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The 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia
Enumerators' Instructional Manual

October, 1994
Addis Ababa

[Table of contents has been omitted.]

Chapter one

Introduction

In Ethiopia the first National Population and Housing Census was conducted in May 1984. A considerably large amount of resource and manpower was spent and mobilized in this huge endeavor. For the 1984 census, 42,000 Enumerators and 8,000 Supervisors had taken part excluding the permanent staff of the office that had also participated at various stages of the census process.

The results of this census was produced in various forms including statistical and analytical reports and were made available to governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, individual researchers, etc. The results of such census were believed to have addressed the population and housing data needs of the country.

Even though the data produced by the 1984 census have had a paramount importance in addressing the nation's data needs, their ability to reflect the overall current situation of the country is highly challenged as time passes by and as the data gets old. Population, being one of the prominent resources, a country should have an up-to-date and reliable data regarding the socio-economic and demographic conditions of its peoples. In the absence of such an up-to-date and reliable data it won't be possible to produce and articulate relevant plans and policies at various administrative levels. It is with such a concern that the Central Statistical Authority has finalized all the preparatory activities to conduct the second round population and housing census in October 1994.

1. Definition of population and housing census

A population and housing census is defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to all persons units in a country or a well-defined part of a country. It also encompasses the total
process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing statistical data pertaining to all living quarters and the occupants thereof in a country or in a well-defined part of a country at a specified time.

2. Objectives and usage of the 1994 Population and Housing Census

It has been about 10 years since the first population and housing census was conducted in Ethiopia and so many changes must have been encountered in the various socio-economic and demographic arenas during such a long period of time. The droughts that have affected most parts of the country jut after the first census, the rural villagization and resettlement programs undertaken after the census at different times, the civil war during the year 1984 to 1991, the various political, social and economic policies that have taken place after the census could be some of the incidents that might have brought these changes.

As stated earlier, because of the tremendous changes that had taken place in the country during the last 10 years, the 1984 census data fails to reflect the prevailing situations of the country. It, therefore, becomes very necessary to go for the second population and housing census in order to fill the basic data gap in the country.

The major objectives of the 1994 Population and Housing Census are the following:

a. To produce timely and reliable data showing the size and composition of the population disaggregated by urban/rural, national, regional, zonal, woreda and kebele.

b. To produce timely and reliable data showing the various socio-economic characteristics of the population, such as ethnicity, religion, language, marital status, literacy status, educational status, employment condition, etc.

c. To produce vital rates, such as fertility rates, mortality rates, migration rates, etc. that can be used as an input to make future population projections.

d. To produce timely and reliable data with regard to the size and conditions of housing units disaggregated by urban/rural, national, regional, zonal, woreda and kebele.

e. To determine the number of electoral constituencies at different administrative levels and to provide the number of eligible persons for election in each constituency.

In order to fulfill the above objectives, the statistical information obtained from the census is used for:

a. Evidence-based policy decisions
b. Balanced development plan formulation
c. Determining the flow of goods and services and of their demand and supply
d. Producing appropriate human resource organization and utilization policies and programs
e. Making effective resettlement programs when the need to relocate the population arises
f. Taking accurate administrative and political measures
g. Designing and implementing appropriate development oriented projects and to make justified decisions with regard to their size, quality and spatial distribution
h. Preparing relevant housing policy and implementing feasible housing programs

3. Duties and responsibilities of the enumerator

The enumerator is one of the major players of the census undertaking and it is, thus, expected of him to act accordingly with diligence and commitment. He is supposed to make a favorable working environment by trying to have a positive relationship with the residents of the enumeration area and by avoiding from being involved in any unethical deeds. In addition to that he should restrain from being part in any kind of extracurricular activities whatsoever, be it business, political and religious advocacy, etc.

He is supposed to introduce himself to the household and give some explanation about his visit prior to proceeding to his interviewing. He should also be very careful not to miss the essence of each question in the questionnaire while trying to give further explanation and he must not forget to properly thank the household for the cooperation extended to him before he leaves.

The enumerator must be very aware that maintaining the neatness and readability of completed questionnaires is his at most and top responsibility. He is also supposed to make necessary editing works while he is still in his enumeration area to deal with uncertainties arising from conflicting responses, wrongly marked/ labeled answers, non readable labeling and improper marking, etc. This important part of the enumerator's duty may require him even to make multiple revisits to households.

The enumerator is legally obliged to keep the secrecy of the information/data that he has collected and no personnel other than the ones from the implementing office are authorized to access the information.

4. Sequences of duties of the enumerators

1. An enumerator after being recruited under certain specified criteria is supposed to actively and regularly attend the necessary training program organized by the census implementing body.
2. After having successfully completed the training program, the enumerator shall be provided with documents and other materials necessary for his work.

3. When the enumerator reaches his place of work, he should first introduce himself and make an acquaintance with the kebele census committee. Then after, with the help of the members of the census committee and the supervisor, he is supposed to have a clear demarcation of the boundary of his enumeration area in conformity with the EA map.

4. The enumerator along with the kebele census committee and other enumerators in the kebele should participate in the colorful celebration of the census date, October 10, 1994, in the afternoon.

5. As of October 11, the enumerator will start to make his house to house canvassing to register households and housing units. While doing so, he should put the respective identification number of the housing unit on the upper left corner of the door or on any visible and suitable place near the door.

6. Selection of households eligible for long questionnaire administration shall be made based on the available household list (for both urban and rural areas).

7. Administration of long and short questionnaire will be done.

8. In the absence of an adult member of the household who can give an exact account of the members of the household, the enumerator is supposed to fill up revisit forms (form 2) and should make sure that the data is secured at some other time accordingly.

9. Any incidence that might force the enumerator to collect faulty data/ information must be reported as soon as possible and the enumerator shall be hold responsible if he fails to do so.

10. The enumerator is supposed to put a check mark (v ) near the housing identification number that he had previously put on the upper left corner of the door, as an indication that he has successfully completed his interview in the household.

11. While checking completed questionnaires at the end of each day, if the enumerator finds mistakenly skipped questions, mistakenly skipped households, inconsistent responses, etc. he is supposed to go back to the household and make the necessary corrections.

12. He should daily make summary of completed questionnaires by using the enumeration area summary form (Form 4).

13. When the supervisor confirms the completion of the census, the enumerator shall give back all the documents and other working materials that are at his disposal.

5. Documents and items necessary for the census

a. Enumeration area control form
b. Enumeration area map and description
c. Household and housing unit registration form (form 1)
d. Long and short questionnaire
e. Enumerator's manual
f. Household revisit forms (form 2)
g. Enumeration area summary form (form 4)
h. Enumerators bag, pencils, rubber, sharpener, chalk, etc.
i. Identification card given to him by census office

N.B. The enumerator must make sure that he has received all the documents and items mentioned above on an exact account.

6. Sequences of census data collection and implementation

In order to avoid duplication and omission of households and housing units during the census operation, and also to serve for further.

The cartographic operation, which is one of the most important pre-census activities, is carried out all over the country to partition the smallest administrative bodies, the kebeles, into Enumeration Areas (EA).

The enumeration areas are very useful to avoid omission and duplication of households and housing units during census they also serve as a sampling frame for various socio-economic and demographic surveys. By making use of the enumeration area map, all housing units, households and every single individual in the households including visitors will be covered by the census.

An enumeration area is an area consisting of an overage of 150 - 200 households or housing unit and a supervision area encompasses on average 5 adjacent enumeration areas.
The enumerator shall collect the necessary data by making a house to house canvassing.

Generally:

1. The enumerator is supposed to conduct his data collection within his enumeration area.

2. He shall be given an enumeration map since he should first know his working area.

3. He is supposed to physically identify the boundaries of his enumeration area with the help of the EA map.

4. He should register all housing units and households that are found in his enumeration area.

5. He should be very careful to avoid omission and duplication of housing units and households and he should also be very careful not to encroach into other adjacent enumeration areas that are out of his domain.

6. After the listing of households and housing units is completed, the enumerator shall select households eligible for long questionnaire administration, following pre-set rules and procedures.

7. He shall also administer short questionnaire for the rest of the households. Even though it is customary to use the head of the household as the information source of the households, direct contact with household members is also an advantage to collect high quality data.

Some times it may not be possible to gather all the information resulted from households by making a single visit. Thus an enumerator may be forced to make properly arranged multiple visits to household he should inform his supervision if he fails to secure the requested information by making a maximum of 3 visits.

Chapter two

Listing form of households and housing units (form 1)

Usage of the form

This form is used to list the households and housing units in each Enumeration Area (EA) and information like: purpose of the housing unit, main product of the enterprise, services given by the enterprise and number of employees, head of the household and whether any member of the household engaged in agricultural activity or not will be collected.

This form has two sections. The first section is used to collect information on identification particulars and the second about housing units and households.

Aim of listing

a. To avoid omission and duplication of households and housing units during enumeration.
b. To get sampling frame for socio-economic surveys which are going to be conducted after the census.
c. To know the total number of housing units, households and enterprises at each administrative level.

How to conduct listing
The settlement pattern and road type is different in urban and rural areas. In most of the urban areas the settlement patterns is convenient for listing, whereas in rural areas it is known the terrain and landscape makes the listing work difficult.

The settlement pattern does not follow a systematic pattern. Some of the rural residents are settled in forest land, in the valleys, hill sides, etc which are difficult to trace them. Therefore, the enumerator needs to follow steps listed below to tackle the problems.

The following steps have to be done during listing:

1. First the enumerator has to study or delineate the assigned EA.

2. Notice the position of housing units, streets and villages.

3. Listing must be started from the North West direction and should have to be followed in a clock wise direction.

4. The enumerator has to use the symbol "X" to indicate the starting point of the listing on the EA map.

5. The listing has to be done block by block or village by village.

6. Enumeration has to begin on the point where the symbol "X" is indicated on the EA map. Successive serial numbers are usually written on the left side corner above the door of the housing units using green chalk where rain and children cannot reach it.

7. During listing there is a possibility that some of the housing units will be covered by forests and not easily seen by the enumerator. In this case the enumerator should consult his guide or residents to access and list such housing units.

8. Listing is said to be completed when all the households and housing units are listed on the form. Care should be taken in towns where main housing units or buildings on the roadside cover some of the housing units behind them. In addition, there will be housing units built using plastics and cartons and the enumerator should make an effort to get them for listing.

9. Enumeration has to begin from the place where the symbol "X" is marked on the EA map during listing exercise. The enumerator should make a checkmark using blue chalk on the serial number found on the door to indicate that the household and housing unit has been enumerated.

Instruction for filling listing form (form 1)

In this form, identification particulars of the enumeration area are going to be filled from columns 1 through 8. In addition, information about housing units and households will be collected from columns 9 through 18. In each column there are different card columns which are used to record the appropriate code.

For example, in form 1 under column 1, there are two boxes which are used for writing region codes. Under each box, the enumerator has to enter the right code using the pencil provided.

Section 1: Area identification

Column 1: Region
Record the region name in the space provided. The name is transcribed from the enumeration map provided to him. The card columns are left blank.

Column 2: Zone
Zone name where the enumeration area is found is recorded in the space provided carefully. The card columns are left blank.

Column 3: Woreda
The woreda is recorded in the space provided for writing text name. The card columns are left blank.

Columns 4 and 5: Town and Keftegna
For enumeration areas found in a town, take the town names and keftegna codes from the EA map and record them appropriately. For enumeration areas found in the rural areas, put a dash mark.

Column 6: Supervision Area
The supervision area code in which the enumeration area is found should be taken from the EA Map and entered in the space provided.

Column 7: Kebele
The kebele code where the EA is found should be taken from the EA map and recorded in the space provided. Codes are also entered in card columns. Do not forget to write the kebele names as well.

Column 8: Enumeration Area (EA)
The EA code where the enumeration is going to be done will be found on the EA map. The boxes under the column should be filled in with these codes.

Note: if the rural area is not covered by the cartographic work the kebele name is entered in the space provided for writing names and card columns left blank.

Section 2: Household and housing unit information

In order to get the right information about households and housing units it is important to know the meaning of household and housing units.

Housing unit
A housing unit is a separate and independent part of the whole of a building or a group of buildings used or intended to be used for habitation by a household, or if not so, used or intended to be used as habitation and enterprise or only for enterprise purpose.

Separate housing units
A housing unit is said to be separate when all its sides have walls and its roof is covered, so that the people who live in the unit cannot be seen by others when they are sleeping, preparing their food and eating. However, sometimes there are housing units with walls constructed from plastics, cartons, etc. and with roofs also covered by plastics and used for habitation or commercial purpose. In such cases, even though it does not fulfill the definition, we consider it a housing unit. However, if a housing unit is made of plastic materials, etc., and used only for sleeping and dismantled during the daytime, we do not consider it a housing unit. Tents are considered housing units as long as they serve as a residential or commercial unit during enumeration.

Independent housing unit
A housing unit is said to be independent when it has common passage or land for exit and entry. It could also be called independent if it has a separate entrance from the other dwellings.

Residential housing unit
By residential housing unit we mean it is separate and independent and constructed for residential purposes. Further more, even though it is not constructed for residential purpose, if people live in it during listing we consider it a residential housing unit. The housing unit could be completely used as residential purpose or some part as residential and the other for other purposes such as business, weaving, woodwork, metalwork, etc. It is possible that there will be more than one household in a housing unit.

Household
A household consists of a group of persons who often live in the same housing unit or in connected premises and have common arrangements for cooking and eating their food. A household could consist of a single person, but usually, it consists of a husband, his wife, his children, relatives and non-relatives. The non-relatives could be friends, servants, employees, etc. As long as household members have the same arrangement for food it includes servants and guards, too.

To understand the concept of household it is important to know the following:

The number of household members could be different from household to household. A person living alone could be considered as a household. Individuals like guards, servants, etc., as long as they have the same living and cooking arrangements with a family, could be considered as members of the household.

If a person left his family and is found as a visitor in another household and we know that he/she stayed there for six or more months before the census day we consider him/her a regular household member in a household where we found him/her on the census day.

If a marriage is monogamous, a household includes husband, spouse, children, adopted children, other relatives and non-relatives (like servants, guards, etc.). In a polygamous marriage (person who has more than one wife), if the wives, children, relatives, etc. do not have the same cooking and living arrangement, we consider the husband and first surviving wife as a household and the remaining wives will form their own households.

Two or more households living in a housing unit
It is possible that there is more than one household in a single housing unit.

Column 9: Housing unit serial number
In this column successive serial numbers will be given to the housing units and these numbers should be entered in the card columns. These numbers are given to all residential housing units, hotel/hostels, to housing units which have double purpose like residential and enterprise, to collective quarters, and to others like not occupied housing units and to housing units under construction, too. This number has to be written on the left side corner of the door or in a place where it could be seen easily and could not be reached by children and rain using green chalk like PHC/001, PHC/002, etc., where PHC stands for Population and Housing Census.
If two households live in a housing unit each household takes a separate row in column 13 but the same housing unit number should be given to each household in column 9.

On the other hand, in a compound there will be two or more dwelling units occupied by a household. In this case consider them as one and give them one housing unit serial number. However, if different households occupy the dwellings, give different serial numbers to each of the housing units. In addition, if there are different buildings in a compound served for the same purpose consider them as one. You could find such buildings in a school, hospital, factory, etc.

Column 10: House number/sub-number
The house number is the housing identification number usually given by kebele office or local administration. In the space provided this is recorded and shaded properly. Sometimes, it is possible that a household occupies houses with different numbers. We could also find more than one household in a dwelling that have the same number.

Before starting collecting information on housing number the enumerator should consider the following points:

a. If more than one household are living in a house, this number will be given to each household repeatedly in column 10.

b. For a household occupying more than one housing unit with service quarters having a different house number, the number on the main house will be written on column 10.

c. If the housing unit service quarter mentioned above are occupied by different households and not given the sub-number of the main house, the main house number could be filled for each service houses in column 10. On the contrary, if each of these service houses has their own number given by the kebele office we can use or write the number in column 10.

d. If there are a number of houses in a compound occupied by different households but the number given by the kebele office is the same for the entire compound, then this number will be given to each household in column 10 repeatedly.

e. For houses which do not have a number on the census day the enumerator should have to leave this column empty. Sometimes kebeles could be divided in to zones. In such cases we could get similar house numbers in the zones. For instance, the house number 001 could be found in zones 1, 2, 3, etc. If you come across such cases you have to write the house number together with the zone number separated by a forward slash symbol (/).

f. It is possible that a house could be divided into sub-houses and occupied by different households. If sub-numbers are given to each of the houses by the kebele office, then these numbers could be written next to the main number given to the building. For instance, if a building has main number 50 and there are four houses in the building given sub-numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 these sub-numbers have to be written together with the main number separated by a forward slash: e.g. 50/1, 50/2, 50/3 and 50/4.

Column 11: Purpose of the housing unit
During listing, each and every housing unit is coded according to its purpose. The following codes are used to distinguish housing units by their purpose:

1 = only for residential purposes
2 = for residential and enterprise purposes
3 = hotel/hostel
4 = other collective quarters
5 = other enterprise
6 = unoccupied
7 = under construction

Description for codes 1 through 7 is given below:

1. Only for residential purposes
A housing unit is said to be used for residential purposes if and only if it is separate and independent and no other activities such as commercial, manufacturing, business, etc. are done in it. On this basis, during listing if a housing unit is used for only residence of conventional household members, then write the purpose and enter code 1 in the given card column.

2. For residential and enterprise purposes
During listing if the housing unit serves partially a residential purpose and partially an enterprise purpose, then describe the purpose and enter code 2 in the card column. For instance, in a residential housing unit, if there is additional activity such as selling of local drinks like Tella, Teji, or Katikala, code 2 is entered in the card column. However, if these two activities are done in two separate and independent housing units each of the housing unit could be listed in a separate row and given different housing unit serial number in column 9.

A description of an enterprise is given below. The code for partial residential and partial enterprise does not include hotel/hostel and other collective quarters.

Enterprise: an establishment which has its own fixed place and address, mostly managed by one or more private owners, that is in engaged in service-rendering, business or manufacturing activities. For example, establishments engaged in manufacturing of shoes, bread, textiles, etc. The repair of shoes, transport, health, education, restaurant, bars, supermarkets, etc. are service-rendering enterprises.

According to the above definition given for enterprise the purpose of a housing unit could be classified as partial residential and enterprise, if and only if, at least one member of the household resides in it and runs one or more formal or informal business activities in the same housing unit. For example a housing unit could be used as:

Residence and selling of local drinks like tella, teji, etc.
Residence and selling of food
Residence and weaving
Residence and kiosks
Residence and pottery
Residence and metal work
Residence and manufacturing and repair of shoes
Residence and office works, etc.

Even if the owner of the enterprise/establishment does not live in the housing unit, as long as employees or other individuals live in the housing unit, the purpose of the housing unit could be classified as partial residential and enterprise.

Collective quarter
A collective quarter is a premise (a housing unit, a building or a compound) in which a number of unrelated or related persons reside together, and share common facilities. It includes hotels, hostels, boarding schools, orphanages, homes for the elderly, children's homes, prisons, military barracks, monasteries, work camps, rehabilitation centers, etc. It is important to note that in the premises of some collective quarters there may be private households.

3. Hotel/hostel
A hotel is an enterprise which provides:

a. Food and drinks service or
b. Drinks and bed room service or
c. Food, drinks and bed room services or
d. Only bed room services

Even if it doesn't fulfill the criteria listed from above, as long as there are people who live in it and share common facilities we can classify it as hotel/hostel.

If it doesn't fulfill at least one of the criteria listed above and if it is not a collective quarter enter code 5.

A hostel is a structure in which many people live differently from regular households in one or more housing units and share common facilities like water, electricity, etc. together and could be administered by one manager.

Hotel/hostel residents are those people who do not have another place to live and do not cook their food in the room where they are living in. On the contrary, if they cook their food in their room, they should be classified as regular households.

In a hotel/hostel, if there are residents who live independently and cook their own food in the housing unit and live as regular households they should be listed separately from the hotel/hostel residents.

For example, if the owner of the hotel lives separately from the hotel residents with his/her family in the hotel by cooking his/her own food, then the owner with his/her family will be listed in a column 9 of the listing form and the hotel residents are listed separately. The private households who live in the hostel will have separate housing unit serial numbers.

4. Other collective quarters
Other collective quarters are, excluding hotels/hostels, premises where a number of unrelated or related persons reside together, and share common facilities. These include prisons, boarding schools, hospitals, military barracks, orphanages, homes for elderly, children's home, monasteries, etc.

Remember there could be regular households in a compound of other collective quarters.

Sometimes in big enterprises there might be collective quarters. In this case, the enterprise and the collective quarter are assigned different housing unit serial numbers in column 9 of the listing form. For other collective quarters code 4 should be entered in the corresponding card column.

5. Other enterprise
Other enterprise includes manufacturing industries, business centers, government offices, churches and mosques (excluding individual praying rooms), bars which do not have bedrooms, supermarkets, garages, stores, schools, etc. (excluding hotels/hostels and other collective quarters).

During listing, if the housing unit serves as the one of the enterprises mentioned above, code 5 should be entered in the card column.

6. Unoccupied housing unit
An unoccupied housing unit is a house which fulfills the given housing definition but is unoccupied for different reasons during listing operation. During listing if the housing unit does not serve any purpose then code 6 should be entered in the card column. Skip columns 12 through 17 of the listing form.

7. Housing unit under construction
A housing unit is said to be under construction if a wall and roof are fitted, but the other part is not finished or not completed. During listing, if the housing unit is under construction but it serves a purpose, we have to record the appropriate code.

For example, if the housing unit that is under construction is used for cottage industry, during listing code 5 should be entered instead of code 6. Skip column 12 through 17 for housing units under construction.

Columns 12 - 13: Only if column 11 is coded as 1, 2, 3 or 4

These columns indicate housing units which are used for residential and partially residential purposes.

Codes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in column 11 stand for:

1 = Residence only
2 = Residence and enterprise
3 = Hotel/Hostel
4 = Other collective quarters

These columns will be skipped for housing units which have codes other than those given above.

Column 12: Household, hotel/hostel, collective quarters serial numbers
Successive serial numbers beginning from 001 are given to households, hotel/hostels and collective quarters. These numbers should be entered in the card columns. If more than one household are living in the same housing unit, then different household numbers must be given to each household.

If there are private households in a compound of collective quarters, each private household should have its own serial number that is different from the collective quarter serial number. Care should be taken when filling in this column.

Column 13: Name of household head, hotel/hostel or other collective quarters
If the housing unit is used as a residence or partially as a residence or if codes 1, 2, 3, or 4 are filled in column 11, the enumerator must record the name of the head of the household in column 13. In a housing unit where there is more than one household write the name of the heads in independent rows, but the housing unit serial number in column 9 will be the same for each head. On the contrary, the household serial number in column 12 will be different for each head.

Any member of the household who is recognized as the head by the other members of the household is called head of the household. The head of the household can be male or female. In a polygamous marriage where the wives have separate households, the wife or any other member (e.g. elder son) could be considered as head.

If the housing unit is hotel/hostel in which no private household resides, write the name of the hotel or hostel in this column. In some cases, if private household(s) live in the hotel/hostel or other collective quarters the name of the household(s) are recorded independently in the given column and different serial number are assigned for each of them.

Column 14: Is there any household member fully or partly engaged in agriculture?
If yes, what type of agriculture? If no one is engaged in agriculture, mark code 8.

This column is concerned only with persons who are living in private households. Therefore, we have to follow codes 1 and 2 in column 11 and skip for codes 3 through 7. First, investigate whether there is at least one member in the household who is engaged in agricultural activity. If we find at least one, record the appropriate code in this column.

Note:

1. In urban areas, a household is said to be engaged in agricultural activity when it fulfills at least one of the following:

a. Has one or more cattle or camels that are used for the purpose of breeding and agriculture
b. Has two or more of sheep or goats or horses or mules that are used for the purpose of agriculture
c. When it has five or more chickens that are used for breeding
d. When it has two or more of those mentioned in points a through c that are used for agricultural purposes
e. When it grows different crops in at least 250 square meters of land
f. When it has more than one beehive that produced honey at least once during the last 12 months

2. In rural areas, regardless of the size of the land or the number of livestock possessed, if a household engaged in any agricultural activity that household is considered as an agricultural household. However, concerning bee breeding, the guideline mentioned for urban areas also applies to rural areas.

Generally, agricultural codes for urban and rural areas are categorized as follows:

1 = Crops only: those who grow or produce temporary, permanent or mixed crops such as coffee, vegetables, fruits, chat, enset, maize, teff, tobacco, cotton, etc. by using oxen or other animals or by hoe or by tractor or by using other tools.

2 = Livestock only: those who do not grow crops but are engaged in breeding or fattening of cattle, hens, goats, sheep, horses, mules, camel, or bees. Those who have a few animals used only for ploughing should not be included in this category.

3 = Other type of agriculture activity. Fishing, charcoal, forestry, flower production, nursery, and similar activities could be classified here.

4 = Both crop production and livestock: those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in codes 1and 2.

5 = Crops and other agriculture: includes those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in codes 1 and 3.

6 = Livestock and other agriculture: includes those who are engaged in mixed activities classified in 2 and 3.

7 = Crops, livestock and other agriculture: includes those who are engaged in mixed activities given codes 1, 2 and 3.

8 = No member engaged in agriculture. If there is no at least one member in the household who is engaged in agriculture it could be classified here.

Additional explanation for the above agricultural sectors is given below:

Crop production
When member(s) of a regular household are fully engaged in growing and harvesting permanent, temporary, or mixed crops we consider this crop production. Remember this person could have one or two livestock which may be used for ploughing and threshing.

Note: the word fully is used here to distinguish crop production and livestock breeding or fattening.

Livestock production
It is possible that a regular member of the household is engaged fully in livestock production. In such case we classify this as livestock breeding.

Domestic animals: this includes oxen, cows, sheep, goats, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, poultry and bees

Temporary crops: crops grown in less than a year's time, sometimes only a few months with an objective to sow or replant again for additional production following the current. Continuously grown crops planted in rotation are also considered temporary crops since each is harvested and destroyed by ploughing in preparation for each successive crop

Permanent crop: crops which are grown and occupy land for a long period of time not requiring replanting for several years after each harvest. Examples: all fruit trees (orange, mandarin, banana, etc.) and trees for beverages (coffee, tea, gesho, etc.).

Mixed crops: crops found in combination with other crop in a piece of land. Examples: temporary crop with another type of temporary crop or temporary crops with permanent crops or a permanent crop with another type of permanent crop.

Columns 15 – 17: Only if column 11 is coded as 2, 3 or 5

In these columns information is collected if and only if the housing unit serves as an enterprise or residence and enterprise. In other words, for those housing units coded as 2, 3 or 5 in column 11. For other codes these columns are left blank.

Column 15: Type of establishment
If the purpose of the housing unit is coded as 2, 3, or 5 in column 11, then type of establishment will be recorded in this column.

The following codes are used in this column:

1 = Small or large scale manufacturing industry
2 = Cottage or handicraft industry
3 = Distributive trade or service
4 = Government or private office
5 = Others
1. Small or large scale manufacturing industry: an industry which has a special address and fixed place, is most of the time managed by one or more managers or owners, and uses power-driven machine(s) to produce one or more products. During listing, if the housing unit serves fully or partly as a small or large scale industry, enter code 1 in the column. Examples: bakery, saw mills, flour mills, textile industries, etc.

2. Cottage or handicrafts industry: an industry which has a distinguished place and address, is managed by one manger or owner, and does not use power to produce its product. Examples: weaving, pottery, metal work, producing tella or tej and selling them wholesale or in retail. During listing, if the housing unit serves as a cottage or handicrafts industry, enter code 2 in the column.

3. Distributive trade or service: if the housing unit is used for a distributive trade or service, write the text and enter code 3 in the card column.

Distributive trade: the resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, wholesalers, industries, commercial, industrial or professional users. There are two types of trade: wholesale trade and retail trade. Sales of food, beverages, and bedroom service are included in this category. Commission agents and similar trade are also included in this category.
Service: the act of giving service in exchange for payment to individuals, households or enterprises.

Examples of services:

Hotels, camping sites and other provision of short stay accommodation
Restaurants, bars and canteens
Renting of real states and buying and selling activities
Renting of machinery, equipment, personal, and household goods
Data processing activity
Maintenance and repair of office and accounting equipment
Advertising
Motion picture projection
Showing of cinema, theatre, dramatic arts, music, and other activities
Sporting and other entertainment activities
Washing and (dry-cleaning) of textiles and dying activities
Hairdressing and hair beauty treatment
Transportation activities (land transport, air transport, and shipping) and travel agency
Educational service (only those who earn from it)
Health services (only those who earn from it)
Power providing activities
Professional services
Accounting and auditing activities
Architectural, engineering, and other technical services
Painters
Writers
Consultancy services

For those housing units which are coded as a hotel/hostel in column 11, code 3 will be entered in column 15.

4. Government or private offices: if the housing unit is used as a government or private office and not used for residential purposes enter code 4 in the column. If an office, whether it is government or private, is engaged in manufacturing, business or services it should be recorded accordingly.

5. Others: establishments which are engaged in mining, quarrying, production of electric power, petroleum production, construction works, etc. are classified here. In addition, international organizations, NGOs, etc. are included here.

Column 16: Enterprise name
The enterprise name is recorded in this column in the space provided.

Column 17: Number of persons engaged
This column is concerned only with those establishments which have codes 1 through 3 in column 15. These establishments are engaged in small or large scale manufacturing industries, cottage and handicrafts industries, or distributive trade or services.

Number of persons engaged refers to persons aged 10 years and above taking part in the activity of the establishment/activity with or without payment. These include owners who participate in the activity paid or unpaid, family members who participate, shareholders and permanent, contract or temporary workers.

If the establishment is the head office, the count of persons engaged does not include workers who are working in other branches. Similarly, if the establishment is one of the branches, persons working in the head office or in other branches are not included in the count of persons engaged.

Codes for number of persons engaged:

1 = less than 5 workers
2 = 5 to 9 workers
3 = 10 to 20 workers
4 = 21 to 49 workers
5 = 50 to 99 workers
6 = 100 or more workers
Chapter three
Instructions for completing the population and housing census questionnaires in rural areas

Two types of census questionnaires are prepared for rural areas: short and long questionnaires. The long questionnaire will be completed for the sample selected households, for all hotels/hostels and for other collective quarters' inmates. It should be noted again that the short questionnaire is to be completed for the rest households (for unselected households). The instructions given below apply to the long questionnaire and these instructions should be used for the short questionnaire because questions included in the short questionnaire are part of the long questionnaire. The questionnaire is completed for residents of housing units coded as code 1, 2, 3 or 4 in column 11. Note that only short questionnaires will be administered for homeless people.

Section 1: Area identification

Information about the area identification of the enumeration area should be collected in columns 1 through 8. Different information will be collected in each column and the card columns under each column are used to record the codes/numbers that are used to enter the information into the computer.

Column 1: Region
The name of the region where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in this column. The region name is also written on the outer side of questionnaire pad.

Column 2: Zone
The name of the zone where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in this column. The zone name is also written on the outer side of questionnaire pad.

Column 3: Woreda
Name of the woreda where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in this column. The woreda name is also written on the outer side of questionnaire pad.

Columns 4 and 5: Town and Keftegna
No information is recorded in these columns.

Column 6: Supervision area
The code of the supervision area where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in this column. The code of the supervision area should be taken from the enumeration area map description. The supervision area code should be written on the outer part of the questionnaire pad.

Column 7: PA/Kebele
The name of the PA/kebele should be recorded in the boxes provided in this column and the name should be written on the outer part of the questionnaire pad. The code of the PA/kebele should be written on the outer part of the questionnaire pad by taking from the enumeration area map description.

Column 8: Enumeration area
The code of the enumeration area where the enumeration is conducted should be recorded in the space provided in this column and the code should also be recorded on the outer part of the questionnaire pad. The code of the enumeration area should be taken from the enumeration area map.
Remark:

Locality name: The locality name of the enumeration area will be written on the upper side of the questionnaire. This will help the supervisor to check and control the quality of the enumeration, and the Woreda technique supervisor and others to check the work whenever necessary. Also this will help if the enumeration is selected for the upcoming post-enumeration. During the post-enumeration, the residents of the sample EA will be enumerated again by another enumerator and all information gathered is matched at the head office. Therefore, writing the locality will make the matching work easy.

Section 2: Type of residence and housing unit particulars

In this section the type of residence, housing unit serial number and serial number of the household is recorded (columns 9 through 12).

Column 9: Type of residence
Information will be collected to identify the type of residence, i.e. whether the residents are conventional household members, inmates of hotels/hostels, inmates of orphanages, inmates of boarding school (including universities and colleges which provide lodging), inmates of correctional facilities, inmates of other collective quarters, pastoralists who are moving from place to place in search of water and pasture, and homeless persons who live at verandas, streets, etc.

In addition, conventional households who reside in collective quarters (those who are given a separate household serial number and housing unit number in the listing form) should be given code 1 in this question. To identify the types of residence of the household or individuals to be interviewed, it is necessary to record the appropriate code from the codes given below:

Conventional household
Hotel/hostel
Other collective quarters
Pastoralists who moves from place to place in search of pasture and water
Homeless persons

Column 10: Housing unit serial number
The housing unit serial number should be recorded with three digits in the given card columns provided for each household. It should be noted that this serial number can be found in column 9 of form 1 (Listing form).

Column 11: House number/sub-number
In this column the house number or sub-number will be written in space provided. If the number is not assigned by the local administration of if it is new house record a dash symbol.

Column 12: Household serial number
The serial number for each household should be written in the card column provided. This number could be taken from column 12 of form 1.

Section 3: Particulars of household members

Before collecting information about household members, the definition of head of household and usual household member should be well appreciated. Therefore, the concept of household given in section 2 of chapter two should be appropriately understood.

A. Usual member of a household
A person is said to be a usual member of the household if he/she lives at least six months of the year continuously with the household. In addition, a person is considered to be a usual member of the household if he/she has the intention to live with the household forever even though he/she lived with the household less than six months. Persons who left their household temporarily for less than six months are considered as usual member of their households. However, persons are not considered as usual members of the household if they left their households for six months or more, or who left their households for less than six months but have the intention to leave for more than six months.

The following members of the household are considered usual household members:

a. All persons who lived with the household for at least six month during the census year.
b. All persons who have the intention to stay with the household for six months or more even though they stayed with the household for less than six months. For example, if a woman married a man and went to live in her husband's home during the census year, she is considered as a usual member of her husband's household even if she has lived in her husband's home for less than six months. Similarly, if a person got a job and went to live with another household forever, he is considered as the usual member of this new household where he is found during the census even if he has been living with this new household for less than six months.
c. House maids who usually stay the nights with the household and who do not have another residence.
d. Persons who left the household temporarily for less than six months. For example, persons who are on annual leave, persons who went to another place for holiday, inpatient persons, persons who went to visit relatives and persons who went to other places for business.
e. All persons who do not have permanent residence and who live with the household during the census. For example, if individuals do not have permanent residence but they live in various houses, they are considered to be usual member of the house hold where they are found on the enumeration day.
f. Students. Students who left their households, relatives or usual place of residence to attend school in regular schools, colleges, universities, etc. should be counted in the place where they are attending school. During the enumeration, if the students went back to their households or relatives due to a school break, they should be enumerated as usual members of their households. Students who are attending school by hiring service houses or who live with relatives away from their usual households, they should be enumerated in the area where they actually live during the census even though they commute weekly or monthly to bring their ration or to visit their households. However, students who commute daily to attend school are considered usual members of their households.
Orphanages, boarding school students, inmates of correctional facilities and other collective quarters
An inmate of an orphanage, boarding school (including universities and colleges which have lodging facilities), correctional facility or other collective quarters (e.g. homes for the elderly, monasteries, etc.) should be enumerated as a member of the collective quarters during the census. However, persons who are temporarily detained in a police station or in another temporary prison facility should be counted as usual members of their households regardless of the length of stay in these places.

B. Visitors
A visitor is any relative or non-relative person who is not a usual member of the household but spent the census night in the household.

C. Head of household
A head of household is a person who is a usual member (male or female) in the household acknowledged as head by the other members. If a man has two or more wives who live in separate households, he will be enumerated as head of the household with his oldest living wife (first married) if he is recognized as head. Other wives will be enumerated with their households as head or member of the households.

Column 13: Serial number of members of the household and visitors
The questionnaire has space to list up to ten members of a household. If the number of the members of the household is greater than ten, it is necessary to use an additional questionnaire. In this situation, the serial numbers given in column 13 (01-10) are corrected as 11, 12, 13, etc. until all members and visitors are listed.

Column 14: Names of usual household members
Based on the definition of household explained above, the names of all the usual members of the household are recorded in this column starting with the head. This includes the name(s) of the visitor(s) who spent the census night with the household. List all persons in the household in the following order:

1. Head of household
2. Spouse of the head of household
3. Never married children who live together, according to seniority in age
4. Married children and their household members who live in the housing unit
5. Other relatives
6. Non-relatives (members who are not related)
7. Visitors
Remarks:
Care should be taken to enumerate every member of the household including recently born infants, old persons, and patients during the census. For the purpose of facilitating the task of collecting information during enumeration, the names, residence status, relationship and sex of all the members of the households (columns 14 - 17) should be first filled in column-wise. The rest of the questions should then be collected for each member of the household row-wise according to age up to the end of each page of the questionnaire

Column 15: Residence status
The residence status of all members of the household and visitors should be asked and the appropriate code entered in the space provided. Three types of residence and their codes are given below.

a. Resident present on the census day: usual member of the household who was present in the household on the census day.
b. Resident absent on the census day: usual member of the household who was absent from the household on the census day.
c. Visitor: person who was not a usual member of the household but spent the night of the census with the household.
Remark: Visitors should be listed after all usual members of the household have been listed. For visitors, only information on residence status, relationship, sex and age will be collected. The remaining questions (columns 19 - 38 and section 4) do not concern visitors and no information should be recorded.

Column 16: Relationship to head of the household
The head of the household should always be listed in the first line of column 14. For column 16, since the person listed in the first line is the head of the household write "head" in the space provided and enter code 0 in the given card column. Then, by asking the respondent, write the relationship of each member of the household to the head the code of the relationship in the appropriate space.

For example, if the wife is listed next to the head write "wife" and enter code 2 (the spouse code) in space provided. If the head has more than one wife (if they are the members of the household), write the relationship as "first wife", "second wife", etc. in this column. For children, write their father and/or mother's serial number (column 13) when you write the relationship to the head of the head since different codes are assigned according to their relationship. For example, son/daughter of 10 and 02, or son/daughter of 01 only, son/daughter of 02 only, etc.

The relationship of the usual members of the household should be correctly identified and the appropriate relationship should be written for each member of the household and the correct code should be entered in given card column. The relationship codes are given below.

0 = Head
1 = Spouse (wife/husband)
2 = Son/daughter of the head and/or spouse
3 = Son/daughter of head
4 = Son/daughter of spouse
5 = Mother or father of head/spouse
6 = Sister or brother of head/spouse
7 = Other relative (adopted child, godchild, etc.)
8 = Non-relative

Inmates of hotels/hostels, inmates of other collective quarters, and homeless persons should be given code 8.

Column 17: Sex
In this column, the sex of each member of the household, "m" for male and "f" for female, should be entered in the card column. The sex of a person should not be determined by guessing based on the name of the person because some names are used for both sexes. Additionally, great care should be taken while writing the members' sexes because, in some areas, males are named by females' name and females are named by males' name.

Column 18: What is (name's) age in years?
The correct age in completed years of each member of the household during the enumeration should be recorded in the boxes provided in this question. Age in completed years means recording the completed years by ignoring the months and days after the completed years. For example, if the age of a person is 15 years, 11 months and 29 days, only "15" should be recorded. If the age of an infant is less than one year, code 00 should be recorded in this column, and if the age of a person is 97 years or older, code "97" should be recorded in the space provided under this column.

Expect to meet persons who do not know their age exactly or who are not willing to tell their age. In this case, great effort should be made to determine the exact age of each member of the household if it is possible. Techniques for determining age are given below.

Probing age by mentioning historical events
It may be necessary to estimate the age of a person by asking the respondent if there was a national or local historical event that occurred when the person was born or by asking the respondent the age of the person when the event occurred or by asking the respondent how long before the person was born did the event occur. For example, if the age of a person was 10 during the eruption of the Ethiopian revolution in 1974, the age of the person in 1994 is almost 30 years (1994 – 1974 +10 = 30) and this number should be recorded in the given boxes. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the age of a person by relating the year in which the person was born with the year the historical event occurred. A list of the years in which the main historical events occurred is attached in appendix 1.
Computing age based on members who know their ages
Some of the members of the household or neighbors may know their ages. In this case, it is possible to estimate the age of a person based on the ages of the persons who do

It may be possible to estimate the ages of the members of the household if the exact age of a person among the members is known. For example, if the age of the first child of a household is known to be 13 years, it is possible to estimate the age of his mother to be at least 31 years. This estimation is based on the expectation that mothers usually give birth to their first baby at the age of 18 and the age of the mother can be estimated as 18+13 = 31 years. It may be possible to estimate the ages of the persons who are relatives by comparing the age of one person to others. For example, mothers give birth to their children usually in two year intervals. The age of an older child may be 9 years if the age of the younger child is exactly 7 years. Sometimes older people exaggerate their ages. The ages of these people can be estimated by considering the ages of their first child and their grandchildren. Therefore, as far as it is possible, appropriately estimate the age of the member and record the age if the exact age of one member of the household is known. In addition to this, it is possible to estimate the age of a member of the household if he/she knows the age at marriage and the number of years after marriage up to the time of the census.

Some people want to tell their ages in ending 0 or 5. Even though the respondent may tell the ages ending in these digits, enumerators should make great effort to determine the exact ages of the members by using the above probing techniques. The exact ages of some people may of course be 10, 15, 20, 25, etc.

Parents may easily remember the exact ages of their babies and children under age 10 and these ages should be appropriately recorded in completed years. Sometimes it is not possible to determine the ages of infants easily, and in this case great effort should be made to estimate the appropriate age by applying the above probing techniques

Using the appropriate probing techniques, the age in completed years of each member of the household should be recorded in the space provided in column 18.

Remark: It is necessary to mention the name of each member of the household when it is indicated in the question wording. For example, for a member of the household named Bekelech, the question "What is name's age in years?" should be asked as "What is Bekelech's age in years?"

Column 19: What is (name's) religion?
Religion is an affiliation with a group having specific religious or spiritual tenets. The code of the religion for each member of the household is entered in the given box by asking each member of the household. If the answer for the religion question is "Christian", the appropriate code should be selected and entered in the card column from codes 1 - 3 that are given below for Christian religions. The religion of a baby who has not been baptized should be coded as the religion of his/her parents. By asking each member of the household, the appropriate code of the religion of each member of the household should be entered. If any other religion is mentioned other than the religions associated with codes 1 - 5, code 6 should be entered.

It is not appropriate to try to guess the religions of all members of the household based on the religion of the head of the household. Therefore, by asking each member of the household, the code of the religion for each member of the household should be written by selecting the appropriate code from codes listed below. Spouses may have different religions and therefore the religion question should be asked separately of each of them and the appropriate code should be entered.

The religion for infants is the same religion as their parents. For infants who were born from parents of different religions, the code of the religion that his/her parents think that his/her religion will be in the future is entered in the given space. The religion codes are given below.

1 = Orthodox (Tewahido, Kibat, Tsega)
2 = Protestant (Seventh Day Adventist, Pentecost, Lutheran, MekaneYesus, Baptist, Mennonite, Anglican, Presbyterian, Meserete Kirnstos,MuluWengel, KaleHiywot, etc.)
3 = Catholic
4 = Muslim (Islam)
5 = Traditional beliefs
6 = Other (Jehovah, Baha'i, Jewish, Hindu, etc.)

Column 20: What is (name's) mother tongue?
Mother tongue is the language that the person used to communicate with his/her household or parents during childhood. By asking the mother tongue of the person, the name of the language and appropriate code should be recorded in the boxes provided based on the list of the codes of language prepared in this manual.

To easily identity the names and codes of the languages, two lists of languages, "list of names and codes for the main languages" and "list of names and codes for the branch languages" are given in pages 39 to 42 of this manual. The recording of the codes of the languages will be as follows.

The language name given by the respondent should be recorded in the given space and the appropriate code should be entered in the boxes provided. If there are people who do not want to tell their mother tongue, please, as far as possible, try to get the right answers by asking the respondents politely.

The appropriate code of the language given by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided by taking the code from the list of the main languages. If it is difficult to find the code of the language from this list, it is possible to find the code of the language from the list of names and codes of branch languages.

A. List of names and codes of main languages
All languages are listed in this list and their arrangement is based on the main languages. The related languages and branch languages of the main language are given in brackets because they are given the same code. For example, Chehagna, Ezhagna, Gumerigna and Enemorigna are given in brackets under the main language Guragigna, which is written outside the bracket because these languages are the branch languages of Guragigna. To identify easily from the list, the main languages are listed in alphabetical order.

B. List of names and codes of branch languages
This list provides in alphabetical order the related languages or branch languages of the main language listed in bracket under the list of names and codes of the main languages (for example, Chehagna, Ezhagna, Gumerigna, Enamorigna). The main languages (for example Afarigna, Welaytigna) written outside the brackets alphabetically in the list of name and codes of the main languages are not listed again is this list.

The respondent's answer may be the main or the branch language. If the response is the main language, write the name and code of the main language, but if the response is branch language, write the name of the branch language but record the code of the main language by identifying its main or stem language. For example, if the response is "Chehagna", code 27 should be recorded in the boxes provided because the stem language of Chehagna is Guragigna.

If any language is mentioned that is not included on the list of the languages given, code 90, the code for "Other Ethiopian Languages" should be recorded in the space provided.

For infants or for persons who cannot speak, the name and code of the language that is usually spoken in the household should be recorded.

If there are people who have forgotten totally their mother tongue or who can speak other languages better than their mother tongue, the name and code of the language of their mother tongue should be recorded in the boxes provided.

For foreign language, if the mother tongue of the respondent is English, code 97 should be recorded in the boxes provided. If the mother tongue is another foreign language other than English, code 98, the code given for "other foreign language", should be recorded.

Remarks: [Omitted, reference to layout of original document]. Code 32 should be recorded in this question for the people residing in the Benishangul-Gumuz region and whose mother tongue is the Arabic Language. Code 98 should be recorded for people residing in other areas and whose mother tongue is the Arabic language.

Column 21: Does (name) speak another language? If yes, state the most frequently used additional language. If not, write "does not speak"
In this column, all persons are asked if they speak another language other than their mother tongue. If they do speak another language, write the language they most frequently speak in addition to their mother tongue and enter the code in space provided. If they do not speak any additional language, write "does not speak" and enter code 00 in the given boxes.
List of names and codes of main languages (for question 8)

01 Afarigna
02 Agew-Awinigigna (konfeligna)
03 Agew-Kamyrigna (Kamtangigna)
41 Alabigna
04 Amarigna
05 Anyiwakgna (yembogna)
07 Argobigna
08 Arigna (Bakogna, shangamogna)
06 Arborigna (Arbore, ulde)
19 Ganjuligna (Bachagna)
09 Basketigna (masketigna, Angiligna, Dolegna, Tamigna)
10 Benchigna (Benchenon)
32 Jebelawigna (Bertagna, Benshanguligna, Wutawutigna, Shogaligna, Meyugna, Undugna, Gebetogna, Fakarogna, Fakashigna, Fakumankumigna, Arabigna)
52 Bodigna
13 Burjigna (Dashigna, Bambaligna, Algagna
14 Charigna (Tsarigna, Zaragna)
15 Dasenechgna (Gelebigna, Marlegna)
77 Kulogna (Dawurogna, Ometegna, Dometegna)
74 Gamogna
21 Derashigna
16 Dimegna
17 Dizigna (majigna)
24 Dongigna
73 Dorzigna
33 Fedashigna
34 Gamiligna
26 Guragegna-Sodogna (Kirstangna, Endeganigna, Wachogna)
35 Gebatogna
21 Gewadigna (Kuligna, Gobezegna Werziegna, Alie)
20 Gedeogna
32 Gedichogna
22 Gedoligna (Darashatigna, Dirashagna, Draytatigna, Durategna)
34 Goffigna (Genugna)
24 Gumuzigna (Ganzagna, Ganzogna, Begagna, Bagagna, Sayigna, Sesegna)
27 Guragiegna-Sebat-Bet (Chehagna, Enerigna, Enemorigna, Ezyagna, Gumerigna, Guragna, Megarebigna, Mugerigna, muherigna, Meskanigna)
23 Guagugna (Kuagugna)
28 Hadiyigna
31 Hareriegna (Aderigna)
30 Hamerigna (Bashadigna, Banagna, Qarogna)
41 Irobigna (Sahogna, Shahogna)
37 Keffagna (Kefficho)
40 Kembatigna
76 Kontigna
45 Komigna (Hayahayagna, medin, Akuama)
46 Konsogna (Karategna, Komosgna, Garategna)
47 Koregna
48 Koygogna
47 Koyrigna (Amaro, Amaricho, Baditi)
48 Kunamigna
53 Maliegna
50 Maogna (Anfilogna, Gewamigna, Komagna)
49 Mabaangna
29 Marekogna (Labidigna)
55 Mashiligna
12 Merigna
51 Me'enigna (me'entgna, Mekenigna, Damigna)
78 Mellogna
54 Messengogna (Mejengerigna, Majangigna, Ujangigna)
55 Mossigna (Bussagna)
56 Mursygna (Munigna, Murzugna, Muridi, Nyicalabongigna)
64 Murlegna
57 Naogna (Nahogna, Tologna)
58 Nuwerigna (Abigarigna)
59 Nyangatomigna (Turkanagna, Bumegna)
60 Oromigna (Guji, Borena)
62 Oydigna
42 Qebenigna
71 Qechemigna (Qachenogna, Gatsamigna, Harurogna)
44 Qewamigna
39 Qemantigna
64 Shekogna (Shako)
11 Shegna
66 Shitagna (sitagna, Langogna)
65 Shinashigna (Borogna, Shinichogna, Dengebogna)
67 Sidamigna
25 Guragegn-Siltigna (Azernet, Berbere, Enekorgna, Welenegna, AlichonaWeriro,Werabe)
68 Somaligna
69 Surigna (Surmigna, Tirmagna, Damagna, Zilmamigna, Chimagna)
38 Shekicho (Mochagna)
70 Tigrigna
43 Timbarogna
71 Tsamagna (Tsemayigna, Dumegna, Kuweligna)
72 Welaitigna
80 Yemsagna (Yemigna, Janjarogna, Yanagarogna)
81 Zeysegna
82 Zerguligna
90 Other Ethiopian languages
97 English
98 Other foreign languages

List of names and codes of branch languages (for question 8)

31 Aderigna
01 Adalign
25 Alichona weriro
58 Abigarigna
13 Algagna
41 Alabigna
47 Amaricho
47 Amaro
50 Anfilogna
32 Arabigna
09 Angiligna
06 Arboregna
25 Azernet
47 Baditi
24 Bagagna
08 Bakogna
13 Bambaligna
30 Banagna
30 Bashadigna
24 Begagna
10 Benchenon
13 Benshanguligna
19 Bachagna
25 Berbere
65 Borogna
32 Benishanguligna
59 Bumegna
55 Bussagna
25 Berebe
32 Bertagna
60 Borena
52 Bodigna
27 Chehagna
69 Chimagna
51 Damagna
22 Dirashagna
22 Darashatigna
13 Dashigna
77 Dawurogna
01 Denkeligna
20 Derasigna
69 Damigna
65 Dengebogna
22 Draytatigna
11 Dolegna
77 Dometegna
01 Dankaligna
71 Dumegna
22 Durategna
26 Endegagn
25 Enekorgna
27 Enerigna
27 Enemorigna
27 Ezyagna
32 Fakarogna
32 Fakashigna
32 Fakumkumigna
24 Ganzagna
24 Ganzogna
74 Gamogna
46 Garategna
36 Gatsamigna
32 Gebetogna
15 Gelebigna
75 Genugna
50 Gewamigna
21 Gobezegna
27 Gumerigna
27 Guragna
34 Gamiligna
75 Gofigna
60 Guji
35 Gebatogna
36 Harurogna
45 Hayahayagna
80 Janjarogna
03 Kamtangigna
46 Karategna
37 Kefficho
45 Komogna
76 Kontigna
02 Konfeligna
50 Komagna
46 Komsogna
02 Konfeligna
26 Kistanigna
21 Kuligna
47 Koregna
77 Kulogna
23 Kuagugna
71 Kaweligna
29 Labigna
66 Langogna
54 Majangigna
17 Majigna
15 Marlegna
45 Medingna
27 Megarebigna
27 Mugerigna
29 Marekogna
78 Melogna
51 Mekenigna
27 Meskanigna
09 Mesketigna
32 Meyugna
54 Mejengerigna
27 Muherigna
63 Murdi
56 Munigna
56 Murzugna
12 Merigna
06 Murle
56 Mursigna
38 Mochagna
57 Nahogna
56 Nyicalabongigna
77 Ometegna
30 Qarogna
36 Qachenosna
42 Qabenigna
73 Dorzigna
33 Fedhashigna
69 Surmigna
36 Siltigna
24 Shankligna
24 Sayigna
27 Sebat Bet
24 Sesegna
66 Sitagna
26 Sodogna
51 Surigna
63 Shahogna
11 Shegna
08 Shangamogna
32 Shogaligna
65 Shinichogna
09 Tamigna
43 Timbarigna
69 Tirmagna
51 Tishanigna
57 Tologna
14 Tsarigna
71 Tsamagna
59 Turkanagna
54 Ujangigna
06 Ulde
32 Undugna
26 Wachogna
25 Welenegna
25 Werabe
21 Werziegna
32 Wotawutigna
80 Yangarogna
05 Yembogna
80 Yemigna
14 Zaragna
69 Zilmamigna
82 Zerguligna

Column 22: What is (name's) ethnic group?
By asking the ethnic group of each member of the household, the name and appropriate code of the ethnic group should be taken from the list of ethnic groups and recorded in the boxes provided. If the respondent cannot tell his ethnic group because the meaning of ethnic group is unclear to him, an additional explanation about ethnic group should be given by asking "what is your race, origin, clan, or tribe?" To identify the names and codes for ethnic groups easily, two lists, "Names and codes of the main ethnic group list" and the "List of names and codes of the branch ethnic group" are given below. The recording of the codes for ethnic group will be as follows.

The name and code of the ethnic group indicated by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided. If there are people who do not want to identify their ethnic group, try to get the appropriate answer by asking the people politely. The appropriate code for the ethnic group indicated by the respondent should be recorded in the boxes provided by referring to the code from the list of the main ethnic groups. If it is difficult to obtain the code for the ethnic group from this list, it is possible to find the code for the ethnic group from the list of names and codes of branch ethnic groups.

The respondent's response may be the main or branch of ethnic group. If the response is the main ethnic group, the name and code of the main ethnic group will be recorded, and if the response is the branch of the ethnic group, the name of the branch ethnic group and code of the main ethnic group should be recorded by identifying which is its main/stem ethnic group. For example, if the response of the respondent is "Saynte", code 04 will be recorded in the space provided because the stem of Saynte is Amara, and the code for Amahara ethnic group is 04. Similarly, if the response of the respondent is "Cheha", code 27 should be recorded in the boxes provided because the stem of Cheha is Gurage.

A. List of names and codes of the main ethnic groups
Based on the main ethnic groups, all ethnic groups are listed in the list provided. The related names and branches of the main ethnic group are given in brackets because they have the same code. For example, Gondere, Tegulete, Saynte, Menze are listed in brackets after the main ethnic group Amhara , which is written outside the bracket because these ethnic groups are the branches of the Amhara ethnic group. To identity easily from the list, the main/stem ethnic groups are listed in alphabetical order.

List of names and codes of branch ethnic groups
This list is prepared to list alphabetically all the branches or related groups of the main ethnic group listed in brackets (for example, Erbore, Ulde, Mursie) in the list of names and codes of the main ethnics groups. The main ethnic groups (for example, Afar, Welayta) written outside the brackets alphabetically in the list of names and codes of the main ethnic groups are not listed again in this list.

If a respondent mentions an ethnic group that does not appear in the list of ethnic groups given, code 90, the code for "other Ethiopian ethnic group", should be recorded in the space provided.

Persons who were born from parents of different Ethiopian ethnic groups or from an Ethiopian parent and a foreign citizen parent, and if they are 18 years or older, the name and the code of the ethnic group they choose should be recorded in the space provided. If they are under age 18, the name and codes of the ethnic groups that are chosen by their parents should be recorded in the space provided.

Persons who were born from parents of different Ethiopian ethnic groups, and if he/she does not want to identify with the ethnic group of either of his/her parents, code 91, the code for "person born from different ethnic groups" should be recorded appropriately. But if he/she voluntary indicates either of his/her parents' ethnic groups, the appropriate code should be recorded.

Code 93 should be recorded in the space provide and shaded for all Eritreans and code 94 should be given for Djiboutians. Code 95 should be recorded for citizens of Somalia. But for Ethiopian Somalis, code 68 should be recorded. Code 96 for Kenyans, code 97 for Sudanese, and code 98 for other foreigners should be recorded.

List of names and codes of main ethnic groups (question 9)

01 Affar (Adal, Denakil, Denkel, Taltal)
02 Agew-Awi (Konfele)
03 Agew-Kamyr (Kamtang)
41 Alaba
04 Amara (Gondere, Gayente, Saynte, Farte, Gojjame, Dawunte, Walde, Laste, hewe, Tegulete, Jiruye, Yifate, Menze, Minjare, Bulge)
05 Anyiwak (Yembo)
07 Argoba
08 Ari (Bako, Ara, Shangamo)
06 Arborie (Arbore, Ulde, Murle)
19 Ganjule (Bacha)
09 Basketo (Mesketo, Anjila, Dolo, Tama)
10 Bench
32 Jebelawi (Berta, Benshangul, Wutawut, shogo, Undu, Meyu, Gebeto, Fakaro, Fakashi,
Fukamkum)
52 Bodi (Tumer)
13 Burji (Dashi, Bambala, Alga)
14 Charra (Tsara, Zara)
17 Dizi (Maji)
73 Dorzie
15 Dasenech (Geleb, Geleba, Marle)
77 Kulo (Dawuro, Omete, Domete)
22 Gidole (Derashe, Derashat, Gardula, Diraytat, Durate)
16 Dime
33 Fedashi
74 Gamo
35 Gebato
21 Gewada (Kule, Gobeze, Werzie, Alie)
20 Gedeo
34 Gamili
26 Guragie-Sodo (Kistane, Endegagn, Wacho)
75 Goffa (Genu)
24 Gumuz (Ganza, Ganzo, Bega, Baga, Say, Sese)
27 Guragie-shebat Bet (Cheha, Ener, Enemor, Ezya, Gumer, Gura, Megareb, mugger, Muher, Meskan)
23 Guagu (kuagu)
28 Hadiya
31 Hareri (Adere)
30 Hamer (Bashada, Bana, Karo)
63 Saho (Irob, Shaho)
37 Keffa (Kefficho)
40 Kembata
76 Konta
45 Koma (Komo, Hayahaya, Medin, Akuama)
46 Konso (Karate, Komso, Garate)
47 Koyra (Amaro, Kore, Amaricho, Baditu)
48 Kunama
53 Malie
78 Melo
50 Mao (Anfilo, Gewami, Bambishi, Koman)
29 Mareko (Libidi)
49 Meban
12 Mer
51 Me'en (Meken, Daim, Tishana, Me'enit, Manit, Shuro)
54 Messengo (Mejenger, Majang, Ujang)
38 Mocha (Shekicho)
55 Mossiya (Bussa)
56 Mursi (Mursu, Mun, Murdi, Murzu, Nyichalabong)
78 Melo
57 Nao (Naho, Toto,)
58 Nuwer (Abigar)
59 Nyangatom (Turkana, Bume, Men, Bum, Rogegeno, Tobola)
60 Oromo (Guji, Borena, Tulema, Kereyu, Gelan, Lika, Becho, Abichu, Selale, Arsi, Rayya, Mecha, Gerri, Ittu, Jille, Qotu)
62 Oyda
42 Qebena
36 Qechem (Qecheno, Gatsam, Haruro)
44 Qewama
64 Sheko (shako)
65 Shinasha (Boro, Shinicho, Dengebo)
67 idama
25 Guragie-Silte (Azernet, Berbere, Enekor, Alichona Weriro, Werabe, Welene)
68 Somalie
69 Suri (Surma, Tirma, Dama, Zilmam, Chima)
66 Shita (Sita, Lango)
11 She
70 Tigrawy (Tigre)
43 Timbaro (Kambaro)
71 Tsemay (Tsamay, Dume, Kuwele)
79 Weyto
72 Welaita
61 Werji (Tigre Werji)
80 Yemsa (Yemsa, Yangaro, Janjaro)
81 Zeyse
82 Zergula
91 Other Ethiopian national groups
92 From different parents
93 Eritrean
94 Djiboutian
95 Somalian
96 Kenyan
97 Sudanese
98 Other foreigners
List of names and codes of branch ethnic groups (question 9)

60 Abichu
58 Abigar
31 Adere
25 Alichona Weriro
45 Akuama
21 Ale
13 Alga
47 Amaricho
47 Amaro
50 Anfilo
9 Anjila
8 Ara
41 Alaba
60 Arsi
1 Adal
24 Baga
47 Baditi
8 Bako
13 Bambala
50 Bambishi
30 Bashada
32 Berta
60 Becho
52 Bodi
24 Bega
32 Benshangul
25 Berbere
60 Borena
65 Boro
4 Bulge
59 Bum
30 Bana
19 Bacha
59 Bume
55 Bussa
27 Cheha
69 Chima
69 Dama
22 Darashat
13 Dashi
57 Daim
4 Dawunte
22 Dirasha
65 Dengebo
22 Draytat
9 Dolo
77 Domete
71 Dume
22 Durate
26 Endegagn
25 Enekor
27 Ener
27 Enemor
27 Ezya
32 Fakaro
32 Fakashi
4 Farte
32 Fukomkum
24 Ganza
24 Ganzo
34 Gamile
46 Garate
4 Gaynte
36 Gatsam
22 Gardula
60 Gebra
35 Gebato
32 Gebeto
60 Gelan
15 Geleb
15 Geleba
75 Genu
60 Geri
50 Gewami
21 Gobezie
4 Gojjame
4 Gondere
60 Guji
27 Gumer
27 Gura
36 Haruro
45 Hayahaya
60 Ittu
80 Janjero
60 Jille
4 Juruye
3 Kamtang
46 Karate
30 Karo
37 Kefficho
60 Kereyu
45 Komo
50 Koman
46 Komso
2 Konfele
26 Kistane
21 Kule
77 Kulo
47 Kore
48 Kunama
76 Konta
23 Kuagu
71 Kuwele
4 Laste
29 Libido
60 Leka
54 Majang
17 Maji
15 Marle
45 Medin
27 Megareb
27 Muger
38 Mocha
4 Menze
51 Meken
51 Me'enit
29 Mareko
27 Meskan
9 Mesketo
32 Meyu
54 Mejenger
60 Mecha
4 Minjare
27 Muhur
56 Murdi
56 Mun
56 Murzu
51 Manit
57 Naho
56 Nyicalabong
77 Omete
43 Qambara
36 Qecheno
42 Qebena
60 Qotu
60 Raya
59 Rogegeno
63 Shaho
24 Say
4 Saynte
60 Selale
27 Sebat bet
24 Sese
11 She
51 Shuro
24 Shanqila
25 Silti
8 Shangamo
32 Shogole
26 Sodo
69 Surma
38 Shekicho
4 Shewe
65 Shinicho
9 Tama
4 Tegulete
70 Tigre
61 Tigre werji
69 Tirma
1 Teltal
57 Tolo
43 Timbaro
14 Tsara
71 Tsamay
60 Tulema
52 Tumer
59 Turkana
54 Ujang
6 Ulde
32 Undu
26 Wacho
4 Wadle
25 Welene
25 Werabe
21 Werzie
32 Wutawut
60 Weradube
61 Werji
80 Yem
4 Yifate
80 Yangaro
5 Yembo
14 Zara
69 Zilmam

Columns 23 - 24: Migration
Prior to collecting the required information on migration, it is very important to understand the concept of migration. Understanding how a given individual is considered to be a migrant in a given locality during a census period and setting up the criteria to respond the question is crucial. Based on the type of place of residence (i.e urban and rural areas), different meanings and criteria are set to define migration or a person as a migrant. Therefore, before executing the actual data collection, it is necessary and mandatory to understand the meanings and criteria used to define the term migration or a migrant person for both urban and rural settings. The detail on the meaning and criteria used to define migration for rural areas is given as follows.

In Rural Areas

A person is considered to be a migrant during the time of the census if he/she is found to have crossed the defined boundary of the woreda where he/she was previously residing. Moreover, even though the person does not cross the boundary of the woreda , but is found to have shifted his/her usual place of residence from a given rural kebele to an urban area of the same woreda during the time of the census, he/she will be considered a migrant. Nonetheless, an individual is not regarded as a migrant if the person is found to have changed his/her usual place of residence from a given rural kebele or farmer association to another rural kebele of the same woreda.

In addition to the above criteria, the following cases have to be considered when identifying an individual as a migrant in rural settings:

a. Regardless of whether the person decides to return back or stay where he/she is, if the individual reports a duration of six months or more of the period from when he/she left the woreda where he/she previously resided to the time of the census, he/she will be considered a migrant.
b. If the person has no any intention to return back to his/her previous place of residence, even if the duration of the period from when he/she left the woreda where he/she previously residing to the time of the enumeration is less than six months, the person will be considered a migrant.
c. The person will not be considered a migrant if the duration of the period from when he/she left the woreda where he/she previously resided to the time of the enumeration is less than six months and he/she has decided to return back to his/her previous place of residence (woreda).

Column 23 - 24: Duration of Migration

Column 23: What is the number of years (name) has continuously lived in this rural woreda?
In this column all persons covered by the census will be asked the numbers of years they continuously lived in their rural woreda . The relevant code should be entered in the space provided. If the person has continuously lived in the rural woreda since birth, code 8 should be entered.

In addition, it is imperative to have a clear understanding of the following cases to collect the required information on migration during the period of census.

In some cases there are conditions where a person is born in a hospital or health service institution which is located outside the woreda in which his/her household resides. In this situation, the place of birth of the person is considered to be the place where his/her household resides rather than the location of the hospital or health service institution. Because of this, the individual is not considered as a migrant during enumeration.
In a similar condition where a woman gave birth to a child in the residence of her parents or other relatives and then returned to her household, the place of birth of the child is the location where the mother and her household resides, not the residence of the mother's parents or relatives.

In order to clearly state the criteria given earlier to define migration or a migrant person and to enhance the understanding of the enumerator, examples are provided.

During enumeration, persons who have not lived in a rural part of the woreda (place of enumeration) since birth are divided into two categories:

1. Those who were born out of the present rural woreda
2. Those who were born in the same rural area of a given woreda but after sometime they left their place of birth and stayed in other woreda or urban area of the same woreda but returned back to their place of birth. This refers to those who returned back after staying for six months or more away from their place of birth

For example, a person called Kebede Terefe was born in Selam rural kebele of Kewet woreda and he lived in his place of birth continuously for 13 years after birth. He then left his place of birth and started to live in Shewa Robit town of the same woreda for 5 consecutive years. He then returned to his place of birth 2 years prior to the time of the census. In this situation, the number of years Kebede Terefe lived continuously in the woreda (area of enumeration) is two years, from the time he retuned back to Selam rural kebele from Shewa Robit town to the period of the census. The thirteen years he lived continuously in his place of birth after he was born is not included.

Based on the criteria and example given above, the codes for the possible responses for column 23 are given as follows:

0 = those have lived continuously for less than one year in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
1 = those have lived continuously for 1 year in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
2 = those who have lived continuously for 2 years in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
3 = those who have lived continuously for 3 years in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
4 = for those who have lived continuously for 4 years in the place of enumeration, i.e.in rural area of the woreda
5 = those who have lived continuously for 5 to 6 years in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
6 = those who have lived continuously for 7 to 9 years in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
7 = those who have lived continuously for 10 years or more in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda
8 = those who have lived continuously since birth in the place of enumeration, i.e. in rural area of the woreda.

Hence, based on the response obtained from the respondent, the necessary code from the given alternatives will be entered in space provided. For example, for a person who reports that he has lived continuously in the area of enumeration for less than a year, code 0 will be entered. Similarly, code 5 will be recorded for those who have been living continuously for 5 to 6 years in the place of enumeration.

Column 24: If previous residence was in urban area write name of the town, if it was in a rural area write 'rural'
This question will be asked to respondents who are given codes 0 to 7 in column 23. Ask respondent about the last place of residence he/she used to live before starting to reside in the current place of enumeration, if it was rural write 'rural' in the space provided, and if it was a town write the name of the town in the space provided. If a person has lived continuously since birth in the place of enumeration write 'here' and put a slash in card column provided for code. Code 1 and code 0 will be assigned to those who report their last previous place of residence in an urban and a rural area, respectively.

Column 25: Is there a member of the household who is physically or mentally disabled?
A person is said to be disabled if, due to physical or mental injuries, he/she cannot fully perform activities that other healthy persons can do. Therefore, each regular member of a household will be asked about disability status in question 25.

Since some people are not happy to be asked whether there is a household member who is physically or mentally disabled, care should be taken when asking this question. Instead of directly asking, "are you disabled?" ask them, "do you have disability?" Then it should be born in mind that it is possible to know if they have disability or not by trying to make them understand and asking them indirectly by asking "do you have a seeing problem with your eyes? A problem with your ears, hands, legs, etc.?"

Some members may have more than one disability. Depending on the situation, by asking each regular member of the household about their disability status, identify the appropriate code for the type of disability mentioned by the member from the list of codes 00-10 given below and then, if possible, write the type of disability.

00 = Not disabled
01 = Totally blind (blind in both eye; total blindness)
02 = Partially blind (partly seeing with both eyes; totally blind in one eye; partially blind)
03 = Hearing problem (completely deaf, can partially hear with both ears, can hear only loud sounds, has one healthy ear and some problem with the other)
04 = Hearing and speaking problems, deaf and dumb (totally unable to hear and speak, partially unable to hear and speak, deaf and has speech problems, partially hearing and has speech problem)
05 = Leg problem (one leg or two legs amputated, paralyzed, one leg has problem, any other type of leg problem)
06 = Hand/arm problem (one hand or two hands amputated, paralyzed, finger cut or any other type of hand/arm problem)
07 = Hanson diseases (Leprosy)
08 = Mental problem (epilepsy, madness, self isolation, mental disturbance, nudity, unconsciousness, neglecting of self security, mental retardation)
09 = Other disability
10 = Multiple disabilities
Note: As much as possible, "other disability" (code 09) should be recorded for household members who mention a disability type different from those mentioned above in codes 01 - 08. In addition, if a household member has multiple disabilities and if one is the most severe then record the code for most severe type of disability. Otherwise, if it is not possible to differentiate, record code 10.
Column 26 - 27: Educational status of persons aged 5 years and above
Questions in columns 18 - 20 refer only to members of a given household aged 5 years and over. During the time of enumeration, information on the school attendance status of the person and the highest grade the individual has completed will be asked and collected. All questions refer to the educational status of individuals aged 5 years and over at the time of the census.

I. School attendance and enrollment

Column 26: Enter grade enrolled for those currently attending school, code 97 if attended in the past and code 98 if never attended school
For those members of a household who are reported to be attending school at the time of the census, the grade level they are attending will be asked and the information obtained will be entered by their correct code as given on the next page. For those persons who are not attending school during the time of the census but who have attended sometime in the past, code 97 will be assigned. For individuals who have never attended school, code 98 will be given.

This question refers to the current school attendance status of persons aged 5 years and over. All eligible persons will be asked and based on the information obtained the appropriate code will be assigned from the given list of codes. Persons who are currently attending school (those who attend school at the time of enumeration) are those who are attending formal education in schools, training institutions, universities, colleges, etc., and persons who attend informal education like religious education at the time of enumeration. The schooling can be given by either paid or unpaid/volunteer persons/teachers.

Persons who are trying to adopt some skills during spare time with the help of their relatives or persons whom they know, for example daily laborers who try to acquire some skills about carpentry, mechanical works, and sewing while working, are not considered to be attending school. Nevertheless, those who are acquiring skills in training institutions at the time of the census are taken as persons who are attending school.

Those who attend formal educational institutions are given codes 00 to 12 and 20 to 23. For individuals who are reported to be attending informal education such as religious education, skill development like typing, carpentry, mechanical works, driving, sewing, etc., code 96 will be assigned.

Persons who are not attending school at the time of enumeration are divided in to two categories:

1. Those who are not reported to be attending school at the time of enumeration, but who have attended sometime in the past
2. Those who have never attended school

Those in category 1 are individuals who attended school sometime in the past but are not currently attending because of dropout or completion of the program. For those cases, code 97 will be given. Those in category 2 are individauls who have never attended any form of education and for them code 98 will be assigned.

To enable the enumerators to assign and enter the necessary code, the list of grade levels and the corresponding codes are listed below.

A: Grade levels and codes for those attending school at the time of enumeration

00. Pre-school: persons who are attending kindergarten or levels below grade 1
01. Grade 1: persons who are attending grade 1
02. Grade 2: persons who are attending grade 2
03. Grade 3: persons who are attending grade 3
04. Grade 4: persons who are attending grade 4
05. Grade 5: persons who are attending grade 5
06. Grade 6: persons who are attending grade 6
07. Grade 7: persons who are attending grade 7
08. Grade 8: persons who are attending grade 8
09. Grade 9: persons who are attending grade 9
10. Grade 10: persons who are attending grade 10
11. Grade 11: persons who are attending grade 11
12. Grade 12: persons who are attending grade 12
21. Certificate: persons who have completed 12th grade and are attending institutions like teachers training institute or colleges for certificate program (those attending colleges or universities for diploma or degree program are not included here)
21. College diploma: persons who are attending a higher education (college or degree) program which is designed to graduate students with a diploma (see the list of colleges, universities recognized as higher education institutions)
22. Degree: persons who are attending a program in a higher education institution which is designed to graduate students with a degree such as B.A., B.Sc., LL.B., M.D. (see the list of colleges, universities recognized as higher education institutions)
23. Postgraduate: persons who are attending a postgraduate program which is designed to graduate students with a postgraduate degree such as M.Sc., M.A. or Ph.D.
95. Adult education: persons who are attending adult education
96. Non-formal education: persons who are attending non-formal education like religious education at the time enumeration

List of recognized colleges and universities during the 1994 census

a. Addis Ababa University (includes; Awassa Agricultural College, Debre Zeit Veterinary Faculty, Gonder Medical College and Bahir Dar Pedagogical College)
b. Alemaya University
c. Ambo Agricultural College
d. Jimma Agricultural College
e. Wendo Genet Forestry College
f. Bahir Dar Polytechnic Institute
g. Addis Ababa College of Commerce
h. Cotebe Teachers College
i. Jimma Medical Institute
j. Urban Plan College
k. Arba Minch Water Technology Institute
l. Mekele Business College

Diplomas awarded other than those listed above (in Ethiopia) are considered a certificate and will be given code 20.

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B. For those who have attended before but are not attending at the time of census
Dropout cases or those who attended before, 97: Persons who have previously attended any form of education either in formal or informal educational institutions but are not attending school at the time of enumeration.

C. Those who never attended before
Never attended before, 98: Persons who have never attended any form of education either in formal or informal educational institutions.

II. Educational attainment

Column 27: Is (name) literate? If literate, enter highest grade completed; enter code 00 for illiterate.
It should be asked whether each member of the household aged 5 and above can read and write in at least one language. If they are literate, the highest grade completed should be recorded. If the person is illiterate, write "illiterate" and enter code 00 in the spaces provided.

A person is considered to be literate if he/she can read and write clearly in any language. Those who can read and write only their names and numbers are not considered literate. Moreover, those who can read and write some statements or words which they know through memorization are not considered literate.

The level of educational attainment or highest grade the person has completed refers to the highest grade level he/she has completed within the most advanced level of education attended in the educational system of the country where the education was received. For example, a person who is found to be attending grade 7 at the time of enumeration is considered to have completed grade 6 in column 27. Therefore, codes 7 and 6 will be assigned to the individual in columns 26 and 27, respectively.

For the purpose of enabling the enumerators to assign and record the appropriate codes to the information obtained, the list of grade levels and the corresponding codes are listed below.
Pg 64

B: Grade levels and corresponding codes

Grade level the person has completed: Illiterate Code: 00 Description: Person cannot read and write; never attended school; attended school before but cannot read and write; attending school at the time of census but cannot read and write.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 1 Code: 01 Description: Persons who have completed grade 1.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 2 Code: 02 Description: Persons who have completed grade 2.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 3 Code: 03 Description: Persons who have completed grade 3.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 4 Code: 04 Description: Persons who have completed grade 4.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 5 Code: 05 Description: Persons who have completed grade 5.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 6 Code: 06 Description: Persons who have completed grade 6.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 7 Code: 07 Description: Persons who have completed grade 7.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 8 Code: 08 Description: Persons who have completed grade 8.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 9 Code: 09 Description: Persons who have completed grade 9.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 10 Code: 10 Description: Persons who have completed grade 10.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 11 Code: 11 Description: Persons who have completed grade 11.

Grade level the person has completed: Grade 12 Code: 12 Description: Persons who have completed grade 12.

Grade level the person has completed: Certificate Code: 20 Description: Persons who graduated with a certificate from institutions providing formal education above grade 12 (colleges and universities or similar institutions).

Grade level the person has completed: Those who have not completed a diploma program Code: 21 Description: Persons who are currently attending an institution providing formal education above grade 12 and have completed at least the first year of the program designed to graduate persons with a diploma but who have not yet graduated with a diploma.

Grade level the person has completed: Those who have not completed a degree program Code: 22 Description: Persons who are currently attending an institution providing formal education above grade 12 and have completed at least the first year of the program designed to graduate persons with a degree but who have not yet graduated with a Bachelor's degree.

Grade level the person has completed: College Diploma Code: 23 Description: Persons whon have graduated with a diploma from a higher education institution.

Grade level the person has completed: Master's Degree Code: 26 Description: Persons who have completed a postgraduate program and graduated from a higher education institution with a Master's degree such as M.A., M.Sc. M.A.D., LL.M., M.B.A., etc.

Grade level the person has completed: Ph.D Code: 27
Description: Persons who have completed a postgraduate program and have graduated with degree of Philosophy or Ph.D (doctorate) from a higher education institution.

Grade level the person has completed: Adult Education Code: 95Description: Persons who have completed adult education and not continued to attend in any other educational program.

Grade level the person has completed: Informal Education Code: 96
Description: For persons who are attending informal education like religious education at the time of enumeration or for those who are given code 96 in column 26.

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Columns 28 - 32: Information on economic activity
The information collected on economic activity status in these columns during the last
12 months include:

a. whether the person was engaged in productive work during the reference period
b. reason for not being engaged in productive work during the reference period (for those who were not so engaged)
d. major types of occupation
d. major product or service of the establishment or industry
e. employment status in the main activity

Column 28: Was (name) engaged in productive work during most of the last 12 months? 1 = Yes, 2 = No
Every member of the household aged ten years and above is asked whether they were engaged in productive activities during most of the 12 months prior to the date of enumeration. The enumerator should know the definition of productive work as given below.
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General definition of productive work
For the purpose of the census, productive activity is defined as work which involves the production of goods and/or services for sale or exchange and the production of certain products for own consumption. According to the above general definition, economic/productive activity covers the production of goods and services intended for sale on the market aimed at generating incomes. This includes the production of items or services for market (cash) or in exchange for other items. In other words, productive activities include paid employment in household, private, governmental, or agricultural activities, engagement in the production of goods for sale, working in household enterprises and agricultural sectors without payment and apprentices as well. Remuneration might be daily, weekly, monthly or according to the amount of work done.

The following list of production of goods and services are included as productive activities.

A. Production of items for sale. For example, industrial products, production of pottery, etc., and persons providing services to generate income for example, barbers, selling local drinks like Tella and Katikala and weaving, brokers, etc.
B. Paid employment activities in governmental, other households or organizations. For example, physicians, teachers, employed farmers, shepherds, etc. It also includes unpaid communal work, for example, food for work, planting trees (forestry), communal labour, etc.
C. Producing items for own consumption or for sale or production of durable goods for domestic use, as detailed below.

1. Activities involving primary production for own consumption:
For example, producing agricultural products (crops like cereals/pulses, fruits and vegetables, cotton, etc.); hunting, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying are the components of primary production. Growing or gathering agricultural primary products, animal husbandry/poultry, hunting, fishing and cutting or collecting fire woods, charcoal or for other purpose
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from own holdings. Collecting thatching and weaving materials and charcoal making – mining salt cutting peat, digging of soil for house or household utensils, digging or collecting sand and stone, etc

2. Processing of Primary Commodities for own Consumption
It covers activities such as milling grain, making butter, cheese and other dairy products, sinning and tanning, making baskets and hats and constructing wooden furniture and fixture.
Note: It should be emphasized that these various activities are considered as economic activity only if they involve the processing of primary products. Thus, pounding "teff" (a primary product) to make "injera" is included; thus-using flour (a processed product) to make "injera" is excluded. It should further be noted that only the processing of primary commodities by the producers of these items, which means that the processing for own consumption of primary commodities by those who do not produce them is excluded. Thus, for example making flour of "teff" from the market is not included but making flour of "teff" produced by oneself is considered.

Processing those above mentioned products to finished or semi-finished products for own consumption. Example: Spinning, making butter or cheese, grinding corns or cereals. Producing furniture, like, tables, chairs, containers, etc… However, processing those finished or semi-finished items to other forms for own consumption can not be considered as a productive activity.

3. Processing of primary commodities (goods and services) for sale also are productive activity

Example, making local drinks (like "Tella") for sale and partially used for own consumption. It can also be considered if the drink is partially used for home.

4. Production of fixed assets for own use (those fixed assets should give at least one year service)

Example, Construction of dwellings, construction of farm buildings, clearing land for cultivation production of agricultural tools, etc.

Non-Productive / economic activities
While the SNA definition of the production of goods and services covers a wide range of activities many other activities still remain outside its scope.
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a) Unpaid activities such as domestic tasks are taken as non-productive/ economic activities do not count as economic activity. For example, water fetching for domestic use, collecting firewood/ dung from field or forest (not from own holding) and spinning of cotton for own consumption of primary commodities who do not produce them.

b) Unpaid domestic activities do not count as economic activity. Examples are preparing food for household consumption, nursing of children and current repair and maintenance of dwelling and farm buildings and unpaid community and volunteer services, and voluntary service in international or national centers or local organizations, and prostitution etc...

c) Even though one receive money, but do not earn it: Who are pensions only, who are earning money by renting a house only, i.e. by not involving in any activity, Those who are earning money by begging ,and gamblers, are not considered as economic activity.

d) Others, like engaged in apprentice-to get experience working in offices, garage and in various sectors with out participation of in relation to training /education also considered non- economic activity.

What do we mean by most of the last 12 months?
A person is to be classified as most of the last 12 months active (engaged in productive activity) usually if he/she has been economically active (engaged in productive activity) for more then 6 months or 26 weeks or above during the last 12 months. The above clarification is general definition/ concept. But engagement in productive activity for most of the last 12 months depends on the type and nature of activity they were involved and vary from country to country. The following three examples elaborate how most of the last 12 months are applicable.

a) If a person is engaged in agriculture, he/she is considered as being engaged in economic activity during most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked most of the main agricultural seasons of the reference year in that area/ locality.

For example
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Suppose that the main agricultural season for a particular area is 8 months. A person in this particular area is said to be engaged in most of the last 12 months if he/she has worked for 4 months and more. Agricultural season includes the main and the "Belg" Season and the time from preparing the land to harvesting (seeding, ploughing, sawing, weeding, harvesting and collecting).

b. If a person is engaged in other agricultural activity, like livestock, poultry, cattle rearing, etc., for 6 months or more in the last 12 months, then that person is considered as he is engaged for most of the last 12 months.
c. Those who are engaged either non-agricultural sectors like, trade, weaving, or work in government organization/ NGO etc…., if they were worked for more than 6 months and above in the last 12 months.

Column 29: Reason for not working. If did not work (Column 28 code 2) What was the main reason for not working?

This column is asked for those who were not engaged in productive work in most of the last 12 months prior to the census date, or code 2 is given in column 28. The possible answers are given below with their codes.

01 = Unemployed without work experience: These people were not engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months and they have no job before 12 months and they may or many not seek to get a job during the reference time. If opportunity comes, they are ready to work.

02 = Unemployed with work experience: Even though these people had a job some time before a year but due to lack of job they were not engaged in any productive activity during most of the last 12 months. This people may seek or may not to get jobs. But if opportunity comes, they were ready to work.

03 = Employed but not working in most of the last 12 months: Persons who are employed but not working most of the last 12 months due to illness, injury, lack of raw materials, etc. classified here.

04 = Student: The category includes all persons, aged 10 years and above who, during most of the last 12 months do not engaged in productive activity due to
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attending school/training during day time. But those students who engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months are not included in this code.

05 = Unpaid Home maids/servants: All persons, male or female, who are aged 10 years and above, and who, during most of the last 12 months were not engaged in productive activity due to domestic activities like preparing food for family,…etc. For example, house maid. It is important to note that those persons may or may not engage in economic activity during the last 12 months.

06 = Disabled: These persons were not working in the economic activity most of the last 12 months because of their disability or handicap ness.
Note: Disabled or handicapped persons who were engaged in productive activity (in Que.21) should not be included here.

07 = Too young: All persons (male or female) who are aged 10 years and above and who, during most of the last 12 months were not engaged in productive /economic activity because they are too young. For those persons who are aged 15 and above were not included in this code. For those persons who are attending school should be given code 4, rather than code 8

08 = Old age/ retired/ remittance: These are persons who were not engaged in productive /economic activity during most of the last 12 months because of old age/retired or remittance or renting a house.
Remark: In addition to remittance, pensions and earning money from renting housing if they are engaged in economic activity during most of the last 12 months should not be included here;

09 = Prostitutes: Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during most of the last 12 months because of their main act.

10 = Others: Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during most of the last 12 months because of other reasons that are not classified from code 01 - 09 are categorized here.
Remark: Unemployed students are those students attending school during the night and seeking job and were not engaged in any productive activity during the day should be included either in code 01 or 02.

Column 30 – 32: For those who have been engaged in productive work during most of the last months (column 28 code 1), unemployed with previous work experience (column 29 code 02) and for who had work but did not work during the last 12 months (column 29 code 03).

Column 30: What is (NAME's) occupation?

In this column data is collected only for those who have been engaged in productive work during most of the last months (column 28 code 1), unemployed with previous work experience (column 29 code 02) and for who had work but did not work during the last 1 months (column 29 code 03). The concerned persons either have at least one job or had work in the previous time.

When enquiring is done about the occupation, do not ask the type of products ask the type of wok. For example, for copy typist whether she works in hospital or factory the type of occupation recorded for her is "Typist'. In this column, register the type of occupation in the pace provided, codes are entered at the head office by the census questionnaire editors.

Try to be specific when you register the type of occupation so that no problem will be arises during coding is done for the registered type of occupation. For example, since elementary school teachers and high school teachers have different codes do not write only teacher, write the type of school they are teaching or used to teach. In similar case, trained, skilled and traditional farmers have different occupation codes. In addition, guessing the type of occupation based on the name of organization or institution is not correct. For example, in one mining factory we can find the general manager, executive secretary, chemists, engineers, casher, accountants, surveyors, soil laboratory technicians, machine operators, drivers, daily labourers, etc. and all have different codes. Even for similar work of if the skill of the operator or the type of machine they are operating is different, the code given is different.
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On the service trade side also it needs to give due attention when writing the occupation type. For example, cashers, sales clerks, kiosk workers, etc. have different codes.

Sometimes we can face persons who have engaged in more than one type of occupation. In such case, record only one type occupation that the person is spent most of his/her time during the last 12 months.

In order to simplify enumerators' work, the lists of some occupation types are given below. Therefore, the numerators are requested to see the lists in detail before start filling in the answers in the space provided.

[Examples of occupations, pages 73-75 have been removed]

Column 31: Major product or service of the establishment

To record the major product or service for a person under consideration, first enquire a person where he/she works and then the type of products or service produced or given by the establishment.

An establishment definition is relaxed here in order to capture those do not have fixed places, like; micro enterprises who operates on street side or open markets. For example, a person is working in his/her residence house weaving, tailor service, selling tella or katikala, etc., even though the work is not in organized manner, considered as an establishment and the product or service is recorded in this column.

As explained under column 30, whenever we face with enterprise producing different products or services, the major one will be recorded. For example, a tobacco factory produces matches as an additional product. In such case, we record cigarette since it is the major product. Similar products take same code irrespective of the owner of the factory/ establishment (private or public) or mode of production (modern or traditional). Details of some products/ service are given below.

Farm products; cereal, vegetables, chat, coffee, etc. (sometimes together with draught animals).

Livestock; cow, ox, camel, sheep, goat, poultry, etc. (in some cases together with vegetables on small plots)

Farm and livestock products; producing both products.

Agricultural service; crop and livestock extension service, providing agricultural machineries.

Hotel; bed room service (can serve food and drinks)

Bar; without room service.

Tella (local drink) house; place where the local drink tella served.

Teji (local drinks) house; place where the local drink teji is served.

Producing local teji and selling to retailers.

Education sector administration; service activities in the ministry of education or regional bureaus or woreda offices.

Elementary school; teachers or administration staff in the school.

Agricultural sector administration; service activities in the ministry of agriculture or regional bureaus or woreda offices.

Types of major products or services recorded in column 31 are listed below. The list is presented here to give some idea on types of products or services registered under this column.

For skilled unemployed persons, the type of major products or service they used to work in will be recorded. Note that: Do not ask the organizations or institutions they served in, enquire only the major products or service produced or rendered by the organizations or institutions in which they employed.
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[Examples of major products have been removed, pages 77-79]

Column 32: What was (NAME's) employment status in the main job?

This question is asked for those who answered code 1 or 2 in question 31 (who has engaged in economic activity for most of the last 12 month and unemployed with work experience). The main activity refers to what a person has been doing for the longest period within the last 12 months.
NOTE: Employment status for unemployed persons with work experience is the status of the main job just before they left their work. Before filling the status, one has to understand well the following list and explanation of employment status.

1 = Employer: A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engaged independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees during most of the last 12 months. This person may or may not participate in the production processes.
2 = Self-employed: These are own-account workers who operate their own economic enterprise or engage independently in a profession or trade, and hire no employees. They worked a productive activity for most of the last 12 months in their enterprise.

3 = Government employee: -This category includes those who, for most of the last 12 months worked on permanent or contractual basis, and paid on daily or weekly bases, and were paid from the government institutions such as hospitals, schools, defense forces….etc and employed in public owned factories other development organizations (Government banks, state farms, etc.).

4 = Private employee: -These include those who, for most of the last 12 months, worked for a private employer and were paid either wages, salary in cash or in kind by the employer. The employments may be permanent or contract. The employer may pay them monthly, fortnightly, weekly, or daily. Those employed in NGO's or international organizations are also included here.

5 = Members of co-operative: -Who is an active member of a producers' co-operative and worked for most of the last 12 months. But those of the employees of the cooperatives should be included under code 4.

6 = Unpaid family workers: Those members of household (living in the same household) who worked for most of the last 12 months with out pay for families.

7 = Other: For those whose employment status is different from the above mentioned (1 - 6) and who worked for most the last 12 months are grouped in this code (code 7).

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Column 33: What is (NAME's) current marital status?

Every member of the household whose age is 10 years and above are asked currently married or not. People who live together as husband and wife and who regard themselves as husband and wife should be recorded as married. The marriage may be taken place either legal, religious or traditional basis or those married persons should live together as husband and wife. The answer for this question must be accepted as given by the respondent and not to question the legal aspect of the marital status. Thus, it is the respondent who defines his/her marital status. The definition for different types of marital status and the assigned codes are given below:

1 = Never married: Are persons who have never married before the census date.

2 = Married: Are persons who at the reference time (October 10, 1994) had marriage partners whether they were staying in the same house or not. The marriage may be both under the legal system of the country, religious or the customs of the local area. For partners who are in dispute but their marriage case is in court or under traditional dispute resolution methods is considered as married unless their marriage is formally annulled.

3 = Divorced: For all persons who at the reference time have had their marriage formally annulled either in court or by custom and have not married again during the census time.

4 = Widowed: For all persons who at the reference time have had lost their marriage partners through death and have not remarried.

Column 34 - 38: Are questions referring the fertility experience of women aged 10 years and over.

Column 34 - 37: The total number of children ever born alive

This question is going to be asked for female member of a given household who are aged 10 years and above regarding the number of children they have ever born during life time
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(which includes children who are living with them, children who are dead and children who are living in other places). Nevertheless, Females whose age is less than ten years and members who are males of any age are excluded from being asked this question.

Before forwarding the question to the respondent, the enumerator should understand the concept of being "born alive". Being "born alive" means without considering the number of months the fetus stayed in its mother's womb, if the child breaths at the time of birth or if he/she shows life before or after the umbilical chord is cut; such as when the child experiences a heart beat, umbilical chord beat, crying, muscle movement etc…, it is only under this condition we come to say that the child is "born alive." What should be noted here is that if the child shows life even for a very little time and die soon no matter how long the pregnancy lasted, the child will be considered to be "born alive". However, in situation when the fetus dead in the womb and abortion cases are not taken in to an account.

Traditionally, some mothers consider their adopted children as their own biological children, so due attention must be taken while asking the question to the respondent. What is required to collect is the information regarding the number of children ever born by their biological parents. For this purpose three separate questions (questions regarding children who are living with their parents, who are not living with them and who are dead) are built to collect the required information on the number of children ever born by a given respondent. This method helps parents to remember their entire biological children; so we can get the exact information on the number of ever born children. But adopted children are not counted and therefore enumerators should take care while collecting the information.

Column 34: What is the number of children living at home (Male, Female)?

For women age 10 years and above the question concerning the number of children they ever born and currently are living with them will be asked. The information (the number of ever born children who are living with their mothers) to be collected will be recorded separately by sex on the spaces provided. Under this question children who are included are:
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If the respondent is currently married, the children who are born from the current spouse and living with them now.

If the respondent was married before current marriage, children who were born before current marriage and living with their mothers in the current household.

In addition, children born out of marriage or born before their first marriage and are living with their mothers in the current household.

Nevertheless, children who are born from the husband and any other women or children who are not born from the respondent are not included. For females who are 10 years and over but don't have children with them or never born before "0" will be written in the space provided.

Column 35: What is the number of children living elsewhere (Male, Female)?

The question refers to children who are "born alive" and currently residing in other places rather than with their families. The separate questions will be asked by sex so that the number of children who are not living with their mothers by sex will be obtained. And the information to be collected will be filled in on the space provided. If the respondent have no children who are living in other places and never born before, the space provided must be filled with "0" for both sexes. Under this question children who are included are:

If the respondent is currently married, the children who are born from the current husband and living in other places.

If the respondent was married before the current marriage, children who are born before the current marriage and living in other place.

In addition children born out of marriage or born before their first marriage and are living in other place.

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Column 36: What is the number of children dead? (Male, Female).

By asking the respondent that among the children who are "born alive" how many of them died, the information will be filled on the space provided. But if there is no child dead the space will be filled with "0" for both sexes. When the enumerator fills this question you should remember that children ever dead mean, children who are born alive but dead after some time. As mentioned earlier it is important to remember that children who are dead include children born with marriage and died or children born out of marriage and died.

Column 37: What is the total number of children born alive?
The total number of children ever born alive is recorded in given card columns by asking the respondents. Please check the numbers by adding the figures given in columns 34 – 36 and if you find discrepancy verify from respondents.

Column 38: Births during the last 12 months
Did you have a live birth during the last 12 months? If yes enter the number of live births, otherwise enter '0'.

The respondent will be asked whether they gave birth to a child who is "born alive" during the 12 month prior to the date of enumeration i.e. from 11 October 1993 - October 10, 1994 and the answer will be recorded on the space provided.

To understand the concept "born alive" it is important to note the explanation given in columns 34 - 37. Moreover, in column 38 children who are counted must be born during the reference period (the 12 months prior to the date of enumeration i.e. from 11 October 1993 - October 10, 1994). Some times respondents may tell all of their children without taking in to an account the given reference period. Therefore it is crucial for the enumerator to explain all these concepts to the respondent.

If the respondent gave birth to a child during the last 12 months prior to the census date, the number of children will be filled on the space provided. However, if they didn't, "0" will be written in the space provided. Most of the time women give birth only once in a year so write "1" but in condition when a woman gives birth to a twin children during the reference period "2" will be written.
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Section 4: Detail Information on Housing Units
General Instruction
The enumerator should closely consider the following points before collecting data about housing units.

1. Information on the housing units is collected if and only if the housing unit is used for residential purpose, be it for residence only or for residence and enterprise purposes on the date of enumeration.
2. If the housing unit is used only for enterprise purpose at the time of the census the information will not be collected.
3. In this section, all possible answers are coded and first circle the right code of the answer and then enter the code in the given card column.
4. While collecting information regarding the materials with which the wall, roof, ceiling and floor are made, the enumerator should also include his own observation to improve the quality of the data.
5. The enumerator is supposed to have a good understanding of the definitions of terms such as room, ceiling, protected well/spring, etc. and he should explain to the respondent, on such terms so that the can get the correct answer to the questions.
6. If there more than 10 members in the household and forced to use an additional questionnaire, the housing unit information is collected on the last page of the questionnaire and make "-" on housing section of the other questionnaires.
7. If two or more households are found in a single housing unit, information about the housing unit is collected only once. In other words if two households are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking one of the households only. However, the housing unit will be considered as having a certain amenity, if one of the household reports them.
8. For collective quarters, for hotel/hostel residents housing data will not be collected. To indicate that housing information will not be collected, make "-" in the all columns. The enumerator should however, remember that housing information will be collected for the regular households residing in collective quarters, hotel/hostel, etc.

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Column 39: (Enumerator), Will housing information be collected?

1 = Yes
2 = No

As mentioned earlier if more than one household are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking only one of the household. In this question, code "1" is circled and entered in the given space for the household for which housing information shall be collected. On the other hand for the other household living in the same housing unit and inmates of collective quarters and hotel/hostel, code "2" will be entered and the rest housing questions (column 40 – 49) are left blank.

Column 40: What is the type of the housing unit?

In Ethiopia the way housing units are built vary from place to place and, thus, the enumerator should seriously consider the description provided below in this regards.

1= Permanent housing unit: A housing unit is said to be permanent if it is built from stone, bricks, hollow bricks or other materials to serve for many years.

2 = Temporary housing unit: A housing unit is said to be temporary if it is built for temporary residence by using wood poles and with walls and roofs made from items such as cartoon, plastic sheet, corrugated iron, etc. An example of temporary housing unit could be a tent, if there are households residing in it. The enumerator should be very cautious not skip temporary housing units and the households residing in them.

3 = Mobile housing unit: A housing unit is said to be mobile if it is built in such a way that the household residing in it can carry it from place to place. Housing units of nomadic people can be taken as an example.

4 = Others: If the housing unit is different from the ones listed above, the enumerator should circle and enter this code.

Column 41: What is the major material used for the construction of the wall of the housing unit?
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In this question the material with which the wall of the housing unit is majority built is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is circled and entered. If the type of material with which the wall is made is not found among the given alternatives, the enumerator shall circle code 8.

1 = Wood and mud
2 = Wood and thatch
3 = Bamboo/reed
4 = Stone and mud
5 = Stone and cement
6 = Hollow bricks
7 = Bricks
8 = Others

Column 42: What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the roof of the housing unit?
The roof is the upper part and cover of the housing unit resting on the walls, which protects the housing unit from rain, wind, etc. In this question, the material with which the majority of the roof of the housing unit is made is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is circled and entered in the space provided. If the material with which the roof is made is other than the ones listed, code 5 should be circled and entered.

1 = Corrugated iron sheet
2 = Thatch
3 = Wood and mud
4 = Bamboo/Reed
5 = Other

Column 43: What is the main source of drinking water for the residents of this housing unit?

The purpose of this question is to know the major source from which the household gets its drinking water. If the sources are more than one the enumerator should further ask the

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respondent to identify him the main one and he should circle the correct code among the possible alternatives given below and enter the code in the given card column.

1 = Tap
2 = Protected well or spring
3 = Unprotected well or spring
4 = River/lake/ pond.

Column 44: How many rooms are in the housing unit?

A room in a housing unit is said to be a room if it is surrounded by wails, if it has a height of at least 2 meters measures from its floor to its roof, and if it has an area of at least 4 square meters that can accommodate an adult's bed. In this question the total number of rooms that the household is used for various purposes is required and thus, the enumerator should note that the definition given above is valid for housing units having more than one room.

Therefore, bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, and others, are considered as rooms. However bath rooms, toilets, corridors, and verandas should not be considered as rooms even if they satisfy the definition of a room. In addition, a manger is also not considered as a room.

For housing units used for both residence and enterprise, the rooms, serving both purposes are considered excluding the one used for enterprise purpose only.

A space to write the number of rooms is provided in the questionnaire and the enumerator should enter the number in the card column provided. The answer for this question shall never be "0 "since the housing unit the household is residing is considered as a housing unit if it has at least one room in it. If the number of rooms are 8 and above write 8 in the given space.

Column 45: What type of toilet facility does the housing unit have?

In this question, the interest is to know the type of toilet facility that the housing units have and also to know the distribution of housing units that do not have such facilities. It is a known fact that the availability of toilet faculty is a very crucial element to prevent and control disease
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transmission and to improve the health status of the society. The data generated from this question can thus be used as an important health indicator.

Therefore, the enumerator shall circle the appropriate code from the given choice below. In addition, if a toilet facility is no more functioning for various reasons and it is not in a position to be maintained and put back to service then the housing unit is considered as not having the facility.

1 = No toilet facility
2 = Pit or flush toilet

Column 46: Do domestic animals spend the night in the room(s) where the members of the housing units spend the night?

This question helps to measure the health status of the household and to know the extent to which the household is exposed to transmitted diseases primarily caused by animals /chicken, livestock, sheep and goats, horses, donkeys, mules, etc./

Therefore, whether or not members of the household and animals share the same room to spend the night is asked and code 1 is circled if they do, code 2 is circled if not.

1 = Yes
2 = No

If a shepherd or some body else spends the night in the room purposely built for the animals for protection purpose, code 2 should be circled.

Column 47: Does the housing unit have a separate kitchen?

A housing unit is said to have a kitchen if it has a room primarily built to serve as a kitchen. Even though such a room at the same time serves men and animals to spend the night as long as it is primarily built to serve as a kitchen and is mostly used as a kitchen, the housing unit shall be considered as having a kitchen. However, if the housing unit has only one room that serves the household members to live in and at the sometime to cook their food, then the housing unit is considered as not having a kitchen. In order to assess the health impact of sharing the same
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room for living and cooking purposes, the enumerator should given emphasis as to where the kitchen is situated.

The enumerator is, thus, required to circle the correct code among the given choices and enter the code in the given card column.

1 = Has a room mainly used as a kitchen
2 = Uses a kitchen as a room where members spend the night
3 = Uses a kitchen as a room where livestock spend the night
4 = Has no kitchen

Column 48: What type of the cooking energy does the members of the housing unit mostly used?
The type of cooking energy used mostly by the members of the housing is asked and the appropriate code is circled and entered in the space provided.

The type of fuel that the household is using can give an indication on the socio-economic status of the household. In addition some of the fuels mentioned above are harmful to health; such data can also be used to know the health status of the household.

1 = Fire woods or leaves
2 = Charcoal
3 = Charcoal
4 = Kerosene
5 = Other
6 = Uses no fuel

If the members of the housing units used more than one cooking energy or fuel ask the type most of the time they used and circle and enter the right code codes 1 – 4. If they are not cooking in the housing unit enter code 5.

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Column 49: Is there a radio in this housing unit
If the residents of the housing unit have radio circle code 1 and enter this code in the given card column. If there is no radio in the housing unit circle code 2. When we say there is radio in the housing unit, at least one member of the housing unit should have a radio.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Date, Name and signature of the enumerator and supervisor

This is the place for the enumerator and supervisor to put the date, their names and signature as a confirmation to the successful accomplishment of their enumeration. Therefore, the enumerator is required to put his name, signature and the date on every completed questionnaire as a confirmation that he has carefully fulfilled his responsibility. Moreover, the supervisors have been expected to confirm the work of the enumerators whether the enumerator has asked the questions correctly and collected the required information from the respondents. For this purpose, a place is given to the supervisors to put their names and signature as well as the date of confirmation on the questionnaire.
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Chapter Four
Instructions for Filling the Population and Housing Census Questionnaires in Urban Areas

Two types of census questionnaires are prepared for urban areas: short and long questionnaires. The long questionnaire will be filled in for the selected sample households, for all hotels/hostels and for other collective quarters' inmates. It should be noticed again that the short questionnaire is to be filled in for the rest households (for unselected households). The instruction given below is to fill in the long questionnaire and this instruction is again used to the short questionnaire because questions included in the short questionnaire are parts and parcels of the long questionnaire. The questionnaire is filled in for residents of housing units coded as code 1, 2, 3 or 4 is entered in column 11. Note that, only short questionnaire will be administered for homeless peoples.

Section 1: Area identification particulars

Column 1, 2 and 3: Region, Zone and worda (see the instruction given in chapter 3).

Column 4: Town
The town will be written in the space provided.

Column 5: Keftegna
The keftegna is the administrative level above the kebele in the major urban areas. Major towns are divided into keftegnas and one keftegna comprised of two or more kebeles. Mostly the name is given by numbers like; 01, 02, 03, etc. Write the keftegna number in the given card column if the town is divided into keftegnas, unless the space is left blank. Do not forget to write the same number on the outer part of the questionnaire pad.

Column 6: Supervision Area
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
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Column 7: Kebele
The kebele code where the respondent live is recorded in the given space and the same number should be written on the outer part of the questionnaire pad.

Column 8: Enumeration Area
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).

Section 2: Type of Residence and Housing Unit particulars
Column 9: Type of residence

(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 10: Housing unit serial number
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 11: House number/ sub number
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 12: household serial number
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).

Section 3: Particulars of Household Members

Column 13: Household members serial number
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 14: Name of the household members and visitors
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 15: Residence status
Column 16: Relationship to the head of the household
Column 17: Sex

(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 18: Age
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
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Column 19: Religion
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 20: Mother tongue
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 21: Second (Additional) language
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Column 22: Ethnic group
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).

Column 23 – 24: Migration Status

Column 23: What is the number of years (NAME) has continuously lived in this town?
Prior to collecting the required information on migration, it is very important to have a knowledge regarding what the concept migration stands for. Question like how a given individual is considered to be a migrant in a given locality during a census period and setting up the criteria to respond the question is so crucial. Based on the type of place of residence i.e urban and rural areas, different meanings and criteria are set to define migration or a person as a migrant. Therefore, before executing the actual data collection, it is necessary and mandatory to understand the meanings and criteria used to define the term migration or a migrant person in urban areas. Hence the detail on the meaning and criteria used to define migration in urban area is given as follows.

In urban areas a person will be enumerated as a migrant if the individual fulfills the following criteria;

The person is a migrant if the individual was born in or came from any other urban or rural dwellings of the country or if his/her previous usual place of residence was any urban areas of the same woreda or another woreda and the length of duration from the period he/she left his/her previous place of residence to the time of the census is six months or more.
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Even though the length of duration from the period the individual left his/her previous place of residence to the time of enumeration is less than six months and if he/she has no any intention to return back to his/her previous place of residence, the person will be taken as a migrant.

However, the person will not be considered as a migrant if the length of duration from the period the individual left his/her previous place of residence to the time of enumeration is less than six months and he/she has decided to return back to his/her previous place of residence.

In addition to what is stated previously, the following cases are imperative to have a clear understanding so as to collect the required information on migration during the period of census.

In some cases there are conditions where a person is born in a hospital or health service giving institution which is located out of the woreda/urban in which his/her household is residing. Under this situation the place of birth of the person is considered to be the place where his/her household is residing rather than the hospital or health service giving institution. Because of this, the individual is not considered as a migrant during enumeration.

In a similar condition where a woman gave birth to a child in a residence of her parents or relatives and return back to her household, the place of birth of the child is the place where the mother and her household is living, not the residence of her parents or relatives.

In order to clearly state the criteria given earlier to define migration or a migrant person and to enhance the understandings of the enumerator, the following examples are provided.

At the time of census, persons who do not continuously live since the time of birth in the urban area are also grouped in to two.

1. Those who were born away from the place of enumeration: This refers to those who were born in other urban areas or any rural areas of the country.
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2. Those who were born in the present area of enumeration but for some periods of time they had lived in other urban areas or any rural localities and shortly returned back to their place of birth or the current place of enumeration. This refers to those who once upon a time used to live continuously in other urban areas or any rural dwellings for six months or more but found to be in their place of birth during enumeration.
For example,
1. A man named Ali Ahmed was born in place of enumeration called Agaro town of Gomma woreda and he used to live in his place of birth continuously for 10 years since birth. Later on he left his place of birth and started to live in Shasha town of the same woreda for 7 consecutive years. But the person is found to have returned back to his place of birth at the time of census. Under this condition the number of years individual has lived continuously in the area of enumeration is the duration from the time he retuned back to his place of birth or from Shasha town to the period of the census. The 10 years he used to live continuously in his place of birth before he went to Shasha town is not considered.

2. A person called Gemeda Negassa used to live continuously in his place of birth, Ambo town from the time of birth to age of 15. Shortly he left his place of birth and started to live in Nekemte town of Oromia Region for 7 years and later on he returned back to his place of birth one and half years prior to the time of census. Under this situation the number of years the person has lived continuously in the Ambo town (area of enumeration) is the duration from the time he retuned back to Ambo town from Nekemte town to the period of the census, i.e. only one months.

Based on the above given detailed examples and criteria, the codes for the possible responses for question 13 are given as follows:

0 = for those who used to live continuously for less than a year in the urban area of enumeration.
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1 = for those who used to live continuously for 1 year in the urban area of enumeration.
2 = for those who used to live continuously for 2 years in the urban area of enumeration.

3 = for those who used to live continuously for 3 years in the urban area of enumeration.

4 = for those who used to live continuously for 4 years in the urban area of enumeration.

5 = for those who used to live continuously for 5 to 6 years in the urban area of enumeration.

6 = for those who used to live continuously for 7 to 9 years in the urban area of enumeration.

7 = for those who used to live continuously for 10 years or more in the urban area of enumeration.

8 = for those who used to live continuously since birth in the urban area of enumeration

Hence, based on the response obtained from the respondent the necessary code from the given alternative will be entered in the space provided. For example, for a person who reports that he used to live continuously in the area of enumeration for less than a year, code 0 will be entered. Similarly, code 5 will be entered for those have been living for 5 to 6 years in the place of enumeration continuously etc…

Column 24: If the previous residence was in urban area write name of the town, if it was in a rural area write "rural".
This question will be asked to respondents who are given codes from 0 to 7 in column 23. After asking respondent about the last place of residence he/she used to live before starting to reside in the current place of enumeration, if it was rural write 'rural' in the space provided, and if it was town write the name of the town in the space provided. If a person used to live continuously since birth in the place of enumeration write 'here' and put "-" in card column provided for code. Code 1 and code 0 will be assigned to those who report their last previous place of residence an urban and a rural area, respectively.

Column 25: Disability Status
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).

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Column 26: Enter grade enrolled for those now attending school, if attended in the past code 97 and if never attended code 98.
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).

Column 27: is (NAME) literate? Write '00' for illiterate and if literate highest grade completed.
(see the instruction given in chapter 3).
Pg 97

Column 28 – 32: Information on economic Activity

The information collected on economic activity status in these columns during the last
7 days include:

a) Whether engaged in productive work during the reference period (if they engaged during the last 7 days, number of days worked);

b) Reason for not being engaged in productive work during the reference period (for those who were not so engaged);

c) Major types of occupation;

d) Major product or service of the establishment or industry;

e) Employment status in the main activity.

Column 28: Was (NAME) engaged in productive work during the last 7 days? If yes write the number of days worked, if no write '0'

Every members of the household aged ten years and above is asked whether they were engaged in productive activities during the last 7 days prior to the date of enumeration, if they engaged in productive work number of days worked will be recorded in the given card column and if not enter '0'. A person is said to be participated in the productive during the last 7 days if at least worked for a one day during the reference period. Also if a person worked at least for four hours in a day we consider him/her as worked for a day. If a person worked for 7 days enter '7' in the card column.
The enumerator should have to read know the productive work definition given in the instruction prepared for the rural part.

The following list of production of goods and services are included as productive activities.

D. Production of items for sale: For example, industrial products, production of pottery ,etc… and persons providing services for generating income for example, barbers, selling local drinks like " Tella" and "Katikala" and weaving, brokers, .etc..
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E. Paid employment activities in governmental, other households or organizations: for example physicians, teachers, employed farmers, shepherd, etc… It also includes unpaid communal work, for example, food for work, planting trees (forestry), communal labour, etc.
F. Producing items for own consumption or for sale or production of durable goods for domestic use, these are:

1. Activities involving in primary production for own consumption:

Example, producing agricultural products, (crops like cereals/pulses, fruits and vegetables, cotton, etc); hunting, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying are the components of primary production. Growing or gathering agricultural primary products, etc; animal husbandry/ poultry, hunting, fishing and cutting or collecting of fire woods, charcoal or for other purpose from own holdings. Collecting thatching and weaving materials and charcoal making – mining salt cutting peat, digging of soil for house or household utensils, digging or collecting sand and stone, etc

2. Processing of Primary Commodities for own Consumption
It covers activities such as milling grain, making butter, cheese and other dairy products, sinning and tanning, making baskets and hats and constructing wooden furniture and fixture.

Note : It should be emphasized that these various activities are considered as economic activity only if they involve the processing of primary products. Thus, pounding "teff" (a primary product) to make "injera" is included; thus-using flour (a processed product) to make "injera" is excluded. It should further be noted that only the processing of primary commodities by the producers of these items, which means that the processing for own consumption of primary commodities by those who do not produce them is excluded. Thus, for example making flour of "teff" from the market is not included but making flour of "teff" produced by oneself is considered.

Processing those above mentioned products to finished or semi-finished products for own consumption. Example: Spinning, making butter or cheese, grinding corns or cereals. Producing furniture, like, tables, chairs, containers, etc… However, processing those finished or semi-finished items to other forms for own consumption can not be considered as a productive activity.
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3. Processing of primary commodities (goods and services) for sale also are productive activity

Example, making local drinks (like "Tella") for sale and partially used for own consumption. It can also be considered if the drink is partially used for home.

4. Production of fixed assets for own use (those fixed assets should give at least one year service)

Example, Construction of dwellings, construction of farm buildings, clearing land for cultivation production of agricultural tools, etc.

Non-Productive / economic activities
While the SNA definition of the production of goods and services covers a wide range of activities many other activities still remain outside its scope.

a) Unpaid activities such as domestic tasks are taken as non-productive/ economic activities do not count as economic activity. For example, water fetching for domestic use, collecting firewood/ dung from field or forest (not from own holding) and spinning of cotton for own consumption of primary commodities who do not produce them.

b) Unpaid domestic activities do not count as economic activity. Examples are preparing food for household consumption, nursing of children and current repair and maintenance of dwelling and farm buildings and unpaid community and volunteer services, and voluntary service in international or national centers or local organizations, and prostitution etc...

c) Even though one receive money, but do not earn it: Who are pensions only, who are earning money by renting a house only, i.e. by not involving in any activity, Those who are earning money by begging ,and gamblers, are not considered as economic activity.

d) Others, like engaged in apprentice-to get experience working in offices, garage and in various sectors with out participation of in relation to training /education also considered non- economic activity.
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Column 29: Reason for not working. If did not work (Column 28 code 2) What was the main reason for not working?

This column is asked for those who were not engaged in productive work during the last 7 days prior to the census date, or code 0 is given in column 28. Write the reason in the space provided and codes in the given card column by referring the possible answers are given below with their codes.

01 = Unemployed without work experience: These people were not engaged in productive activity during the last 7 days and they have no job before a week and they may or many not seek to get a job during the reference time. If opportunity comes, they are ready to work.

02 = Unemployed with work experience: Even though these people had a job some time before a year but due to lack of job they were not engaged in any productive activity during the last 7 days. This people may seek or may not to get jobs. But if opportunity comes, they were ready to work.

03 = Employed but not working during the last 7 days: - Persons who are employed but not working during the last 7 days due to illness, injury, lack of raw materials, etc. classified here.

04 = Student: The category includes all persons, aged 10 years and above who, during the last 7 days do not engaged in productive activity due to attending school/training during day time. But those students who engaged in productive activity during most of the last 12 months are not included in this code.

05 = Unpaid Home maids/servants: All persons, male or female, who are aged 10 years and above, and who, during the last 7 days were not engaged in productive activity due to domestic activities like preparing food for family,…etc. For example, house maid. It is important to note that those persons may or may not engage in economic activity during the last 7 days.

06 = Disabled: These persons were not working in the economic activity during the last 7 days because of their disability or handicap ness.
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Note: Disabled or handicapped persons who were engaged in productive activity should not be included here.

07 = Too young: All persons (male or female) who are aged 10 years and above and who, during the last 7 days were not engaged in productive /economic activity because they are too young. For those persons who are aged 15 and above were not included in this code. For those persons who are attending school should be given code 4, rather than code 8

08 = Old age/ retired/ remittance: These are persons who were not engaged in productive /economic activity during the last 7 days because of old age/retired or remittance or renting a house.
Remark: In addition to remittance, pensions and earning money from renting housing if they are engaged in economic activity during the last 7 days should not be included here;

09 = Prostitutes: Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during the last 7 days because of their main act.

10 = Others: Those persons who were not working in the productive activity during the last 7 days because of other reasons that are not classified from code 01 - 09 are categorized here.
Remark: Unemployed students are those students attending school during the night and seeking job and were not engaged in any productive activity during the day should be included either in code 01 or 02.

Column 30 – 32: For those who have been engaged in productive work during the last months for at least one day, unemployed with previous work experience and for who had work but did not work during the last 7 days.

Column 30: What is (NAME's) occupation?
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In this column data is collected only for those who have been engaged in productive work during the last 7 days (column 28 code 1), unemployed with previous work experience (column 29 code 02) and for who had work but did not work during the last 7 days (column 29 code 03). The concerned persons either have at least one job or had work in the previous time. Their occupation is registered here. For person who had work in the previous time the type of occupation they had before becoming unemployed will be recorded. For details please refer the instruction given for the rural parts of the same question, change only the reference period from "most of the last 12 months" to "the last 7 days".

Column 31: Major product or service of the establishment

To record the major product or service for a person under consideration, first enquire a person where he/she works and then the type of products or service produced or given by the establishment.

An establishment definition is relaxed here in order to capture those do not have fixed places, like; micro enterprises who operates on street side or open markets. For example, a person is working in his/her residence house weaving, tailor service, selling tella or katikala, etc., even though the work is not in organized manner, considered as an establishment and the product or service is recorded in this column.

As explained under column 30, whenever we face with enterprise producing different products or services, the major one will be recorded. For example, a tobacco factory produces matches as an additional product. In such case, we record cigarette since it is the major product. Similar products take same code irrespective of the owner of the factory/ establishment (private or public) or mode of production (modern or traditional). Please, refer the detail instruction for the rural parts of this question.

For skilled unemployed persons, the type of major products or service they used to work in will be recorded. Note that: Do not ask the organizations or institutions they served in, enquire only the major products or service produced or rendered by the organizations or institutions in which they employed.
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Column 32: Employment status
For persons occupation and major product or service are filled in the previous columns ask the employment status and enter the right code in the space given in this column. For the type of employment status and their code refer the instruction presented in this manual for rural areas.

Column 33: Marital status
(see the instruction given in chapter 3)

Column 34 - 38: Total number of children alive
(see the instruction given in chapter 3)

Column 38: Births in the last 12 months
(see the instruction given in chapter 3)
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Section 4: Detail Information on Housing Units
General Instruction

In this section information on urban housing units are collected.
The enumerator should closely consider the following points before collecting data about housing units.

1. Information on the housing units is collected if and only if the housing unit is used for residential purpose, be it for residence only or for residence and enterprise purposes on the date of enumeration.
2. If the housing unit is used only for enterprise purpose at the time of the census the information will not be collected.
3. In this section, all possible answers are coded and first circle the right code of the answer and then enter the code in the given card column.
4. If there is a radio and television in the housing unit we record it but if it is out of order the household does not have the intention to maintain it again we consider as there is no radio or television in the housing unit.
5. While collecting information regarding the materials with which the wall, roof, ceiling and floor are made, the enumerator should also include his own observation to improve the quality of the data.
6. The enumerator is supposed to have a good understanding of the definitions of terms such as room, ceiling, protected well/spring, etc. and he should explain to the respondent, on such terms so that the can get the correct answer to the questions.
7. If there more than 10 members in the household and forced to use an additional questionnaire, the housing unit information is collected on the last page of the questionnaire and make "-" on housing section of the other questionnaires.
8. If two or more households are found in a single housing unit, information about the housing unit is collected only once. In other words if two households are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking one of the households only. However, the housing unit will be considered as having a certain amenity, if one of the household reports them.
9. For collective quarters, for hotel/hostel residents housing data will not be collected. To indicate that housing information will not be collected, make "-" in the all columns. The enumerator should however, remember that housing information will be collected for the regular households residing in collective quarters, hotel/hostel, etc.

Pg 105

Column 39: (Enumerator), Will housing information be collected?

1 = Yes
2 = No

As mentioned earlier if more than one household are found in one housing unit, information regarding the housing unit is collected by asking only one of the household. In this question, code "1" is circled and entered in the given space for the household for which housing information shall be collected. On the other hand for the other household living in the same housing unit and inmates of collective quarters and hotel/hostel, code "2" will be entered and the rest housing questions (column 40 – 49) are left blank.

Column 40: What is the total number of households living in the housing unit
In this section the total number of households living in the housing unit will be recorded in the space provided. For example if the number of households living in the housing unit is '1' or '2' in this column (column 40) '1' or '2' is entered in the card column.

Column 41: What is the number of members of household(s) living in this housing unit
In this column, the number of members of household(s) living in the housing unit is entered in the given card column by sex. Separate card columns are given to fill in the numbers by male, female and their total.

Column 42: What is the type of the housing unit?

In Ethiopia the way housing units are built vary from place to place and, thus, the enumerator should seriously consider the description provided below in this regards.
Pg 106

1= Permanent housing unit: A housing unit is said to be permanent if it is built from stone, bricks, hollow bricks or other materials to serve for many years.

2 = Temporary housing unit: A housing unit is said to be temporary if it is built for temporary residence by using wood poles and with walls and roofs made from items such as cartoon, plastic sheet, corrugated iron, etc. An example of temporary housing unit could be a tent, if there are households residing in it. The enumerator should be very cautious not skip temporary housing units and the households residing in them.

3 = Mobile housing unit: A housing unit is said to be mobile if it is built in such a way that the household residing in it can carry it from place to place. Housing units of nomadic people can be taken as an example.

4 = Others: If the housing unit is different from the ones listed above, the enumerator should circle and enter this code.

Column 43: What is type of building in which the housing unit is found?
The type of building in which the housing unit is found is asked and the obtained information will be recorded to the codes given below. A building can have one or more housing units.
The type of building and their codes are given below and by referring the write code, the given answer code will be circled and entered in the given space.

0 = Single level and detached
1 = Single level and 2 units attached
2 = Single level and 3 – 5 units attached
3 = Single level 6 or more units attached
4 = One or more stories detached
5 = One or more stories, 2 - 3 units attached
6 = One or more stories, 4 - 6 units attached
7 = One or more stories, 7 - 10 units attached
8 = One or more stories, 11 or more units attached

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Column 44: How many years ago was this housing unit built?

In this question the interest is to know the number of years since the housing unit was built. The enumerator is expected to circle the correct code correspond to the right year or interval and enter in the given card column. If respondents fail to know the exact number of years, the numerator should urge them to give him an approximate year. If some part of the housing unit is built at a certain time and the other part is built at some other time, the enumerator should take the period during which a larger part of the housing unit was built.

1= less than 5 years
2= 5 to 9 years
3= 10 to 14 years
4= 15 to 19 years
5= 20 years and above

Column 45: What is the major material used for the construction of the wall of the housing unit?

In this column the material with which the wall of the housing unit is majority built is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is circled and entered in the right column. If the type of material with which the wall is made is not found among the given alternatives, the enumerator shall circle code 8.

1 = Wood and mud
2 = Wood and thatch
3 = Stone and mud
4 = Stone and cement
5 = Hollow bricks
6 = Bricks
7 = Bamboo/reed
8 = Others

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Column 46: What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the roof of the housing unit?
The roof is the upper part and cover of the housing unit resting on the walls, which protects the housing unit from rain, wind, etc. In this question, the material with which the majority of the roof of the housing unit is made is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is circled and entered in the given card columns. If the material with which the roof is made is other than the ones listed, code 6 should be circled. If the housing unit is a multi-storied one, the material with which the roof of the top storey is made should be taken for all the housing units beneath.

1 = Corrugated iron sheet
2 = Concrete/cement
3 = Thatch
4 = Wood or mud
5 = Bamboo/reed
6 = Others



Column 47: What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the ceiling of the housing unit?

In this question the material with which the ceiling of the housing unit is mostly built is asked and the correct code among the given alternatives is circled and entered in the space provided. If the ceiling is made of more than one item, the item constituting the largest part should be taken. However, if all or most of the rooms of the housing unit do not have a ceiling code one shall be circled. If the item with which the ceiling is made of is other than the ones listed, code 6 shall be circled.

1 = None
2 = Fabrics
3 = Chip wood/Hardboard
4 = Wooden
5 = Concrete/cement
6 = Others

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Column 48: What is the major material used for the construction of the major part of the floor of the housing unit?

In this Column the material with which the floor of the housing unit is made is asked and the correct case among the given alternatives is circled and entered in the given card column. If the floor is made of more than one material, the one constituting the longest part should be taken. And if the material with which the floor is made of is other than the ones listed, code 7 shall be circled.

1 = Mud
2 = Wood tiles
3 = Cement or concrete finish
4 = Plastic tiles
5= Cement tile/brick tile
6 = Bamboo/reed
7 = Other

Column 49: How many rooms are in the housing unit?

A room in a housing unit is said to be a room if it is surrounded by wails, if it has a height of at least 2 meters measures from its floor to its roof, and if it has an area of at least 4 square meters that can accommodate an adult's bed. In this question the total number of rooms that the household is used for various purposes is required and thus, the enumerator should note that the definition given above is valid for housing units having more than one room.

Therefore, bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, and others, are considered as rooms. However bath rooms, toilets, corridors, and verandas should not be considered as rooms even if they satisfy the definition of a room. In addition, a manger is also not considered as a room.
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For housing units used for both residence and enterprise, the rooms, serving both purposes are considered excluding the one used for enterprise purpose only.

A space to write the number of rooms is provided in the questionnaire and the enumerator should write the number of rooms as 01, 02, 03, etc. The answer for this question shall never be "00 "since the housing unit the household is residing is considered as a housing unit if it has at least one room in it. If the numbers of rooms are 20 and more write 20 in the space provided.

Column 50: What is the type of tenure of the housing unit?

This refers to how the residents hold the housing unit and there are various possibilities for such a case. A housing unit is said to be privately owned by the members of the household/residents of none of them pay any money in the form of rent. The housing unit may be rented from Kebele, Rental Houses Agency or from other organization or individual. A case may also arise where individuals pay a rent difference due to the reason that the rent of the housing unit is which they are currently residing is higher than the rent of the housing unit they used to live in before. Such housing unit is also considered as rented. The relevant code is circled and entered in the space provided.

A housing unit is also said to be held free of rent if it is given to the household without any rent from kebele, government, or other organizations or from relatives, friends, etc.
The enumerator is thus, expected to circle the correct code from the given alternatives.

1 = Owner occupied
2 = Rented from kebele
3 = Rented from Rental Houses Agency
4 = Rented from other organization
5 = Paying difference in rent
6 = Rented from private household
7 = Rent free

Column 51: If rented, what is the monthly amount of rent in Birr?
If code 2 – 6 filled in the column 50 the monthly amount of rent paid for the housing unit in Birr will be entered. First write the amount paid in Birr and Cents without rounding off in the

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space given as dash "____", then enter in the card column by rounding to Birr. For example, if the rent amount is 10.50 Birr first write 10.50 Birr in the space provided and enter 0011 in the card column but if the rent is 10.25 Birr write 10.25 Birr in the space provided and enter 0010 in the card column. The card column given for entering the rent is 4 and whenever the monthly rent amount is Birr 9998 and more write 9998 Birr only.

If the housing unit is occupied by two or more than households and all paid rent the amount of rent written is the total amount paid by all occupants.

Column 52: What is the main source of drinking water for the members of this housing unit?

The purpose of this question is to know the major source from which the household gets its drinking water. If the sources are more than one, the enumerator should further ask the respondent to identify the main one and he should circle and enter in the card column the correct code among the possible alternatives given below.

1 = Tap inside the house
2 = Tap in compounded, private
3 = Tap in compounded, shared
4 = Tap outside the compound (from private tap, from public tap or other organizations paid or for free)
5 = Protected well or spring
6 = Unprotected well or spring
7 = River/lake/ pond.

N.B: We call a well/spring protected if it satisfies the following.
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1. Its surrounding should be properly built by stone and cement
a. If it is a well the building should be at least 2 - 4 meters deep in the ground and about 70 cm above the ground level.
b. If it is a spring the building should go deeper until a rock or a strong soil as found to serve as the base of the building and the height of the building above the ground level can vary depending on the situations. It should however have an outlet pipe on one side of the building.

2. The well/ spring must have a cover which is made of cement or any other strong material.
3. There should be a properly made diversion to protect the will/ spring from any water flowing to wards it.
3. The distance mentioned above should be by far larger if such contaminating facilities are stalked in higher position reliance to the well/spring.

Thus, if the household gets its drinking water from well/spring satisfying the above points, the enumerator shall circle code 5. Unless it is tap water, any water fetched from rivers or lakes is generally considers as unprotected and code 6 is circled. If the household is using tap water as the source of drinking water, the enumerator should ask the respondents as to where the tap is located and he circle the appropriate answer from the given 4 alternatives. The enumerator should note that the water may be fetched from the source by using human labor or other means.

Column 53: What type of kitchen does the housing unit have?

A housing unit is said to have a kitchen if it has a room primarily built to serve as a kitchen. Even though such a room at the same time serves men and animals to spend the night as long as it is primarily built to serve as a kitchen and is mostly used as a kitchen, the housing unit shall be considered as having a kitchen. However, if the housing unit has only one room that serves the household members to live in and at the sometime to cook their food, then the housing unit is considered as not having a kitchen. In order to assess the health impact of sharing the same room for living and cooking purposes, the enumerator should given emphasis as to where the kitchen is situated.

In Ethiopia, especially in urban areas, we can find both traditional and modern kitchens. Thus, the enumerator should have a clear understanding of the distinctions between the two, as given below, so as to circle and enter the correct code of the given answer.

Private kitchen:

A kitchen is said to be private if it serves one or more households residing in the housing unit.
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Shared kitchen:

A kitchen is said to be shared if it is shared with households residing in another housing unit.
Modern kitchen:
A kitchen is said to be modern if it at least has a pipe water and a sink and in addition if it has one or more of the following items for cooking; electric stove, butane stove, modern wood/charcoal stove, etc.
Traditional kitchen:

A kitchen is said to be traditional if it has an open or closed stove with/ without a climery and wood, cow dung, charcoal, leaves,...etc. are used as cooking energy. A traditional kitchen does not have piped water and a sink.

The enumerator is, thus, required to circle the correct code among the given alternatives taking the above points into consideration.

1 = No kitchen
2 = Modern kitchen, private
3 = Modern kitchen, shared
4 = Traditional kitchen, private
5 = Traditional kitchen, shared

Column 54: What type of the cooking energy does the members of the housing unit mostly used?

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The type of cooking energy the residents of the housing units mostly used is enquired and the correct code will be circled and entered in the card column provided. The possible types of cooking energy are listed with their codes.

01 = Uses no fuel (not cooking in the housing unit)
02 = Electricity
03 = Butane stove/ cylinder
04 = Kerosene stove
05 = Charcoal
06 = Fire wood/leaves/ saw dust
07 = Dung/ manure
08 = Firewood and charcoal
09 = Firewood and dung
10 = Firewood and kerosene
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11 = Firewood and cylinder
12 = Electricity and kerosene
13 = Electricity and firewood
14 = Electricity and charcoal
15 = Electricity and cylinder
16 = Other

The type of fuel that the household is using can give an indication on the socio-economic status of the household. In addition some of the fuels mentioned above are harmful to health; such data can also be used to know the health status of the household. If the household does not cook or does not use any fuel at all, code 1 should be circled.

Column 55: What type of bathing facility does the housing unit have?

In this question data regarding the type of bathing facility of the housing unit is collected in addition to data on whether this facility is shared or not is also collected.

A bathing facility is said to be private if the bath/shower is used by one or more households residing in the housing unit, and a bathing facility is said to be shared if it is shared with other households residing out side the housing unit.

1 = None
2 = Private bath
3 = Shared bath
4 = Private shower
5 = Shared shower
6 = Other

If a housing unit has a bath and a shower, priority is given to the bath. If the housing unit has a separate room purposely built to serve as a bath room and the household members bring water from somewhere else because the room does not get have the facility, the enumerator should circle code 6. However, if the household uses the toilet that was neither a bath nor a shower the bed room, the kitchen or any room that has not been built to serve as a bath room, the housing unit is considered as not having a bathing facility and the enumerator should circle code 1 among the given alternatives.

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Column 56: What type of toilet facility does the housing unit have?

In this question, the interest is to know the type of toilet facility that the housing units have and also to know the distribution of housing units that do not have such facilities. It is a known fact that the availability of toilet faculty is a very crucial element to prevent and control disease transmission and to improve the health status of the society. The data generated from this question can thus be used as an important health indicator.

Therefore, the enumerator shall circle and enter in the given card column the appropriate code from the given choice if a housing unit has both pit latrine and a toilet with flush, the enumerator should circle the code given for a toilet with flush. In addition, if a toilet facility is no more functioning for various reasons and it is not in a position to be maintained and put back to service then the housing unit is considered as not having the facility.

1 = None
2 = Toilet with flush, private
3 = Toilet with flush, shared
4 = Pit latrine, private
5 = Pit latrine, shared

Column 57: What type of lighting does the housing unit have?

Since lighting is one of the basic services that should be made available. The objective of this question is to assess the distribution of electricity all over the country and also to identify the type of lighting that housing units have. The enumerator should circle and enter the correct code of the type of lighting that the housing unit have among the given alternatives;

1 = Electricity, Meter private
2 = Electricity, Meter shared
3 = Lantern
4 = Kerosene lamp
5 = Other

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Column 58: Is there a radio in this housing unit?
If there is a radio in the housing unit circle code 1 and enter this code in the given card column, code 2 otherwise.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 59: Is there a telephone in this housing unit?
If there is a telephone in the housing unit circle code 1 and enter this code in the given card column, code 2 otherwise.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 60: Is there a television in this housing unit?
If there is a television in the housing unit circle code 1 and enter this code in the given card column, code 2 otherwise.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Date, Name and signature of the enumerator and supervisor

This is the place for the enumerator and supervisor to put the date, their names and signature as a confirmation to the successful accomplishment of their enumeration. Therefore, the enumerator is required to put his name, signature and the date on every completed questionnaire as a confirmation that he has carefully fulfilled his responsibility. Moreover, the supervisors have been expected to confirm the work of the enumerators whether the enumerator has asked the questions correctly and collected the required information from the respondents. For this purpose, a place is given to the supervisors to put their names and signature as well as the date of confirmation on the questionnaire.

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CHAPTER FIVE

Enumeration method of people living in the collective quarters, mobile/ nomadic and homeless.

Method of enumeration of households who are living collective quarters, nomadic and homeless households.

In population and housing census in addition to conventional households:

a. Hotel/Hostel residence
b. Those who live in children's home
c. Those who live in boarding schools (include students who get accommodation from universities and colleges)
d. Prisoners
e. Other member of collective quarters
f. Nomads and
g. Those who have no shelter are included in the enumeration; therefore, the following instruction will help us to do that.

A-E: Method of enumeration for those who live in hotel/hostel, children's home, boarding schools (students in the universities and colleges which have dormitories), prisoners and other collective quarters.

Concerning people who live in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding schools (students in the universities and colleges which have dormitories), prisons and other collective quarters on form 1 we have given housing unit serial number and serial number for Hotel/Hostel and collective quarters. Therefore, these numbers should have to be transferred with care to the main questionnaire. Each and every residence according to his/her living condition listed from "A – E" should have to be enumerated by taking the required number of questionnaires.

Those who have to be registered together using many pages successively, the information filled on the first page of the questionnaire in section 1 and 2 must be filled on the rest of the questionnaire. When many pages are used successively to enumerate the inmates of collective

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quarters the household members' serial numbers are also changed. For example on the second page change '01' to 11, '02' to 12, and so on, on the third pages also '01' to 21, '02' to 22, etc. In the same manner continue till the serial number of inmates become 99 and write "continue" on each page to show that there are additional pages.

How to enumerate the inmates if their number is more than 99.
We can enumerate only 99 inmates on the successively on one questionnaire. If the number of inmates is more than 99 or if it is special EA enumerate as follows.

An EA is called special if the number of inmates are 100 and more and during the cartographic work and is delineated as special EA. In some cases we face where the inmates are more than 99 and did not delineated as special EA. In such case, the enumerator has to use additional questionnaires. Also on form 1 when listing is done give the separate household, hotel/hostel, other collective quarter number in column 12 and this serial number is transcribed to census questionnaire in the a appropriate column. For example, if the household number given to hotel/hostel or other collective quarter during listing was 023 and during enumeration because of their size an additional hotel/hostel or other collective quarter serial is given as 166, on the census questionnaire, for first 99 inmates the household serial number is 023 and for others write serial number 166 even though they have the same housing unit number.

Visitors of hotels that mean individuals who rest in hotels for few days must be registered after we register the residences of the hotel at the end of the questionnaire.

For all who resides in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding school, prison and other collective quarter we don't ask housing questions. Therefore, in section 4 under question 1 we must give code 2.

For all who resides in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding school, prison and other collective quarter, we must enter code 2 or 3 in section 2 to indicate their living condition and in column 16 we must enter code 8 to indicate that they have no relationship. Don't forget filling long questionnaires for those who live in Hotel/Hostel, children's home, boarding schools, prisons and other collective quarters.

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F: Method of enumerating nomadic/ pastoralists

Sometimes it is possible to get nomadic/ pastoralists (those who are from place to place in search of water and pasture for their livestock) in sedentary areas. The enumerator assigned to such areas has to follow the following rules:

1. Assign an interpreter if the enumerator does not speak the local language
2. Collect all stationeries and materials needed for the enumeration work.
3. Gather all information regarding the name of kebele or localities in the area of assignment.
4. Identify the boundaries of the area assigned as an enumeration area.
5. Starting from the North-west area prepares the boundary description of the area.
6. Start enumeration from the locality found in North-west part of the enumeration area and canvass each residential place by moving serpentine manner till all households are enumerated.
7. If the enumerator found another clan who came from other place for searching pasture and water enumerate them by asking them whether they moved to this place partially or leaving other household members in another place. For those who came to the other leaving some of their members in another place treat them as 'visitors'.

Note: Listing of household on form 1 is not done in nomadic areas since nomads are moving from place to place. For every 20 households one household is administered by the long questionnaire (5% sample).

G: Method of enumeration for homeless peoples

During listing in every EA we must identify the places and streets where people live on street or religious areas and do not have shelter elsewhere. Then, according to the date and time announced from census office and the instruction given from the supervisor we will fill short questionnaire for them. Those who live on the street are considered as one household and we will give them one housing unit and household serial number. These two numbers will be written on the last row of form 1. The serial number next to the last one will be given to it.

Homeless are considered as one household; therefore, we may use many questionnaires to register them.
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Chapter Six

Filling of Population size Summary Form of an Enumeration Area
(Form 4)

This Form uses to summarize the household and population size by sex in the enumeration area. Therefore, all relevant information should be transferred from the census questionnaires to the summary form after checking the census questionnaires are correctly filled in.

The summary form should be filled in daily at enumeration area level. This means that the necessary information should be recorded in the summary form daily for the households that are covered by the census questionnaires. This form should be filled in daily starting from the first day of the census till the entire household in the enumeration area are completely enumerated. Moreover, the summary form and the census questionnaires should be filled in the same day for the households that are interviewed. Size of all conventional households, inmates of hotel/hostel, inmates of other collective quarters and homeless persons should be recorded in this summary form. Visitors will not be recorded in the summary forms even though they are listed in the main census questionnaires.
Section 1: Area Identification

In this section the codes of the region, zone, woreda, supervision area, kebele and enumeration area should be recorded in the space provided. These codes can be taken from the description form of the enumeration area.

Columns 1-3: Region, Zone and Woreda

The name of the region, zone and woreda where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the spaces provided under columns 1 – 3.

Columns 4-5: Town and Keftegna

For urban enumeration areas, the name of the town and keftegna should be recorded in the space provided under these columns. For rural enumeration areas, '__' written in the space for town and ketegna.

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Column 6: Supervision Area

The code of the supervision area where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the space provided under this column and entered in the card column.

Column 7: Kebele/PA

The name and code of the kebele/PA where the enumeration area is found should be recorded in the space provided under this column and this code is also entered in the card columns.

Column 8: Enumeration Area

The code of the enumeration area where the enumeration is being conducted should be recorded in the space provided under this column and this code should be properly entered in the card columns. Information recorded in columns 1 - 8 should be checked against information recorded in the census questionnaire.

Section 2: Summary of Population size

The household and population size by sex will be recorded under this section. This section should be filled in after completing the enumeration and properly checking the filled in census questionnaires.

Column 9: Serial number of household/hotel/hostel/other collective quarter

The serial number of the household/ hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter given in the census questionnaire should be recorded under this column (three digits). This number will be transferred from the questionnaire to this form in the sequential order of the filling of the questionnaire. However, the recording of this number may not follow the sequential order of the listing form because some of the households might be absent during the enumeration day.

Column 10: Code for types of residence

The code of types of residence should be transferred from the census questionnaire to this column.
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Column 11: Name of head of the household, hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter

If the questionnaire is filled in for conventional household, the name of the head of the household; if the questionnaire is filled in for hotels/hostel or other collective quarter the name of the hotel/hostel or other collective quarter should be recorded in this column. And if the questionnaire is filled in for homeless persons, "homeless persons" should be recorded in this column.

Columns 12: Size of usual members of the household/inmates of hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter by sex (number of males and females)

If the head of the household is listed in column 11, total numbers of the members of the household including the head (separately each sex) should be recorded in the space provided under these columns. If the name of hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter is recorded in column 11, numbers of inmates of the hotel/hostel/ other collective quarter, should be recorded in these columns by sex. If "homeless persons" is recorded in column 11, the total numbers of the homeless persons by sex, should be recorded.

The numbers of persons recorded in these columns can be taken from the questionnaire in section 3 column 15 and 17 i.e. by identifying the names of the members by sex who were present and absent during the census day.

Column 14: Total number of households

Total number of households enumerated in the enumeration area is recorded here. This column is filled in after completing the other parts of the summary form.

Names and initials of the enumerator and supervisor and date

The enumerator should put his/her name, initial and the date after he/she has checked that all the data recorded in the summary form is correctly recorded. In the same way, the supervisor should put his/her name, initial and the date after he/she checks the sum of the numbers is correctly added and recorded in this form.
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Chapter Seven

How to use Enumeration Area map

Every enumerator shall be given an enumeration area map of his place of assignment along with its description and he will also be given any relevant information regarding his enumeration area by his supervisor. In addition, he is required to know the following details regarding his enumeration area map:

1. The enumerator should closely investigate and study his enumeration area map so that he can have a sufficient knowledge of the enumeration area he is assigned to. In doing so, he is required to further refer section A or B about the contents of his enumeration area map depending on whether his enumeration area is rural or urban.
2. The enumerator should repeatedly read the description of his enumeration area map given for the North, East, South and West directions and he should also physically identify the man made and natural features indicated in the map.
3. The enumeration area boundary is one of the major features of the map and its primarily objective is to keep the enumerator with in his own domain while conducting the census. The enumerator should, therefore, have a clear knowledge of the boundary of his enumeration area. Sometimes the map may not incorporate some prominent features that are found in the enumeration area. Therefore, the enumerator should make the delineation of his boundary with any one of the members of the kebele leaders or with a person assigned to him.
4. By making use of the description of the map, the enumerator should start his delineation from the northern part and he can also make use of the names of the villages, rivers, adjacent kebeles, woredas, etc.

An enumerator may face some challenges while operating with in his own enumeration area. Even though the cartographic area is done with every possible precaution so as to avoid omission and overlapping of landmasses, the enumerator may encounter such a problem. When such a problem arises, the enumerator should immediately inform the case to his supervisor and they should solve the problem together with adjacent enumerators and supervisors. It is only after such and other ambiguities are settled that the enumerator should start his listing.
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If the total number of households and housing units are found to be larger than the ones indicated in the EA map and if he thinks that such a number will be beyond his capacity, he should immediately inform the case to his supervisor. In addition if he finds an obvious mistake on the EA map, he should not correct it by himself, rather he should inform the case to the supervisor and make the correction together. The content and description of EA maps is given subsequently and the enumerator should make a closer look so as to have a better understanding of EA maps.

Content of Enumeration Area maps

A. Content of rural Enumeration Area maps

1. Enumeration Area Identification, i.e. region, zone, woreda, and the name and code of the rural kebele.
2. Name of the Kebele chairman under which the EA is found.
3. Code of the Enumeration area.
4. Household size of the Enumeration Area.
5. Estimated area of the enumeration area.
6. Accurate boundary layout of the enumeration area.
7. Names and positions of the villages that are found in the enumeration area.
8. Some prominent features like rivers, houses, roads, etc. that are found inside and near the boundary of the enumeration area.
9. Names of adjacent regions, zones, woredas, kebeles or other enumeration areas.
10. North direction indicator
11. Scale of the Map
12. Legend of the map

The enumerator should make sure that all the above points are included in his enumeration area map. A rural enumeration area map is attached in appendix 3..
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B. Content of urban Enumeration Area maps

Enumeration area identification, it. Region, zone and woreda.
Name of the town with in which the enumeration area is found.
Name or number of keftegna, and kebele with in which the enumeration area is found.
Size of households and housing units of the enumeration area.
Estimated area of the enumeration area.
Accurate boundary and layout of the enumeration area.
Some prominent features like rivers, houses, roads, etc. that are found inside and near the boundary of the enumeration area.
Names of adjacent regions, zones, woredas, sub-city /keftegnas, kebeles, enumeration area, etc.
North direction indicator
Scale of the map
Legend of the map.

The enumerator should make sure that all the above points are included in his enumeration area map. An urban enumeration area map is presented in appendix 3 as an example.

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Chapter Eight
Method of selection of households administered by long questionnaire

For the 2007 population and Housing Census of Ethiopia two types of questionnaires, namely; short and long were used. The long questionnaire was a detailed one (36 and 47 items in rural and urban areas, respectively including the housing questionnaire) which is administered to sample households. The short questionnaire with a subset of the long questionnaire items corresponding to basic demographic and social characteristics (population size, relationship, residence status, sex, age, mother tongue, second language spoken, ethnic group, religion and marital status) are administered to the remaining (non sample) households. Since data pertaining to these items are collected on a full coverage basis, they are not exposed to sampling errors.

The rationale for administering long questionnaire in the census on a sample basis is to improve timeliness in data collection, processing and decrease costs associated with data collection and processing by reducing volume of the data and consequently improve quality of the data. In each EA of except Afar and Somali (where the residents are predominantly nomadic) a one in five (20 Percent) households are systematically selected for the administration of the long questionnaire. In Afar and Somali regions one in twenty (5 percent) sample households are selected to be administered by the long questionnaires.

Selection of sample households administered by long questionnaire
For selecting sample households in each EA the sampling frame is form 1 which is used for listing housing units and households. The selection will be done using column 12 and 13 in section 2 of form 1. Before starting sample household selection, the enumerator needs to make sure that the listing is completed in each EA without omission. In addition, he should have to check that the running numbers in column 12, which are given for household, are done without omission and duplication. Since all hotel/hostels and collective quarters residents are administered by long questionnaire without selection, circle the serial number in column 12 corresponding to them to distinguish them from the others. Next, by using column 12 of form 1 select one household from each of the intervals 001 - 005, 006 - 010, 011 - 015…etc. To do this

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the enumerator will be given a "RANDOM START" number by his/her field supervisor to carry out the selection of households which lie between 1 - 5 including 1 and 5.

This random start number helps the enumerator to decide (know) which households are going to be selected from his EA. The household with serial number in the list corresponding to the random start number is taken as the first sample household to receive the long questionnaire. The remaining sample households in the EA are determined by adding "five" consecutively on serial number of the current sample household. This process continued until the list of households is exhausted in each EA.

If the random start number 1 assigned to an enumerator by his/her supervisor the household corresponds to household serial number serial number 001 in column12 will be the first selected household in that EA. And also if another enumerator gets random start number 2, the household corresponds serial number 002 is the first selected household for long questionnaire. The same will apply for enumerators who get 3, 4 and 5 as a starting number.

To get the second sample household each enumerator should have to add 5 on the serial number of the first selected household and to get the third sample household they have to add 5 on the second selected household serial number and continue in that fashion to get the last sample household.

For example: an enumerator whose assigned 1 as a starting number, households corresponds to serial numbers 001, 006, 011, 016, 021, 031…etc. in column 12 will be the sample households. Similarly, enumerators who get 2 as a starting number will select households with serial numbers 002, 007, 012, 017…etc. to fill the long questionnaire. Then circle the selected serial number in column 12.

While, doing the selection the enumerator should have to understand that all selected samples are regular households. Whenever, the sample lay on collective quarters or hotel/hostel skip it and take the next household. Remember all residents of collective quarters and Hotel/Hostels are administered by long questionnaire.

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For example: Suppose the starting number given to an enumerator is 2 and if on form 1 in column 12 serial number 002 is a collective quarter which is also circled, then leave that and take the household with serial number 003 as the first and to get the second selected household add 5 on the first. Continue this procedure until the list of households is exhausted.

If we find regular/conventional households in special enumeration areas:

If the number of the regular households are less than or equal to five select all of them to be administered by long questionnaire.

If their number is greater than five take 20 percent samples (one in five households).

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[Appendix, pages 129-131, have been omitted]