents because of HIV/AIDS. To investigate the volume of the impact two successive questions are incorporated in the census questionnaire. These questions are referring to children and youth aged 0 to 17 years.

Question 16:- Is [the respondent]'s biological mother alive?

This question is regarding the survivorship status of the biological mother of children aged 0-17 years. All members of the household aged 0-17 years are eligible to this question. Based on the response to be obtained, code 1 will be given and marked to those children whose biological mothers are alive at the time of enumeration. For those children whose biological mothers are reported to have died, code 2 will be assigned. Enumerators should bear in mind that the question refers to only the biological mothers and it does not consider survivorship status of guardians or adopting mothers.

Question 17:- Is [the respondent]'s biological father alive?

This question is regarding the survivorship status of the biological father of children aged 0-17 years. All members of the household aged 0-17 years are eligible to this question. Based on the response to be obtained, code 1 will be given and marked to those children whose biological fathers are still alive at the time of enumeration. For those children whose biological fathers are reported to have died, code 2 will be assigned. In this case, enumerators should bear in mind that the question refers to only the biological fathers and it does not consider survivorship status of guardians or adopting fathers.

Note: - for those children aged 0-17 years whose mothers or fathers survivorship status is not known, code 2 should be taken and shaded on questions 16 and 17.

Question 18-20:- About Literacy and Educational Status of Persons Aged 5 Years and Above.

Questions from 18-20 refer to only members of a given household aged 5 years and over. During the time of enumeration information on the ability of the person to read and write with the language he/she speaks, the school attendance status of the person and the highest grade the individual has completed will be asked and collected. All questions refer to the literacy and educational status of individuals aged 5 years and over at the period of the census.

Question 18:- Can [the respondent] read and write?

This question is about the literacy status of members of the household aged 5 years and over. All eligible persons will be asked whether they can read and write with the language they speak. For those who report that they can read and write, code 1 will be given and marked on the given box on the questionnaire. In other words for persons who are found to be unable to read and write, code 2 will be assigned. A person is considered to be literate if he/she can read and write clearly with any language. Those who can read and write only their names and numbers are not taken as literate. Moreover, those who can read and write some statements or words, which they know before through memorization, are not considered as literate.

Question 19:- Is [the respondent] currently attending school?

For those members of a household who are reported to be attending school at the time of the census, the grade levels they are attending will be asked and the information obtained will be filled in the given questionnaire and shaded. For those persons who are not attending school during the time of the census but had attended sometime in the past, code 97 will be assigned. For individuals who have never attended code 98 will be given and the enumerator should skip to question 21 without asking question 20.

This question refers to the current school attendance status of persons aged 5 year and over. All eligible persons will be asked and based on the information obtained the appropriate code will be assigned from the given list of codes. Persons who are currently attending school (those attends school at the time of enumeration) are those who are attending formal education in schools, training institutions, universities, colleges and etc... and persons who attend informal education like religious education at the time of enumeration. The education can be given by either paid or unpaid/volunteer persons/teachers.

Persons who are trying to adopt some skills during spare time with the help of their relatives or persons whom they know are not considered as individuals who are attending school such as, daily laborers who try to acquire some skills about carpentry, mechanical works and sewing while working. Nevertheless, those who are acquiring skills in training institutions at the time of the census are taken as persons who are attending school.

For those who attend in the formal educational institutions are given codes from "00" to "14" and from "20" to "22". For individuals who are reported to be attending informal education such as religious education, skill development like typing, carpentry, mechanical works, driving, sewing and etc..., code 96 will be assigned and shaded. Moreover for persons who are found to be attending adult education, code 95 will be given.

Persons who are not attending school at the time of enumeration are divided in to two categories.
Those who are not reported to be attending at the time of enumeration, but had attended sometime in the past and;
Those who have never attended school.

Those who are stated under category 1 are individuals who attended school at some point of time in the past but currently found to be not attending because of dropout or completion of the programme. For those cases code 97 will be given. However, member of a given household who stated under category 2 are the one who have never attended any form of education and for them code 98 will be assigned. However persons who were attending school but reported to be not attending at the time of the census due to the end of academic year or vacation should be considered as cases, which attend school. For instance, students who had attended grade 8 or 10 during the academic year and taken exam prior to the time of census but found to be not attending due to the end of the academic year are given code that corresponds to persons attending grade 8 or 10.

For the purpose of enabling the enumerators to assign and mark the necessary codes to the information obtained, the list of level of grades which the respondents attend at the time of census with their corresponding list of codes are given below.

A: - Grade Levels With Codes for Those Attending School at the Time of Enumeration.

Grade level, Code, Description
Preschool, 00, for persons who are attending kindergarten or schools below grade 1

Grade 1, 01, for persons who are attending grade 1

Grade 2, 02, for persons who are attending grade 2

Grade 3, 03, for persons who are attending grade 3

Grade 4, 04, for persons who are attending grade 4

Grade 5, 05, for persons who are attending grade 5

Grade 6, 06, for persons who are attending grade 6

Grade 7, 07, for persons who are attending grade 7

Grade 8, 08, for persons who are attending grade 8

Grade 9, 09, for persons who are attending grade 9

Grade 10, 10, for persons who are attending grade 10

First year preparatory, 11, for persons who are attending the first year preparatory program which enables them to join higher educational institution

Second year preparatory, 12, for persons who are attending the second year preparatory program which enables them to join higher educational institution

10+1, 13, for persons who are attending the 10+1 vocational and technical educational program that is designed to graduate students with certificate

10+2, 14, for persons who are attending the 10+2 vocational and technical educational program that is designed to graduate students with certificate.

College diploma or 10+3, 20, for persons who are attending the 10+3 vocational and technical educational program which is designed to graduate students with diploma

Degree, 21, for persons who attends program in higher institution which is designed to graduate students with degree such as B.A., B.Sc., LL.B., M.D.

Post graduate, 22, for persons who are attending post graduate program which is designed to graduate students with post graduate degree such as M.Sc., M.A. or Ph.D.

Adult Education, 95, for persons who are attending adult education

Non formal education, 96, for persons who are attending non-formal education like religious education at the time enumeration.

For Those Who Had Attended before but are Not Attending at the Time of Census

Dropout cases or those who attended before

Code: 97
Description: For persons who had attended any form of education either in the formal or non-formal educational institutions before but currently found to be not attending at the time of enumeration.


Those Who Never Attended Before

Never attended before

Code: 98
Description: For persons who have never attended any form of education either in the formal or non- formal educational institutions before

Question 20:- What is the highest grade [the respondent] completed?

This question will be asked to persons who are reported to be attending school at the time of enumeration and to those who were attending some times in the past. The level of educational attainment or highest grade the person has completed refers to the highest grade level he/she has completed within the most advanced level attended in the educational system either in the new or the former educational system of the country where the education was received. For example, a person who is found to be attending in grade 7 at the time of enumeration is considered to have completed grade 6 in question 20. Therefore, codes 7 and 6 will be assigned to the individual on questions 19 and 20 respectively. However the person may not attend at the time of the census but reported to have taken exam in grade 8 and passed, under this circumstance the person is considered as the one who completed grade 8.

For the purpose of enabling the enumerators to assign and mark the necessary codes to the information obtained, the list of level of grades which the respondents has completed at the time of census with their corresponding list of codes are given below.

B: - Highest Grade Levels the Individuals Have Completed at the Time of Census with Their Corresponding Codes

Grade level the person has completed, Code, Description
Preschool, 00, for persons who have completed kindergarten or schools below grade 1

Grade 1, 01, for persons who have completed grade 1 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 2, 02, for persons who have completed grade 2 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 3, 03, for persons who have completed grade 3 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 4, 04, for persons who have completed grade 4 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 5, 05, for persons who have completed grade 5 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 6, 06, for persons who have completed grade 6 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 7, 07, for persons who have completed grade 7 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 8, 08, for persons who have completed grade 8 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 9, 09, for persons who have completed grade 9 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 10, 10, for persons who have complete grade 10 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 11, 11, for persons who have completed grade 11 in both former and new curriculums

Grade 12, 12, for persons who have completed grade 12 in both former and new curriculums

Certificate, 13, for those who graduated with certificate from formal education providing institutions which are above grade 12 (colleges and universities or similar institutions)

Those who do not complete diploma program, 14, for those who are attending in institutions above grade 12 and have completed at least the first year of the program which is designed to graduate persons in Diploma program but they have not graduated with Diploma

Those who do not complete degree program, 15, for those who are attending in institutions above grade 12 and have completed at least the first year of the program which is designed to graduate persons in degree but they have not graduated with Bachelors degree

People with Collage diploma, 16, for those who have completed the program which is designed to graduate persons in diploma and have graduated with diploma from higher institutions

People with first Degree, 17, for those who have completed the program which is designed to graduate persons in first degree and have graduated with first degree from higher institutions such as B.A., B.Sc. M.D., LL.B etc...

Persons in Post graduate program, 18, for those who are attending in higher educational institutions have completed at least the first year of post graduate program which is designed to graduate persons in degree of Master but they have not graduated

Persons with Degree of Master, 19, for those who have completed the post graduate program which is designed to graduate persons in second degree and have graduated with degree of Master from higher institutions such as M.A., M.Sc. M.A.D., M.LL., M.B.A etc..

Persons with Ph. Degree, 20, for those who have completed the post graduate program which is designed to graduate persons in Ph. Degree (doctorate degree) and have graduated with degree of Philosophy or Ph.D. from higher institutions

Grade 9, 21, for persons who have completed grade 9 in the new educational system

Grade 10, 22, for persons who have completed grade 10 in the new educational system

First year preparatory, 23, for persons who have completed the first year preparatory program which is designed to enable students to join higher educational institution

Second year preparatory, 24, for persons who have completed the second year preparatory program which is designed to enable students to join higher educational institution

10+1 and certificate, 25, for persons who have completed the 10+1 vocational and technical educational program and graduated with certificate

First year in 10+2, 26, for persons who have completed the first year of the 10+2 vocational and technical educational program

10+2 and certificate, 27, for persons who have completed the 10+2 vocational and technical educational program graduated with certificate.

First year in 10+3, 28, for persons who have completed the first year of the 10+3 vocational and technical educational program

Second year in 10+3, 29, for persons who have completed the second year of the 10+3 vocational and technical educational program

College diploma or 10+3, 30, for persons who have completed the 10+3 vocational and technical educational program graduated with diploma

Adult Education, 95, for persons who have completed adult education and not continued to attend in any other educational program

Non formal education, 96, for persons who are attending non-formal education like religious education at the time of enumeration or for those who are given code 96 on questions 19.

Question 21 - 24:- Economic Activity

In this section the enumerators collect data regarding the economic activities and indicators of unemployment characteristics during the last seven days and the last twelve months prior to the date of enumeration.

Question 21:- Has [the respondent] engaged in productive activity for at least 4 hours during the last 7 days (paid or unpaid family work)?

Economic activity is asked by using moving reference period.

Every members of the household aged ten years and above is asked whether they were engaged at least four hours in productive activities in the last 7 days prior to the date of enumeration. The question should not be asked like "have you engaged in productive activity?" Rather have you been engaged in productive activity such as work for payment or family gain profit or produce own consumption. If the respondents do not understand, ask the respondents like" what have you been doing in the last seven days?" and mark the response/answer of the respondent according to the definitions of productive activities. Mark code 1 if a person was engaged in at least one of the activities mentioned; mark code 2 if a person had a job but not worked; mark code 3 if he/she did not work. If code 1 or 2 is marked for this question (question 21), skip to question 23, and if code 3 is answered, ask the next question (question 22).

Examples of those who count as absentees from work for the last seven days include those who took annual leave, maternal leave, sick leave, education or training, or those who did not work due to the termination of the job for the time being, (for instance, because of shortage of raw materials, absence of power supply, etc...) but expected to return back to work after the problem is solved. Those who had a job but did not work refer to those who had a permanent job at the time of enumeration but did not work during the last seven days. Note also that daily laborers, seasonal and unpaid family workers, etc if they did not work during the last seven days, they would not be taken as absentee from work. It is essential to understand the definition of productive activity / work so as to fill /mark the required data on the space provided. Thus, the definitions and explanations of productive activities are given as follows.

General definition of productive activity

For the purpose of the census, productive activity is defined as work, which involves the production of goods and/or services for sale or exchange and production of certain products for own consumption. According to the above general definition, economic/productive activity covers production of goods and services intended for sale on the market - aiming at generating incomes. Those include production of items or services for market (cash) or in exchange for other items. In other words, productive activities includes paid employment in household, private, governmental, agricultural activities, engagement in production of goods for sale, working in household enterprise and agricultural sectors without payment and apprentices as well. The remuneration might be daily, weekly, monthly or according to the amount of work done. It also includes unpaid family workers.

The following list of production of goods and services are included as productive activities.

Production of items for sale: For instance, industrial products, production of pottery, etc... and persons providing services for generating income for example, barbers, selling local drinks like "Tella" and "Katikalla" and weaving, brokers, .etc..

Paid employment activities in governmental, other households or organizations: for example physicians, teachers, employed farmers, shepherd, etc... It also includes unpaid communal work, for example, food for work, planting trees (forestry), communal labour, etc.
Producing items for own consumption or for sale or production of durable goods for domestic use, these are:

1. Activities involving in primary production for own consumption:
Example, producing agricultural products, (crops like cereals/pulses, fruits and vegetables, cotton, etc.); hunting, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying are the components of primary production. Growing or gathering agricultural primary products, etc.; animal husbandry/ poultry, hunting, fishing and cutting or collecting of fire woods, charcoal or for other purpose from own holdings. Collecting thatching and weaving materials and Burning charcoal - mining salt cutting peat, digging of soil for house or household utensils, digging or collecting sand and stone, etc.

2. Processing of Primary Commodities for own Consumption
It covers activities such as milling grain, making butter, cheese and other dairy products, sinning and tanning, making baskets and hats and constructing wooden furniture and fixture
Note: It should be emphasized that these various activities are considered as economic activity only if they involve the processing of primary products. Thus, pounding "teff" (a primary product) to make "injera" is included; thus-using flour (a processed product) to make "injera" is excluded. It should further be noted that only the processing of primary commodities by the producers of these items, which means that the processing for own consumption of primary commodities by those who do not produce them is excluded. Thus, for example making flour of "teff" but at the market is not included but making flour of "teff" Produced by oneself is counted

Processing those above mentioned products to finished or semi-finished products for own consumption. Example: - Spinning, making butter or cheese, grinding corns or cereals. Producing furniture, like, tables, chairs, containers, etc... However, processing those finished or semi-finished items to other forms for own consumption cannot be considered as a productive activity.

3. Processing of primary commodities (goods and services) for sale also are productive activity

Example, making local drinks (like "Tella") for sale and partially used for own consumption. It can also be considered if the drink is partially used for home.

4. Production fixed assets for own use (those fixed assets should at least one year service)

Example, Construction of dwellings, construction of farm buildings, clearing land for cultivation production of agricultural tools, etc.

Non Productive / economic activities
While the SNA definition of the production of goods and services covers a wide range of activities many other activities still remain outside its scope.

a) Unpaid activities such as domestic tasks are taken as non-productive/ economic activities do not count as economic activity. For example, water fetching for domestic use, collecting firewood/ dung from field or forest (not from own holding) and spinning of cotton for own consumption of primary commodities who do not produce them.

b) Unpaid domestic activities do not count as economic activity. Examples are preparing food for household consumption, nursing of children and current repair and maintenance of dwelling and farm buildings and unpaid community and volunteer services, and voluntary service in international or national centers or local organizations, etc...

c) Even though one receive money, but do not earn it: Who are pensions only, Who are earning money by renting a house only, i.e. by not involving in any activity, Those who are earning money by begging ,and gamblers, are not considered as economic activity.

d) Others, like engaged in apprentice-to get experience working in offices, garage and in various sectors without participation of in relation to training /education also considered non- economic activity.
Note: During the census day those who are not work due to preparing/ clearing working area, buying goods, or in the process of having working license are considered as participated in the productive activities.

Question 22:- Is [the respondent] available to work during the coming month?

Question 22 concern the availability criterion. It is formulated in conditional terms, asking whether the person would have been able and ready to start work, if an opportunity for work had been offered during the reference period. This question should be appropriately amended to refer to ability and readiness to start work within 3 weeks. Regular students are said to be ready to work if and only if they are full time available to work. Even though the part time students claim to ready, they will not be taken as they were ready to work and asked reasons for that and choice code 3 education/ training.

This question presents for those who replied code 3 in question 21, refer for those did not have any work for payment or self-employment but available to work in the coming month including the weeks of enumeration. If they are ready to work, choose code 1; If not available to work, choose any one from code 2-9 alternatives provided.

1 = Available
2 = Personal/ family affairs
3 = Student/ Training
4 = Home making without payment
5 = Disabled
6 = Injury/ Illness
7 = Too young
8 = Old age/Pensioned/Remittance
9 = Others (instance: Delivery/pregnancy etc...)
Note: Additional notes can be found from Question No. 23 for above alternative answers.

Question 23:- Was [the respondent] engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months? If not what was the main reason?

The last 12 months means the day before the enumerator reached the respondents house back to 12 months (one year or 52 weeks before the enumeration date).Suppose that the enumerator reached the household on 2 June 2007, then the last 12 month covers the period between 2 June 2006 and 1 June 2007. Thus, every members of the household aged 10 years and above were asked whether they were engaged in or not in productive activity for most of the last 12 months prior to the date of enumeration. If the respondent(s) engaged in the productive activities, then mark (shade) the space corresponding to code 1. If not, shade any one of the choice from code 2 - 11 as given by the respondent.

NB: The definition and explanation given for productive activity in question 21 is also applicable here. The difference is only the reference period. So, enumerators should take it into considerations.

What do we mean by most of the last 12 months?
A person is to be classified as most of the last 12 months active (engaged in productive activity) usually if he/she has been economically active (engaged in productive activity) for more than 6 months or 26 weeks or above during the last 12 months. The above clarification is general definition/ concept. But engagement in productive activity for most of the last 12 months depends on the type and nature of activity they were involved and vary from country to country. The following three examples elaborate how most of the last 12 months are applicable.

a) If a person is engaged in agriculture, he/she was decided to consider him/her as being engaged in economic activity during most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked during most of the main agricultural seasons of the reference year in that area/ locality.

For example
Suppose that the main agricultural season for a particular area is 8 months. A person in this particular area is said to be engaged in most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked for 4 months and more. Agricultural season includes the main and the "Belg" Season and the time from preparing the land to harvesting (seeding, ploughing, sawing, weeding, harvesting and collecting).

b) If a person is engaged in other agricultural activity, like livestock, poultry, cattle rearing... etc. for 6 months or more in the last 12 months, then that person is considered as he is engaged for most of the last 12 months.

c) Those who are working in rural or urban areas of the country engaged either non-agricultural sectors like, trade, weaving, something Government organization etc...., if they were worked for more than 6 months and above in the last 12 months , then these people were at work for most of the last 12 months.

Based on the above three explanations every member of the household aged 10 years and above were asked whether they engaged in productive activities or not in the last 12 months, then shade/mark the response accordingly the codes (1 -11) listed below.

-Engaged in productive activity:- if he/she was engaged in productive/ economic active or employed during most of the last 12 months.

-Unemployed with work experience:-Even though these people had a job some time before a year but due to lack of job they were not engaged in any productive activity during most of the last 12 months. This people may seek or may not to get jobs. But if opportunity comes, they were ready to work.

-Unemployed without work experience:- These people were not engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months and they have no job before 12 months and they may or may not seek to get a job during the reference time. If opportunity comes, they are ready to work.

-Student/ Training:- The category includes all persons, aged 10 years and above who, during most of the last 12 months do not engaged in productive activity due to attending school/training during day time. But those students who engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months are not included in this code

-Homemaking:- All persons, male or female, who are aged 10 years and above, and who, during most of the last 12 months were not engaged in productive activity due to domestic activities like preparing food for family,...etc. For example, housemaid. It is important to note that those persons may or may not engage in economic activity during the last 12 months.

-Disabled:- These persons were not working in the economic activity most of the last 12 months because of their disability or handicap ness.
Note:- Disabled or handicapped persons who were engaged in productive activity (in Que.21) should not be included here.

-Injury/ Illness/ mental problem/ retardation:- Those persons who were not working in the economic activities most of the last 12 months because of their injury/ illness.

-Too young:- All persons (male or female) who are aged 10 years and above and who, during most of the last 12 months were not engaged in productive /economic activity because they are too young. For those persons who are aged 15 and above were not included in this code. For those persons who are attending school should be given code 4, rather than code 8

-Old age/ retired/ remittance: These are persons who were not engaged in productive /economic activity during most of the last 12 months because of old age/retired or remittance or renting a house.
Remark: In addition to remittance, pensions and earning money from renting housing if they are engaged in economic activity during most of the last 12 months should not be included here;

-Begging:- Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during most of the last 12 months because they spent their time on begging.

-Others such as delivery/pregnancy....etc.:-Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during most of the last 12 months because of delivery/ pregnancy and were not classified from code 1-10 are grouped here.
Remark: Unemployed students are those students attending school during the night and seeking job and were not engaged in any productive activity during the day should be included either in code 2 or 3.

Question 24:- What was [the respondent's] employment status in the main job?

This question is asked for those who answered code 1 or 2 in question 23 (who has engaged in economic activity for most of the last 12 month and unemployed with work experience). The main activity refers to what a person has been doing for the longest period within the last 12 months.

Note: Employment status for unemployed persons with work experience is the status of the main job just before they left their work. Before filling the status, one has to understand well the following list and explanation of employment status.

1 = Government employee:-This category includes those who, for most of the last 12 months worked on permanent or contractual basis, and paid on daily or weekly bases, and were paid from the government institutions such as hospitals, schools, defense forces....etc.

2 = Parastatal employee:-This category include those who for most of the last 12 months worked for government parastatal, and paid on permanent, contract, weekly or daily basis. These categories include government factories, state farms, etc. The parastatal may be fully or partly owned by the Government.

3 = Private employee:-These include those who, for most of the last 12 months, worked for a private employer and were paid either wages, salary in cash or in kind by the employer. The employments may be permanent or contract. The employer may pay them monthly, fortnightly, weekly, or daily.

4 = NGO's employee (including local and International non government Organizations.) Those include who for most of the last 12 months, worked for NGOs, International organization (UN). They were paid on monthly, weekly, daily or hourly basis. The terms of employment may be permanent or contract.

5 = Domestic employee:-These include maidservants, guards of the house, drivers...etc., who for most of the last 12 months, worked for private household. They were paid in cash or in kind. Their main job is preparing food, fetching water, washing cloth, cleaning the house for private households, etc.

6 = Other employee:-For most of the last 12 months they worked for non-profitable organizations such as churches, mosques, etc.

7 = Self-employed:-These are own-account workers who operate their own economic enterprise or engage independently in a profession or trade, and hire no employees. They worked a productive activity for most of the last 12 months in their enterprise.

8 = Unpaid family workers:-Those members of household (living in the same household) who worked for most of the last 12 months without pay for families.

9 = Apprentice:-These persons were the new entrants to the labour force, they may or may not trained in some specific field of study. They may be paid or not, who are practicing during most of the last 12 months in the productive activities.

10 = Members of co-operative:-Who is an active member of a producers' co-operative and worked for most of the last 12 months. But those of the employees of the cooperatives should be included under code 3.

11 = Employer:-A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engaged independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees during most of the last 12 months. This person may or may not participate in the production processes.

12 = Other (Specify):-For those whose employment status is different from the above mentioned (7-11) and who worked for most the last 12 months are grouped in this code (code 12).

Question 25:- What is [the respondent's] current marital status?

Every member of the household whose age is 10 years and above are asked currently married or not. People who live together as husband and wife and who regard themselves as husband and wife should be recorded as married. The marriage may be taken place either legal, religious or traditional basis or those married persons should live together as husband and wife. The answer for this question must be accepted as given by the respondent and not to question the legal aspect of the marital status. Thus, it is the respondent who defines his/her marital status. The relevant codes to be marked for the various marital status categories are:

1 = Never married: - Are persons who have never married before the census date.

2 = Married:- Are persons who at the reference time (May 28, 2007) had marriage partners whether they were staying in the same house or not. The marriage may be both under the legal system of the country, religious or the customs of the local area.

3 = Divorced:- For all persons who at the reference time have had their marriage formally annulled either in court or by custom and have not married again during the census time.

4 = Separated :- For all persons who because of dispute or other reasons were no longer staying in the same house as "married partners " but whose marriage had not declared culturally or legally dissolved. At the enumeration date if the husband and wife full fill this condition then mark this code (code 4).

5 = Widowed:- For all persons who at the reference time have had lost their marriage partners through death and have not remarried.

6 = Living together/Cohabiting:- Are persons who at the reference time ( May, 2007 ) living together as husband and wife. The marriage is not in the legal system of the country or the customs of the local area. These persons may or may not have had common child.

Question 26-29:- Are questions referring the fertility experience of women aged 10 years and over.

Question 26-28:- The number of children the respondent has ever born

This question is going to be asked for member of a given household who are females aged 10 years and above regarding the number of children they have ever born during life time (which includes children who are living with them, children who are dead and children who are living in other places). Nevertheless, Females whose age is less than ten years and members who are males of any age are excluded from being asked this question.

Before forwarding the question to the respondent, the enumerator should understand the concept of being "born alive". Being "born alive" means without considering the number of months the fetus stayed in its mother's womb, if the child breaths at the time of birth or if he/she shows life before or after the umbilical chord is cut; such as when the child experiences a heart beat, umbilical chord beat, crying, muscle movement etc..., it is only under this condition we come to say that the child is "born alive." What should be noted here is that if the child shows life even for a very little time and die soon no matter how long the pregnancy lasted, the child will be considered to be "born alive". However, in situation when the fetus dead in the womb and abortion cases are not taken in to an account.

Traditionally, some mothers consider their adopted children as their own biological children, so due attention must be taken while asking the question to the respondent. What is required to collect is the information regarding the number of children ever born by their biological parents. For this purpose three separate questions (questions regarding children who are living with their parents, who are not living with them and who are dead) are built to collect the required information on the number of children ever born by a given respondent. This method helps parents to remember their entire biological children; so we can get the exact information on the number of ever born children. But adopted children are not counted and therefore enumerators should take care while collecting the information.

Question 26:- How many children have you borne who are now living with you (Male, Female)?

For women age 10 years and above the question concerning the number of children they ever born and currently are living with them will be asked. The information (the number of ever born children who are living with their mothers) to be collected will be filled and marked separately by sex on the spaces provided. Under this question children who are included are:

- If the respondent is currently married, the children who are born from the current spouse and living with them now.
- If the respondent was married before current marriage, children who were born before current marriage and living with their mothers in the current household.
- In addition, children born out of marriage or born before their first marriage and are living with their mothers in the current household.

Nevertheless, children who are born from the husband and any other women or children who are not born from the respondent are not included. For females who are 10 years and over but don't have children with them or never born before code "0" will be filled and marked.

Question 27: - How many children have you borne who are now living elsewhere (Male, Female)?

The question refers to children who are "born alive" and currently residing in other places rather than with their families. The separate questions will be asked by sex so that the number of children who are not living with their mothers by sex will be obtained. And the information to be collected will be filled and shaded on the space provided. If the respondent have no children who are living in other places and never born before, the space provided must be filled with "0" for both sexes. Under this question children who are included are:

- If the respondent is currently married, the children who are born from the current husband and living in other places.
- If the respondent was married before the current marriage, children who are born before the current marriage and living in other place.
-In addition children born out of marriage or born before their first marriage and are living in other place.

Question 28:- Did you have children who have died? If yes, record how many died (Male, Female).

By asking the respondent that among the children who are "born alive" how many of them died, the information will be filled on the space provided. But if there is no child dead the space will be filled with code "0" for both sexes. When the enumerator fills this question you should remember that children ever dead mean, children who are born alive but dead after some time. As mentioned earlier it is important to remember that children who are dead include children born with marriage and died or children born out of marriage and died.

Question 29:- Did [the respondent] have any live births during the past 12 months (since May 29, 2006)?

The respondent will be asked whether they gave birth to a child who is "born alive" during the 12 month prior to the date of enumeration i.e. from 29 May 2006 - May 28, 2007 and the answer will be marked on the space provided.

To understand the concept "born alive" it is important to note the explanation given in question 26 - 28. Moreover, in question 29 children who are counted must be born during the reference period (the 12 months prior to the date of enumeration i.e. from 29 May 2006 - May 28, 2007). Sometimes respondents may tell all of their children without taking in to an account the given reference period. Therefore it is crucial for the enumerator to explain all these concepts to the respondent.

If the respondent gave birth to a child during the last 12 months prior to the census date, the number of children will be filled and marked on the space provided. However, if they didn't, code "0" will be given to the respondent and the code will be shaded on the questionnaire. Most of the time women give birth only once in a year so fill code"1" but in condition when a woman gives birth to a twin children during the reference period code "2" will be assigned.

Even if this question is asked for women aged 10 years and over, for those aged 50 and above years, this question must not be forwarded.

Section 4:- About a death occur in the household during the last 12 months.

The information to be collected under this section is about the mortality experience of a given household during the last 12 months, prior to date of enumeration. Hence the question to be asked should refer to the mortality condition at the household rather than individual level. Therefore, enumerators should bear in mind while collecting the required information. The question to be asked must be phrased as, is there any member who died during the last 12 months in your household?

The question is designed to get raw data about number of death occurrences in the household age wise for the countries like Ethiopia which don't have a vital statistics (birth, death, marriage and divorce etc...).

Question 1:- Did a death occur in the household during the last 12 months (i.e. from May 29, 2006 to May 28, 2007)

If there were deaths occurred in the household during the last 12 month, fill the number of death occurrences on the space provided but if there is no death the enumerator should assign and shade code "0" on the give space provided in the questionnaire.

Question 2:- What is the name of the deceased?

The name of the deceased persons will be filled here if there are dead persons in question no. 1.

Question 3:- What is the sex of the deceased?

Under question 2 the sex of the deceased persons will be asked and filled in front of their name.

Question 4:- Age at death?

The age of the person who is deceased is asked and will be filled in year across the name of the deceased. The data obtained from question will help us to calculate the number of death in the country by age group during the census and before the time of census. Therefore, care should be given when age is asked. To probe age please use the auxiliary information provided in this manual part 3 question 6.

Question 5:- Did [the respondent] die during pregnancy, childbirth or within two months after child birth?

This question is devised to get information on level of maternal mortality in the country or at regional, zonal or lower administrative levels. So the enumerators should give due attention while asking the question and collecting the required information. If the question is asked in the wrong way, the information to be collected will give irrelevant indicator on the level of the problem. Therefore, the enumerator must identify the age of the dead and should ask the question to those members of the household who died and aged 12 - 49 years. The question to be asked must be phrased as for the female member of the household aged 12 - 49 and died, did the death occur as a result of giving birth or pregnancy complication or during 2 months after the time of giving birth. Based on the response to be obtained code "1" and code "2 " will be given for those who report yes and no, respectively. But if the death is occurred due to not maternal problem, while giving birth or pregnancy related complications, it should not be considered as maternal death.

Section 5:- Detail Information on Housing Units

General Instruction
The enumerator should closely consider the following points before collecting data about housing units.

Information on the housing units is collected if and only if the housing unit is used for residential purpose, be it for residence only or for residence and enterprise purposes on the date of enumeration.

If the housing unit is used only for enterprise purpose at the time of the census the information will not be collected.

Information on IT related amenities, Radio, Television or Telephone are collected if they give function only. Out of uses are not enumerated.

While collecting information regarding the materials with which the wall, roof, ceiling and floor are made, the enumerator should also include his own observation to improve the quality of the data.

The enumerator is supposed to have a good understanding of the definitions of terms such as room, ceiling, protected well/spring, etc. and he should explain to the respondent, on such terms so that the can get the correct answer to the questions.

If two or more households are found in a single housing unit, information about the housing unit is collected only once. In other words if two households are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking one of the households only. However, the housing unit will be considered as having a certain amenity, if one of the household reports them.

For collective quarters, for hotel/hostel residents (if in section 2 of this questionnaire codes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 are given/shaded) housing data will not be collected. To indicate that housing information will not be collected, mark code 2 for question 1. The enumerator should however, remember that housing information will be collected for households residing in collective quarters, hotel/hostel, etc.

How to Fill in Housing Questions:

For most questions alternative answers and codes are provided and hence the enumerator is supposed to mark the code of the answer given by the respondent among other possible alternatives.

Some of the question with alternative answers and codes may contain the "others" option in order to take care of additional answers other than the given ones. The enumerator should make sure that this option is marked only if the given response is different from the provided alternative answers.

Since an additional questionnaire is used for households having more than 8 members, it should be noted that information about the housing unit is collected on the last page of the questionnaire.

Question 1:- (Enumerator), Will housing information be collected?

1= Will be collected
2= Will not be collected

As mentioned earlier if more than one household are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking only one of the household. In this question, code "1" is marked for the household for which housing information shall be collected. On the other hand for the other household living in the same housing unit and inmates of collective quarters and hotel/hostel, code "2" will be marked and the rest housing questions (question 2 - 20) are left blank.

Question 2:- How many years ago was this housing unit built?

In this question the interest is to know the number of years since the housing unit was built. The enumerator is expected to mark the correct code correspond to the right year or interval. If respondents fail to know the exact number of years, the numerator should urge them to give him an approximate year. If some part of the housing unit is built at a certain time and the other part is built at some other time, the enumerator should take the period during which a larger part of the housing unit was built.

1= less than 5 years
2= 5 to 9 years
3= 10 to 14 years
4= 15 to 19 years
5= 20 years and above

Question 3:- How many rooms are in the housing unit?

A room in a housing unit is said to be a room if it is surrounded by wails, if it has a height of at least 2 meters measures from its floor to its roof, and if it has an area of at least 4 square meters that can accommodate an adult's bed. In this question the total number of rooms that the household is used for various purposes is required and thus, the enumerator should note that the definition given above is valid for housing units having more than one room.

Therefore, bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, and others, are considered as rooms. However bath rooms, toilets, corridors, and verandas should not be considered as rooms even if they satisfy the definition of a room. In addition, a manger is also not considered as a room.

For housing units used for both residence and enterprise, the rooms, serving both purposes are considered excluding the one used for enterprise purpose only.

A space to write the number of rooms is provided in the questionnaire and the enumerator should at the same time mark the corresponding number. The answer for this question shall never be "0" since the housing unit the household is residing is considered as a housing unit if it has at least one room in it.

Question 4:- What is the main source of drinking water for the members of this housing unit?

The purpose of this question is to know the major source from which the household gets its drinking water. If the sources are more than one, the enumerator should further ask the respondent to identify the main one and he should mark the correct code among the possible alternatives given below.

1 = Tap inside the house
2 = Tap in compounded, private
3 = Tap in compounded, shared
4 = Tap outside the compound (from private tap, from public tap or other organizations paid or for free)
5 = Protected well or spring
6 = Unprotected well or spring
7 = River/lake/ pond.
N.B:- We call a well/spring protected if it satisfies the following.
-Its surrounding should be properly built by stone and cement
-If it is a well the building should be at least 2 - 4 meters deep in the ground and about 70 cm above the ground level.
-If it is a spring the building should go deeper until a rock or a strong soil as found to serve as the base of the building and the height of the building above the ground level can vary depending on the situations. It should however have an outlet pipe on one side of the building.
-The well/ spring must have a cover which is made of cement or any other strong material.
-There should be a properly made diversion to protect the will/ spring from any water flowing towards it.
-The distance mentioned above should be by far larger if such contaminating facilities are stalked in higher position reliance to the well/spring.

Thus, if the household gets its drinking water from well/spring satisfying the above points, the enumerator shall mark code 5. Unless it is tap water, any water fetched from rivers or lakes is generally considers as unprotected and code 6 marked. If the household is using tap water as the source of drinking water, the enumerator should ask the respondents as to where the tap is located and he, marks the appropriate answer from the given 4 alternatives. The enumerator should note that the water may be fetched from the source by using human labor or other means.

Question 5:- What type of toilet facility does the housing unit have?

In this question, the interest is to know the type of toilet facility that the housing units have and also to know the distribution of housing units that do not have such facilities. It is a known fact that the availability of toilet faculty is a very crucial element to prevent and control disease transmission and to improve the health status of the society. The data generated from this question can thus be used as an important health indicator.

Therefore, the enumerator shall mark the appropriate code from the given choice if a housing unit has both pit latrine and a toilet with flush, the enumerator should mark the code given for a toilet with flush. In addition, if a toilet facility is no more functioning for various reasons and it is not in a position to be maintained and put back to service then the housing unit is considered as not having the facility.

1 = No toilet facility
2 = Toilet with flush
3 = Pit latrine, ventilated
4 = Pit latrine, without ventilation
N.B
Toilet faculty with flush is one that let the waste to be swept away by water to the pit.
Ventilated pit latrine (VIP) is one with additional out let for the release of gas.

Question 6:- Is the toilet facility shared? (If codes 2 - 4 are marked for question 5)

This question will be asked for housing units which are given Codes 2 - 4 in Question 5. A toilet facility may be privately owned or may be shared with other households. Thus if the toilet is shared code 1 will be marked and if it is privately owned code 2 will be marked.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Question 7:- What type of bathing facility does the housing unit have?

In this question data regarding the type of bathing facility of the housing unit is collected in addition to data on whether this facility is shared or not is also collected.

A bathing facility is said to be private if the bath/shower is used by one or more households residing in the housing unit, and a bathing facility is said to be shared if it is shared with other households residing outside the housing unit.

1 = No bathing facility
2 = Private bath
3 = Shared bath
4 = Private shower
5 = Shared shower
6 = An empty room reserved for bathing

If a housing unit has a bath and a shower, priority is given to the bath. If the housing unit has a separate room purposely built to serve as a bath room and the household members bring water from somewhere else because the room does not get have the facility, the enumerator should mark code 6. However, if the household uses the toilet that was neither a bath nor a shower the bed room, the kitchen or any room that has not been built to serve as a bath room, the housing unit is considered as not having a bathing facility and the enumerator should mark code 1 among the given alternatives.

Question 8:- What type of kitchen does the housing unit have?

A housing unit is said to have a kitchen if it has a room primarily built to serve as a kitchen. Even though such a room at the same time serves men and animals to spend the night as long as it is primarily built to serve as a kitchen and is mostly used as a kitchen, the housing unit shall be considered as having a kitchen. However, if the housing unit has only one room that serves the household members to live in and at the sometime to cook their food, then the housing unit is considered as not having a kitchen. In order to assess the health impact of sharing the same room for living and cooking purposes, the enumerator should given emphasis as to where the kitchen is situated.

In Ethiopia, especially in urban areas, we can find both traditional and modern kitchens. Thus, the enumerator should have a clear understanding of the distinctions between the two, as given below, so as to mark the correct code of the given answer.

Private kitchen:- A kitchen is said to be private if it serves one or more households residing in the housing unit.

Shared kitchen:- A kitchen is said to be shared if it is shared with households residing in another housing unit.

Modern kitchen:- A kitchen is said to be modern if it at least has a pipe water and a sink and in addition if it has one or more of the following items for cooking; electric stove, butane stove, modern wood/charcoal stove,...etc.

Traditional kitchen:- A kitchen is said to be traditional if it has an open or closed stove with/ without a climery and wood, cow dung, charcoal, leaves,...etc. are used as cooking energy. A traditional kitchen does not have a pipe water and a sink.

The enumerator is, thus, required to mark the correct code among the given alternatives taking the above points into consideration.

1 = No kitchen
2 = A room used for traditional kitchen inside the housing unit
3 = A room used for traditional kitchen outside the housing unit
4 = A room used for modern kitchen inside the housing unit
5 = A room used for traditional kitchen outside the housing unit

Question 9:- Is the kitchen shared? (If codes 2 - 5 are marked for question 8)

A kitchen may serve one or more households residing in the housing unit or it may be shared with households residing in another housing unit. This question is, thus, asked to find out whether the kitchen facility is shared or not.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Question 10:- What type of the cooking energy does the members of the housing unit used?

Most of the time uses electricity

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses butane stove/ cylinder

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses kerosene stove

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses charcoal

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses wood/leaves/ saw dust

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses dung/ manure

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses bio-gas

1 = Yes
2 = No

Most of the time uses fuel other than those mentioned above

1 = Yes
2 = No

The type of fuel that the household is using can give an indication on the socio-economic status of the household. In addition some of the fuels mentioned above are harmful to health; such data can also be used to know the health status of the household.

Therefore the enumerator shall mark code 1 for the type of fuel that the household most of the time uses and code 2 for the ones it does not use. If the household does not cook or does not use any fuel at all, code 2 should be marked for all types of fuels listed above.

Question 11:- What type of lighting does the housing unit have?

Since lighting is one of the basic services that should be made available. The objective of this question is to assess the distribution of electricity all over the country and also to identify the type of lighting that housing units have. The enumerator shall mark the correct code of the type of lighting that the housing unit have among the given alternatives;-

1 = Electricity, Meter private
2 = Electricity, Meter shared
3 = Electricity from generator (No meter)
4 = Solar energy
5 = Lantern
6 = Bio-gas
7 = Kerosene lamp
8 = Candle/ wax candle
9 = Firewood
N.B:- In some small towns electricity is supplied without a meter simply because the service is charged by the number and watt of bulbs that the customers are using. In such a case code 3 should be marked who so ever the service provider is, be it private providers or the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation.

Question 12:- Does the housing unit have the following (properly functioning)?

In this question, data on their extent and distribution shall be collected. The data regarding the extent and distribution of such media convey a strong message as to the exposure of the population to the various information, education and communication activities.

Therefore, the availability of such items in the housing unit should be asked one by one and the respective code should be marked, i.e. code 1 should be marked if the item is available in the housing unit and code 2 should be marked if not.

A. Is there a functioning radio

1 = Yes
2 = No

B. Is there a fixed telephone/wireless telephone (Cell/mobile phones are not considered)

1 = Yes
2 = No

C. Is there a functioning television

1 = Yes
2 = No
N.B:- A housing unit is said to have a radio, television or a telephone if such items are a functioning ones. If not, they should be in a position to be maintained and put back to service in a short period of time. The enumerator should also note that the telephone mentioned above does not include cell/ mobile phones.

Question 13:- How does the housing unit dispose of solid waste?

In this question the major way of solid waste disposal used by the housing unit is asked and the appropriate code is marked among the given alternatives.

1 = Collected by municipality/ public dump
2 = Collected by private establishments/ individuals
3 = Dumped in street/ Open space
4 = Dumped in river
5 = Burned/ Buried solid waste
6 = Other

Question 14:- Do domestic animals spend the night in the room(s) where the members of the housing units spend the night?

This question helps to measure the health status of the household and to know the extent to which the household is exposed to transmitted diseases primarily caused by animals /chicken, livestock, sheep and goats, horses, donkeys, mules, etc./

Therefore, whether or not members of the household and animals share the same room to spend the night is asked and code 1 is marked if they do, code 2 is marked if not, and code 3 is marked if they don't have animals at all.

1 = Yes
2 = No
3 = Don't have animals at all.

If a shepherd or somebody else spends the night in the room purposely built for the animals for protection purpose, code 2 should be marked.

Question 15:- What is the type of tenure of the housing unit?

This refers to how the residents hold the housing unit and there are various possibilities for such a case. A housing unit is said to be privately owned by the members of the household/residents of none of them pay any money in the form of rent. The housing unit may be rented from Kebele, Rental Houses Agency or from other organization or individual and, therefore, the codes 3 - 6 should be marked accordingly. A case may also arise where individuals pay a rent difference due to the reason that the rent of the housing unit is which they are currently residing is higher than the rent of the housing unit they used to live in before. In such a case the enumerator should mark code 7.

A housing unit is also said to be held free of rent if it is given to the household without any rent from kebele, government, or other organizations or from relatives, friends, etc.
The enumerator is thus, expected to mark the correct code from the given alternatives.

1 = Privately owned by the members of the household/ residents
2 = Free of rent
3 = Rented from kebele
4 = Rented from Rental Houses Agency
5 = Rented from other organization
6 = Rented from private household
7 = Occupied difference in rent

Note:- The questions 16 - 20 require personal observation apart from interrogating the respondent.

Question 16: What is the type of the housing unit?

In Ethiopia the way housing units are built vary from place to place and, thus, the enumerator should seriously consider the description provided below in this regards.

1= Permanent housing unit:- A housing unit is said to be permanent if it is built from stone, bricks, hollow bricks or other materials to serve for many years.

2 = Temporary housing unit:- A housing unit is said to be temporary if it is built for temporary residence by using wood poles and with walls and roofs made from items such as cartoon, plastic sheet, corrugated iron, etc. An example of temporary housing unit could be a tent, if there are households residing in it. The enumerator should be very cautious not skip temporary housing units and the households residing in them.

3 = Mobile housing unit:- A housing unit is said to be mobile if it is built in such a way that the household residing in it can carry it from place to place. Housing units of nomadic people can be taken as an example.

4 = Others: - If the housing unit is different from the ones listed above, the enumerator should mark this code.

Question 17:- What is the major material used for the construction of the wall of the housing unit?

In this question the material with which the wall of the housing unit is majority built is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is marked. If the type of material with which the wall is made is not found among the given alternatives, the enumerator shall mark code 11.

1 = Wood and mud
2 = Wood and grass or wood only
3 = Stone and mud
4 = Stone and cement
5 = Plastered hollow bricks
6 = Unplastered hollow bricks
7 = Bricks
8 = Corrugated iron
9 = Bamboo/reed
10 = Mud brick
11 = Others

Question 18:- What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the ceiling of the housing unit?

In this question the material with which the ceiling of the housing unit is mostly built is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is marked. If the ceiling is made of more than one item, the item constituting the largest part should be taken. However, if all or most of the rooms of the housing unit do not have a ceiling code one shall be marked. If the item with which the ceiling is made of is other than the ones listed, code 9 shall be marked.

1 = None
2 = Fabrics
3 = Bamboo/Reed
4 = Chip wood/Hardboard
5 = Parquet or polished wood
6 = Wood planks
7 = Concrete/cement
8 = polythene sheet or "Madaberia"
9 = Others

Question 19:- What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the roof of the housing unit?

The roof is the upper part and cover of the housing unit resting on the walls, which protects the housing unit from rain, wind, etc. In this question, the material with which the majority of the roof of the housing unit is made is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is marked. If the material with which the roof is made is other than the ones listed, code 8 should be marked. If the housing unit is a multi-storied one, the material with which the roof of the top story is made should be taken for all the housing units beneath.

1 = Corrugated iron sheet
2 = Concrete/Cement
3 = Thatch
4 = Wood or mud
5 = Bamboo/Reed
6 = Plastic
7 = Asbestos
8 = Others

Question 20:- What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the floor of the housing unit?

In this question the material with which the floor of the housing unit is made is asked and the correct case among the given alternatives is marked. If the floor is made of more than one material, the one constituting the longest part should be taken. And if the material with which the floor is made of is other than the ones listed, code 9 shall be marked.

1 = Mud
2 = Bamboo/Reed
3 = Wood planks
4 = Parquet or polished wood
5= Cement screed/cement screed not applied
6 = Plastic tiles
7 = Cement tile/brick tile
8 = Ceramic/Marble tile
9 = Others
NB:- Plastic tile refers to a four sided colored tile and not the plastic sheet.

Date, Name and signature of the enumerator and supervisor

This is the place for the enumerator and supervisor to put the date, their names and signature as a confirmation to the successful accomplishment of their enumeration. Therefore, the enumerator is required to put his name, signature and the date on every completed questionnaire as a confirmation that he has carefully fulfilled his responsibility. Moreover, the supervisors have been expected to confirm the work of the enumerators whether the enumerator has asked the questions correctly and collected the required information from the respondents. For this purpose, a place is given to the supervisors to put their names and signature as well as the date of confirmation on the questionnaire.

Chapter Six

Enumeration method of people living in the collective quarters, mobile/ nomadic and homeless.

I: - Method of enumeration of households who are living collective quarters, nomadic and homeless households.

In population and housing census in addition to conventional households:

-Hotel/Hostel residence
-Those who live in children's home
-Those who live in boarding schools (include students who get accommodation from universities and colleges)
-Prisoners
-Other member of collective quarters
-Pastoralists and
-Those who have no shelter are included in the enumeration; therefore, the following instruction will help us to do that.
A - E: - Method of enumeration for those who live in Hotel/Hostel, Children's home, Boarding Schools (Students in the Universities and Colleges Which Have Dormitories), Prisoners and Other Collective Quarters.

Concerning people who live in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding schools (students in the universities and colleges which have dormitories), prisons and other collective quarters on form-1 we have given housing unit serial number and serial number for Hotel/Hostel and collective quarters. Therefore, these numbers should have to be transferred with care to the main questionnaire. Each and every residence according to his/her living condition listed from "A - E" should have to be enumerated by taking the required number of questionnaires.

While doing this, do not forget to shade the numbers under question number 1 and the box, which shows whether, that questionnaire is a continuation of other booklet. Remember that, if you get Hotel/Hostel and children's home residence in an EA, they have to be registered in two different questionnaires.

Those who have to be registered together using many pages successively, the information filled on the first page of the questionnaire in section 1 and 2 must be filled on the rest of the questionnaire and should have to be shaded.

Visitors of hotels that mean individuals who rest in hotels for few days must be registered after we register the residences of the hotel at the end of the questionnaire.

For all who resides in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding school, prison and other collective quarter we don't ask housing questions. Therefore, in section 5 under question 1 we must shade code 2.

For all who resides in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding school, prison and other collective quarter, we must shade code 2 through 6 in section 2 to indicate their living condition and in question 4 we must shade code 11 to indicate that they have no relationship. Don't forget filling long questionnaires for those who live in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding schools, prisons and other collective quarters.

F: - Method of enumerating nomadic/ pastoralists

Sometimes it is possible to get nomadic/ pastoralists (those who are from place to place in search of water and pasture for their livestock) in sedentary areas. When we come across such cases we use the rules given for regular households.

G: - Method of enumeration for homeless peoples

During listing in every EA we must identify the places and streets where people live on street or religious areas and do not have shelter elsewhere. Then, according to the date and time announced from census office and the instruction given from the supervisor we will fill short questionnaire for them. Those who live on the street are considered as one household and we will give them one housing unit and household serial number. These two numbers will be written on the last row of form 1. The serial number next to the last will be given to it.

Homeless are considered as one household; therefore, we may use many questionnaires to register them.

II: - Enumeration of inmates of collective quarters
Collective quarters, with 100 and more inmates, are considered as special enumeration areas (EA). If the space occupied by the special EA is large enough, EA map will be prepared for it. If the space is small and is difficult to make a map we indicate them by symbol S1, S2, S3, etc. in the EA map where they are actually found.

An enumerator who is assigned to work in special EA begins his work by filling the listing form. Using this form after the enumerator lists the special EA on one row. If private households are living in the special EA the enumerator has to list them by giving the serial number next to the special EA. If the number of inmates in the special EA is more than 999, we cannot write it on the summary form (form 4) because we have only three boxes. Therefore, we have to write every 999 inmates on a new line of form 1, column 12. Please look at the following instruction.

First get the numbers of inmates living in the special EA.
If the total number of inmates is more than 999, then enumerate every 999 inmates in an independent long questionnaire. Fill the serial number on form 1 of column 12 on the long questionnaire. The next 999 inmates will be given the next serial number from the last on form 1 column 12 and this same number will be written on long questionnaire. Continue this procedure until all the inmates are enumerated.

Check if the number of inmates indicated above in step1 could be done be done by single enumerator during the census period. If the numbers of inmates are very large the enumerator should have to report to the supervisor and make him to add additional enumerator to finish it on time.

As explained in step3, if more than one enumerator is assigned to work in a special EA each of them should have to fill independent form 1. The information, which will be filled from column 1 - 12, should be the same for all enumerators except for those regular households in the special EA.

As explained in step 4 above when the work is distributed to enumerators' care must be taken on the number of residences in the collective quarters, which will be filled on summary form (form 4) not to exceed 999. Those enumerators, who did their job correctly, will not get a number, which exceed 999 on the summary form (form 4).
Concerning collective quarters the information collected in column 13 through 16 must be the same for all enumerators.

As explained above, all enumerators must fill their own information on the questionnaires prepared for the census. The information which are going to be taken from form 1 are the one which are filled by them.

Enumerators who are working in special EAs should have to make sure that there is no repeated numbers in column 12 of form 1. In case, if the enumerator get repeated number it is possible to correct it by giving the number next to the last to one of the repeated. But, on column 12 each enumerator should have to fill consecutive numbers. That means if the first enumerator lists from 001 up to 005 including regular households and stopped then the second should have to begin from 006 and the third begins from where the second stopped. All enumerators continue in that way by giving consecutive numbers.

Chapter Seven

Filling of Population size Summary Form of an Enumeration Area (Form 4)

This Form uses to summarize the household and population size by sex in the enumeration area. Therefore, all relevant information should be transferred from the census questionnaires to the summary form after checking the census questionnaires are correctly filled in.

The summary form should be filled in daily at enumeration area level. This means that the necessary information should be recorded in the summary form daily for the households that are covered by the census questionnaires. This form should be filled in daily starting from the first day of the census till the entire household in the enumeration area are completely enumerated. Moreover, the summary form and the census questionnaires should be filled in the same day for the households that are interviewed. Size of all conventional households, inmates of hotel/hostel, inmates of other collective quarters and homeless persons should be recorded in this summary form. Visitors will not be recorded in the summary forms even though they are listed in the main census questionnaires.

Section one: Area Identification

In this section the codes of the region, zone, woreda, supervision area, kebele and enumeration area should be recorded and appropriately shaded. These codes can be taken from the description form of the enumeration area.

Columns 1-3:- Region, Zone and Woreda

The codes of the region, zone and woreda where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the boxes provided under columns 1 - 3 and these codes should be shaded appropriately.

Columns 4 - 5:- Town and Sub city

For urban enumeration areas, the codes of the town and sub city should be recorded in the boxes provided under these columns and these codes should be appropriately shaded. For rural enumeration areas, code "8" for town and code "88" for sub city should be recorded in the space provided and these codes should be shaded.

Column 6:- Supervision Area

The code of the supervision area where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the space provided under this column and this code should be shaded.

Column 7:- Kebele

The code of the kebele where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the space provided under this column and this code should be shaded.

Column 8:- Enumeration Area

The code of the enumeration area where the enumeration is being conducted should be recorded in the space provided under this column and this code should be appropriately shaded. Information recorded in columns 1 - 8 should be checked against information recorded in the census questionnaire.

Section 2: Summary of Population size

The household and population size by sex will be recorded under this section. This section should be filled in after completing the enumeration and properly checking the filled in census questionnaires.

Column 9:- Serial number of household/Hotel/hostel/other collective Quarter

The serial number of the household/ hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter given in the census questionnaire should be recorded under this column and this number should be shaded. This number will be transferred from the questionnaire to this form in the sequential order of the filling of the questionnaire. However, the recording of this number may not follow the sequential order of the listing form because some of the households might be absent during the enumeration day.

Column 10:- Code for types of residence

The code of types of residence should be transferred from the census questionnaire to this column and this code should shade.

Column 11:- Name of head of the household, hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter

If the questionnaire is filled in for conventional household, the name of the head of the household; if the questionnaire is filled in for hotels/hostel or other collective quarter the name of the hotel/hostel or other collective quarter should be recorded in this column. And if the questionnaire is filled in for homeless persons, "homeless persons" should be recorded in this column.

Columns 12-13:- Size of usual members of the household/inmates of hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter by sex (number of males and females)

If the head of the household is listed in column 11, total numbers of the members of the household including the head (separately each sex) should be recorded in the space provided under these columns and the numbers should be shaded appropriately. The number of males will be recorded in column 12 and the number of females will be recorded in column 13. If the name of hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter is recorded in column 11, numbers of inmates of the hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter, should be recorded in these columns by sex and the numbers should be shaded. If "homeless persons" is recorded in column 11, the total numbers of the homeless persons by sex, should be recorded and shaded.

The numbers of persons recorded in these columns can be taken from the questionnaire in section 3 question 3 i.e. by identifying the names of the members by sex who were present and absent during the census day.

Column 14:- Total number of members of the household/ inmates of hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter

If convectional household is recorded in column 11, total members of the household should be recorded and if hotel/hostel or other collective quarter is recorded in column 11, the total number of inmates recorded in this column and the numbers should be shaded. The number recorded in this column should be the sum of the numbers recorded in column 12 and column 13.

Remark: - It should be noted that the number of the members of the conventional household does not include visitors.

Names and initials of the enumerator and supervisor and date

The enumerator should put his/her name, initial and the date after he/she has checked that all the data recorded in the summary form is correctly recorded. In the same way, the supervisor should put his/her name, initial and the date after he/she check the sum of the numbers is correctly added and recorded in this form.

[Appendices 1-4 are not presented here, including the list of administrative regions and zones, major historical events, census questionnaires, and census enumeration area maps.]